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Sample records for shallow salt-dome environment

  1. Assessment of the Extent of Land Deformation Associated with Salt Domes within the Jazan City and Surroundings, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratz, H. G.; Sultan, M.; Fathy, K.; AlMogren, S. M.; Harbi, H.; Sefry, S.; Emil, M.; Elkadiri, R.; Ahmed, M.; Othman, A.; Chouinard, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Jazan city in the Jazan Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a vibrant and rapidly growing economic center and port. The old city of Jazan is centered over a salt dome (diaper) that crops out over an area, 3-4 km wide and 20 to 40 m above surroundings. The intrusion of the diaper into the overlying cap rock causes uneven surfaces, compromises building foundations, and causes infrastructural problems. Our study is aimed at the assessment of the salt dome-related land deformation. Using observations acquired over known locations of salt domes in Jazan and neighboring Farsan Islands, we identified criteria by which previously unidentified, near-surface salt domes, could be mapped. The selected criteria and/or applied methodologies included: (1) deformation over potential salt dome locations detected from Envisat, ERS-2, and Sentinel-1 scenes using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers [StaMPs] and SARscape software. Uplift rates of about 3 mm/yr were observed over the salt dome outcrop in Jazan with increasing rates towards the center, indicating continuous rise of the salt diaper. (2) Local elevation highs over potential, near surface, salt dome intrusions observed in high spatial resolution (12.5 m), PALSAR digital elevation model (DEM). The elevation the Jazan dome is 45m high, whereas its surroundings are 15-30m high. (3) Negative Bouguer gravity anomalies over potential salt dome locations (Bouguer maps generated from 714 m interval airborne gravity data). Negative Bouguer anomalies were observed over the salt domes in Jazan (-3 mGal) and in Farsan (-30 mGal). (4) Boundaries of the potential salt domes extracted from zero tilt contour values on tilt derivative maps. (5) Shallow (< 2km) modeled depth to identified potential salt dome locations (software: Grav2dc 2-D modeling software). Zero contour values and 2-D modeling was used to identify the location and depth of the source anomaly (depth: Jazan = 0 m). (6) Spatial correlation (in a GIS

  2. Investigation of Seismic Events associated with the Sinkhole at Napoleonville Salt Dome, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, A.; Dreger, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the ongoing efforts in analysis of the intense sequence of complex seismic events associated with the formation of a large sinkhole at Napoleonville Salt Dome, Assumption Parish, Louisiana in August 2012. Point source centroid seismic moment tensor (MT) inversion of these events using data from a temporary network of broadband stations established by the United States Geological Survey had previously revealed large volume-increase components. We investigate the effect of 3D velocity structure of the salt dome on wave propagation in the frequency range of interest (0.1-0.3 Hz) by forward modeling synthetic waveforms using MT solutions that were computed using Green's functions assuming two separate 1D velocity models for stations over the salt dome and stations on the sedimentary strata surrounding the salt dome separately. We also use a matched filter technique to detect smaller events that went undetected by the automated grid-search based scanning and MT inversion algorithm using the waveforms of the larger events as templates. We also analyze the change in spectral content of the events, many of which exhibit a spectral peak at 0.4 Hz with a duration of > 60 seconds. The decrease in spectral amplitudes with distance also gives an estimate of high anelastic attenuation that damps reverberations within the shallow low velocity layers. Finally, we use noise cross-correlation analysis to explore changes in the green's functions during the development of the sinkhole and verify the sediment velocity model by comparing observed and synthetic surface wave dispersion.

  3. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.

    2017-07-01

    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  4. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surroundingmore » the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This

  5. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surroundingmore » the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This

  6. Depleted δ13C Values in Salt Dome Cap Rock Organic Matter and Implications for Microbial Metabolism and Fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, S. J.; Lu, L.; Caesar, K. H.; Kyle, R.

    2015-12-01

    Salt domes occur throughout the Gulf Coast Region USA and are often associated with trapped hydrocarbons. These salt domes can be capped by sulfate and carbonate minerals that result from complex digenetic interactions in the subsurface. The specific natures of these interactions are poorly understood, in particular the role of microbes in facilitating mineralization and element cycling. Carbon isotope compositions of cap rock calcites (δ13Ccarb) are highly variable and range from near neutral to less than -40‰ (VPDB) indicative of methane-sourced carbon. These low values and the common coexistence of elemental sulfur and metal sulfides have spurred hypotheses invoking microbial sulfate reduction as driving carbonate mineral authigenesis. Here, we present new organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) data that, similar to δ13Ccarb, exhibit depletions below -30 to -25‰. These δ13Corg values are lower than local liquid hydrocarbons and "normal" marine organic matter reflecting either microbial fixation of methane-sourced carbon or microbial fractionation from liquid hydrocarbon sources. The combined carbon isotope data (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) indicate that methane likely plays an important role in microbial cycling in salt domes. The δ13Corg values are similar to those of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) related communities from methane-sulfate controlled marine sediments. Ultimately, salt dome environments may share some important characteristics with AOM systems.

  7. Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Peters, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The salt within these domes has penetrated as much as 20,000 feet of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata, and presently extends to within 120 to 800 feet of the land surface. The salt penetrates or closely underlies major freshwater and salinewater aquifers within the basin. To provide a safe repository for radioactive wastes within one or more of these domes, a thorough understanding of the geohydrology needs to be obtained, and the hydrologic stability of the domes needs to be established for the expected life of the storage facility. Dissolution may exist at all four candidate salt domes, possibly through contactmore » with Cretaceous or Tertiary aquifers, or through fault systems in the vicinity of the domes. Strata overlying and surrounding Palestine and Keechi Salt Domes have been arched into steeply-dipping folds that are complexly faulted. Similar conditions exist at Oakwood and Mount Sylvan Domes, except that the Tertiary strata have been only moderately disturbed. Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine Salt Domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field salinewater in the cap rock at the Oakwood Dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine Dome.« less

  8. Seismic measurements of explosions in the Tatum Salt Dome, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Healy, J.H.; Jackson, W.H.; Warren, D.R.

    1967-01-01

    Project Sterling provided for the detonation of a nuclear device in the cavity resulting from the Salmon nuclear explosion in the Tatum salt dome in southern Mississippi. It also provided for a high explosive (HE) comparison shot in a nearby drill hole. The purpose of the experiment was to gather information on the seismic decoupling of a nuclear explosion in a cavity by comparing seismic signals from a nuclear shot in the Salmon cavity with seismic signals recorded from Salmon and with seismic signals recorded from a muall (about 2 tons) HE shot in the salt dome. Surface seismic measurements were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center with coordination and overall direction by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. This report covers only the seismic measurements made by the U. S. Geological Survey. The first objective of this report is to describe the field recording procedures and the data obtained by the U. S. Geological Survey from these events. The second objective is to describe the spectral analyses which have been made on the data and the relative seismic amplitudes which have been determined from these analyses.

  9. Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Peters, Henry B.

    1980-01-01

    Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine Salt Domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field salinewater in the cap rock at the Oakwood Dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine Dome Additional investigations are needed to determine if a selected dome is hydrologically stable. Needed investigations include: (1) A more complete comparative analysis of the regional and local geohydrologic system; (2) a site-specific drilling and sampling program to analyze the cap rock-aquifer boundary, sediment distribution, hydraulic-parameter variations, hydraulic-head relationships, and hydrochemical patterns; and (3) mass-transport computer modeling of ground-water flow at the domes.

  10. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parametersmore » and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.« less

  11. Salt-dome-related diagenesis of Miocene sediment, Black Bayou field, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Leger, W.R.

    1988-09-01

    The Black Bayou field is associated with a salt dome that pierces Miocene sediment and rises to within 900 ft (275 m) of the surface. The Louisiana Gulf Coast regional geothermal gradient is locally affected by the salt dome. The gradient increases to values greater than the regional gradient, 1.26/degrees/F/100 ft (23/degrees/C/km), near the dome. Local effects of the salt dome on clastic diagenesis have been determined by studying sandstone samples adjacent to and away from the salt dome within Miocene sediment. Sample depths range from 4155 to 6145 ft (1266 to 1873 m). Distances of samples from the edgemore » of the dome range from 82 to 820 ft (25 to 250 m).« less

  12. Sulfate-dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane as a Generation Mechanism for Calcite Cap Rock in Gulf Coast Salt Domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesar, K. H.; Kyle, R.; Lyons, T. W.; Loyd, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Gulf Coast salt domes, specifically their calcite cap rocks, have been widely recognized for their association with significant reserves of crude oil and natural gas. However, the specific microbial reactions that facilitate the precipitation of these cap rocks are still largely unknown. Insight into the mineralization mechanism(s) can be obtained from the specific geochemical signatures recorded in these structures. Gulf Coast cap rocks contain carbonate and sulfur minerals that exhibit variable carbon (d13C) and sulfur isotope (δ34S) signatures. Calcite d13C values are isotopically depleted and show a large range of values from -1 to -52‰, reflecting a mixture of various carbon sources including a substantial methane component. These depleted carbon isotope compositions combined with the presence of abundant sulfide minerals in cap rocks have led to interpretations that invoke microbial sulfate reduction as an important carbonate mineral-yielding process in salt dome environments. Sulfur isotope data from carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS: trace sulfate incorporated within the carbonate mineral crystal lattice) provide a more direct proxy for aqueous sulfate in salt dome systems and may provide a means to directly fingerprint ancient sulfate reduction. We find CAS sulfur isotope compositions (δ34SCAS) significantly greater than those of the precursor Jurassic sulfate-salt deposits (which exhibit δ34S values of ~ +15‰). This implies that cap rock carbonate generation occurred via microbial sulfate reduction under closed-system conditions. The co-occurrence of depleted carbonate d13C values (< ~30‰) and the enriched δ34SCAS values are evidence for sulfate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). AOM, which has been shown to yield extensive seafloor carbonate authigenesis, is also potentially partly responsible for the carbonate minerals of the Gulf Coast calcite cap rocks through concomitant production of alkalinity. Collectively, these data shed

  13. Source Inversion of Seismic Events Associated with the Sinkhole at Napoleonville Salt Dome, Louisiana using a 3D Velocity Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Avinash; Dreger, Douglas S.

    2018-05-01

    salt dome at slightly shallower depth ˜0.35-0.65 km, with preferred isotropic volume-increase MT solutions. We find that GFs computed using the 3D velocity model generally result in better fits to the data than GFs computed using 1D velocity models, especially for the smaller amplitude tangential and vertical components, and result in better resolution of event locations. The dominant seismicity during 24-30 July 2012 is characterized by steady occurrence of seismic events with similar locations and MT solutions at a near-characteristic inter-event time. The steady activity is sometimes interrupted by tremor-like sequences of multiple events in rapid succession, followed by quiet periods of little of no seismic activity, in turn followed by the resumption of seismicity with a reduced seismic moment-release rate. The dominant volume-increase MT solutions and the steady features of the seismicity indicate a crack-valve-type source mechanism possibly driven by pressurized natural gas.

  14. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysismore » of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents.« less

  15. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Liscum, Fred

    1980-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes, in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents.

  16. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island salt dome

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-04-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to Provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to:more » (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run. Neutron and density logs were run from inside the well casing because of the extremely unstable condition of the deltaic alluvium overburden above the salt dome. The logging program provided important information about the salt dome and the overburden in that (1) the top of the salt dome was identified at {approximately}189 ft bgl (103 ft msl), and the top of the dome contains relatively few fractures; (2) the water table is approximately 1 ft msl, (3) this aquifer appears to become steadily more saline with depth; and (4) the water saturation of much of the alluvium over the salt dome is shown to be influenced by the prevalent heavy rainfall. This logging program, a part of the sinkhole diagnostics, provides unique information about this salt dome and the overburden.« less

  17. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, propertymore » ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.« less

  18. Base of fresh ground water, northern Louisiana Salt-Dome Basin and vicinity, northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryals, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to locate and develop sites for disposal or storage of commercially produced radioactive wastes. As part of this program, salt domes in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin are being studied to determine their suitability as repositories. Part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's participation in the program has been to describe the regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. A map based on a compilation of published data and the interpretation of electrical logs shows the altitude of the base of freshwater in aquifers in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. (USGS)

  19. Depositional patterns and structural styles-Hackberry Salt Dome, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.; Gillham, T.H.

    The West and East Hackberry fields of north-central Cameron Parish, Louisiana, are associated with a large southeast-plunging salt ridge. Episodes of salt movement influenced the depositional patterns and reservoir trap styles of the Oligocene- and Miocene-age sedimentary section. The Oligocene lower Hackberry channels were influenced by the salt structure, resulting in the Manchester-Holmwood channel system flanking the east and south sides of the salt dome and the Choupique channel system flanking the west side of the salt dome. The depositional patterns and structural bed dips of the younger Oligocene Camerina A to marginulina section demonstrate a major period of saltmore » movement and erosion. The resulting truncation of the Camerian A sandstones, sealed by overlying shales, provides the dominant trap style for the majority of the reservoirs. This same general period of salt movement influenced the orientation of the Oligocene Marginulina to Miogypsinoides expansion fault system to the east. The Sweet Lake salt dome, down through to this expansion system, probably represents a southeast extension of this ancestral salt ridge.« less

  20. Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

    2003-01-01

    Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. Thismore » algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.« less

  1. Characterizing the Weeks Island Salt Dome drilling of and seismic measurements from boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Harding, R.S.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    A sinkhole 36 ft across, 30 ft deep was first observed in the alluvium over the Weeks Island Salt Dome (salt mine converted for oil storage by US Strategic Petroleum Reserve) May 1992. Four vertical, two slanted boreholes were drilled for diagnostics. Crosswell seismic data were generated; the velocity images suggest that the sinkhole collapse is complicated, not a simple vertical structure. The coring operation was moderately difficult; limited core was obtained through the alluvium, and the quality of the salt core from the first two vertical wells was poor. Core quality improved with better bit selection, mud, and drillingmore » method. The drilling fluid program provided fairly stable holes allowing open hole logs to be run. All holes were cemented successfully (although it took 3 attempts in one case).« less

  2. Log analysis of six boreholes in conjunction with geologic characterization above and on top of the Weeks Island Salt Dome

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1996-06-01

    Six boreholes were drilled during the geologic characterization and diagnostics of the Weeks Island sinkhole that is over the two-tiered salt mine which was converted for oil storage by the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. These holes were drilled to provide for geologic characterization of the Weeks Island Salt Dome and its overburden in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole (mainly through logs and core); to establish a crosswell configuration for seismic tomography; to establish locations for hydrocarbon detection and tracer injection; and to provide direct observations of sinkhole geometry and material properties. Specific objectives of the logging program were to:more » (1) identify the top of and the physical state of the salt dome; (2) identify the water table; (3) obtain a relative salinity profile in the aquifer within the alluvium, which ranges from the water table directly to the top of the Weeks Island salt dome; and (4) identify a reflecting horizon seen on seismic profiles over this salt dome. Natural gamma, neutron, density, sonic, resistivity and caliper logs were run.« less

  3. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn`s Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC)more » of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements.« less

  4. Effect of subseabed salt domes on Tidal Residual currents in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Backhaus, Jan; Dehghani, Ali; Huebner, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Geological studies in the Persian Gulf (PG) have revealed the existence of subseabed salt-domes. With suitable filtering of a high-resolution PG seabed topography, it is seen that the domes leave their signature in the seabed, i.e., numerous hills and valleys with amplitudes of several tens of meters and radii from a few up to tens of kilometers. It was suspected that the "shark skin" of the PG seabed may affect the tidal residual flow. The interaction of tidal dynamics and these obstacles was investigated in a nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical tidal model of the PG. The model was first used to characterize flow patterns of residual currents generated by a tidal wave passing over symmetric, elongated and tilted obstacles. Thereafter it was applied to the entire PG. The model was forced at its open boundary by the four dominant tidal constituents residing in the PG. Each tidal constituent was simulated separately. Results, i.e., tidal residual currents in the PG, as depicted by Lagrangian trajectories reveal a stationary flow that is very rich in eddies. Each eddy can be identified with a topographic obstacle. This confirms that the tidal residual flow field is strongly influenced by the nonlinear interaction of the tidal wave with the bottom relief which, in turn, is deformed by salt-domes beneath the seabed. Different areas of maximum residual current velocities are identified for major tidal constituents. The pattern of trajectories indicates the presence of two main cyclonic gyres and several adjacent gyres rotating in opposite directions and a strong coastal current in the northern PG.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of solution-mining intrusion into a salt-dome repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This report is the product of the work of an ONWI task force to evaluate inadvertant human intrusion into a salt dome repository by solution mining. It summarizes the work in the following areas: a general review of the levels of defense that could reduce both the likelihood and potential consequences of human intrusion into a salt dome repository; evaluation of a hypothetical intrusion scenario and its consequences; recommendation for further studies. The conclusions of this task force report can be summarized as follows: (1) it is not possible at present to establish with certainty that solution mining is crediblemore » as a human-intrusion event. The likelihood of such an intrusion will depend on the effectiveness of the preventive measures; (2) an example analysis based on the realistic approach is presented in this report; it concluded that the radiological consequences are strongly dependent upon the mode of radionuclide release from the waste form, time after emplacement, package design, impurities in the host salt, the amount of a repository intercepted, the solution mining cavity form, the length of time over which solution mining occurs, the proportion of contaminated salt source for human consumption compared to other sources, and the method of salt purification for culinary purposes; (3) worst case scenarios done by other studies suggest considerable potential for exposures to man while preliminary evaluations of more realistic cases suggest significantly reduced potential consequences. Mathematical model applications to process systems, guided by more advanced assumptions about human intrusion into geomedia, will shed more light on the potential for concerns and the degree to which mitigative measures will be required.« less

  6. Depositional patterns and structural styles - Hackberry Salt Dome, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.A.; Sharpe, C.L.; Gillham, T.H.

    The west and east Hackberry fields of north-central Cameron Parish, Louisiana, are associated with a large southeast-plunging salt ridge. Episodes of salt movement influenced the depositional patterns and reservoir trap styles of the Oligocene and Miocene age section. The Oligocene lower Hackberry channels were influenced by the salt, resulting in the {open_quotes}Manchester-Holmwood{close_quotes} channel system skirting the east and south flanks of the salt and the {open_quotes}Choupique{close_quotes} channel system skirting the west flank of the salt. The depositional patterns and structural bed dips of the younger Oligocene Camerina (A) to Marginulina section demonstrate a major period of salt movement and erosion.more » The resulting truncation of the Camerina (A) sands, sealed by overlying shales, provides the dominant trap style for the majority of the fields` reservoirs. This same general period of salt movement influenced the orientation of the Oligocene Camerina (A) - Miogypsinoides expansion fault systems of the prolific Miogypsinoides embayment. The Sweet Lake salt dome, downthrown to this expansion system, probably represents a southeast extension of this ancestral salt ridge.« less

  7. Origin of sulfur for elemental sulfur concentration in salt dome cap rocks, Gulf Coast Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.; Kyle, R.; Loyd, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Calcite cap rocks of the Boling and Main Pass salt domes contain large elemental sulfur accumulations. Isotopic and petrographic data indicate complex histories of cap rock paragenesis for both domes. Whereas paragenetic complexity is in part due to the open nature of these hydrodynamic systems, a comprehensive understanding of elemental sulfur sources and concentration mechanisms is lacking. Large ranges in traditional sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S) among oxidized and reduced sulfur-bearing phases has led some to infer that microbial sulfate reduction and/or influx of sulfide-rich formation waters occurred during calcite cap rock formation. Ultimately, traditional sulfur isotope analyses alone cannot distinguish among local microbial or exogenous sulfur sources. Recently, multiple sulfur isotope (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) studies reveal small, but measurable differences in mass-dependent behavior of microbial and abiogenic processes. To distinguish between the proposed sulfur sources, multiple-sulfur-isotope analyses have been performed on native sulfur from the Boling and Main Pass cap rocks. Similarities or deviations from equilibrium relationships indicate which pathways were responsible for native sulfur precipitation. Pathway determination provides insight into Gulf Coast cap rock development and potentially highlights the conditions that led to anomalous sulfur enrichment in Boling and Main Pass Domes.

  8. Threat of a sinkhole: A reevaluation of Cavern 4, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Linn, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cavern Lake at Bayou Choctaw salt dome resulted from the failure of Cavern 7 in 1954. Uncontrolled solutioning of this cavern through the thin caprock had set the stage for overburden to collapse into the cavern below. A similar situation developed with nearby Cavern 4, but with less dissolutioning of the caprock. Because pressure loss was already a problem and because another 800 ft diameter lake would have endangered surface operations, solutioning of Cavern 4 was stopped and the cavern abandoned in 1957 in order to protect the already-small site. In 1978 the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) acquired a numbermore » of caverns at Bayou Choctaw, including Cavern 4, and the possible repeat of the Cavern 7 failure and formation of another lake thus became an issue. The cavern dimensions were re-sonared in 1980 for comparison with 1963 and 1977 surveys. Annual surface leveling between 1982--1992 showed less subsidence occurring than the site average, and a cavern monitoring system, installed in 1984, has revealed no anomalous motion. Repeat sonar surveys in 1992 showed very little, if any, change occurred since 1980 although a small amount of uncertainty exists as a result of changing sonar techniques. We conclude that significant additional solutioning or erosion of the caprock has not occurred and that there is no increased threat to SPR operations.« less

  9. CORS911:Real-Time Subsidence Monitoring of the Napoleonville Salt Dome Sinkhole Using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The sinkhole associated with the Napoleonville salt dome in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens the stability of Highway 70 - a state maintained route. To mitigate the potential damaging effects to the highway and address issues of public safety, a program of research and decision support has been implemented to provide long-term measurements of the surface stability using continuous operating GPS reference stations (CORS). Four CORS sites were installed in the vicinity of the sinkhole to measure the horizontal and vertical motions of each site relative to each other and a fixed location outside the study area. Differential motions measured by a integrity monitoring software are summarized for response agencies tasked with ensuring public safety and stability of the Highway, a designated hurricane evacuation route. Implementation experience and intermediate findings will be shared and discussed. Strategies for monitoring random and systematic biases detected in the system are presented. Figure depicting the location of CORS sites used to monitor surface stability along Highway 70 near the Bayou Corne Sinkhole.

  10. Suitability of Palestine salt dome, Anderson Co. , Texas for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Patchick, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of Palestine salt dome, in Anderson County, Texas, is in serious doubt for a repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste because of abandoned salt brining operations. The random geographic and spatial occurrence of 15 collapse sinks over the dome may prevent safe construction of the necessary surface installations for a repository. The dissolution of salt between the caprock and dome, from at least 15 brine wells up to 500 feet deep, may permit increased rates of salt dissolution long into future geologic time. The subsurface dissolution is occurring at a rate difficult, if not impossible, to assess ormore » to calculate. It cannot be shown that this dissolution rate is insignificant to the integrity of a future repository or to ancillary features. The most recent significant collapse was 36 feet in diameter and took place in 1972. The other collapses ranged from 27 to 105 feet in diameter and from 1.5 to more than 15 feet in depth. ONWI recommends that this dome be removed from consideration as a candidate site.« less

  11. Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Long-period Seismicity at the Napoleonville Salt Dome: Implications for Local Seismic Monitoring of Underground Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Nayak, A.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of a large sinkhole at the Napoleonville salt dome, Assumption Parish, Louisiana, in August 2012 was accompanied by a rich sequence of complex seismic events, including long-period (LP) events that were recorded 11 km away at Transportable Array station 544A in White Castle, Louisiana. The LP events have relatively little energy at short periods, which make them difficult to detect using standard high-frequency power detectors, and the majority of energy that reaches the station is peaked near 0.4 Hz. The analysis of the local records reveals that the onset of the 0.4 Hz signals coincides with the S-wave arrival, and therefore it may be a shaking induced resonance in a fluid filled cavern. We created a low-frequency (0.1-0.6 Hz) power detector (short-term average / long-term average) that operated on all three components of the broadband instrument, since considerable energy was detected on the horizontal components. The detections from the power detector were then used as templates in three-channel correlation detectors thereby increasing the number of detections by a little more than a factor of two to nearly 3000. The rate of LP events is approximately one event every other day at the beginning of recording in March 2011. Around 2 May 2012 the rate changes to approximately 7 events per day and then increases to 25 events per day at the beginning of July 2012. Finally, in the days leading up to the sinkhole formation there are approximately 200 LP events per day. The analysis of these events could aid in the development of local seismic monitoring methods for underground industrial storage caverns. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Gulf Coast Salt Domes geologic Area Characterization Report, East Texas Study Area. Volume II. Technical report. [Contains glossary of geological terms; Oakwood, Keechi, and Palestine domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The East Texas Area Characterization Report (ACR) is a compilation of data gathered during the Area Characterization phase of the Department of Energy's National Waste Terminal Storage program in salt. The characterization of Gulf Coast Salt Domes as a potential site for storage of nuclear waste is an ongoing process. This report summarizes investigations covering an area of approximately 2590 km/sup 2/ (1000 mi/sup 2/). Data on Oakwood, Keechi, and Palestine Domes are given. Subsequent phases of the program will focus on smaller land areas and fewer specific salt domes, with progressively more detailed investigations, possibly culminating with a licensemore » application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data in this report are a result of drilling and sampling, geophysical and geologic field work, and intensive literature review. The ACR contains text discussing data usage, interpretations, results and conclusions based on available geologic and hydrologic data, and figures including diagrams showing data point locations, geologic and hydrologic maps, geologic cross sections, and other geologic and hydrologic information. An appendix contains raw data gathered during this phase of the project and used in the preparation of these reports.« less

  14. Regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin; Part II, Geohydrologic maps of the Tertiary aquifers and related confining layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryals, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Regional geohydrologic maps show the altitude of the base and the thickness of the aquifers of Tertiary age and related confining layers in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. The limit of freshwater in aquifers is also shown. The basin has an area of about 3,000 square miles, and four geologic units of Tertiary age contain regional aquifers. From oldest (deepest) to youngest, the aquifers are in the Wilcox Group, Carrizo Sand, Sparta Sand, and Cockfield Formation. As the Wilcox is hydraulically interconnected with the overlying Carrizo, they are treated as one hydrologic unit, the Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer. The aquifers are separated by confining layers that retard water movement. In the northwestern part of the area, the Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer is separated from the underlying sand facies of the Nacatoch Sand (Cretaceous age) by a confining layer composed of the Midway Group (Tertiary age) and the underlying Arkadelphia Marl and an upper clay and marl facies of the Nacatoch Sand (both of Cretaceous age). In the remainder of the area, the Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer is separated from an underlying Cretaceous aquifer comprised of the Tokio Formation and Brownstown Marl by the Midway Group and several underlying Cretaceous units which in order of increasing age are the Arkadelphia Maril, Nacatoch Sand, Saratoga Chalk, Marlbrook Marl , and Annona Chalk. The Wilcox-Carrizo aquifer is separated from the Sparta aquifer by the overyling Cane River Formation. The Sparta aquifer is separated from the Cockfield aquifer by the overlying Cook Mountain Formation. (USGS)

  15. Increasing the Knowledge of Stratification in Shallow Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, T.; Bonner, J.; Hodges, B.; Maidment, D.; Montagna, P.; Minsker, B.

    2006-12-01

    A testbed has been established using Corpus Christi Bay as an environmental field facility to study the phenomenon of hypoxia that has been observed to develop at certain periods during the year. Stratification affects vertical turbulent mixing of heat, momentum and mass (or constituents) within the water column, in turn influencing the transport of material. The mixing threshold is dependent on the value of the Richardson Number, Ri with inhibition due to stratification occurring at low values (< 0.25) and complete vertical mixing occurring at high values (> 0.25) of Ri. Corpus Christi Bay with average depth of ~3 m is the largest among a system of five bays has been known to stratify due to inflows of hypersaline water (up to 50 psu) from adjoining bays, the Laguna Madre and Oso Bay. Laguna Madre is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by a barrier island and becomes hypersaline because of the imbalance between inflow of freshwater and bay evaporation. Hypersalinity also occurs in Oso Bay due to anthropogenic forcing from a power plant that draws 400 MGD of cooling water from the upper Laguna Madre, discharging waste water into Oso Bay. Several wastewater treatment plants also discharge directly into Oso Bay or its tributary streams. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for prescribing a set of parameters required for modeling and characterization of hypoxia in this shallow wind-driven bay. The extent to which Ri is dependent on external forcing at the surface boundary was measured using our fully instrumented sensor platforms. Each sensor platform includes sensors for synchronic near-surface meteorological (wind velocity, barometric pressure, air temperature) and water column oceanographic (current, water temperature, conductivity, particle size distribution, particulate concentration, dissolved oxygen, nutrient) variables. These were measured using fixed and mobile vertical profiling sensor platforms. A 2D hydrodynamic model was initially

  16. An Ecohydrologic Model for a Shallow Groundwater Urban Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The urban environment is a patchwork of natural and artificial surfaces that results in complex interactions with and impacts to natural hydrologic cycles. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major hydrologic flow that is often altered from urbanization, though the mechanisms of change ...

  17. Scattering from Marine Sediments in a Very Shallow Water Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-28

    taking into account only large-scale changes of the environment. Keywords: Reciprocity , integral equations, volume and roughness scattering...for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited A. Ivakin: Scattering in range-dependent waveguides 5 II. VOLUME PERTURBATIONS: RECIPROCITY THEOREM...6], i.e. with the same υ , and therefore same Q , which, along with following discussion of reciprocity , explains the choice of this parameter

  18. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, G S; Shukla, S; Obreza, T A; Harris, W G

    2014-08-01

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils, especially those that are sandy, is adversely impacting P-limited ecosystems like Florida's Everglades. A more developed understanding of P and water management strategies and their effects on P leaching is needed to achieve reductions in subsurface P losses, especially from intensively managed dual cropping systems under plastic mulch in shallow water regions. We compared the effects of conservation P and water management strategies with traditional practices on P transport to groundwater. A 3-year experiment was conducted on hydrologically isolated plots with plastic-mulched successive cropping systems to compare high (HEI) and soil test based recommended (REI) external input (water and fertilizer P) systems with traditional sub-irrigation (seepage), and REI with a potential water conservation subsurface drip irrigation system (REI-SD) with regard to groundwater P concentrations above and below the low conductivity spodic horizon (Bh). The REI treatments had higher available storage for rainfall and P than HEI. Use of both REI systems (REI=2098μg/L and REI-SD=2048μg/L) reduced groundwater P concentrations above the Bh horizon by 33% compared to HEI (3090μg/L), and results were significant at the 0.05 level. Although the subsurface drip system saved water, it did not offer any groundwater quality (P) benefit. Mixing and dilution of influent P below the low conductivity Bh horizon between treatments and with the regional groundwater system resulted in no significant differences in groundwater P concentration below the Bh horizon. Groundwater P concentrations from this study were higher than reported elsewhere due to low soil P storage capacity (SPSC), high hydraulic conductivity of sandy soils, and a high water table beneath crop beds. The HEI system leached more P due to ferilizer P in excess of SPSC and used higher irrigation volumes compared with REI systems. Despite a 40% difference in the average amount of

  19. Measurement and modeling of phosphorous transport in shallow groundwater environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, G. S.; Shukla, S.; Obreza, T. A.; Harris, W. G.

    2014-08-01

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils, especially those that are sandy, is adversely impacting P-limited ecosystems like Florida's Everglades. A more developed understanding of P and water management strategies and their effects on P leaching is needed to achieve reductions in subsurface P losses, especially from intensively managed dual cropping systems under plastic mulch in shallow water regions. We compared the effects of conservation P and water management strategies with traditional practices on P transport to groundwater. A 3-year experiment was conducted on hydrologically isolated plots with plastic-mulched successive cropping systems to compare high (HEI) and soil test based recommended (REI) external input (water and fertilizer P) systems with traditional sub-irrigation (seepage), and REI with a potential water conservation subsurface drip irrigation system (REI-SD) with regard to groundwater P concentrations above and below the low conductivity spodic horizon (Bh). The REI treatments had higher available storage for rainfall and P than HEI. Use of both REI systems (REI = 2098 μg/L and REI-SD = 2048 μg/L) reduced groundwater P concentrations above the Bh horizon by 33% compared to HEI (3090 μg/L), and results were significant at the 0.05 level. Although the subsurface drip system saved water, it did not offer any groundwater quality (P) benefit. Mixing and dilution of influent P below the low conductivity Bh horizon between treatments and with the regional groundwater system resulted in no significant differences in groundwater P concentration below the Bh horizon. Groundwater P concentrations from this study were higher than reported elsewhere due to low soil P storage capacity (SPSC), high hydraulic conductivity of sandy soils, and a high water table beneath crop beds. The HEI system leached more P due to ferilizer P in excess of SPSC and used higher irrigation volumes compared with REI systems. Despite a 40% difference in the average

  20. An ecohydrologic model for a shallow groundwater urban environment.

    PubMed

    Arden, Sam; Ma, Xin Cissy; Brown, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The urban environment is a patchwork of natural and artificial surfaces that results in complex interactions with and impacts to natural hydrologic cycles. Evapotranspiration is a major hydrologic flow that is often altered through urbanization, although the mechanisms of change are sometimes difficult to tease out due to difficulty in effectively simulating soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. This paper introduces a simplified yet realistic model that is a combination of existing surface runoff and ecohydrology models designed to increase the quantitative understanding of complex urban hydrologic processes. Results demonstrate that the model is capable of simulating the long-term variability of major hydrologic fluxes as a function of impervious surface, temperature, water table elevation, canopy interception, soil characteristics, precipitation and complex mechanisms of plant water uptake. These understandings have potential implications for holistic urban water system management.

  1. Sinkholes, collapse structures and large landslides in an active salt dome submerged by a reservoir: The unique case of the Ambal ridge in the Karun River, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lizaga, Iván

    2016-02-01

    Ambal ridge, covering 4 km2, is a salt pillow of Gachsaran Formation with significant salt exposures in direct contact with the Karun River, Zagros Mountains. The highly cavernous salt dome is currently being flooded by the Gotvand Reservoir, second largest in Iran. Geomorphic evidence, including the sharp deflection of the Karun River and defeated streams indicate that Ambal is an active halokinetic structure, probably driven by erosional unloading. Around 30% of the salt dome is affected by large landslides up to ca. 50 × 106 m3 in volume. Slope oversteepening related to fluvial erosion and halokinetic rise seems to be the main controlling factor. A total of 693 sinkholes have been inventoried (170 sinkholes/km2), for which a scaling relationship has been produced. The depressions occur preferentially along a belt with a high degree of clustering. This spatial distribution is controlled by the proximity to the river, slope gradient and halite content in the bedrock. A large compound depression whose bottom lies below the normal maximum level of the reservoir will likely be flooded by water table rise forming a lake. The impoundment of the reservoir has induced peculiar collapse structures 220-280 m across, expressed by systems of arcuate fissures and scarps. Rapid subsurface salt dissolution is expected to generate and reactivate a large number of sinkholes and may reactivate landslides with a significant vertical component due to lack of basal support.

  2. Grain size analysis and depositional environment of shallow marine to basin floor, Kelantan River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifah, M. R. Nurul; Aziz, A. Che; Roslan, M. Kamal

    2015-09-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the shallow marine from Kuala Besar, Kelantan outwards to the basin floor of South China Sea which consisted of quaternary bottom sediments. Sixty five samples were analysed for their grain size distribution and statistical relationships. Basic statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis were calculated and used to differentiate the depositional environment of the sediments and to derive the uniformity of depositional environment either from the beach or river environment. The sediments of all areas were varied in their sorting ranging from very well sorted to poorly sorted, strongly negative skewed to strongly positive skewed, and extremely leptokurtic to very platykurtic in nature. Bivariate plots between the grain-size parameters were then interpreted and the Coarsest-Median (CM) pattern showed the trend suggesting relationships between sediments influenced by three ongoing hydrodynamic factors namely turbidity current, littoral drift and waves dynamic, which functioned to control the sediments distribution pattern in various ways.

  3. Shallow transient liquid water environments on present-day mars, and their implications for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Eriita G.

    2018-05-01

    The identification and characterisation of subsurface liquid water environments on Mars are of high scientific interest. Such environments have the potential to support microbial life, and, more broadly, to develop our understanding of the habitability of planets and moons beyond Earth. Given our current state of knowledge of life on Earth, three pre-requisites are necessary for an environment to be considered 'habitable' and therefore capable of supporting terrestrial-like life: energy, biogenic elements, and liquid water with a sufficiently high water activity. The surface of Mars today is predominately cold and dry, and any liquid water exposed to the atmosphere will vaporise or freeze on timescales of hours to days. These conditions have likely persisted for much of the last 10 million years, and perhaps longer. Despite this, briny liquid water flows (Recurrent Slope Linea) have been observed in a number of locations in the present-day. This review examines evidence from the Phoenix Lander (2008) and the Mars Science Laboratory (2012-current), to assess the occurrence of habitable conditions in the shallow Martian regolith. It will be argued that shallow, transient, liquid water brines are potentially habitable by microbial life, are likely a widespread occurrence on Mars, and that future exploration aimed at finding present-day habitable conditions and potential biology should 'follow the salt'.

  4. Broadband Processing in a Noisy Shallow Ocean Environment: A Particle Filtering Approach

    DOE PAGES

    Candy, J. V.

    2016-04-14

    Here we report that when a broadband source propagates sound in a shallow ocean the received data can become quite complicated due to temperature-related sound-speed variations and therefore a highly dispersive environment. Noise and uncertainties disrupt this already chaotic environment even further because disturbances propagate through the same inherent acoustic channel. The broadband (signal) estimation/detection problem can be decomposed into a set of narrowband solutions that are processed separately and then combined to achieve more enhancement of signal levels than that available from a single frequency, thereby allowing more information to be extracted leading to a more reliable source detection.more » A Bayesian solution to the broadband modal function tracking, pressure-field enhancement, and source detection problem is developed that leads to nonparametric estimates of desired posterior distributions enabling the estimation of useful statistics and an improved processor/detector. In conclusion, to investigate the processor capabilities, we synthesize an ensemble of noisy, broadband, shallow-ocean measurements to evaluate its overall performance using an information theoretical metric for the preprocessor and the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detector.« less

  5. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Precipitation patterns and moisture fluxes in a sandy, tropical environment with a shallow water table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-08-01

    Identifying the dominant mechanisms controlling recharge in shallow sandy soils in tropical climates has received relatively little attention. Given the expansion of coastal fill using marine sands and the growth of coastal populations throughout the tropics, there is a need to better understand the nature of water balances in these settings. We use time series of field observations at a coastal landfill in Singapore coupled with numerical modeling using the Richards' equation to examine the impact of precipitation patterns on soil moisture dynamics, including percolation past the root zone and recharge, in such an environment. A threshold in total precipitation event depth, much more so than peak precipitation intensity, is the strongest event control on recharge. However, shallow antecedent moisture, and therefore the timing between events along with the seasonal depth to water table, also play significant roles in determining recharge amounts. For example, at our field site, precipitation events of less than 3 mm per event yield little to no direct recharge, but for larger events, moisture content changes below the root zone are linearly correlated to the product of the average antecedent moisture content and the total event precipitation. Therefore, water resources planners need to consider identifying threshold precipitation volumes, along with the multiple time scales that capture variability in event antecedent conditions and storm frequency in assessing the role of recharge in coastal water balances in tropical settings.

  7. The potential for lithoautotrophic life on Mars: application to shallow interfacial water environments.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Steven M; Priscu, John C; Grimm, Robert E; Bullock, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    We developed a numerical model to assess the lithoautotrophic habitability of Mars based on metabolic energy, nutrients, water availability, and temperature. Available metabolic energy and nutrient sources were based on a laboratory-produced Mars-analog inorganic chemistry. For this specific reference chemistry, the most efficient lithoautotrophic microorganisms would use Fe(2+) as a primary metabolic electron donor and NO(3)(-) or gaseous O(2) as a terminal electron acceptor. In a closed model system, biomass production was limited by the electron donor Fe(2+) and metabolically required P, and typically amounted to approximately 800 pg of dry biomass/ml ( approximately 8,500 cells/ml). Continued growth requires propagation of microbes to new fecund environments, delivery of fresh pore fluid, or continued reaction with the host material. Within the shallow cryosphere--where oxygen can be accessed by microbes and microbes can be accessed by exploration-lithoautotrophs can function within as little as three monolayers of interfacial water formed either by adsorption from the atmosphere or in regions of ice stability where temperatures are within some tens of degrees of the ice melting point. For the selected reference host material (shergottite analog) and associated inorganic fluid chemistry, complete local reaction of the host material potentially yields a time-integrated biomass of approximately 0.1 mg of dry biomass/g of host material ( approximately 10(9) cells/g). Biomass could also be sustained where solutes can be delivered by advection (cryosuction) or diffusion in interfacial water; however, both of these processes are relatively inefficient. Lithoautotrophs in near-surface thin films of water, therefore, would optimize their metabolism by deriving energy and nutrients locally. Although the selected chemistry and associated model output indicate that lithoautotrophic microbial biomass could accrue within shallow interfacial water on Mars, it is likely that

  8. A Low-Cost Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Shallow Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Albaladejo, Cristina; Soto, Fulgencio; Torres, Roque; Sánchez, Pedro; López, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of marine ecosystems is essential to identify the parameters that determine their condition. The data derived from the sensors used to monitor them are a fundamental source for the development of mathematical models with which to predict the behaviour of conditions of the water, the sea bed and the living creatures inhabiting it. This paper is intended to explain and illustrate a design and implementation for a new multisensor monitoring buoy system. The system design is based on a number of fundamental requirements that set it apart from other recent proposals: low cost of implementation, the possibility of application in coastal shallow-water marine environments, suitable dimensions for deployment and stability of the sensor system in a shifting environment like the sea bed, and total autonomy of power supply and data recording. The buoy system has successfully performed remote monitoring of temperature and marine pressure (SBE 39 sensor), temperature (MCP9700 sensor) and atmospheric pressure (YOUNG 61302L sensor). The above requirements have been satisfactorily validated by operational trials in a marine environment. The proposed buoy sensor system thus seems to offer a broad range of applications. PMID:23012562

  9. Marine Electromagnetic System Development in the Shallow Water Environment for Radioactive Waste Repository Site Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.; Sakashita, S.; Okubo, S.; Yamane, K.

    2006-12-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Center of Japan has recently conducted a program to develop an electromagnetic (EM) technology for investigating the subsurface to the depths of 1,000m below the seafloor in the near-shore environment. Potential applications include structural studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The system includes both natural field by magnetotellurics and controlled source EM data was collected to evaluate the feasibility of the methods and instrumentation. The shallow water environment is challenging because of high water currents and wave motion effects contaminating the data. We demonstrate the performance test of the new type of instrument, and the field experiment that was carried out in the Monterey Bay of California, USA, in 2003 and 2004. In this paper we describe the instrumentation developed, shows some examples from field trial and finally provide some inversion results using collected and simulated data. The system consists of EM transmitter deployed on the beach in combination with a series of offshore based multicomponent receivers. Field data collected near Monterey California revealed some of the challenges associated with this type of system. Collected data showed the influence of wave and cultural noise as well. In site of these difficulties we were able to accumulate a sufficient quantity of good quality records to interpret results. We show 2-D inversion results which image the "Navy Fault zone" which strikes NW-SE offshore Monterey bay in water depths of 10 to 40m.

  10. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment.

    PubMed

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term.

  11. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker, Vera; Baeye, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume), and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume). Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term. PMID:26070156

  12. Toxicological assessment of aquatic ecosystems: application to watercraft contaminants in shallow water environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Kemmish, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Recreational boating and personal watercraft use have the potential to adversely impact shallow water systems through contaminant release and physical disturbance of bottom sediments. These nearshore areas are often already degraded by surface runoff, municipal and industrial effluents, and other anthropogenic activities. For proper management, information is needed on the level of contamination and environmental quality of these systems. A number of field and laboratory procedures can be used to provide this much needed information. Contaminants, such as metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, entering aquatic environments generally attach to particulate matter that eventually settles and becomes incorporated into the bottom sediments. Because bottom sediments serve as a sink and as a source for contaminants, environmental assessments generally focus on this matrix. While contaminant residues in sediments and sediment pore waters can reflect environmental quality, characteristics of sediment (redox potential, sediment/pore-water chemistry, acid volatile sulfides, percent organic matter, and sediment particle size) influence their bioavailability and make interpretation of environmental significance difficult. Comparisons of contaminant concentrations in pore water (interstitial water) and sediment with water quality criteria and sediment quality guidelines, respectively, can provide insight into potential biological effects. Laboratory bioaccumulation studies and residue concentrations in resident or caged biota also yield information on potential biological impacts. The usefulness of these measurements may increase as data are developed relating in-situ concentrations, tissue residue levels, and biological responses. Exposure of test organisms in situ or to field-collected sediment and pore water are additional procedures that can be used to assess the biological effects of contaminants. A battery of tests using multi

  13. Lithological properties of sedimentary environments in the shallow subsurface of the Northern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harting, Ronald; Bosch, Aleid; Gunnink, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Society has an increasing demand from the subsurface, which in the Dutch shallow subsurface (upper 30 to 40 meters) mainly focuses on natural aggregate resources, groundwater, infrastructure and dike safety. This stimulates the demand for knowledge about the composition and heterogeneity of the subsurface and its physical and chemical properties, including the uncertainties involved. Physical and chemical properties of sediments in the subsurface have been under investigation for decades; however, the usefulness of this data for applied research and the understanding of these properties is limited. This is due to several factors: studies consist mainly of separately collected datasets, targeted at a limited amount of parameters, focused on a small number of geological units, distributed unevenly with depth and usually collected from clustered drillings with limited spatial extent or are analysed with different techniques and methods, often on disturbed samples. These factors result in a heterogeneous and biased dataset not suitable to function as a reference dataset or to statistically determine regional characteristics of geological units. To overcome these shortcomings, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands is establishing a nation-wide reference dataset for physical and chemical properties. In 2006, a drilling campaign was started using cone penetration tests, cored drillings and geophysical well logs, choosing the sites for a good geographical distribution. The lithological properties of the undisturbed cores are visually described and interpreted for lithostratigraphy and inferred sedimentary environment based on lithofacies. The location of the samples in the cores are chosen based on this description and interpretation, resulting in an evenly distributed dataset of in situ samples with respect to geological units as well as an adequate number of samples suitable for statistical analysis. Analyses are uniformly performed for grain size distribution

  14. Determination of acoustic waveguide invariant using ships as sources of opportunity in a shallow water marine environment.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Christopher M A; Sarkar, J; Cornuelle, B D; Kuperman, W A

    2017-02-01

    The waveguide invariant (WGI) is a property that can be used to localize acoustic radiators and extract information about the environment. Here the WGI is determined using ships as sources of opportunity, tracked using the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The relationship between range, acoustic intensity, and frequency for a ship in a known position is used to determine the WGI parameter β. These β values are interpolated and a map of β is generated. The method is demonstrated using data collected in a field experiment on a single hydrophone in a shallow water environment off the coast of Southern California.

  15. Assessment of a vertical high-resolution distributed-temperature-sensing system in a shallow thermohaline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F.; Aravena, J. E.; Hausner, M. B.; Childress, A. E.; Tyler, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    In shallow thermohaline-driven lakes it is important to measure temperature on fine spatial and temporal scales to detect stratification or different hydrodynamic regimes. Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is an approach available to provide high spatial and temporal temperature resolution. A vertical high-resolution DTS system was constructed to overcome the problems of typical methods used in the past, i.e., without disturbing the water column, and with resistance to corrosive environments. This paper describes a method to quantitatively assess accuracy, precision and other limitations of DTS systems to fully utilize the capacity of this technology, with a focus on vertical high-resolution to measure temperatures in shallow thermohaline environments. It also presents a new method to manually calibrate temperatures along the optical fiber achieving significant improved resolution. The vertical high-resolution DTS system is used to monitor the thermal behavior of a salt-gradient solar pond, which is an engineered shallow thermohaline system that allows collection and storage of solar energy for a long period of time. The vertical high-resolution DTS system monitors the temperature profile each 1.1 cm vertically and in time averages as small as 10 s. Temperature resolution as low as 0.035 °C is obtained when the data are collected at 5-min intervals.

  16. Airgun inter-pulse noise field during a seismic survey in an Arctic ultra shallow marine environment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shane; Vignola, Joseph; Judge, John; Turo, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration using seismic airguns generates intense underwater pulses that could cause marine mammal hearing impairment and/or behavioral disturbances. However, few studies have investigated the resulting multipath propagation and reverberation from airgun pulses. This research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected in the Arctic during a low-level open-water shallow marine seismic survey, to measure noise levels between airgun pulses. Two methods were used to quantify noise levels during these inter-pulse intervals. The first, based on calculating the root-mean-square sound pressure level in various sub-intervals, is referred to as the increment computation method, and the second, which employs the Hilbert transform to calculate instantaneous acoustic amplitudes, is referred to as the Hilbert transform method. Analyses using both methods yield similar results, showing that the inter-pulse sound field exceeds ambient noise levels by as much as 9 dB during relatively quiet conditions. Inter-pulse noise levels are also related to the source distance, probably due to the higher reverberant conditions of the very shallow water environment. These methods can be used to quantify acoustic environment impacts from anthropogenic transient noises (e.g., seismic pulses, impact pile driving, and sonar pings) and to address potential acoustic masking affecting marine mammals.

  17. The impact of a shallow biobarrier on water recharge patterns in a semi-arid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Laundre, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This study attempted to measure the effect of a shallow biobarrier of gravel and cobble on water flow patterns during spring snow melt and recharge. The design consisted of 30 metal culverts 3 m in diameter and 1.6 m long, positioned on end. Test culverts contained 50-cm biobarrier of gravel or cobble and then an additional 50 cm of soil placed above the barrier layer. A neutron probe was used to measure soil moisture above and below the barrier. Measurements were made in the fall and again immediately after snow melt in the spring. During recharge, the biobarriers provided amore » capillary break which resulted in a pooling of water above the barrier layer. With sufficient snowmelt, the water can penetrate the break and possibly penetrate deeper than in the absence of the barrier layer.« less

  18. Simulating the evolution of non-point source pollutants in a shallow water environment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Kahawita, Rene

    2007-03-01

    Non-point source pollution originating from surface applied chemicals in either liquid or solid form as part of agricultural activities, appears in the surface runoff caused by rainfall. The infiltration and transport of these pollutants has a significant impact on subsurface and riverine water quality. The present paper describes the development of a unified 2-D mathematical model incorporating individual models for infiltration, adsorption, solubility rate, advection and diffusion, which significantly improve the current practice on mathematical modeling of pollutant evolution in shallow water. The governing equations have been solved numerically using cubic spline integration. Experiments were conducted at the Hydrodynamics Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal to validate the mathematical model. Good correspondence between the computed results and experimental data has been obtained. The model may be used to predict the ultimate fate of surface applied chemicals by evaluating the proportions that are dissolved, infiltrated into the subsurface or are washed off.

  19. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Bivalve aquaculture is commonly carried out in shallow water systems, which are susceptible to resuspension of benthic particulate matter by natural processes such as tidal currents, winds and wave action, as well as human activity. The resuspended material can alter the availability of food particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds. In addition, high background seston in the water column reduces the impact of resuspension on the available food for mussels. The simulation of different scenarios in terms of food availability suggested minimal effects of resuspension on mussel growth. Based on this finding and the fact that phytoplankton concentration, the main food source for mussels, is usually higher in the upper part of the water column, suspended culture in the top 3 m of the water column seems to be the optimal practice to produce mussels in Skive Fjord.

  20. Shallow groundwater denitrification capacity at three contrasting hydrogeological environments in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofizur Rahman Jahangir, Mohammad; Johnston, Paul; Khalil, Mohammad Ibrahim; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Denitrification may be regarded as the dominant nitrate removal or attenuation process in shallow groundwater. A major concern arising from the denitrification process is that it not only serves as a natural pathway for excess NO3- removal but its intermediate product, N2O, is a potent greenhouse gas. A groundwater monitoring network was established on grazed grassland at research farms at Johnstown Castle (JC) and Solohead (SH) on tillage at Oak Park (OP) in Ireland, to investigate the denitrification capacity and N2O:(N2O+N2) ratio within the shallow groundwater zone. The geology of this zone at the 3 sites was i) JC: sand and gravel intermixed with clay, ii) SH: silt and gravel intermixed with dense clay and iii) OP: dense gravel with interbedded clays. Average groundwater table was respectively 3.2, 2.4 and 4.0 m below ground level. Ten piezometers of 50 mm ID with 2 m screen sections were installed at 3.5-6.0 m below ground level using a rotary air drilling method at the three sites. Groundwater sampling was carried out monthly for 6 months (February to July, 2009) using a bladder pump following the USEPA low flow sampling procedures. Dissolved groundwater N2O was separated by degassing groundwater in a sealed serum bottle (160ml) using high purity He (water:He = 3:1) and the collected headspace equilibrium gas was analyzed on a Varian gas chromatograph. The N2/Ar ratio, measured using a Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer, was used to estimate the denitrified N2 concentrations. The mean NO3-N concentrations were 7.0, 2.5 and 11.0 mg L-1 in JC, SH and OP, respectively. Ground water dissolved N2O concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.05, 0.01 to 0.06 and 0.002 to 0.06 mg L-1, with corresponding mean values of 0.03, 0.02, 0.02 mg N.L-1 in JC, SH and OP, respectively. The mean values for total denitrification (N2O+N2) were 1.94, 1.03 and 0.38 mg N.L-1, which accounted for 22, 29 and 3% losses of total NO3- -N in JC, SH and OP, respectively. The higher denitrification

  1. Rare earth element geochemistry of shallow carbonate outcropping strata in Saudi Arabia: Application for depositional environments prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltom, Hassan A.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammed H.; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A.

    2017-03-01

    The interpretation of depositional environments provides important information to understand facies distribution and geometry. The classical approach to interpret depositional environments principally relies on the analysis of lithofacies, biofacies and stratigraphic data, among others. An alternative method, based on geochemical data (chemical element data), is advantageous because it can simply, reproducibly and efficiently interpret and refine the interpretation of the depositional environment of carbonate strata. Here we geochemically analyze and statistically model carbonate samples (n = 156) from seven sections of the Arab-D reservoir outcrop analog of central Saudi Arabia, to determine whether the elemental signatures (major, trace and rare earth elements [REEs]) can be effectively used to predict depositional environments. We find that lithofacies associations of the studied outcrop (peritidal to open marine depositional environments) possess altered REE signatures, and that this trend increases stratigraphically from bottom-to-top, which corresponds to an upward shallowing of depositional environments. The relationship between REEs and major, minor and trace elements indicates that contamination by detrital materials is the principal source of REEs, whereas redox condition, marine and diagenetic processes have minimal impact on the relative distribution of REEs in the lithofacies. In a statistical model (factor analysis and logistic regression), REEs, major and trace elements cluster together and serve as markers to differentiate between peritidal and open marine facies and to differentiate between intertidal and subtidal lithofacies within the peritidal facies. The results indicate that statistical modelling of the elemental composition of carbonate strata can be used as a quantitative method to predict depositional environments and regional paleogeography. The significance of this study lies in offering new assessments of the relationships between

  2. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of NO3- found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 ??g/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  3. An investigation of flame spread over shallow liquid pools in microgravity and nonair environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Sotos, Raymond G.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments of interest to combustion fundamentals and spacecraft fire safety investigated flame spread of alcohol fuels over shallow, 15 cm diameter pools in a 5.2 sec free-fall, microgravity facility. Results showed that, independent O2 concentrations, alcohol fuel, and diluent types, microgravity flame spread rates were nearly identical to those corresponding normal-gravity flames for conditions where the normal gravity flames spread uniformly. This similarity indicated buoyancy-related convection in either phase does not affect flame spread, at least for the physical scale of the experiments. However, microgravity extinction coincided with the onset conditions for pulsating spread in normal gravity, implicating gas phase, buoyant flow as a requirement for pulsating spread. When the atmospheric nitrogen was replaced with argon, the conditions for the onset of normal-gravity pulsating flame spread and microgravity flame extinction were changed, in agreement with the expected lowering of the flash point through the thermal properties of the diluent. Helium-diluted flames, however, showed unexpected results with a shift to apparently higher flash-point temperatures and high normal gravity pulsation amplitudes.

  4. An Investigation of Flame Spread over Shallow Liquid Pools in Microgravity and Nonair Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Sotos, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments of interest to combustion fundamentals and spacecraft fire safety investigated flame spread of alcohol fuels over shallow, 15 cm diameter pools in a 5.2 sec free-fall, microgravity facility. Results showed that, independent O2 concentration, alcohol fuel, and diluent types, microgravity flame spread rates were nearly identical to those corresponding normal-gravity flames for conditions where the normal gravity flames spread uniformly. This similarity indicated buoyancy-related convection in either phase does not affect flame spread, at least for the physical scale of the experiments. However, microgravity extinction coincided with the onset conditions for pulsating spread in normal gravity, implicating gas phase, buoyant flow as a requirement for pulsating spread. When the atmospheric nitrogen was replaced with argon, the conditions for the onset of normal-gravity pulsating flame spread and microgravity flame extinction were changed, in agreement with the expected lowering of the flash point through the thermal properties of the diluent. Helium-diluted flames, however, showed unexpected results with a shift to apparently higher flash-point temperatures and high normal gravity pulsation amplitudes.

  5. Assessment of a vertical high-resolution distributed-temperature-sensing system in a shallow thermohaline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F.; Aravena, J. E.; Hausner, M. B.; Childress, A. E.; Tyler, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    In shallow thermohaline-driven lakes it is important to measure temperature on fine spatial and temporal scales to detect stratification or different hydrodynamic regimes. Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is an approach available to provide high spatial and temporal temperature resolution. A vertical high-resolution DTS system was constructed to overcome the problems of typical methods used in the past, i.e., without disturbing the water column, and with resistance to corrosive environments. This system monitors the temperature profile each 1.1 cm vertically and in time averages as small as 10 s. Temperature resolution as low as 0.035 °C is obtained when the data are collected at 5-min intervals. The vertical high-resolution DTS system is used to monitor the thermal behavior of a salt-gradient solar pond, which is an engineered shallow thermohaline system that allows collection and storage of solar energy for a long period of time. This paper describes a method to quantitatively assess accuracy, precision and other limitations of DTS systems to fully utilize the capacity of this technology. It also presents, for the first time, a method to manually calibrate temperatures along the optical fiber.

  6. Influx of Dissolved Silica in Shallow Marine Environments in the Early Rhaetian (Late Triassic): Implications for Timing of Supercontinental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Rhaetian Stage of the Late Triassic terminated with a mass extinction, but the late Norian-early Rhaetian paleoecological and geochemical transitions and their relationship to events leading up to the End-Triassic mass extinction are poorly understood. To address this issue, presented here is a multi-proxy dataset from New York Canyon, Nevada (USA) relating isotope chemostratigraphy (Sr, C, O), shallow marine benthic macrofossils, and microfossils. At this Panthalassan locality the Norian-Rhaetian boundary is characterized by a negative strontium isotope excursion that facilitates correlation with Tethyan deposits. In sedimentary horizons immediately below and above this excursion, siliceous demosponge spicules (desmids) are abundant components of the microfossil populations, and silicification of calcareous microfossils becomes common. In the sedimentary beds marking the main excursion, hexactinellid sponge spicules are abundant. These results indicate a large input of dissolved silica in shallow marine environments, while the negative strontium values are consistent with increased seafloor spreading and hydrothermal vent activity or basalt weathering, either scenario being a plausible silica source for the typically silica-limited sponges that proliferated during this interval. The biosedimentary features observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary are similar to those observed in the earliest Jurassic in marine sections around the world following the End-Triassic mass extinction, but no clear biotic turnover is observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary in this succession. Thus, biosedimentary shifts across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary may add important geochemical context to the end-Triassic mass extinction event.

  7. Application of Airborne Hydrographic Laser Scanning for Mapping Shallow Water Riverine Environments in the Pacific Northwest, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Faux, R.

    2013-12-01

    Small-footprint, green wavelength airborne LiDAR systems can provide seamless topography across the land-water interface at very high spatial resolution. These data have the potential to improve floodplain modeling, fisheries habitat assessments, stream restoration efforts, and other applications by continuously mapping shallow water depths that are difficult or impossible to measure using traditional ground-based or water-borne survey techniques. WSI (Corvallis, Oregon) in collaboration with Dewberry, (Tampa, Florida) and Riegl (Orlando, Florida), deployed the Riegl VQ-820-G hydrographic airborne laser scanner to map riverine and lacustrine environments from Oregon to Minnesota. Discussion will focus on the ability to accurately map depth and underwater structure, as well as riparian vegetation and terrain under different conditions. Results indicate that depth penetration varies with both water (i.e. clarity and surface conditions) and bottom conditions (i.e. substrate, depth, and landform). Depth penetration was typically limited to 1 Secchi depth or less across selected project areas. As an example, the green LiDAR system effectively mapped 83% of a shallow water river system, the Sandy River, with typical depths ranging from 0-2.5 meters. WSI will show quantitative comparisons of Green LiDAR surveys against more traditional methods such as rod or sonar surveys. WSI will also discuss advantages and limitations of Green LiDAR surveys for bathymetric modeling including survey accuracy, density, and efficiency along with data processing challenges not inherent with traditional NIR LiDAR processing.

  8. Short-term Changes of Apparent Optical Properties in a Shallow Water Environment: Observations from Repeated Airborne Hyperspectral Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; English, D. C.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Toro-Farmer, G.; Herwitz, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed for AISA imagery over optically shallow waters in Sugarloaf Key of the Florida Keys. The AISA data were collected repeatedly during several days in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. A non-zero near-infrared (NIR) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was accounted for through iterations, based on the relationship of field-measured Rrs between the NIR and red wavelengths. Validation showed mean ratios of 0.94 to 1.002 between AISA-derived and field-measured Rrs in the blue to red wavelengths, with uncertainties generally < 0.002 sr-1. Such an approach led to observations of diurnal changes of AISA-derived Rrs from repeated measurements over waters with bottom types of seagrass meadow, sand, and patch reef, which were driven by tides and/or winds depending on the bottom types. Rrs generally increased with decreasing tidal height and increasing wind speed, with more changes observed over sandy bottom than over seagrass as explained by changes in water turbidity (light attenuation) and bottom contributions. Some of these changes are larger than two times of the Rrs uncertainties from the AISA retrievals, therefore representing statistically significant changes that can be well observed from airborne measurements. The case study suggests that repeated airborne measurements may be used to study short-term changes in shallow water environments, and such a capacity may be enhanced with future geostationary satellite missions specifically designed to observe coastal ecosystems.

  9. Studies of ambient noise in shallow water environments off Mexico and Alaska: characteristics, metrics and time-synchronization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Melania

    Sound in the ocean originates from multiple mechanisms, both natural and anthropogenic. Collectively, underwater ambient noise accumulates valuable information about both its sources and the oceanic environment that propagates this noise. Characterizing the features of ambient noise source mechanisms is challenging, but essential, for properly describing an acoustic environment. Disturbances to a local acoustic environment may affect many aquatic species that have adapted to be heavily dependent on this particular sense for survival functions. In the case of marine mammals, which are federally protected, demand exists for understanding such potential impacts, which drives important scientific efforts that utilize passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tools to inform regulatory decisions. This dissertation presents two independent studies that use PAM data to investigate the characteristics of source mechanisms that dominate ambient noise in two diverse shallow water environments. The study in Chapter 2 directly addresses the concern of how anthropogenic activities can degrade the effectiveness of PAM. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, an environment where ambient noise is normally dominated by natural causes, seismic surveys create impulsive sounds to map the composition of the bottom. By inspecting single-sensor PAM data, the spectral characteristics of seismic survey airgun reverberation are measured, and their contribution to the overall ambient noise is quantified. This work is relevant to multiple ongoing mitigation protocols that rely on PAM to acoustically detect marine mammal presence during industrial operations. Meanwhile, Chapter 3 demonstrates that by analyzing data from multiple PAM sensors, features embedded in both directional and omnidirectional ambient noise can be used to develop new time-synchronization processing techniques for aligning autonomous elements of an acoustic array, a tool commonly used in PAM for detecting and tracking marine mammals. Using

  10. Shallow Strategy Development in a Teachable Agent Environment Designed to Support Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; Segedy, James R.; Sulcer, Brian; Jeong, Hogyeong; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    To support self-regulated learning (SRL), computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are often designed to be open-ended and multidimensional. These systems incorporate diverse features that allow students to enact and reveal their SRL strategies via the choices they make. However, research shows that students' use of such features is limited;…

  11. Tritium plume dynamics in the shallow unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maples, S.R.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Cooper, C.A.; Pohll, G.; Michel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of a tritium plume in the shallow unsaturated zone and the mechanisms controlling its transport were evaluated during a 10-yr study. Plume movement was minimal and its mass declined by 68%. Upward-directed diffusive-vapor tritium fluxes and radioactive decay accounted for most of the observed plume-mass declines.Effective isolation of tritium (3H) and other contaminants at waste-burial facilities requires improved understanding of transport processes and pathways. Previous studies documented an anomalously widespread (i.e., theoretically unexpected) distribution of 3H (>400 m from burial trenches) in a dry, sub-root-zone gravelly layer (1–2-m depth) adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, that closed in 1992. The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize long-term, spatiotemporal variability of 3H plumes; and (ii) quantify the processes controlling 3H behavior in the sub-root-zone gravelly layer beneath native vegetation adjacent to the facility. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses, and mass flux calculations were applied to a spatiotemporally comprehensive, 10-yr data set (2001–2011). Results showed minimal bulk-plume advancement during the study period and limited Fickian spreading of mass. Observed spreading rates were generally consistent with theoretical vapor-phase dispersion. The plume mass diminished more rapidly than would be expected from radioactive decay alone, indicating net efflux from the plume. Estimates of upward 3H efflux via diffusive-vapor movement were >10× greater than by dispersive-vapor or total-liquid movement. Total vertical fluxes were >20× greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes, highlighting the importance of upward migration toward the land surface. Mass-balance calculations showed that radioactive decay and upward diffusive-vapor fluxes contributed the majority of plume loss. Results indicate that plume losses

  12. Acoustic Blind Deconvolution and Frequency-Difference Beamforming in Shallow Ocean Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    acoustic field experiment (FAF06) conducted in July 2006 off the west coast of Italy. Dr. Heechun Song of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography...from seismic surveying and whale calls recorded on a vertical array with 12 elements. The whale call frequencies range from 100 to 500 Hz and the water...underway. Together Ms. Abadi and Dr. Thode had considerable success simulating the experimental environment, deconvolving whale calls, ranging the

  13. Acoustical environment measurement at a very shallow port: Trial case in Hashirimizu Port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hanako; Mori, Kazuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the needs for coastal environment measurement has been increasing for many purposes, such as fishing, weather forecasting, ocean noise measurement for power plants, and coastal security. Acoustical measurement is one of the solutions because it can cover a wide area with few sensors, and it is possible to monitor long term or in real time. In this study, a small-scale reciprocal sound travel experiment was carried out in Hashirimizu Port for coastal environment measurement, such as current speed and water temperature. Since the distance between the surface and the transducer becomes short according to the tidal effect, the direct signal is canceled by the surface-reflected signal under a specific condition. However, even under such a condition, mean water temperature could be estimated from the reciprocal travel time using bottom-reflected signals. The current along the travel path was a reasonable value. It is possible to obtain a special current speed with another reciprocal path, which is in a direction perpendicular to the current travel path.

  14. A spatial model to improve site selection for seagrass restoration in shallow boating environments.

    PubMed

    Hotaling-Hagan, Althea; Swett, Robert; Ellis, L Rex; Frazer, Thomas K

    2017-01-15

    Due to widespread and continuing seagrass loss, restoration attempts occur worldwide. This article presents a geospatial modeling technique that ranks the suitability of sites for restoration based on light availability and boating activity, two factors cited in global studies of seagrass loss and restoration failures. The model presented here was created for Estero Bay, Florida and is a predictive model of light availability and boating pressure to aid seagrass restoration efforts. The model is adaptive and can be parameterized for different locations and updated as additional data is collected and knowledge of how factors impact seagrass improves. Light data used for model development were collected over one year from 50 sites throughout the bay. Coupled with high resolution bathymetric data, bottom mean light availability was predicted throughout the bay. Data collection throughout the year also allowed for prediction of light variability at sites, a possible indicator of seagrass growth and survival. Additionally, survey data on boating activities were used to identify areas, outside of marked navigation channels, that receive substantial boating pressure and are likely poor candidate sites for seagrass restoration. The final map product identifies areas where the light environment was suitable for seagrasses and boating pressure was low. A composite map showing the persistence of seagrass coverage in the study area over four years, between 1999 and 2006, was used to validate the model. Eighty-nine percent of the area where seagrass persisted (had been mapped all four years) was ranked as suitable for restoration: 42% with the highest rank (7), 28% with a rank of 6, and 19% with a rank of 5. The results show that the model is a viable tool for selection of seagrass restoration sites in Florida and elsewhere. With knowledge of the light environment and boating patterns, managers will be better equipped to set seagrass restoration and water quality improvement

  15. Early Cretaceous Shallow-Water Platform Carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains, Central Taurides - South Turkey: Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solak, Cemile; Taslı, Kemal; Koç, Hayati

    2016-10-01

    The study area comprises southern non-metamorphic part of the Bolkar Mountains which are situated in southern Turkey, eastern part of the Central Taurides. The studied five outcrops form geologically parts of the tectonostratigraphic units called as allochthonous Aladag Unit and autochthonous Geyikdagi Unit. The aim of this study is to describe microfacies and depositional environments of the Bolkar Mountains Early Cretaceous shallow- water platform carbonates. The Lower Cretaceous is represented by continuous thick- bedded to massive dolomite sequence ranging from 100 to 150 meters thick, which only contains locally laminated limestone intercalations in the Yüğlük section and thick to very thick-bedded uniform limestones ranging from approximately 50 to 120 meters, consist of mainly laminated- fenestral mudstone, peloidal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, bioclastic packstone- wackestone, benthic foraminiferal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, ostracod-fenestral wackestone-mudstone, dasycladacean algal packstone-wackestone and ooidal grainstone microfacies. Based on a combination sedimantological data, facies/microfacies and micropaleontological (predominantly dasycladacean algae and diverse benthic foraminifera) analysis, it is concluded that Early Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains reflect a tidally affected tidal-flat and restricted lagoon settings. During the Berriasian- Valanginian unfavourable facies for benthic foraminifera and dolomitization were predominate. In the Hauterivian-early Aptian, the effect of dolomitization largely disappeared and inner platform conditions still prevailed showing alternations of peritidal and lagoon facies, going from peritidal plains (representing various sub-environments including supratidal, intertidal area, tidal-intertidal ponds and ooid bars) dominated by ostracod and miliolids, to dasycladacean algae-rich restricted lagoons-subtidal. These environments show a transition in the vertical and

  16. Assessing Acoustic Sound Levels Associated with Active Source Seismic Surveys in Shallow Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Thode, A.; Diebold, J. B.; Webb, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    . At various times or positions along the ship's track, the predicted mean and maximum sound level in the water column are contoured. By reconstructing the possible positions of the whales during the survey, based on the time of their stranding and reasonable swim velocities, we constrain the sound levels that they may have been subjected to for a series of scenarios. It is hoped that this work will facilitate a better understanding of acoustic propagation during future airgun experiments in similar environments.

  17. Sources, fate, and effects of PAHs in shallow water environments: a review with special reference to small watercraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two to seven fused carbon (benzene) rings that can have substituted groups attached. Shallow coastal, estuarine, lake, and river environments receive PAHs from treated wastewater, stormwater runoff, petroleum spills and natural seeps, recreational and commercial boats, natural fires, volcanoes, and atmospheric deposition of combustion products. Abiotic degradation of PAHs is caused by photooxidation, photolysis in water, and chemical oxidation. Many aquatic microbes, plants, and animals can metabolize and excrete ingested PAHs; accumulation is associated with poor metabolic capabilities, high lipid content, and activity patterns or distributions that coincide with high concentrations of PAHs. Resistance to biological transformation increases with increasing number of carbon rings. Four- to seven-ring PAHs are the most difficult to metabolize and the most likely to accumulate in sediments. Disturbance by boating activity of sediments, shorelines, and the surface microlayer of water causes water column re-entry of recently deposited or concentrated PAHs. Residence time for PAHs in undisturbed sediment exceeds several decades. Toxicity of PAHs causes lethal and sublethal effects in plants and animals, whereas some substituted PAHs and metabolites of some PAHs cause mutations, developmental malformations, tumors, and cancer. Environmental concentrations of PAHs in water are usually several orders of magnitude below levels that are acutely toxic, but concentrations can be much higher in sediment. The best evidence for a link between environmental PAHs and induction of cancerous neoplasms is for demersal fish in areas with high concentrations of PAHs in the sediment.

  18. Mapping epibenthic assemblages and their relations to sedimentary features in shallow-water, high-energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, John D.; Shimeta, Jeff; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann; Traykovski, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of spatial relationships among benthic biota and sedimentary features in shallow-water (<30 m) high-energy environments has been severely limited by sampling technology. We describe and report tests of a SCUBA-diving mapping method specifically for this region. Underwater acoustic location is used to achieve meter-scale resolution over kilometer-scale regions of the sea floor. A triad of acoustic transponders is bottom-mounted at known positions, 300-500 m apart. Transported by underwater personal vehicles, SCUBA-divers map the bed using hand-held acoustic receivers that record ranges to the transponders. The mean error of acoustic fixes was 2.4±1.2 m in a 0.5 km×1.0 km test area. Dense assemblages of epibenthic animals were mapped relative to sediment texture and bedforms off the exposed south coast of Martha's Vineyard Island, Massachusetts, USA. Surveys one month apart within a 0.6 km×0.6 km area (8-12 m depth) revealed 100-m-scale patches of the tube worm Spiophanes bombyx (⩽30,000 m -2) in fine sand and of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma (⩽55 m -2) in coarse sand. Raised mud patches that, together with fine sand, occurred in two shore-perpendicular belts are likely exposed, ancient marsh deposits. Depth gradients of sand-ripple geometry indicated that ripples in deeper areas were not in equilibrium with wave conditions monitored during surveys; i.e., they were relict ripples. Thus, sand dollars in some areas may have had >1 month to rework surficial sands since their transformation by physical processes. Linear regressions of ripple characteristics against sand dollar or tube worm densities were not significant, although such relationships would be highly dependent on temporal scale. The survey method described here can be used at more frequent intervals to explore such interactions between epibenthic animals and sediment-transport dynamics.

  19. Modeling of Acoustic Field Statistics for Deep and Shallow Water Environments and 2015 CANAPE Pilot Study Moored Oceanographic Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    into acoustic fluctuation calculations. In the Philippine Sea, models of eddies, internal tides, internal waves, and fine structure ( spice ) are...needed, while in the shallow water case a models of the random linear internal waves and spice are lacking. APPROACH The approach to this research is to

  20. Water and sediment temperature dynamics in shallow tidal environments: The role of the heat flux at the sediment-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivato, M.; Carniello, L.; Gardner, J.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, we investigate the energy flux at the sediment-water interface and the relevance of the heat exchanged between water and sediment for the water temperature dynamics in shallow coastal environments. Water and sediment temperature data collected in the Venice lagoon show that, in shallow, temperate lagoons, temperature is uniform within the water column, and enabled us to estimate the net heat flux at the sediment-water interface. We modeled this flux as the sum of a conductive component and of the solar radiation reaching the bottom, finding the latter being negligible. We developed a "point" model to describe the temperature dynamics of the sediment-water continuum driven by vertical energy transfer. We applied the model considering conditions characterized by negligible advection, obtaining satisfactory results. We found that the heat exchange between water and sediment is crucial for describing sediment temperature but plays a minor role on the water temperature.

  1. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230... Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43 Vegetated shallows. (a) Vegetated shallows are permanently inundated areas... reducing light penetration and hence photosynthesis; and (5) changing the capacity of a vegetated shallow...

  2. Elastic Properties of Subduction Zone Materials in the Large Shallow Slip Environment for the Tohoku 2011 Earthquake: Laboratory data from JFAST Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) produced large displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench. In order to understand earthquake propagation and slip stabilization in this environment, quantitative values of the real elastic properties of fault zones and their surrounding wall rock material is crucial. Because elastic and mechanical properties of faults and wallrocks are controlling factors in fault strength, earthquake generation and propagation, and slip stabilization, an understanding of these properties and their depth dependence is essential to understanding and accurately modeling earthquake rupture. In particular, quantitatively measured S-wave speeds, needed for estimation of elastic properties, are scarce in the literature. We report laboratory ultrasonic velocity measurements performed at elevated pressures, as well as the calculated dynamic elastic moduli, for samples of the rock surrounding the Tohoku earthquake principal fault zone recovered by drilling during IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). We performed measurements on five samples of gray mudstone from the hanging wall and one sample of underthrust brown mudstone from the footwall. We find P- and S-wave velocities of 2.0 to 2.4 km/s and 0.7 to 1.0 km/s, respectively, at 5 MPa effective pressure. At the same effective pressure, the hanging wall samples have shear moduli ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 GPa and the footwall sample has a shear modulus of 1.0 GPa. While these values are perhaps not surprising for shallow, clay-rich subduction zone sediments, they are substantially lower than the 30 GPa commonly assumed for rigidity in earthquake rupture and propagation models [e.g., Ide et al., 1993; Liu and Rice, 2005; Loveless and Meade, 2011]. In order to better understand the elastic properties of shallow subduction zone sediments, our measurements from the Japan Trench are compared to similar shallow drill core samples from the Nankai Trough, Costa Rica

  3. Effects of low pH stress on shell traits and proteomes of the dove snail, Anachis misera inhabiting shallow vent environments off Kueishan Islet, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Wu, J. Y.; Chen, C. T. A.; Liu, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of naturally acidified seawater on a snail species, Anachis misera (Family: Columbellidae) were quantified in five shallow vent-based environments off Kueishan Islet, Taiwan. An absence of Anachis snails was observed in the most acidic North site (pH 7.22), and the size structure differed among the remaining East, South, Southwest and Northwest sites. If a positive correlation between shell length and shell width or total weight existed, the coefficient of determination (R2) of the equations was low, i.e., 0.207-0.444. Snails from the Northwest site (pH 7.33) exhibited a more globular shape than those of the South ones (pH 7.80). Standardized shell thickness T1 (thickness of body whorl : shell length) and T2 (thickness of penultimate whorl : shell length) from the Northwest site showed a decrease of 6.3 and 9.4%, respectively, compared to the South ones. In a similar vein, based on the 16 examined protein spots, protein expression profiles of snails in the South were distinct. With further characterization by principle component analysis, the separation was mainly contributed by the first (i.e., spots 8, 1, 15, and 12) and second (i.e., spots 15, 13, 12, 1, and 11) principal-components. As a whole, the shallow vent-based findings provide new information from subtropics on the effects of ocean acidification on gastropod snails in natural environments.

  4. Tritium Fluxes through the Shallow Unsaturated Zone adjacent to a Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in an Arid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Pohll, G.

    2011-12-01

    Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented long-distance (>400-m) tritium (3H) transport adjacent to a commercial, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Transport at this scale is orders of magnitude greater than anticipated; however, lateral 3H fluxes through the shallow unsaturated zone (UZ) have not been investigated in detail. The objective of this study is to estimate and compare lateral and vertical tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) fluxes in the shallow UZ and their relation to the observed plume migration. Previous studies have recognized two distinct plumes of 3H emanating from the facility. Shallow (0.5 and 1.5-m depth) soil-water vapor samples were collected yearly along 400-m long transects through both plumes from 2003-09. Within the south plume, 3H concentrations at 1.5-m depth have decreased by 44 ± 0.3% during this period, and plume advancement there has effectively ceased (i.e., rate of advance equals rate of decay). During the same period, the west plume showed a net decrease in concentration of 34 ± 0.9% within 100-m of the facility; however, plume advancement is observed at the leading edge of the plume, and concentrations 200-300-m from the facility show an increase in 3H concentration of 64 ± 28.4%. Lateral and vertical diffusive fluxes within both plumes were calculated using 3HHOg concentrations from 2006. Lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes within both plumes have been estimated 25-300-m from the facility at 1.5-m depth. Mean lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes are 10-14 g m-2 yr-1 within the south plume, and 10-13 g m-2 yr-1 within the west plume. Mean lateral fluxes in the south plume are an order of magnitude lower than in the west plume. This behavior corresponds with the observed relative immobility of the south plume, while the elevated west plume fluxes agree with the plume advancement seen there. Shallow, upward directed, mean vertical 3HHOg fluxes 25-300-m from the

  5. Transpiration Driven Hydrologic Transport in vegetated shallow water environments: Implications on Diel and Seasonal Soil Biogeochemical Processes and System Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachand, P.; Bachand, S. M.; Fleck, J.; Anderson, F.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrology arguably plays the most important role in biogeochemical cycling of mercury in wetlands and other shallow aquatic systems. CFSTR, PFR and non-ideal reactor models are oftentimes currently used to hydrologically assess these systems and to account for the fate, transport and cycling of constituents of concern (COC) with systems assumed to be non-leaky and with diffusion dominating soil transport. Yet a number of results in the literature imply transpiration drives soil transport: transpiration into the root zone is in the range of 50 - 75% of ET seasonally; gaseous emissions from aquatic systems show a diel pattern that tracks diel ET patterns; in long detention time aquatic systems ET is the largest sink for applied surface waters; and non-reactive tracers when applied to surface waters can find themselves in the root zone and within plants. All these findings strongly suggest transpiration driven infiltration into the root zone, is a significant hydrologic pathway for constituents and is an important transport mechanism. This paper examines the annual water budget for four shallow aquatic land uses in the Yolo Bypass, California: rice, wild rice, fallowed fields and wetlands. Results indicate that differences in hydrology between the fields, particularly the temporal nature of transpiration, play a significant role in mercury transformations and transport. During the irrigation period, fallowed fields discharged 6 cm of surface water (15% applied water), rice fields 31 - 43 cm (27 - 31% applied water), and wild rice fields 16 - 39 cm (15 - 31% applied water). Evapotranspiration rates were in the range of 120 - 130 cm/y for all land uses (i.e. rice, wild rice, fallowed fields and seasonal wetlands) except for the permanent wetland which was about 1/3 higher at about 170 cm/y. During the summer, approximately 50% of the applied surface water was drawn into the root zone to meet transpiration demands. Based upon results from our water budget and utilizing

  6. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and Maximum Signal Depth (Z90_max) for Monitoring the Evolution of Sediment Resuspension Process in Shallow Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipponi, Federico; Zucca, Francesco; Taramelli, Andrea; Valentini, Emiliana

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring sediment fluxes patterns in coastal area, like dispersion, sedimentation and resuspension processes, is a relevant topic for scientists, decision makers and natural resources management. Time series analysis of Earth Observation (EO) data may contribute to the understanding and the monitoring of processes in sedimentary depositional marine environment, especially for shallow coastal areas. This research study show the ability of optical medium resolution imagery to interpret the evolution of sediment resuspension from seafloor in coastal areas during intense wind forcings. Intense bora wind events in northern Adriatic Sea basin during winter season provoke considerable wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product has been selected as proxy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of resuspended sediments. In addition, maximum signal depth (Z90_max), has been used to evaluate the evolution of sediment concentration in the water column.

  7. Dynamics of soundscape in a shallow water marine environment: a study of the habitat of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shane; Lin, Tzu-Hao; Chou, Lien-Siang; Vignola, Joseph; Judge, John; Turo, Diego

    2015-05-01

    The underwater acoustic field is an important ecological element for many aquatic animals. This research examines the soundscape of a critically endangered Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population in the shallow water environment off the west coast of Taiwan. Underwater acoustic recordings were conducted between late spring and late fall in 2012 at Yunlin (YL), which is close to a shipping lane, and Waisanding (WS), which is relatively pristine. Site-specific analyses were performed on the dynamics of the temporal and spectral acoustic characteristics for both locations. The results highlight the dynamics of the soundscape in two major octave bands: 150-300 Hz and 1.2-2.4 kHz. The acoustic energy in the former frequency band is mainly associated with passing container vessels near YL, while the latter frequency band is from sonic fish chorus at nighttime in both recording sites. In addition, large variation of low frequency acoustic energy throughout the study period was noticed at WS, where the water depths ranged between 1.5 and 4.5 m depending on tidal cycle. This phenomenon suggests that besides certain sound sources in the environment, the coastal soundscape may also be influenced by its local bathymetry and the dynamics of the physical environment.

  8. Origins of chromite and magnetite in sedimentary rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Itoh, S.; Yurimoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    *Otake, T. totake@eng.hokudai.ac.jp Div. of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Sakamoto, Y. yu.sakamoto12@gmail.com Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Itoh, S. sitoh@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Yurimoto. H. yuri@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp Dep. of Natural History Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan Kakegawa, T. kakegawa@m.tohoku.ac.jp Dep. of Earth Science, Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan Geochemical data from ferruginous chemical sedimentary rocks (e.g., Banded Iron Formation: BIF) have been used to reconstruct the surface environments of early Earth. However, only a few studies have investigated the geochemical characteristics of BIFs deposited in a shallow water environment during the Archean, which may have differed from those deposited in a deep water environment. Therefore, we investigated geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics of ferruginous rocks deposited in a shallow water environment in the Moodies group, in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We obtained ferruginous rock samples in the Moodies group from both an outcrop and underground gold mine, and compared the characteristics of these samples. The 70 sedimentary rock samples were divided into groups based on the dominant Fe minerals they contain: Hematite-rich jaspilite (HM group), Magnetite-rich iron formation/shale/sandstone (MT group), and Siderite-rich sandstone (SD group). Samples in the HM group are predominantly composed of fine-grained quartz (< 20 μm) and hematite (< 5 μm), which are interpreted to be chemical precipitates. Samples in the MT group contain quartz, magnetite, siderite, ankerite, chlorite, biotite and chromite. The grain size of magnetite is much larger (20-150 μm) than that of hematite in the HM group. The magnetite is interpreted as a secondary mineral transformed from hematite during early diagenesis. Results of in situ oxygen isotope analysis by

  9. Sedimentary hydrocarbons and sterols in a South Atlantic estuarine/shallow continental shelf transitional environment under oil terminal and grain port influences.

    PubMed

    Bet, Rafael; Bícego, Marcia C; Martins, César C

    2015-06-15

    Sterols and hydrocarbons were determined in the surface sediments from the transitional environment between Paranaguá Bay and the shallow continental shelf in the South Atlantic to assess the sources of organic matter (OM) and the contamination status of an area exposed to multiple anthropogenic inputs. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were less than 10μgg(-1), which is typical of unpolluted sediments, and related to recent inputs from higher terrestrial plants. Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ranged from

  10. Exploration of resistive targets within shallow marine environments using the circular electrical dipole and the differential electrical dipole methods: a time-domain modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroon, Amir; Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Bergers, Rainer; Tezkan, Bülent

    2016-05-01

    Two novel transient controlled source electromagnetic methods called circular electrical dipole (CED) and differential electrical dipole (DED) are theoretically analysed for applications in shallow marine environments. 1-D and 3-D time-domain modelling studies are used to investigate the detectability and applicability of the methods when investigating resistive layers/targets representing hydrocarbon-saturated formations. The results are compared to the conventional time-domain horizontal electrical dipole (HED) and vertical electrical dipole (VED) sources. The applied theoretical modelling studies demonstrate that CED and DED have higher signal detectability towards resistive targets compared to TD-CSEM, but demonstrate significantly poorer signal amplitudes. Future CED/DED applications will have to solve this issue prior to measuring. Furthermore, the two novel methods have very similar detectability characteristics towards 3-D resistive targets embedded in marine sediments as VED while being less susceptible towards non-verticality. Due to the complex transmitter design of CED/DED the systems are prone to geometrical errors. Modelling studies show that even small transmitter inaccuracies have strong effects on the signal characteristics of CED making an actual marine application difficult at the present time. In contrast, the DED signal is less affected by geometrical errors in comparison to CED and may therefore be more adequate for marine applications.

  11. Microbialites in the shallow-water marine environments of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian biotic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakociński, Michał; Racki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Microbial carbonates, consisting of abundant girvanellid oncoids, are described from cephalopod-crinoid and crinoid-brachiopod coquinas (rudstones) occurring in the lowermost Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. A Girvanella-bearing horizon (consist with numerous girvanellid oncoids) has been recognised at the Psie Górki section, and represents the northern slope succession of the drowned Dyminy Reef. This occurrence of microbialites in the aftermath of the Frasnian-Famennian event is interpreted as the result of opportunistic cyanobacteria blooms, which, as 'disaster forms', colonised empty shallow-water ecological niches during the survival phase following the Frasnian metazoan reef collapse, due to collapsed activity of epifaunal, grazing, and/or burrowing animals. The anachronistic lithofacies at Psie Górki is linked with catastrophic mass mortality of the cephalopod and crinoid-brachiopod communities during the heavy storm events. This mass occurrence of girvanellid oncoids, along with Frutexites-like microbial shrubs and, at least partly, common micritisation of some skeletal grains, records an overall increase in microbial activity in eutrophic normal marine environments. Microbial communities in the Holy Cross Mountains are not very diverse, being mainly represented by girvanellid oncoids, and stand in contrast to the very rich microbial communities known from the Guilin area (China), Canning Basin (Australia) and the Timan-northern Ural area (Russia). The association from Poland is similar to more diverse microbial communities represented by oncoids, trombolites and stromatolites, well known from the Canadian Alberta basin.

  12. Distinct Contributions of Ice Nucleation, Large-Scale Environment, and Shallow Cumulus Detrainment to Cloud Phase Partitioning With NCAR CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Damao; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhien

    2018-01-01

    Mixed-phase clouds containing both liquid droplets and ice particles occur frequently at high latitudes and in the midlatitude storm track regions. Simulations of the cloud phase partitioning between liquid and ice hydrometeors in state-of-the-art global climate models are still associated with large biases. In this study, the phase partitioning in terms of liquid mass phase ratio (MPRliq, defined as the ratio of liquid mass to total condensed water mass) simulated from the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) is evaluated against the observational data from A-Train satellite remote sensors. Modeled MPRliq is significantly lower than observations on the global scale, especially in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g., Southern Ocean and the Antarctic). Sensitivity tests with CAM5 are conducted to investigate the distinct contributions of heterogeneous ice nucleation, shallow cumulus detrainment, and large-scale environment (e.g., winds, temperature, and water vapor) to the low MPRliq biases. Our results show that an aerosol-aware ice nucleation parameterization increases the MPRliq especially at temperatures colder than -20°C and significantly improves the model agreements with observations in the Polar regions in summer. The decrease of threshold temperature over which all detrained cloud water is liquid from 268 to 253 K enhances the MPRliq and improves the MPRliq mostly over the Southern Ocean. By constraining water vapor in CAM5 toward reanalysis, modeled low biases in many geographical regions are largely reduced through a significant decrease of cloud ice mass mixing ratio.

  13. High resolution shallow geologic characterization of a late Pleistocene eolian environment using ground penetrating radar and optically stimulated luminescence techniques: North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Mahan, S.; Moore, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical surveys, sedimentology, and optically-stimulated luminescence age analyses were used to assess the geologic development of a coastal system near Swansboro, NC. This area is a significant Woodland Period Native American habitation and is designated the "Broad Reach" archaeological site. 2-d and 3-d subsurface geophysical surveys were performed using a ground penetrating radar system to define the stratigraphic framework and depositional facies. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for grain-size to determine depositional environments. Samples were acquired and analyzed using optically stimulated luminescence techniques to derive the depositional age of the various features. The data support a low eolian to shallow subtidal coastal depositional setting for this area. Li-DAR data reveal ridge and swale topography, most likely related to beach ridges, and eolian features including low-relief, low-angle transverse and parabolic dunes, blowouts, and a low-relief eolian sand sheet. Geophysical data reveal dominantly seaward dipping units, and low-angle mounded features. Sedimentological data reveal mostly moderately-well to well-sorted fine-grained symmetrical to coarse skewed sands, suggesting initial aqueous transport and deposition, followed by eolian reworking and bioturbation. OSL data indicate initial coastal deposition prior to ca. 45,000 yBP, followed by eolian reworking and low dune stabilization at ca. 13,000 to 11,500 yBP, and again at ca. 10,000 yBP (during, and slightly after the Younger Dryas chronozone).

  14. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83. McGee S. Respiratory rate and ...

  15. Distinct Contributions of Ice Nucleation, Large-Scale Environment, and Shallow Cumulus Detrainment to Cloud Phase Partitioning With NCAR CAM5

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Damao; Liu, Xiaohong; ...

    2018-01-06

    Mixed-phase clouds containing both liquid droplets and ice particles occur frequently at high latitudes and in the midlatitude storm track regions. Simulations of the cloud phase partitioning between liquid and ice hydrometeors in state-of-the-art global climate models are still associated with large biases. For this study, the phase partitioning in terms of liquid mass phase ratio (MPR liq, defined as the ratio of liquid mass to total condensed water mass) simulated from the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) is evaluated against the observational data from A-Train satellite remote sensors. Modeled MPR liq is significantly lower than observations onmore » the global scale, especially in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g., Southern Ocean and the Antarctic). Sensitivity tests with CAM5 are conducted to investigate the distinct contributions of heterogeneous ice nucleation, shallow cumulus detrainment, and large-scale environment (e.g., winds, temperature, and water vapor) to the low MPR liq biases. Our results show that an aerosol-aware ice nucleation parameterization increases the MPR liq especially at temperatures colder than -20°C and significantly improves the model agreements with observations in the Polar regions in summer. The decrease of threshold temperature over which all detrained cloud water is liquid from 268 to 253 K enhances the MPR liq and improves the MPR liq mostly over the Southern Ocean. By constraining water vapor in CAM5 toward reanalysis, modeled low biases in many geographical regions are largely reduced through a significant decrease of cloud ice mass mixing ratio.« less

  16. Distinct Contributions of Ice Nucleation, Large-Scale Environment, and Shallow Cumulus Detrainment to Cloud Phase Partitioning With NCAR CAM5

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Damao; Liu, Xiaohong

    Mixed-phase clouds containing both liquid droplets and ice particles occur frequently at high latitudes and in the midlatitude storm track regions. Simulations of the cloud phase partitioning between liquid and ice hydrometeors in state-of-the-art global climate models are still associated with large biases. For this study, the phase partitioning in terms of liquid mass phase ratio (MPR liq, defined as the ratio of liquid mass to total condensed water mass) simulated from the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) is evaluated against the observational data from A-Train satellite remote sensors. Modeled MPR liq is significantly lower than observations onmore » the global scale, especially in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g., Southern Ocean and the Antarctic). Sensitivity tests with CAM5 are conducted to investigate the distinct contributions of heterogeneous ice nucleation, shallow cumulus detrainment, and large-scale environment (e.g., winds, temperature, and water vapor) to the low MPR liq biases. Our results show that an aerosol-aware ice nucleation parameterization increases the MPR liq especially at temperatures colder than -20°C and significantly improves the model agreements with observations in the Polar regions in summer. The decrease of threshold temperature over which all detrained cloud water is liquid from 268 to 253 K enhances the MPR liq and improves the MPR liq mostly over the Southern Ocean. By constraining water vapor in CAM5 toward reanalysis, modeled low biases in many geographical regions are largely reduced through a significant decrease of cloud ice mass mixing ratio.« less

  17. Risk assessment of trace metals in an extreme environment sediment: shallow, hypersaline, alkaline, and industrial Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Budakoglu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Kumral, Mustafa; Zeytuncu, Bihter; Doner, Zeynep; Yildirim, Demet Kiran; Taşdelen, Suat; Bülbül, Ali; Gumus, Lokman

    2018-02-23

    The major and trace element component of 48 recent sediment samples in three distinct intervals (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) from Lake Acıgöl is described to present the current contamination levels and grift structure of detrital and evaporate mineral patterns of these sediments in this extreme saline environment. The spatial and vertical concentrations of major oxides were not uniform in the each subsurface interval. However, similar spatial distribution patterns were observed for some major element couples, due mainly to the detrital and evaporate origin of these elements. A sequential extraction procedure including five distinct steps was also performed to determine the different bonds of trace elements in the < 60-μ particulate size of recent sediments. Eleven trace elements (Ni, Fe, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Co, Cr, Al and Mn) in nine surface and subsurface sediment samples were analyzed with chemical partitioning procedures to determine the trace element percentage loads in these different sequential extraction phases. The obtained accuracy values via comparison of the bulk trace metal loads with the total loads of five extraction steps were satisfying for the Ni, Fe, Cd, Zn, and Co. While, bulk analysis results of the Cu, Ni, and V elements have good correlation with total organic matter, organic fraction of sequential extraction characterized by Cu, As, Cd, and Pb. Shallow Lake Acıgöl sediment is characteristic with two different redox layer a) oxic upper level sediments, where trace metals are mobilized, b) reduced subsurface level, where the trace metals are precipitated.

  18. Late Quaternary Faulting in Southeastern Louisiana: A Natural Laboratory for Understanding Shallow Faulting in Deltaic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawers, N. H.; McLindon, C.

    2017-12-01

    A synthesis of late Quaternary faults within the Mississippi River deltaic plain aims to provide a more accurate assessment of regional and local fault architecture, and interactions between faulting, sediment loading, salt withdrawal and compaction. This effort was initiated by the New Orleans Geological Society and has resulted in access to industry 3d seismic reflection data, as well as fault trace maps, and various types of well data and biostratigraphy. An unexpected outgrowth of this project is a hypothesis that gravity-driven normal faults in deltaic settings may be good candidates for shallow aseismic and slow-slip phenomena. The late Quaternary fault population is characterized by several large, highly segmented normal fault arrays: the Baton Rouge-Tepetate fault zone, the Lake Pontchartrain-Lake Borgne fault zone, the Golden Meadow fault zone (GMFZ), and a major counter-regional salt withdrawal structure (the Bay Marchand-Timbalier Bay-Caillou Island salt complex and West Delta fault zone) that lies just offshore of southeastern Louisiana. In comparison to the other, more northerly fault zones, the GMFZ is still significantly salt-involved. Salt structures segment the GMFZ with fault tips ending near or within salt, resulting in highly localized fault and compaction related subsidence separated by shallow salt structures, which are inherently buoyant and virtually incompressible. At least several segments within the GMFZ are characterized by marsh breaks that formed aseismically over timescales of days to months, such as near Adams Bay and Lake Enfermer. One well-documented surface rupture adjacent to a salt dome propagated over a 3 day period in 1943. We suggest that Louisiana's coastal faults make excellent analogues for deltaic faults in general, and propose that a series of positive feedbacks keep them active in the near surface. These include differential sediment loading and compaction, weak fault zone materials, high fluid pressure, low elastic

  19. Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: Models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.

  20. Shallow-Water Reverberation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    Shallow- Water Reverberation J. X. Zhou School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 phone: (404) 894...6793 fax: (404) 894-7790 e-mail: jixun.zhou@me.gatech.edu Award Number: N00014-97-1-0170 Thrust Category: Shallow- Water Acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS...The long-term goals of this work are: to develop a theoretical model for predicting the reverberation in shallow water , to derive both small-angle

  1. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminifera shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-04-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. So far, most data on thermal tolerance of marine calcifiers have been obtained by manipulative laboratory experiments. Such experiments provide valuable physiological data, but it remains unclear to what degree these observations apply to natural ecosystems. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on ecosystem-relevant scales is by investigation of heat-polluted coastal areas. Here we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to temperature elevated by 6˚ C above the natural seasonal temperature range and reaching up to ˜42˚ C in summer. Several species of benthic foraminifera have been previously shown to persist throughout the year in the heat-polluted area, allowing us to examine in natural conditions the thermal limits of growth and calcification under extreme temperatures as they are expected to prevail in the future. Live specimens of two known heat tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of one year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation and the Mg/Ca of the last chambers (grown closest to the time of collection) were used to calculate calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist extreme warm temperatures but continue to grow and calcify. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40˚ C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36˚ C. Instead, both species

  2. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

    PubMed

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance.

  3. Disturbance of Shallow Marine Soft-Bottom Environments and Megabenthos Assemblages by a Huge Tsunami Induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Koji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kogure, Yukihisa

    2013-01-01

    Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays) in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010) and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012). During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae) and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae) disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae) remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae) and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae), varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance. PMID:23762365

  4. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  5. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  6. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Vegetated shallows. 230.43 Section 230.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  7. δ44/40Ca variability in shallow water carbonates and the impact of submarine groundwater discharge on Ca-cycling in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Blanchon, P.; Evans, S.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow water carbonates from Florida Bay, the Florida Reef Tract, and a Mexican Caribbean fringing reef at Punta Maroma were studied to determine the range of Ca-isotope variation among a cohort of modern carbonate producers and to look for local-scale Ca-cycling effects. The total range of Ca-isotope fractionation is 0.4‰ at Punta Maroma, yielding an allochem-weighted average δ44/40Ca value of -1.12‰ consistent with bulk sediment from the lagoon with a value of -1.09‰. These values are virtually identical to bulk carbonate sediments from the Florida Reef Tract (-1.11‰) and from one location in Florida Bay (-1.09‰) near a tidal inlet in the Florida Keys. No evidence was found for the ∼0.6‰ fractionation between calcite and aragonite which has been observed in laboratory precipitation experiments. Combining these results with carbonate production modes and δ44/40Ca values for pelagic carbonates taken from the literature, we calculate a weighted average value of -1.12 ± 0.11‰ (2σ) for the global-scale Ca-output flux into carbonate sediments. The δ44/40Ca value of the input Ca-flux from rivers and hydrothermal fluids is -1.01 ± 0.04‰ (2σmean), calculated from literature data that have been corrected for inter-laboratory bias. Assuming that the ocean Ca cycle is in steady state, we calculate a δ44/40Ca value of -1.23 ± 0.23‰ (2σ) for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on a global scale. The SGD Ca-flux rivals river flows and mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vent inputs as a source of Ca to the oceans. It has the potential to differ significantly in its isotopic value from these traditional Ca-inputs in the geological past, and to cause small changes in the δ44/40Ca value of oceans through time. In the innermost water circulation restricted region of northeastern Florida Bay, sediments and waters exhibit a 0.7‰ gradient in δ44/40Ca values decreasing towards the Florida Everglades. This lowering of δ44/40Ca is predominantly caused by

  8. Impact of saline aquifer water on surface and shallow pit corrosion of martensitic stainless steels during exposure to CO2 environment (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfennig, Anja; Kranzmann, Axel

    2018-05-01

    Pipe steels suitable for carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) require resistance against the corrosive environment of a potential CCS-site, e.g. heat, pressure, salinity of the aquifer, CO2-partial pressure. Samples of different mild and high alloyed stainless injection-pipe steels partially heat treated: 42CrMo4, X20Cr13, X46Cr13, X35CrMo4 as well as X5CrNiCuNb16-4 were kept at T=60 °C and ambient pressure as well as p=100 bar for 700 h - 8000 h in a CO2-saturated synthetic aquifer environment similar to possible geological on-shore CCS-sites in the northern German Basin. Main corrosion products are FeCO3 and FeOOH. Corrosion rates obtained at 100 bar are generally much lower than those measured at ambient pressure. Highest surface corrosion rates are 0.8 mm/year for 42CrMo4 and lowest 0.01 mm/year for X5CrNiCuNb16-4 in the vapour phase at ambient pressure. At 100 bar the highest corrosion rates are 0.01 mm/year for 42CrMo4, X20Cr13 (liquid phase), X46Cr13 and less than 0.01 mm/year for X35CrMo4 and X5CrNiCuNb16-4 after 8000 h of exposure with no regard to atmosphere. Martensitic microstructure offers good corrosion resistance.

  9. Modelling the dispersion of treated wastewater in a shallow coastal wind-driven environment, Geographe Bay, Western Australia: implications for environmental management.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ryan J K; Zigic, Sasha; Shiell, Glenn R

    2014-10-01

    Numerical models are useful for predicting the transport and fate of contaminants in dynamic marine environments, and are increasingly a practical solution to environmental impact assessments. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and field data were used to validate a far-field dispersion model that, in turn, was used to determine the fate of treated wastewater (TWW) discharged to the ocean via a submarine ocean outfall under hypothetical TWW flows. The models were validated with respect to bottom and surface water current speed and direction, and in situ measurements of total nitrogen and faecal coliforms. Variations in surface and bottom currents were accurately predicted by the model as were nutrient and coliform concentrations. Results indicated that the ocean circulation was predominately wind driven, evidenced by relatively small oscillations in the current speeds along the time-scale of the tide, and that dilution mixing zones were orientated in a predominantly north-eastern direction from the outfall and parallel to the coastline. Outputs of the model were used to determine the 'footprint' of the TWW plume under a differing discharge scenario and, particularly, whether the resultant changes in TWW contaminants, total nitrogen and faecal coliforms would meet local environmental quality objectives (EQO) for ecosystem integrity, shellfish harvesting and primary recreation. Modelling provided a practical solution for predicting the dilution of contaminants under a hypothetical discharge scenario and a means for determining the aerial extent of exclusion zones, where the EQOs for shellfish harvesting and primary recreation may not always be met. Results of this study add to the understanding of regional discharge conditions and provide a practical case study for managing impacts to marine environments under a differing TWW discharge scenario, in comparison to an existing scenario.

  10. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow- Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...shallow water over mud sediments and of acoustic detection, localization, and classification of objects buried in mud. OBJECTIVES • Develop...including long-range conveyance of information; detection, localization, and classification of objects buried in mud; and improvement of shallow water

  11. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electromagnetics for Detecting Shallow Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, I.

    2006-05-01

    Detecting tunnels by geophysical means, even very shallow ones, has been difficult, to say the least. Despite heavy R&D funding from the military since the early 70s, geophysicists have not produced tools that are simple and practical enough to meet the military needs. The initial interest and R&D funding on the subject perhaps started with the Vietcong tunnels in the 60s. Tunnels in the Korean DMZ, first found in the mid 70s, sharply escalated the R&D spending. During the 90s, covert tunnels along the US-Mexico border have kept the topic alive but at a minimal funding level. Most recent interest appears to be in the terrorism-related shallow tunnels, more or less anywhere in the regions of conflict. Despite the longstanding effort in the geophysical community under heavy public funding, there is a dearth of success stories where geophysicists can actually claim to have found hitherto unknown tunnels. For instance, geophysics has not discovered a single tunnel in Vietnam or in Korea! All tunnels across the Korean DMZ were found from human intelligence. The same is true to all illicit tunnels found along the southwestern border. The tunnels under discussion are clandestine, which implies that the people who built them do not wish others to succeed in finding them. The place around the tunnel, therefore, may not be the friendliest venue for surveyors to linger around. The situation requires tools that are fast, little noticeable, and hardly intrusive. Many geophysical sensors that require ground contacts, such as geophones and electrodes that are connected by a myriad of cables, may not be ideal in this situation. On the other hand, a sensor that can be carried by vehicle without stopping, and is nothing obviously noticeable to bystanders, could be much more acceptable. Working at unfriendly environment also requires forgoing our usual practices where we collect data leisurely and make pretty maps later. To be useful, geophysical tools must be able to process

  13. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  14. Geochemistry of metal-rich brines from central Mississippi Salt Dome basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Maest, A.S.; Carothers, W.W.; Law, L.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Fries, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field brines are the most favored ore-forming solutions for the sediment-hosted Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Detailed inorganic and organic chemical and isotope analyses of water and gas samples from six oil fields in central Mississippi, one of the very few areas with high metal brines, were conducted to study the inorganic and organic complexes responsible for the high concentrations of these metals. The samples were obtained from production zones consisting of sandstone and limestone that range in depth from 1900 to 4000 m (70-120??C) and in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. Results show that the waters are dominantly bittern brines related to the Louann Salt. The brines have extremely high salinities that range from 160,000 to 320,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and are NaCaCl-type waters with very high concentrations of Ca (up to 48,000 mg/l) and other alkaline-earth metals, but with low concentrations of aliphatic acid anions. The concentrations of metals in many water samples are very high, reaching values of 70 mg/l for Pb, 245 mg/l for Zn, 465 mg/l for Fe and 210 mg/l for Mn. The samples with high metal contents have extremely low concentrations (<0.02 mg/l) of H2S. Samples obtained from the Smackover Formation (limestone) have low metal contents that are more typical of oil-field waters, but have very high concentrations (up to 85 mg/l) of H2S. Computations with the geochemical code SOLMINEQ.87 give the following results: (1) both Pb and Zn are present predominantly as aqueous chloride complexes (mainly as PbCl42- and ZnCl42-, respectively); (2) the concentrations of metals complexed with short-chained aliphatic acid anions and reduced S species are minor; (3) organic acid anions are important in controlling the concentrations of metals because they affect the pH and buffer capacity of the waters at subsurface conditions; and (4) galena and sphalerite solubilities control the concentrations of Pb and Zn in these waters. ?? 1988.

  15. A SHALLOW WATER ISOBARIC BUOY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The genesis, development, and testing of an instrument for following currents in shallow waters is described. The volume of the ’shallow water ...isobaric buoy’ (SWIB) varies in response to pressure signals derived from the depth of the water in which the instrument floats. Mechanisms for auto...indicate the feasibility of the system. The instrument can hover in a relatively restricted horizontal layer. The instrument may find application as a water stability indicator as well as a shallow water current tag. (Author)

  16. Reusable Reinforcement Learning via Shallow Trails.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Chen, Shi-Yong; Da, Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Reinforcement learning has shown great success in helping learning agents accomplish tasks autonomously from environment interactions. Meanwhile in many real-world applications, an agent needs to accomplish not only a fixed task but also a range of tasks. For this goal, an agent can learn a metapolicy over a set of training tasks that are drawn from an underlying distribution. By maximizing the total reward summed over all the training tasks, the metapolicy can then be reused in accomplishing test tasks from the same distribution. However, in practice, we face two major obstacles to train and reuse metapolicies well. First, how to identify tasks that are unrelated or even opposite with each other, in order to avoid their mutual interference in the training. Second, how to characterize task features, according to which a metapolicy can be reused. In this paper, we propose the MetA-Policy LEarning (MAPLE) approach that overcomes the two difficulties by introducing the shallow trail. It probes a task by running a roughly trained policy. Using the rewards of the shallow trail, MAPLE automatically groups similar tasks. Moreover, when the task parameters are unknown, the rewards of the shallow trail also serve as task features. Empirical studies on several controlling tasks verify that MAPLE can train metapolicies well and receives high reward on test tasks.

  17. Shallow End Response from ATEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Different geological, hydrological, environmental and engineering targets are located shallow underground. The information collected with ATEM systems might be very useful for their study; although there are many deeper targets that the ATEM systems are traditionally used for. The idea to raise magnetic moment output and get deeper penetration response was one of the goals of ATEM systems development during the last decade. The shallow geology response was a trade for such systems, which sometimes were almost blind in the first hundred meter under surface. The possibility to achieve shallow end response from ATEM systems has become significant subject in last years. Several airborne TDEM systems got second higher frequency and lower magnetic moment signal to pick up shallow response together with deep one. Having a potential advantage such implementation raises complication and cost of the system. There's no need to receive 500 meter deep response when exploring shallow geology. P-THEM system having a compact size transmitter and relatively light weight is working on one base frequency at a time, but this frequency can be preset before a flight considering survey goals. A study of shallow geology response of the P-THEM system working on different base frequency has been conducted in 2014 in Ontario. The Alliston test area located in Southern Ontario has been flown with the P-THEM system working on base frequencies 30Hz and 90Hz. Results of the observations will be discussed in the presentation. The shallow end data can be used for mineral exploration applications and also for hydrological and environmental studies.

  18. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water with Elastic Bottom Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Range-Dependent Acoustic Propagation in Shallow Water ...theory is inadequate for properly describing loss in shallow water acoustic propagation. Finally there is range dependence, which can be significant in...work will lead to a practical method to investigate seismo- acoustic propagation in shallow - water environments, and allow us to compare and contrast

  19. Isotopic evidence for oxygenated Mesoarchaean shallow oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, Benjamin; Hofmann, Axel; Wille, Martin; Bui, Thi Hao; Wing, Boswell A.; Schoenberg, Ronny

    2018-02-01

    Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) in Archaean sediments results from photochemical processing of atmospheric sulfur species in an oxygen-depleted atmosphere. Geological preservation of MIF-S provides evidence for microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) in low-sulfate Paleoarchaean (3.8-3.2 billion years ago (Ga)) and Neoarchaean (2.8-2.5 Ga) oceans, but the significance of MSR in Mesoarchaean (3.2-2.8 Ga) oceans is less clear. Here we present multiple sulfur and iron isotope data of early diagenetic pyrites from 2.97-Gyr-old stromatolitic dolomites deposited in a tidal flat environment of the Nsuze Group, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We identified consistently negative Δ33S values in pyrite, which indicates photochemical reactions under anoxic atmospheric conditions, but large mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionations of 30‰ in δ34S, identifying active MSR. Negative pyrite δ56Fe values (-1.31 to -0.88‰) record Fe oxidation in oxygen-bearing shallow oceans coupled with biogenic Fe reduction during diagenesis, consistent with the onset of local Fe cycling in oxygen oases 3.0 Ga. We therefore suggest the presence of oxygenated near-shore shallow-marine environments with ≥5 μM sulfate at this time, in spite of the clear presence of an overall reduced Mesoarchaean atmosphere.

  20. SHALLOW GROUNDWATER USE BY ALFALFA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One proposal for drainage water disposal is to reuse drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant crops until the volume has been reduced sufficiently to enable final disposal by evaporation. Part of this concept of serial biological concentration requires in-situ crop water reuse from shallow gr...

  1. Characterization of irradiation induced deep and shallow impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Krammer, Manfred; Valentan, Manfred

    2013-12-01

    Silicon Detectors close to the interaction point of the High Luminosity Large Hardron Collider (HL-LHC) have to withstand a harsh irradiation environment. In order to evaluate the behaviour of shallow and deep defects, induced by neutron irradiation, spreading resistance resistivity measurements and capacitance voltage measurements have been performed. These measurements, deliver information about the profile of shallow impurities after irradiation as well as indications of deep defects in the Space Charge Region (SCR) and the Electrical Neutral Bulk (ENB). By considering the theoretical background of the measurement both kinds of defects can be investigated independently from each other.

  2. Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-18

    basically the same experimental set up (Fig. 2-1) as the BBS experiments that form the basis of the shallow-water portion of this report1. Their dates...6 experiments in 5 distinct environments from 1993 to 2005. This report presents the BBS results from these experiments , as well as empirical fits...Test Operations…………………………………………………………..50 B Measured Bottom Backscattering Strengths…………………...……..50 7 CROSS- EXPERIMENT EPL-FIT VALUES (SHALLOW

  3. Shallow cells in directional solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, G. J.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    The existing theory on two-dimensional transitions (appropriate to thin parallel-plate geometries) is presented in such a way that it is possible to identify easily conditions for the onset of shallow cells. Conditions are given under which succinonitrile-acetone mixtures should undergo supercritical bifurcation in experimentally accessible ranges. These results suggest a means for the quantitative test of the Mullins and Sekerka (1964) model and its weakly nonlinear extensions.

  4. Comparison of Shallow Survey 2012 Multibeam Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Shallow Survey common dataset is a comparison of the different technologies utilized for data acquisition in the shallow survey marine environment. The common dataset consists of a series of surveys conducted over a common area of seabed using a variety of systems. It provides equipment manufacturers the opportunity to showcase their latest systems while giving hydrographic researchers and scientists a chance to test their latest algorithms on the dataset so that rigorous comparisons can be made. Five companies collected data for the Common Dataset in the Wellington Harbor area in New Zealand between May 2010 and May 2011; including Kongsberg, Reson, R2Sonic, GeoAcoustics, and Applied Acoustics. The Wellington harbor and surrounding coastal area was selected since it has a number of well-defined features, including the HMNZS South Seas and HMNZS Wellington wrecks, an armored seawall constructed of Tetrapods and Akmons, aquifers, wharves and marinas. The seabed inside the harbor basin is largely fine-grained sediment, with gravel and reefs around the coast. The area outside the harbor on the southern coast is an active environment, with moving sand and exposed reefs. A marine reserve is also in this area. For consistency between datasets, the coastal research vessel R/V Ikatere and crew were used for all surveys conducted for the common dataset. Using Triton's Perspective processing software multibeam datasets collected for the Shallow Survey were processed for detail analysis. Datasets from each sonar manufacturer were processed using the CUBE algorithm developed by the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center (CCOM/JHC). Each dataset was gridded at 0.5 and 1.0 meter resolutions for cross comparison and compliance with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) requirements. Detailed comparisons were made of equipment specifications (transmit frequency, number of beams, beam width), data density, total uncertainty, and

  5. Refining the shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Milliner, Christopher W. D.; Dolan, James F.; Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sebastien; Ayoub, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Geodetic slip inversions for three major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah) show a 15-60 per cent reduction in slip near the surface (depth < 2 km) relative to the slip at deeper depths (4-6 km). This significant difference between surface coseismic slip and slip at depth has been termed the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions lack data coverage close to surface rupture such that the shallow portions of the slip models are poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study, we improve the static coseismic slip inversion for these three earthquakes, especially at shallow depths, by: (1) including data capturing the near-fault deformation from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; (2) refining the interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU (Statistical Non-linear Approach for Phase Unwrapping) assuming a maximum discontinuity and an on-fault correlation mask; (3) using more detailed, geologically constrained fault geometries and (4) incorporating additional campaign global positioning system (GPS) data. The refined slip models result in much smaller SSDs of 3-19 per cent. We suspect that the remaining minor SSD for these earthquakes likely reflects a combination of our elastic model's inability to fully account for near-surface deformation, which will render our estimates of shallow slip minima, and potentially small amounts of interseismic fault creep or triggered slip, which could `make up' a small percentages of the coseismic SSD during the interseismic period. Our results indicate that it is imperative that slip inversions include

  6. From Offshore to Onshore: Multiple Origins of Shallow-Water Corals from Deep-Sea Ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D.; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow-water tropical reefs and the deep sea represent the two most diverse marine environments. Understanding the origin and diversification of this biodiversity is a major quest in ecology and evolution. The most prominent and well-supported explanation, articulated since the first explorations of the deep sea, holds that benthic marine fauna originated in shallow, onshore environments, and diversified into deeper waters. In contrast, evidence that groups of marine organisms originated in the deep sea is limited, and the possibility that deep-water taxa have contributed to the formation of shallow-water communities remains untested with phylogenetic methods. Here we show that stylasterid corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae)—the second most diverse group of hard corals—originated and diversified extensively in the deep sea, and subsequently invaded shallow waters. Our phylogenetic results show that deep-water stylasterid corals have invaded the shallow-water tropics three times, with one additional invasion of the shallow-water temperate zone. Our results also show that anti-predatory innovations arose in the deep sea, but were not involved in the shallow-water invasions. These findings are the first robust evidence that an important group of tropical shallow-water marine animals evolved from deep-water ancestors. PMID:18560569

  7. Photosymbiosis and the expansion of shallow-water corals

    PubMed Central

    Frankowiak, Katarzyna; Wang, Xingchen T.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Mazur, Maciej; Meibom, Anders; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Roughly 240 million years ago (Ma), scleractinian corals rapidly expanded and diversified across shallow marine environments. The main driver behind this evolution is uncertain, but the ecological success of modern reef-building corals is attributed to their nutritional symbiosis with photosynthesizing dinoflagellate algae. We show that a suite of exceptionally preserved Late Triassic (ca. 212 Ma) coral skeletons from Antalya (Turkey) have microstructures, carbonate 13C/12C and 18O/16O, and intracrystalline skeletal organic matter 15N/14N all indicating symbiosis. This includes species with growth forms conventionally considered asymbiotic. The nitrogen isotopes further suggest that their Tethys Sea habitat was a nutrient-poor, low-productivity marine environment in which photosymbiosis would be highly advantageous. Thus, coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis was likely a key driver in the evolution and expansion of shallow-water scleractinians. PMID:27847868

  8. Rogue waves in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, T.

    2010-07-01

    Most of the processes resulting in the formation of unexpectedly high surface waves in deep water (such as dispersive and geometrical focusing, interactions with currents and internal waves, reflection from caustic areas, etc.) are active also in shallow areas. Only the mechanism of modulational instability is not active in finite depth conditions. Instead, wave amplification along certain coastal profiles and the drastic dependence of the run-up height on the incident wave shape may substantially contribute to the formation of rogue waves in the nearshore. A unique source of long-living rogue waves (that has no analogues in the deep ocean) is the nonlinear interaction of obliquely propagating solitary shallow-water waves and an equivalent mechanism of Mach reflection of waves from the coast. The characteristic features of these processes are (i) extreme amplification of the steepness of the wave fronts, (ii) change in the orientation of the largest wave crests compared with that of the counterparts and (iii) rapid displacement of the location of the extreme wave humps along the crests of the interacting waves. The presence of coasts raises a number of related questions such as the possibility of conversion of rogue waves into sneaker waves with extremely high run-up. Also, the reaction of bottom sediments and the entire coastal zone to the rogue waves may be drastic.

  9. A “Shallow Phylogeny” of Shallow Barnacles (Chthamalus)

    PubMed Central

    Wares, John P.; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Pitombo, Fabio; Daglio, Liza Gómez; Achituv, Yair

    2009-01-01

    Background We present a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of the shallow water (high intertidal) barnacle genus Chthamalus, focusing on member species in the western hemisphere. Understanding the phylogeny of this group improves interpretation of classical ecological work on competition, distributional changes associated with climate change, and the morphological evolution of complex cirripede phenotypes. Methodology and Findings We use traditional and Bayesian phylogenetic and ‘deep coalescent’ approaches to identify a phylogeny that supports the monophyly of the mostly American ‘fissus group’ of Chthamalus, but that also supports a need for taxonomic revision of Chthamalus and Microeuraphia. Two deep phylogeographic breaks were also found within the range of two tropical American taxa (C. angustitergum and C. southwardorum) as well. Conclusions Our data, which include two novel gene regions for phylogenetic analysis of cirripedes, suggest that much more evaluation of the morphological evolutionary history and taxonomy of Chthamalid barnacles is necessary. These data and associated analyses also indicate that the radiation of species in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene was very rapid, and may provide new insights toward speciation via transient allopatry or ecological barriers. PMID:19440543

  10. Shallow Turbulence in Rivers and Estuaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    objectives are to: 1. Determine spatial patterns of shallow turbulence from in-situ and remote sensing data and investigate the effects and...production through a model parameter study, and determine the optimal model configuration that statistically reproduces the shallow turbulence...more probable cause. According to Nezu et al. (1993), longitudinal vorticity streets would cause alternating upwelling (boils) and down welling

  11. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43 Vegetated shallows. (a) Vegetated shallows are permanently inundated areas that under normal circumstances support communities of rooted aquatic vegetation, such as turtle grass...) releasing chemicals that adversely affect plants and animals; (4) increasing turbidity levels, thereby...

  12. Propagation of Exploration Seismic Sources in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.; Barton, P. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    The choice of safety radii to mitigation the impact of exploration seismic sources upon marine mammals is typically based on measurement or modeling in deep water. In shallow water environments, rule-of-thumb spreading laws are often used to predict the falloff of amplitude with offset from the source, but actual measurements (or ideally, near-perfect modeling) are still needed to account for the effects of bathymetric changes and subseafloor characteristics. In addition, the question: "how shallow is 'shallow?'" needs an answer. In a cooperative effort by NSF, MMS, NRL, IAGC and L-DEO, a series of seismic source calibration studies was carried out in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2003. The sources used were the two-, six-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-airgun arrays of R/V Ewing, and a 31-element, 3-string "G" gun array, deployed by M/V Kondor, an exploration industry source ship. The results of the Ewing calibrations have been published, documenting results in deep (3200m) and shallow (60m) water. Lengthy analysis of the Kondor results, presented here, suggests an approach to answering the "how shallow is shallow" question. After initially falling off steadily with source-receiver offset, the Kondor levels suddenly increased at a 4km offset. Ray-based modeling with a complex, realistic source, but with a simple homogeneous water column-over-elastic halfspace ocean shows that the observed pattern is chiefly due to geophysical effects, and not focusing within the water column. The same kind of modeling can be used to predict how the amplitudes will change with decreasing water depth, and when deep-water safety radii may need to be increased. Another set of data (see Barton, et al., this session) recorded in 20 meters of water during early 2005, however, shows that simple modeling may be insufficient when the geophysics becomes more complex. In this particular case, the fact that the seafloor was within the near field of the R/V Ewing source array seems to have

  13. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests atmore » the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.« less

  14. Shallow Geothermal Admissibility Maps: a Methodology to Achieve a Sustainable Development of Shallow Geothermal Energy with Regards to Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréthaut, D.; Parriaux, A.; Tacher, L.

    2009-04-01

    Implantation and use of shallow geothermal systems may have environmental impacts. Traditionally, risks are divided into 2 categories: direct and indirect. Direct risks are linked with the leakage of the circulating fluid (usually water with anti-freeze) of ground source heat pumps into the underground which may be a source of contamination. Indirect risks are linked with the borehole itself and the operation of the systems which can modify the groundwater flow, change groundwater temperature and chemistry, create bypasses from the surfaces to the aquifers or between two aquifers. Groundwater source heat pumps (GWSHP) may provoke indirect risks, while ground source heat pumps (GSHP) may provoke both direct and indirect risks. To minimize those environmental risks, the implantation of shallow geothermal systems must be regulated. In 2007, more than 7000 GSHP have been installed in Switzerland, which represents 1.5 Mio drilled meters. In the canton of Vaud, each shallow geothermal project has to be approved by the Department of the Environment. Approximately 1500 demands have been treated during 2007, about 15 times more than in 1990. Mapping shallow geothermal systems implantation restrictions due to environmental constrains permits: 1) to optimize the management and planning of the systems, 2) to minimize their impact on groundwater resources and 3) to facilitate administrative procedures for treating implantation demands. Such maps are called admissibility maps. Here, a methodology to elaborate them is presented and tested. Interactions between shallow geothermal energy and groundwater resources have been investigated. Admissibility criteria are proposed and structured into a flow chart which provides a decision making tool for shallow geothermal systems implantation. This approach has been applied to three areas of West Switzerland ranging from 2 to 6 km2. For each area, a geological investigation has been realized and complementary territorial information (e

  15. Computed narrow-band azimuthal time-reversing array retrofocusing in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Dungan, M R; Dowling, D R

    2001-10-01

    The process of acoustic time reversal sends sound waves back to their point of origin in reciprocal acoustic environments even when the acoustic environment is unknown. The properties of the time-reversed field commonly depend on the frequency of the original signal, the characteristics of the acoustic environment, and the configuration of the time-reversing transducer array (TRA). In particular, vertical TRAs are predicted to produce horizontally confined foci in environments containing random volume refraction. This article validates and extends this prediction to shallow water environments via monochromatic Monte Carlo propagation simulations (based on parabolic equation computations using RAM). The computational results determine the azimuthal extent of a TRA's retrofocus in shallow-water sound channels either having random bottom roughness or containing random internal-wave-induced sound speed fluctuations. In both cases, randomness in the environment may reduce the predicted azimuthal angular width of the vertical TRA retrofocus to as little as several degrees (compared to 360 degrees for uniform environments) for source-array ranges from 5 to 20 km at frequencies from 500 Hz to 2 kHz. For both types of randomness, power law scalings are found to collapse the calculated azimuthal retrofocus widths for shallow sources over a variety of acoustic frequencies, source-array ranges, water column depths, and random fluctuation amplitudes and correlation scales. Comparisons are made between retrofocusing on shallow and deep sources, and in strongly and mildly absorbing environments.

  16. Geoacoustic inversion of a shallow fresh-water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Steven A.; Knobles, David P.; Koch, Robert A.; Piper, James N.; Keller, Jason A.

    2003-10-01

    A recent experiment was conducted at The University of Texas/Applied Research Laboratories test station located at Lake Travis, Austin, TX. Implosive (light bulb), explosive (firecracker), and tonal sources were recorded on a dual receiver system located on the bottom next to a range-independent underwater river channel. Inversion results of the broadband time series obtained over ranges less than 1.5 km were used to predict measured transmission loss at several tonal frequencies in the band from 250-1000 Hz. The average water depth was approximately 38 m along the channel during the experiment. Sound speed profiles were calculated from recorded temperature readings measured as a function of depth. Implosive source spectrums were measured and used to evaluate a model/data correlation cost function in a simulated annealing algorithm. Comparisons of inversion results using both a normal mode and a ray-based plane wave reflection coefficient forward model [Stotts et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (submitted)] are discussed. Predicted transmission loss based on the inversion results are compared to the measured transmission loss. Differences between fluid and elastic layer bottom models will also be presented.

  17. Localization of Acoustic Transients in Shallow Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    effect of the source signal uncertainty (in localizer performance . The localization process consists of two parts. First, a time domain propagation...for public release; distribution is unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) E OF PERFORMING ...SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) LOCALIZATION OF

  18. Environmental characterization report for the Gulf Interior Region, Texas study area. [Oakwood, Palestine and Keechi salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep, stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear waste, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the federal government is responsible. The report is part of the area study phase and contains environmental information for the Texas Study Area of the Gulf Interior Region acquired from federal, state, and regional agencies. The data in this report meet the requirements of predetermined survey plans and willmore » be used in determining locations of approximately 80 square kilometers (30 square miles) that will be further characterized. Information on surface water, atmosphere, background radiation, natural ecosystems, agricultural systems, demography, socioeconomics, land use, and transportation is presented. The environmental characterization will ensure that data on environmental values required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 are available.« less

  19. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shurr, G.W.; Ridgley, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks. Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana. The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part. Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma. Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks. Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are

  20. Shallow cumulus rooted in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.; Horn, G.; Sikma, M.; Jacobs, C. M.; Baldocchi, D.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the interaction between plant evapotranspiration, controlled by photosynthesis (for a low vegetation cover by C3 and C4 grasses), and the moist thermals that are responsible for the formation and development of shallow cumulus clouds (SCu). We perform systematic numerical experiments at fine spatial scales using large-eddy simulations explicitly coupled to a plant-physiology model. To break down the complexity of the vegetation-atmospheric system at the diurnal scales, we design the following experiments with increasing complexity: (a) clouds that are transparent to radiation, (b) clouds that shade the surface from the incoming shortwave radiation and (c) plant stomata whose apertures react with an adjustment in time to cloud perturbations. The shading by SCu leads to a strong spatial variability in photosynthesis and the surface energy balance. As a result, experiment (b) simulates SCu that are characterized by less extreme and less skewed values of the liquid water path and cloud-base height. These findings are corroborated by the calculation of characteristics lengths scales of the thermals and clouds using autocorrelation and spectral analysis methods. We find that experiments (a) and (b) are characterized by similar cloud cover evolution, but different cloud population characteristics. Experiment (b), including cloud shading, is characterized by smaller clouds, but closer to each other. By performing a sensitivity analysis on the exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide at the canopy level, we show that the larger water-use efficiency of C4 grass leads to two opposing effects that directly influence boundary-layer clouds: the thermals below the clouds are more vigorous and deeper driven by a larger buoyancy surface flux (positive effect), but are characterized by less moisture content (negative effect). We conclude that under the investigated mid-latitude atmospheric and well-watered soil conditions, SCu over C4 grass fields is characterized

  1. Spatial scaling of bacterial community diversity at shallow hydrothermal vents: a global comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop Ristova, P.; Hassenrueck, C.; Molari, M.; Fink, A.; Bühring, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    Marine shallow hydrothermal vents are extreme environments, often characterized by discharge of fluids with e.g. high temperatures, low pH, and laden with elements toxic to higher organisms. They occur at continental margins around the world's oceans, but represent fragmented, isolated habitats of locally small areal coverage. Microorganisms contribute the main biomass at shallow hydrothermal vent ecosystems and build the basis of the food chain by autotrophic fixation of carbon both via chemosynthesis and photosynthesis, occurring simultaneously. Despite their importance and unique capacity to adapt to these extreme environments, little is known about the spatial scales on which the alpha- and beta-diversity of microbial communities vary at shallow vents, and how the geochemical habitat heterogeneity influences shallow vent biodiversity. Here for the first time we investigated the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity patterns and their interconnectivity at geochemically diverse shallow vents on a global scale. This study presents data on the comparison of bacterial community structures on large (> 1000 km) and small (0.1 - 100 m) spatial scales as derived from ARISA and Illumina sequencing. Despite the fragmented global distribution of shallow hydrothermal vents, similarity of vent bacterial communities decreased with geographic distance, confirming the ubiquity of distance-decay relationship. Moreover, at all investigated vents, pH was the main factor locally structuring these communities, while temperature influenced both the alpha- and beta-diversity.

  2. Shallow moonquakes - How they compare with earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Of three types of moonquakes strong enough to be detectable at large distances - deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts and shallow moonquakes - only shallow moonquakes are similar in nature to earthquakes. A comparison of various characteristics of moonquakes with those of earthquakes indeed shows a remarkable similarity between shallow moonquakes and intraplate earthquakes: (1) their occurrences are not controlled by tides; (2) they appear to occur in locations where there is evidence of structural weaknesses; (3) the relative abundances of small and large quakes (b-values) are similar, suggesting similar mechanisms; and (4) even the levels of activity may be close. The shallow moonquakes may be quite comparable in nature to intraplate earthquakes, and they may be of similar origin.

  3. Is evaporative colling important for shallow clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentine, P.; Park, S. B.; Davini, P.; D'Andrea, F.

    2017-12-01

    We here investigate and test using large-eddy simulations the hypothesis that evaporative cooling might not be crucial for shallow clouds. Results from various Shallow convection and stratocumulus LES experiments show that the influence of evaporative cooling is secondary compared to turbulent mixing, which dominates the buoyancy reversal. In shallow cumulus subising shells are not due to evaporative cooling but rather reflect a vortical structure, with a postive buoyancy anomaly in the core due to condensation. Disabling evaporative cooling has negligible impact on this vortical structure and on buoyancy reversal. Similarly in non-precipitating stratocumuli evaporative cooling is negeligible copmared to other factors, especially turbulent mixing and pressure effects. These results emphasize that it may not be critical to icnlude evaporative cooling in parameterizations of shallow clouds and that it does not alter entrainment.

  4. Justification of Shallow-Water Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The basic conservation laws of shallow-water theory are derived from multidimensional mass and momentum integral conservation laws describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above the horizontal bottom. This conclusion is based on the concept of hydrostatic approximation, which generalizes the concept of long-wavelength approximation and is used for justifying the applicability of the shallow-water theory in the simulation of wave flows of fluid with hydraulic bores.

  5. New ideas for shallow gas well control

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoyne, A.T.; Kelly, O.A.; Sandoz, C.L.

    1996-06-01

    Flow from an unexpected shallow gas sand is one of the most difficult well control problems faced by oil and gas well operators during drilling operations. Current well control practice for bottom-supported marine rigs usually calls for shutting in the well when a kick is detected, if sufficient casing has been set to keep any flow underground. However, when shallow gas is encountered, casing may not be set deep enough to keep the underground flow from broaching to surface near the platform foundations. Once the flow reaches surface, craters are sometimes formed which can lead to loss of the rigmore » and associated marine structures. This short article overviews an ongoing study by Louisiana State University of the breakdown resistance of shallow marine sediments, using leak-off test data and geotechnical reports provided by Unocal. Such study is important for improving the characterization of shallow marine sediments to allow more reliable shallow casing designs, as the authors will conclude. This study has already proven that sediment failure mechanisms that lead to cratering have been poorly understood. In addition, there has been considerable uncertainty as to the best choices of well design parameters and well control contingency plans that will minimize risks associated with a shallow gas flow.« less

  6. New approaches to the restoration of shallow marginal peatlands.

    PubMed

    Grand-Clement, E; Anderson, K; Smith, D; Angus, M; Luscombe, D J; Gatis, N; Bray, L S; Brazier, R E

    2015-09-15

    Globally, the historic and recent exploitation of peatlands through management practices such as agricultural reclamation, peat harvesting or forestry, have caused extensive damage to these ecosystems. Their value is now increasingly recognised, and restoration and rehabilitation programmes are underway to improve some of the ecosystem services provided by peatlands: blocking drainage ditches in deep peat has been shown to improve the storage of water, decrease carbon losses in the long-term, and improve biodiversity. However, whilst the restoration process has benefitted from experience and technical advice gained from restoration of deep peatlands, shallow peatlands have received less attention in the literature, despite being extensive in both uplands and lowlands. Using the experience gained from the restoration of the shallow peatlands of Exmoor National Park (UK), and two test catchments in particular, this paper provides technical guidance which can be applied to the restoration of other shallow peatlands worldwide. Experience showed that integrating knowledge of the historical environment at the planning stage of restoration was essential, as it enabled the effective mitigation of any threat to archaeological features and sites. The use of bales, commonly employed in other upland ecosystems, was found to be problematic. Instead, 'leaky dams' or wood and peat combination dams were used, which are both more efficient at reducing and diverting the flow, and longer lasting than bale dams. Finally, an average restoration cost (£306 ha(-1)) for Exmoor, below the median national value across the whole of the UK, demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of these techniques. However, local differences in peat depth and ditch characteristics (i.e. length, depth and width) between sites affect both the feasibility and the cost of restoration. Overall, the restoration of shallow peatlands is shown to be technically viable; this paper provides a template for such process

  7. Shallow Underground Tunnel/Chamber Explosion Test Program Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT SL-90-10 SHALLOW UNDERGROUND TUNNEL /CHAMBERo ni neers= EXPLOSION TEST PROGRAM SUMMARY REPORT ~ by .11 ~ ~A.Charles E. Joachim N...hazardous et f ects produced by thle eXPlO.SiOll. Fhe prugrari was divided into four study areas; tunnel /c’hamber pressure, external ai rhlast...extern:il grounid motion, andl ejecta/debris. The tunnel /chamber pressure meaisurements 11roe i dell (LI La onl thle i nte rnalI explosion environment and the

  8. Stability analysis of shallow wake flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolyshkin, A. A.; Ghidaoui, M. S.

    2003-11-01

    Experimentally observed periodic structures in shallow (i.e. bounded) wake flows are believed to appear as a result of hydrodynamic instability. Previously published studies used linear stability analysis under the rigid-lid assumption to investigate the onset of instability of wakes in shallow water flows. The objectives of this paper are: (i) to provide a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the rigid-lid assumption; (ii) to investigate the influence of the shape of the base flow profile on the stability characteristics; (iii) to formulate the weakly nonlinear stability problem for shallow wake flows and show that the evolution of the instability is governed by the Ginzburg Landau equation; and (iv) to establish the connection between weakly nonlinear analysis and the observed flow patterns in shallow wake flows which are reported in the literature. It is found that the relative error in determining the critical value of the shallow wake stability parameter induced by the rigid-lid assumption is below 10% for the practical range of Froude number. In addition, it is shown that the shape of the velocity profile has a large influence on the stability characteristics of shallow wakes. Starting from the rigid-lid shallow-water equations and using the method of multiple scales, an amplitude evolution equation for the most unstable mode is derived. The resulting equation has complex coefficients and is of Ginzburg Landau type. An example calculation of the complex coefficients of the Ginzburg Landau equation confirms the existence of a finite equilibrium amplitude, where the unstable mode evolves with time into a limit-cycle oscillation. This is consistent with flow patterns observed by Ingram & Chu (1987), Chen & Jirka (1995), Balachandar et al. (1999), and Balachandar & Tachie (2001). Reasonable agreement is found between the saturation amplitude obtained from the Ginzburg Landau equation under some simplifying assumptions and the numerical data of Grubi

  9. SWIM: A Semi-Analytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm for Optically Shallow Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean color remote sensing provides synoptic-scale, near-daily observations of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs). Whilst contemporary ocean color algorithms are known to perform well in deep oceanic waters, they have difficulty operating in optically clear, shallow marine environments where light reflected from the seafloor contributes to the water-leaving radiance. The effect of benthic reflectance in optically shallow waters is known to adversely affect algorithms developed for optically deep waters [1, 2]. Whilst adapted versions of optically deep ocean color algorithms have been applied to optically shallow regions with reasonable success [3], there is presently no approach that directly corrects for bottom reflectance using existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic albedo.To address the issue of optically shallow waters, we have developed a semi-analytical ocean color inversion algorithm: the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM). SWIM uses existing bathymetry and a derived benthic albedo map to correct for bottom reflectance using the semi-analytical model of Lee et al [4]. The algorithm was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Groups L2GEN program and tested in optically shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. In-lieu of readily available in situ matchup data, we present a comparison between SWIM and two contemporary ocean color algorithms, the Generalized Inherent Optical Property Algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA).

  10. Advection within shallow pore waters of a coastal lagoon, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, J.E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Steward, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Ground water sources can be a significant portion of a local water budget in estuarine environments, particularly in areas with high recharge rates, transmissive aquifers, and permeable marine sediments. However, field measurements of ground water discharge are often incongruent with ground water flow modeling results, leaving many scientists unsure which estimates are accurate. In this study, we find that both measurements and model results are reasonable. The difference between estimates apparently results from the sources of water being measured and not the techniques themselves. In two locations in the Indian River Lagoon estuarine system, we found seepage meter rates similar to rates calculated from the geochemical tracers 222Rn and 226Ra. Ground water discharge rates ranged from 4 to 9 cm/d using seepage meters and 3 to 20 cm/d using 222Rn and 226Ra. In contrast, in comparisons to other studies where finite element ground water flow modeling was used, much lower ground water discharge rates of ∼0.05 to 0.15 cm/d were estimated. These low rates probably represent discharge of meteoric ground water from land-recharged aquifers, while the much higher rates measured with seepage meters, 222Rn, and 226Ra likely include an additional source of surface waters that regularly flush shallow (< 1 m depth) sediments. This resultant total flow of mixed land-recharged water and recirculated surface waters contributes to the total biogeochemical loading in this shallow estuarine environment.

  11. Moment Tensor Analysis of Shallow Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.; Yoo, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    A potential issue for moment tensor inversion of shallow seismic sources is that some moment tensor components have vanishing amplitudes at the free surface, which can result in bias in the moment tensor solution. The effects of the free-surface on the stability of the moment tensor method becomes important as we continue to investigate and improve the capabilities of regional full moment tensor inversion for source-type identification and discrimination. It is important to understand these free surface effects on discriminating shallow explosive sources for nuclear monitoring purposes. It may also be important in natural systems that have shallow seismicity such as volcanoes and geothermal systems. In this study, we apply the moment tensor based discrimination method to the HUMMING ALBATROSS quarry blasts. These shallow chemical explosions at approximately 10 m depth and recorded up to several kilometers distance represent rather severe source-station geometry in terms of vanishing traction issues. We show that the method is capable of recovering a predominantly explosive source mechanism, and the combined waveform and first motion method enables the unique discrimination of these events. Recovering the correct yield using seismic moment estimates from moment tensor inversion remains challenging but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the NSS technique.

  12. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  13. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  14. Moment tensor analysis of very shallow sources

    DOE PAGES

    Chiang, Andrea; Dreger, Douglas S.; Ford, Sean R.; ...

    2016-10-11

    An issue for moment tensor (MT) inversion of shallow seismic sources is that some components of the Green’s functions have vanishing amplitudes at the free surface, which can result in bias in the MT solution. The effects of the free surface on the stability of the MT method become important as we continue to investigate and improve the capabilities of regional full MT inversion for source–type identification and discrimination. It is important to understand free–surface effects on discriminating shallow explosive sources for nuclear monitoring purposes. It may also be important in natural systems that have very shallow seismicity, such asmore » volcanic and geothermal systems. We examine the effects of the free surface on the MT via synthetic testing and apply the MT–based discrimination method to three quarry blasts from the HUMMING ALBATROSS experiment. These shallow chemical explosions at ~10 m depth and recorded up to several kilometers distance represent rather severe source–station geometry in terms of free–surface effects. We show that the method is capable of recovering a predominantly explosive source mechanism, and the combined waveform and first–motion method enables the unique discrimination of these events. Furthermore, recovering the design yield using seismic moment estimates from MT inversion remains challenging, but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the network sensitivity solution technique.« less

  15. Shallow halogen vacancies in halide optoelectronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao -Hua

    2014-11-05

    Halogen vacancies (V H) are usually deep color centers (F centers) in halides and can act as major electron traps or recombination centers. The deep V H contributes to the typically poor carrier transport properties in halides. However, several halides have recently emerged as excellent optoelectronic materials, e.g., CH 3NH 3PbI 3 and TlBr. Both CH 3NH 3PbI 3 and TlBr have been found to have shallow V H, in contrast to commonly seen deep V H in halides. In this paper, several halide optoelectronic materials, i.e., CH 3NH 3PbI 3, CH 3NH 3SnI 3 (photovoltaic materials), TlBr, and CsPbBrmore » 3, (gamma-ray detection materials) are studied to understand the material chemistry and structure that determine whether V H is a shallow or deep defect in a halide material. It is found that crystal structure and chemistry of ns 2 ions both play important roles in creating shallow V H in halides such as CH 3NH 3PbI 3, CH 3NH 3SnI 3, and TlBr. The key to identifying halides with shallow V H is to find the right crystal structures and compounds that suppress cation orbital hybridization at V H, such as those with long cation-cation distances and low anion coordination numbers, and those with crystal symmetry that prevents strong hybridization of cation dangling bond orbitals at V H. Furthermore, the results of this paper provide insight and guidance to identifying halides with shallow V H as good electronic and optoelectronic materials.« less

  16. Shallow halogen vacancies in halide optoelectronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Halogen vacancies (VH ) are usually deep color centers (F centers) in halides and can act as major electron traps or recombination centers. The deep VH contributes to the typically poor carrier transport properties in halides. However, several halides have recently emerged as excellent optoelectronic materials, e.g., C H3N H3Pb I3 and TlBr. Both C H3N H3Pb I3 and TlBr have been found to have shallow VH , in contrast to commonly seen deep VH in halides. In this paper, several halide optoelectronic materials, i.e., C H3N H3Pb I3 , C H3N H3Sn I3 (photovoltaic materials), TlBr, and CsPbB r3 (gamma-ray detection materials) are studied to understand the material chemistry and structure that determine whether VH is a shallow or deep defect in a halide material. It is found that crystal structure and chemistry of n s2 ions both play important roles in creating shallow VH in halides such as C H3N H3Pb I3 , C H3N H3Sn I3 , and TlBr. The key to identifying halides with shallow VH is to find the right crystal structures and compounds that suppress cation orbital hybridization at VH , such as those with large cation-cation distances and low anion coordination numbers and those with crystal symmetry that prevents strong hybridization of cation dangling bond orbitals at VH . The results of this paper provide insight and guidance to identifying halides with shallow VH as good electronic and optoelectronic materials.

  17. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic charactersmore » are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.« less

  18. Fertile fathoms: Deep reproductive refugia for threatened shallow corals

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Smith, Tyler B.; Gyory, Joanna; Paris, Claire B.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of natural metapopulations may depend on subpopulations that exist at the edges of species ranges, removed from anthropogenic stress. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (30–150 m) are buffered from disturbance by depth and distance, and are potentially massive reservoirs of coral diversity and fecundity; yet we know little about the reproductive capabilities of their constituent species and the potential for these marginal environments to influence patterns of coral reef persistence. We investigated the reproductive performance of the threatened depth-generalist coral Orbicella faveolata over the extent of its vertical range to assess mesophotic contributions to regional larval pools. Over equal habitat area, mesophotic coral populations were found to produce over an order of magnitude more eggs than nearby shallow populations. Positive changes with depth in both population abundance and polyp fecundity contributed to this discrepancy. Relative larval pool contributions of deeper living corals will likely increase as shallow habitats further degrade due to climate change and local habitat degradation. This is a compelling example of the potential for marginal habitat to be critical to metapopulation persistence as reproductive refugia. PMID:26196243

  19. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  20. Seasonality of major redox constituents in a shallow subterranean estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Alison E.; Krask, Julie L.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Beck, Aaron J.

    2018-03-01

    The subterranean estuary (STE), the subsurface mixing zone of outflowing fresh groundwater and infiltrating seawater, is an area of extensive geochemical reactions that determine the composition of groundwater that flows into coastal environments. This study examined the porewater composition of a shallow STE (<5 m depth) in Gloucester Point, VA (USA) over two years to determine seasonal variations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the reduced metabolites Fe, Mn, and sulfide. An additional aim of this study was to investigate the relative importance of salinity gradients (which have great geochemical influence in surface estuaries) versus redox gradients on STE geochemistry. Two freshwater endmembers were identified, between which redox potential and composition varied with depth-a shallow freshwater endmember was oxidizing and high in DOC, whereas a deep freshwater endmember was reducing, lower in DOC, and high in sulfide. Results showed that dissolved Fe, Mn, and sulfide varied along a redox gradient distinct from the salinity gradient, and that three-endmember mixing was required to quantify non-conservative chemical addition/removal in the STE. In addition to salinity, humic carbon was used as a quasi-conservative tracer to quantify mixing according to a three-endmember model. The vertical distributions of DOC and reduced metabolites remained approximately constant over time, but concentrations varied with season. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were greatest in the summer, and shallow meteoric groundwater supplied the majority of DOC to the STE. In summer, there was additional evidence for shallow non-conservative addition of DOC. Dissolved Fe and Mn were highest in a subsurface plume through the middle of the STE (100-140 cm below sediment surface at the high tide line) which was characterized by higher concentrations and greater non-conservative addition in the winter. In contrast, sulfide was higher in summer at depths within the Fe and Mn plume

  1. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  2. The role of dispersal mode and habitat specialization for metacommunity structure of shallow beach invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Iván F; Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Jokinen, Henri; Ollus, Victoria; Wennhage, Håkan; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Alf

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity ecology recognizes the interplay between local and regional patterns in contributing to spatial variation in community structure. In aquatic systems, the relative importance of such patterns depends mainly on the potential connectivity of the specific system. Thus, connectivity is expected to increase in relation to the degree of water movement, and to depend on the specific traits of the study organism. We examined the role of environmental and spatial factors in structuring benthic communities from a highly connected shallow beach network using a metacommunity approach. Both factors contributed to a varying degree to the structure of the local communities suggesting that environmental filters and dispersal-related mechanisms played key roles in determining abundance patterns. We categorized benthic taxa according to their dispersal mode (passive vs. active) and habitat specialization (generalist vs. specialist) to understand the relative importance of environment and dispersal related processes for shallow beach metacommunities. Passive dispersers were predicted by a combination of environmental and spatial factors, whereas active dispersers were not spatially structured and responded only to local environmental factors. Generalists were predicted primarily by spatial factors, while specialists were only predicted by local environmental factors. The results suggest that the role of the spatial component in metacommunity organization is greater in open coastal waters, such as shallow beaches, compared to less-connected environmentally controlled aquatic systems. Our results also reveal a strong environmental role in structuring the benthic metacommunity of shallow beaches. Specifically, we highlight the sensitivity of shallow beach macrofauna to environmental factors related to eutrophication proxies.

  3. Mini 3D for shallow gas reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Vallieres, T. des; Enns, D.; Kuehn, H.

    1996-12-31

    The Mini 3D project was undertaken by TOTAL and ELF with the support of CEPM (Comite d`Etudes Petrolieres et Marines) to define an economical method of obtaining 3D seismic HR data for shallow gas assessment. An experimental 3D survey was carried out with classical site survey techniques in the North Sea. From these data 19 simulations, were produced to compare different acquisition geometries ranging from dual, 600 m long cables to a single receiver. Results show that short offset, low fold and very simple streamer positioning are sufficient to give a reliable 3D image of gas charged bodies. The 3Dmore » data allow a much more accurate risk delineation than 2D HR data. Moreover on financial grounds Mini-3D is comparable in cost to a classical HR 2D survey. In view of these results, such HR 3D should now be the standard for shallow gas surveying.« less

  4. Acoustic Propagation Modeling in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    Oceanography La Jolla, California 92093-0701 (Received April 15, 1996) This paper provides references for the Navy’s existing databases . Various...a compilation of many aspects of high-frequency (OAML) contains a description of Navy models and acoustics. databases . The Navy’s use of shallow...become significant because the propagation path may involve many tens of bounces. A description of a reflectivity database is (b) Geometry for the

  5. Wave turbulence in shallow water models.

    PubMed

    Clark di Leoni, P; Cobelli, P J; Mininni, P D

    2014-06-01

    We study wave turbulence in shallow water flows in numerical simulations using two different approximations: the shallow water model and the Boussinesq model with weak dispersion. The equations for both models were solved using periodic grids with up to 2048{2} points. In all simulations, the Froude number varies between 0.015 and 0.05, while the Reynolds number and level of dispersion are varied in a broader range to span different regimes. In all cases, most of the energy in the system remains in the waves, even after integrating the system for very long times. For shallow flows, nonlinear waves are nondispersive and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with ∼k{-2} scaling. For deeper (Boussinesq) flows, the nonlinear dispersion relation as directly measured from the wave and frequency spectrum (calculated independently) shows signatures of dispersion, and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with predictions of weak turbulence theory, ∼k{-4/3}. In this latter case, the nonlinear dispersion relation differs from the linear one and has two branches, which we explain with a simple qualitative argument. Finally, we study probability density functions of the surface height and find that in all cases the distributions are asymmetric. The probability density function can be approximated by a skewed normal distribution as well as by a Tayfun distribution.

  6. Acute shallowing of the anterior chamber.

    PubMed Central

    Mapstone, R

    1981-01-01

    In aging eyes phenylephrine drops have no significant effect on the depth of the anterior chamber, whereas pilocarpine drops produce a significant shallowing. If both drugs are instilled simultaneously, a significantly greater decrease in anterior chamber depth occurs. The effect is seen in normal, glaucomatous, and hypertensive eyes, and in eyes with shallow anterior chambers. It did not occur in eyes that had had an iridectomy. During the course of a positive provocative test an acute reduction in anterior depth occurs which is reversed when the angle opens and pressure returns to normal levels. It is concluded that the depth of the anterior chamber is not a static dimension but that changes can occur which are rapid and transient. The mechanism of shallowing and deepening depends on an increase or a decrease in the pupil block force. It is a necessary consequence too that eyes with nonshallow anterior chambers can get closed-angle glaucoma and that this possibility cannot be detected by a conventional gonioscopic approach. PMID:6455153

  7. Physical processes and sedimentation on a broad, shallow bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, S. P.; Hsu, S. A.; Roberts, H. H.; Owens, E. H.; Crout, R. L.

    1982-02-01

    An integrated study of the meteorology, physical oceanography, sedimentationand coastal morphology on the broad, shallow Miskito Bank off the eastern coast of Nicaragua has uncovered systematic interrelationships between driving forces. Bank geometry and sedimentologic environments on the Bank. Extremely high rainfall results from an interaction between meteorological processes over the Bank and topographic effects along the coast. Both acoustic and radio sounding of the lower atmosphere have documented the feedback between convective plumes, inversion layers and the incessant rainfall, which brings three times more freshwater and 15 times more sediment down to a unit length of coast than on the U.S. Atlantic shore. The resultant brackish, turbid coastal water moves as a highly organized band of water parallel to the coast. Seaward of this coastal boundary layer, offshore water from the Caribbean Current rides up on the Bank and provides an environment ideal for carbonate production. A zone of fine-grained terrigenous sediment underlying the coastal boundary current merges abruptly into a smooth carbonate plain covering most of the surface of the Bank. These central Bank carbonates are composed primarily of the disintegration products of prolific calcareous green algae. A trend of high relief, luxuriant coral reef growth is aligned along the steep dropoff at the Bank edge, a zone of observed upwelling of cooler and saltier basin water. A threefold southerly increase in wave energy at the shoreline due to the decreasing width of the shallow shelf results in wave-dominated coastal morphologies in the south compared to fluvial domination in the north and a systematic change from straight, linear bars and beaches in the north to rhythmic topography in the south.

  8. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of Microbial Communities in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the functional capability of microbial communities in shallow-sea hydrothermal systems (water depth of <200 m). This study analyzed two high-throughput pyrosequencing metagenomic datasets from the vent and the surface water in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system offshore NE Taiwan. This system exhibited distinct geochemical parameters. Metagenomic data revealed that the vent and the surface water were predominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Nautiliales-like organisms) and Gammaproteobacteria ( Thiomicrospira -like organisms), respectively. A significant difference in microbial carbon fixation and sulfur metabolism was found between the vent and the surface water. The chemoautotrophic microorganisms in the vent and in the surface water might possess the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Calvin−Bassham−Benson cycle for carbon fixation in response to carbon dioxide highly enriched in the environment, which is possibly fueled by geochemical energy with sulfur and hydrogen. Comparative analyses of metagenomes showed that the shallow-sea metagenomes contained some genes similar to those present in other extreme environments. This study may serve as a basis for deeply understanding the genetic network and functional capability of the microbial members of shallow-sea hydrothermal systems. PMID:23940820

  9. Shallow Subsurface Structures of Volcanic Fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Nash, J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Parness, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic fissure vents are a difficult geologic feature to quantify. They are often too thin to document in detail with seismology or remote geophysical methods. Additionally, lava flows, lava drain back, or collapsed rampart blocks typically conceal a fissure's surface expression. For exposed fissures, quantifying the surface (let along sub0surface) geometric expression can become an overwhelming and time-consuming task given the non-uniform distribution of wall irregularities, drain back textures, and the larger scale sinuosity of the whole fissure system. We developed (and previously presented) VolcanoBot to acquire robust characteristic data of fissure geometries by going inside accessible fissures after an eruption ends and the fissure cools off to <50 C. Data from VolcanoBot documents the fissure conduit geometry with a near-IR structured light sensor, and reproduces the 3d structures to cm-scale accuracy. Here we present a comparison of shallow subsurface structures (<30 m depth) within the Mauna Ulu fissure system and their counterpart features at the vent-to-ground-surface interface. While we have not mapped enough length of the fissure to document sinuosity at depth, we see a self-similar pattern of irregularities on the fissure walls throughout the entire shallow subsurface, implying a fracture mechanical origin similar to faults. These irregularities are, on average, 1 m across and protrude 30 cm into the drained fissure. This is significantly larger than the 10% wall roughness addressed in the engineering literature on fluid dynamics, and implies that magma fluid dynamics during fissure eruptions are probably not as passive nor as simple as previously thought. In some locations, it is possible to match piercing points across the fissure walls, where the dike broke the wall rock in order to propagate upwards, yet in other locations there are erosional cavities, again, implying complex fluid dynamics in the shallow sub-surface during fissure eruptions.

  10. Shallow Aquifer Methane Gas Source Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, R. B.; Murgulet, D.; Rose, P. S.; Hay, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas can contribute significantly to the world's energy demand. Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on horizontal drill lines developed over the last 15 years makes formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons economically available. From 2000 to 2035 shale gas is predicted to rise from 1% to 46% of the total natural gas for the US. A vast energy resource is available in the United States. While there is a strong financial advantage to the application of fracking there is emerging concern about environmental impacts to groundwater and air quality from improper shale fracking operations. Elevated methane (CH4) concentrations have been observed in drinking water throughout the United States where there is active horizontal drilling. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic-fracturing can increase CH4 transport to aquifers, soil and the vadose zone. Seepage can also result from casing failure in older wells. However, there is strong evidence that elevated CH4 concentrations can be associated with topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction processes. Carbon isotope geochemistry can be applied to study CH4source(s) in shallow vadose zone and groundwater systems. A preliminary TAMU-CC isotope data set from samples taken at different locations in southern Texas shows a wide range of CH4 signatures suggesting multiple sources of methane and carbon dioxide. These data are interpreted to distinguish regions with methane contributions from deep-sourced horizontal drilling versus shallow system microbial production. Development of a thorough environmental assessment using light isotope analysis can provide understanding of shallow anthropogenic versus natural CH4sources and assist in identifying regions that require remedial actions.

  11. A method for measuring vertical accretion, elevation, and compaction of soft, shallow-water sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Marin, P.E.; Black, B.K.; Lynch, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution measures of vertical accretion, elevation, and compaction of shallow-water sediments are fundamental to understanding the processes that control elevation change and the mechanisms of progradation (e.g., development of mudflats and intertidal wetlands) in coastal systems. Yet, measurements of elevation by traditional survey methods often are of low accuracy because of the compressible nature of the substrates. Nor do they provide measures of vertical accretion or sediment compaction. This paper evaluates the use in shallow-water systems of an approach designed to measure these variables in vegetated wetlands. The approach employs simultaneous measures of elevation from temporary benchmarks using a sedimentation-erosion table (SET) and vertical accretion from marker horizons with sediment cores collected with a cryogenic coring apparatus. The measures are made with a level of resolution sufficient to distinguish between the influence of surface and subsurface processes on elevation, thus providing quantitative estimates of shallow subsidence. The SET-marker horizon approach was evaluated on a developing splay created by an artificial crevasse of a distributary in the Mississippi River delta. The approach provided high-resolution measures of vertical accretion (48.3 ' 2.0 cm.) and elevation (36.7 ' 1.6 cm) over a 4-year period, with the difference between the two indicating the amount of shallow subsidence. In addition, by laying new marker horizons in later years, the approach provided rates not only of shallow subsidence (3.9 ' 0.5 cm y-1) but also compaction of newly deposited seiments (2.1 ' 0.6 cm y-1) and compaction of underlying sediments (1.8 ' 2.0 cm y-1 ) over a two-year period. Hence, the SET-marker horizon approach has widespread applicability in both emergent wetland and shallow water environments for providing high resolution measures of the processes controlling elevation change.

  12. Nonlinear interaction of strong S-waves with the rupture front in the shallow subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow deformation in moderate to large earthquakes is sometimes distributed rather than being concentrated on a single fault plane. Strong high-frequency S-waves interact with the rupture front to produce this effect. For strike-slip faults, the rupture propagation velocity is a fraction of the S-wave velocity. The rupture propagation vector refracts essentially vertically in the low (S-wave) velocity shallow subsurface. So does the propagation direction of S-waves. The shallow rupture front is essentially mode 3 near the surface. Strong S-waves arrive before the rupture front. They continue to arrive for several seconds in a large event. There are simple scaling relationships. The dynamic Coulomb stress ratio of horizontal stress on horizontal planes from S-waves is the normalized acceleration in g's. For fractured rock and gravel, frictional failure occurs when the normalized acceleration exceeds the effective coefficient of friction. Acceleration tends to saturate at that level as the anelastic strain rate increases rapidly with stress. For muddy materials, failure begins at a low normalized acceleration but increases slowly with dynamic stress. Dynamic accelerations sometimes exceed 1 g. In both cases, the rupture tip finds the shallow subsurface already in nonlinear failure down to a few to tens of meters depth. The material does not distinguish between S-wave and rupture tip stresses. Both stresses add to the stress invariant and hence to the anelastic strain rate tensor. Surface anelastic strain from fault slip is thus distributed laterally over a distance scaling to the depth of nonlinearity from S-waves. The environs of the fault anelastically accommodate the fault slip at depth. This process differs from blind faults where the shallow coseismic strain is mostly elastic and interseismic anelastic processes accommodate the long-term shallow deformation.

  13. Microbes mediate carbon and nitrogen retention in shallow photic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardison, A.; Anderson, I.; Canuel, E. A.; Tobias, C.; Veuger, B.

    2009-12-01

    Sediments in shallow coastal bays are sites of intense biogeochemical cycling facilitated by a complex microbial consortium. Unlike deeper coastal environments, much of the benthos is illuminated by sunlight in these bays. As a result, benthic autotrophs such as benthic microalgae (BMA) and macroalgae play an integral role in nutrient cycling. Investigating pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flow through individual compartments within the sediment microbial community has previously proved challenging due to methodological difficulties. However, it is now possible using stable isotopes and microbial biomarkers such as fatty acids and amino acids to track C and N flow through individual microbial pools. We investigated the uptake and retention of C and N by bacteria and BMA in a shallow subtidal system. Using bulk and compound specific isotopic analysis, we traced the pathways of dissolved inorganic 13C and 15N under various treatments: 1) in ambient light or dark, 2) from porewater or water column sources, and 3) in the presence or absence of bloom forming nuisance macroalgae. Excess 13C and 15N in THAAs and excess 13C in total PLFAs showed a strong dependence on light. Enrichment of these pools represents uptake by the microbial community, which can include both autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Higher excess 13C in benthic microalgal fatty acids (C20, C22 PUFAs) provides evidence that benthic microalgae were fixing 13C. Aditionally, the ratio of excess 13C in branched fatty acids to microbial fatty acids (BAR) and excess 13C and 15N in D-Ala to L-Ala (D/L-Ala) were low, suggesting dominance by benthic microalgae over bacteria to total label incorporation. Our results support uptake and retention of C and N by the sediment microbial community and indicate a tight coupling between BMA and bacteria in shallow illuminated systems. This uptake is diminished in the presence of macroalgae, likely due to shading and/or nutrient competition. Therefore

  14. Shallow Cumulus Variability at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamer, K.; Kollias, P.; Ghate, V. P.; Luke, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Cumulus clouds play a critical role in modulating the radiative and hydrological budget of the lower troposphere. These clouds, which are ubiquitous in regions of large-scale subsidence over the oceans, tend to be misrepresented in global climate models. Island-based, long-term, high-resolution ground-based observations can provide valuable insights on the factors controlling their macroscopic and microphysical properties and subsequenlty assist in model evaluation and guidance. Previous studies, limited to fair-weather cumuli over land, revealed that their fractional coverage is only weakly correlated with several parameters; the best ones being complex dynamical characteristics of the subcloud layer (vertical velocity skewness and eddy coherence). Other studies noted a relationship between cumuli depth and their propensity to precipitate. The current study will expand on such analysis by performing detail characterization of the full spectrum of shallow cumulus fields from non-precipitating to precipitating in the context of the large-scale forcing (i.e. thermodynamic structure and subsidence rates). Two years of ground-based remote sensing observations collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site are used to document macroscopic (cloud depth, cord length, cover), microphysical (liquid water path, cloud base rain rate) and dynamical (cloud base mass flux, eddy dissipation rate) cumuli properties. The observed variability in shallow cumulus is examined in relation to the variability of the large-scale environment as captured by the humidity profile, the magnitude of the low-level horizontal winds and near-surface aerosol conditions.

  15. Seasonality of Shallow Icequakes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Background (non-eruptive) seismicity at Mount Erebus Volcano is dominated by icequake activity on its extensive ice fields and glaciers. We examine icequake seismograms recorded by both long-running and temporary densification deployments spanning seven years (2003-2009) to assess event frequency, size, apparent seasonality, event mechanism, and geographic distribution. In addition to generally investigating mountain glacial ice seismicity in cold and dry glacial environments, we also hope to exploit icequakes as local sources for tomographic imaging of the volcano’s interior in conjunction with 2008-2010 active source and explosive volcanism data. Using Antelope-based methodologies, we determined the distribution and magnitude of a subset of well-recorded icequakes using data from the long-running Mount Erebus Volcano Network (MEVO) network, as well as two dense IRIS PASSCAL supported temporary networks deployed during 2008 and 2009 (the MEVO network consists of six broadband and nine short period stations with environmental data streams; the dense arrays consisted of 24 broadband stations arranged in two concentric rings around the volcano and 99 short period stations deployed near the summit of Erebus volcano and along the Terror-Erebus axis of Ross Island). During each of the seven years, we note a number of large icequake swarms (up to many hundreds of events per day). We hypothesize that many of these events occur in very shallow ice, based on the apparent ambient temperature-driven seasonality of the events. Specifically, approximately 43% of the events occur between March and May and approximately 30% occur between October and December. Each of these times feature rapidly changing ambient air temperatures due to the high latitude appearance/disappearance of the sun. A shallow mechanism is predicted by 1-D thermal skin depth calculations that show that annual temperature fluctuations decay by 1/e within the top few meters of ice.

  16. Shallow Horizontal GCHP Effectiveness in Arid Climate Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Timothy James

    Ground coupled heat pumps (GCHPs) have been used successfully in many environments to improve the heating and cooling efficiency of both small and large scale buildings. In arid climate regions, such as the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area, where the air condi-tioning load is dominated by cooling in the summer, GCHPs are difficult to install and operate. This is because the nature of soils in arid climate regions, in that they are both dry and hot, renders them particularly ineffective at dissipating heat. The first part of this thesis addresses applying the SVHeat finite element modeling soft-ware to create a model of a GCHP system. Using real-world data from a prototype solar-water heating system coupled with a ground-source heat exchanger installed in Menlo Park, California, a relatively accurate model was created to represent a novel GCHP panel system installed in a shallow vertical trench. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the calibrated model. The second part of the thesis involved adapting the calibrated model to represent an ap-proximation of soil conditions in arid climate regions, using a range of thermal properties for dry soils. The effectiveness of the GCHP in the arid climate region model was then evaluated by comparing the thermal flux from the panel into the subsurface profile to that of the prototype GCHP. It was shown that soils in arid climate regions are particularly inefficient at heat dissipation, but that it is highly dependent on the thermal conductivity inputted into the model. This demonstrates the importance of proper site characterization in arid climate regions. Finally, several soil improvement methods were researched to evaluate their potential for use in improving the effectiveness of shallow horizontal GCHP systems in arid climate regions.

  17. Hunting for shallow slow-slip events at Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. J.; Bletery, Q.; Fan, W.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Lynch, E.; McCormack, K. A.; Phillips, N. J.; Rousset, B.; Seyler, C.; French, M. E.; Gaherty, J. B.; Regalla, C.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of slow earthquakes at subduction zones is one of the major breakthroughs of Earth science in the last two decades. Slow earthquakes involve a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns, such as tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and slow-slip events. The last of these are particularly interesting due to their large moment releases accompanied by minimal ground shaking. Slow-slip events have been reported at various subduction zones ; most of these slow-slip events are located down-dip of the megathrust seismogenic zone, while a few up-dip cases have recently been observed at Nankai and New Zealand. Up-dip slow-slip events illuminate the structure of faulting environments and rupture mechanisms of tsunami earthquakes. Their possible presence and location at a particular subduction zone can help assess earthquake and tsunami hazard for that region. However, their typical location distant from the coast requires the development of techniques using offshore instrumentation. Here, we investigate the absolute pressure gauges (APG) of the Cascadia Initiative, a four year amphibious seismic experiment, to search for possible shallow up-dip slow-slip events in the Cascadia subduction zone. These instruments are collocated with ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and located close to buoys and onshore GPS stations, offering the opportunity to investigate the utility of multiple datasets. Ultimately, we aim to develop a protocol to analyze APG data for offshore shallow slow-slip event detections and quantify uncertainties, with direct applications to understanding the up-dip subduction interface system in Cascadia.

  18. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  19. Velocity structure of the shallow lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangi, A. F.; Yen, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    Data from the thumper shots of the Apollo 14 and Apollo 16 active seismic experiments, testing whether the velocity variation in the shallow lunar crust (depths less than or equal to 10 m) can be represented by a self-compacting-power-layer or by a constant-velocity-layer model, are analyzed. Although filtering and stacking improved the S/N ratios, it was found that measuring the arrival times or amplitudes of arrivals beyond 32 m was not possible. The data quality precluded a definitive distinction between the power-law velocity variation and the layered-velocity model. Furthermore, it was found that the shallow lunar regolith is made up of fine particles, which supports the idea of a 1/6 power-velocity model. Analysis of the amplitudes of first arrivals revealed large errors in the data due to variations in the geophone sensitivities and shot strengths; a least-squares method, that uses data redundancy was employed to eliminate them.

  20. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piété, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  1. Shallow landslide hazard map of Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.; Laprade, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides, particularly debris flows, have long been a significant cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Puget Sound region. Following the years of 1996 and 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency designated Seattle as a “Project Impact” city with the goal of encouraging the city to become more disaster resistant to landslides and other natural hazards. A major recommendation of the Project Impact council was that the city and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborate to produce a landslide hazard map. An exceptional data set archived by the city containing more than 100 yr of landslide data from severe storm events allowed comparison of actual landslide locations with those predicted by slope-stability modeling. We used an infinite-slope analysis, which models slope segments as rigid friction blocks, to estimate the susceptibility of slopes to debris flows, which are water-laden slurries that can form from shallow failures of soil and weathered bedrock and can travel at high velocities down steep slopes. Data used for the analysis consisted of a digital slope map derived from recent light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery of Seattle, recent digital geologic mapping of the city, and shear-strength test data for the geologic units found in the surrounding area. The combination of these data layers within a geographic information system (GIS) platform allowed us to create a shallow landslide hazard map for Seattle.

  2. Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, and ecological risks of steroids in a large shallow Chinese lake, Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Wu, Qinglong L

    2016-07-01

    Steroids have been frequently detected in surface waters, and might pose adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, little information is available regarding the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of steroids in lake environments. In addition to pollution sources, the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of steroids in lake environments might be related to lake types (shallow or deep), lake hydrodynamics, and sorption-desorption processes in the water-sediment systems. In this study, the occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, and ecological risks of 36 steroids in a large shallow lake were evaluated by investigating surface water and sediment samples at 32 sites in Lake Taihu over two seasons. Twelve and 15 analytes were detected in aqueous and sedimentary phases, respectively, with total concentrations ranging from 0.86 to 116ng/L (water) and from 0.82 to 16.2ng/g (sediment, dry weight). Temporal variations of steroid concentrations in the water and sediments were statistically significant, with higher concentrations in winter. High concentrations of steroids were found in the seriously polluted bays rather than in the pelagic zone of the lake. Strong lake currents might mix pelagic waters, resulting in similar concentrations of steroids in the pelagic zone. Mass balance analysis showed that sediments in shallow lakes are in general an important sink for steroids. Steroids in the surface water and sediments of Lake Taihu might pose potential risks to aquatic organisms. Overall, our study indicated that the concentrations and spatiotemporal distribution of steroids in the large shallow lake are influenced simultaneously by pollution sources and lake hydrodynamics. Steroids in the large shallow Lake Taihu showed clear temporal and spatial variations and lake sediments may be a potential sink of steroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Shallow Groundwater Movement in the Skagit River Delta Area, Skagit County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2009-01-01

    Shallow groundwater movement in an area between the lower Skagit River and Puget Sound was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology with the identification of areas where water withdrawals from existing and new wells could adversely affect streamflow in the Skagit River. The shallow groundwater system consists of alluvial, lahar runout, and recessional outwash deposits composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. Upland areas are underlain by glacial till and outwash deposits that show evidence of terrestrial and shallow marine depositional environments. Bedrock exposures are limited to a few upland outcrops in the southwestern part of the study area, and consist of metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Water levels were measured in 47 wells on a quarterly basis (August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, and May 2008). Measurements from 34 wells completed in the shallow groundwater system were used to construct groundwater-level and flow-direction maps and perform a linear-regression analysis to estimate the overall, time averaged shallow groundwater-flow direction and gradient. Groundwater flow in the shallow groundwater system generally moves in a southwestward direction away from the Skagit River and toward the Swinomish Channel and Skagit Bay. Local groundwater flow towards the river was inferred during February 2008 in areas west and southwest of Mount Vernon. Water-level altitudes varied seasonally, however, and generally ranged from less than 3 feet (August 2007) in the west to about 15 feet (May 2008) in the east. The time-averaged, shallow groundwater-flow direction derived from regression analysis, 8.5 deg south of west, was similar to flow directions depicted on the quarterly water-level maps. Seasonal changes in groundwater levels in most wells in the Skagit River Delta follow a typical pattern for shallow wells in western Washington. Water

  4. Predicting geogenic arsenic contamination in shallow groundwater of south Louisiana, United States.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ningfang; Winkel, Lenny H E; Johannesson, Karen H

    2014-05-20

    Groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) threatens the health of more than 140 million people worldwide. Previous studies indicate that geology and sedimentary depositional environments are important factors controlling groundwater As contamination. The Mississippi River delta has broadly similar geology and sedimentary depositional environments to the large deltas in South and Southeast Asia, which are severely affected by geogenic As contamination and therefore may also be vulnerable to groundwater As contamination. In this study, logistic regression is used to develop a probability model based on surface hydrology, soil properties, geology, and sedimentary depositional environments. The model is calibrated using 3286 aggregated and binary-coded groundwater As concentration measurements from Bangladesh and verified using 78 As measurements from south Louisiana. The model's predictions are in good agreement with the known spatial distribution of groundwater As contamination of Bangladesh, and the predictions also indicate high risk of As contamination in shallow groundwater from Holocene sediments of south Louisiana. Furthermore, the model correctly predicted 79% of the existing shallow groundwater As measurements in the study region, indicating good performance of the model in predicting groundwater As contamination in shallow aquifers of south Louisiana.

  5. The solution of the dam-break problem in the Porous Shallow water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, Luca; Pepe, Veronica; Cimorelli, Luigi; D'Aniello, Andrea; Della Morte, Renata; Pianese, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    The Porous Shallow water Equations are commonly used to evaluate the propagation of flooding waves in the urban environment. These equations may exhibit not only classic shocks, rarefactions, and contact discontinuities, as in the ordinary two-dimensional Shallow water Equations, but also special discontinuities at abrupt porosity jumps. In this paper, an appropriate parameterization of the stationary weak solutions of one-dimensional Porous Shallow water Equations supplies the inner structure of the porosity jumps. The exact solution of the corresponding dam-break problem is presented, and six different wave configurations are individuated, proving that the solution exists and it is unique for given initial conditions and geometric characteristics. These results can be used as a benchmark in order to validate one- and two-dimensional numerical models for the solution of the Porous Shallow water Equations. In addition, it is presented a novel Finite Volume scheme where the porosity jumps are taken into account by means of a variables reconstruction approach. The dam-break results supplied by this numerical scheme are compared with the exact dam-break results, showing the promising capabilities of this numerical approach. Finally, the advantages of the novel porosity jump definition are shown by comparison with other definitions available in the literature, demonstrating its advantages, and the issues raising in real world applications are discussed.

  6. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  7. Flow separation of currents in shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Flow separation of currents in shallow coastal areas is investigated using a boundary layer model for two-dimensional (depth-averaged) tidal flow past an elliptic headland. If the shoaling region near the coast is narrow compared to the scale of the headland, bottom friction causes the flow to separate just downstream of the point where the pressure gradient switches from favoring to adverse. As long as the shoaling region at the coast is well resolved, the inclusion of eddy viscosity and a no-slip boundary condition have no effect on this result. An approximate analytic solution for the pressure gradient along the boundary is obtained by assuming the flow away from the immediate vicinity of the boundary is irrotational. On the basis of the pressure gradient obtained from the irrotational flow solution, flow separation is a strong function of the headland aspect ratio, an equivalent Reynolds number, and a Keulegan-Carpenter number.

  8. Tree-root control of shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Denis; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    Tree roots have long been recognized to increase slope stability by reinforcing the strength of soils. Slope stability models usually include the effects of roots by adding an apparent cohesion to the soil to simulate root strength. No model includes the combined effects of root distribution heterogeneity, stress-strain behavior of root reinforcement, or root strength in compression. Recent field observations, however, indicate that shallow landslide triggering mechanisms are characterized by differential deformation that indicates localized activation of zones in tension, compression, and shear in the soil. Here we describe a new model for slope stability that specifically considers these effects. The model is a strain-step discrete element model that reproduces the self-organized redistribution of forces on a slope during rainfall-triggered shallow landslides. We use a conceptual sigmoidal-shaped hillslope with a clearing in its center to explore the effects of tree size, spacing, weak zones, maximum root-size diameter, and different root strength configurations. Simulation results indicate that tree roots can stabilize slopes that would otherwise fail without them and, in general, higher root density with higher root reinforcement results in a more stable slope. The variation in root stiffness with diameter can, in some cases, invert this relationship. Root tension provides more resistance to failure than root compression but roots with both tension and compression offer the best resistance to failure. Lateral (slope-parallel) tension can be important in cases when the magnitude of this force is comparable to the slope-perpendicular tensile force. In this case, lateral forces can bring to failure tree-covered areas with high root reinforcement. Slope failure occurs when downslope soil compression reaches the soil maximum strength. When this occurs depends on the amount of root tension upslope in both the slope-perpendicular and slope-parallel directions. Roots

  9. Volga shallow offing dynamics investigation based on space photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, E. E.

    Volga mouth region is investigated much better, than sea mouths of other river in Russia. In spite of the fact, not enough attention was devoted to Volga shallow offing. Volga shallow offing covers area about 9,3 ths. sq. km and has great significance for Caspian sea fish industry, because environmental conditions of this region and neighboring shallows of Northern Caspian Sea are determinative for passage, spawning and young fish growth of valuable sorts of fish. Insufficient investigation of Volga shallow offing is caused as by difficulty of access to this region through small depths (1 - 2 m) and intensive vegetation, so by data deficiency. Data deficiency notably intensified during recent 10 - 15 years, when significant reduction of hydro-meteorological investigations in Volga mouth area occurred. Gradual accumulation of on-site data, development of new technologies of map material analysis and space photography data processing allows to expect new scientific and application results. The purpose of our investigation concludes in determination of space-time mechanism of hydro-meteorological processes in Volga shallow offing based on space photography materials. Main results of our investigation can be summarized in following basic statements: (1) The most efficient method of Volga shallow offing investigation appears to be combined application of space photography data and on-site materials. (2) Electronic atlas of Volga shallow offing photomaps for the period of 1975 to 1997 yrs. is created. (3) Maps of above-water flora of Volga shallow offing for 1975 and 1997 yrs are created. (4) Electronic atlas of streams in Volga shallow offing for the period of 1975 to 1997 yrs. is created. On basis of it four maps of drain streams at Volga shallow offing are created. (5) Landscape zoning of Volga shallow offing is made and most active and passive regions are determined depending on drain streams and water vegetation. (6) It is shown, that development of Volga shallow

  10. Nitrogen and organic carbon cycling processes in tidal marshes and shallow estuarine habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Pellerin, B. A.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Fleck, J.; Fujii, R.

    2016-02-01

    Tidal wetlands and shallow water habitats can be sites of high aquatic productivity, and they have the potential of exchanging this newly produced organic carbon with adjacent deeper habitats. Indeed, export of organic carbon from wetlands and shallow water habitats to pelagic food webs is one of the primary ecosystem functions targeted in tidal wetland restorations. Alternatively, wetlands and shallow water habitats can function as retention areas for nutrients due to the nutrient demand of emergent macrophytes and denitrification in anoxic zones. They can also remove phytoplankton and non-algal particles from the aquatic food webs because the shallower waters can result in higher rates of benthic grazing and higher settling due to lower water velocities. We conducted studies in wetland and channel sites in the San Francisco estuary (USA) to investigate the dynamics of nutrients and carbon production at a variety of temporal scales. We collected continuous time series of nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll and pH in conjunction with continuous acoustic measurement of water velocity and discharge to provide mass controls and used simple biogeochemical models to assess rates. We found a high degree of temporal variability in individual systems, corresponding to, for example, changes in nutrient supply, water level, light level, wind, wind direction, and other physical factors. There was also large variability among the different systems, probably due to differences in flows and geomorphic features. We compare the aquatic productivity of theses environments and speculate as to the formative elements of each. Our findings demonstrate the complex interaction between physical, chemical, and biological factors that determine the type of production and degree of export from tidal wetlands and shallow water habitats, suggesting that a clearer picture of these processes is important for guiding future large scale restoration efforts.

  11. Preliminary numerical simulation for shallow strata stability of coral reef in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qinqin; Zhan, Wenhuan; Zhang, Jinchang

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs are the geologic material and special rock and soil, which live in shallow water of the tropic ocean and are formed through biological and geological action. Since infrastructure construction is being increasingly developed on coral reefs during recent years, it is necessary to evaluate the shallow strata stability of coral reefs in the South China Sea. The paper is to study the borehole profiles for shallow strata of coral reefs in the South China Sea, especially in the hydrodynamic marine environment?, and to establish a geological model for numerical simulation with Geo-Studio software. Five drilling holes show a six-layer shallow structure of South China Sea, including filling layer, mid-coarse sand, coral sand gravel, fine sand, limestone debris and reef limestone. The shallow coral reef profile next to lagoon is similar to "layers cake", in which the right side close to the sea is analogous to "block cake". The simulation results show that coral reef stability depends on wave loads and earthquake strength, as well as the physical properties of coral reefs themselves. The safety factor of the outer reef is greater than 10.0 in the static condition, indicating that outer reefs are less affected by the wave and earthquake. However, the safety factor next to lagoon is ranging from 0.1 to 4.9. The main reason for the variations that the strata of coral reefs close to the sea are thick. For example, the thickness of reef limestone is more than 10 m and equivalent to the block. When the thickness of inside strata is less than 10 m, they show weak engineering geological characteristics. These findings can provide useful information for coral reef constructions in future. This work was funded by National Basic Research Program of China (contract: 2013CB956104) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (contract: 41376063).

  12. Geological perspectives of shallow slow earthquakes deduced from deformation in subduction mélanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, K.; Saishu, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Nishiyama, N.; Otsubo, M.; Ohta, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Ito, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow (< 15 km depth) slow earthquakes are important to understand, as they occur along the subduction thrust where devastating tsunamis are generated. Geophysical studies have revealed that shallow slow earthquakes are not restricted to specific temperature conditions and depths but occur in regions of high fluid pressure. In the Nankai subduction zone, the shallow slow slip appears to trigger tremor and very-low-frequency-earthquake. However, the geologic perspectives for shallow slow earthquakes remain enigmatic. The Makimine mélange in the Late Cretaceous Shimanto accretionary complex of southwest Japan was formed during the subduction of young oceanic plate. Within the mélange, the quartz-filled veins and viscous shear zones are concentrated in the zones of 10 to 60 m-thick. The veins consist of shear veins showing low-angle thrust or normal faulting mechanisms and extension veins parallel or at high angle to mélange foliation. The geometrical relationship between shear and extension veins indicates that shear slip and tensile fracturing occur by small differential stress under elevated fluid pressure. The shear and extension veins typically show crack-seal textures defined by the solid inclusions bands. The time scale of each crack-seal event, which is determined from the quartz kinetics considering inclusion band spacing and vein length, is a few years. The shear slip increments estimated from the spacing of inclusions bands at dilational jogs are 0.1 mm. The viscous shear is accommodated by pressure solution creep and consistently shows low-angle thrust shear sense. These geologic features are suggested to explain seismogenic environment for shallow slow earthquakes. The shear veins and viscous shear zones showing low-angle thrust faulting mechanism could represent episodic tremor and slip, while the shear veins showing low-angle normal faulting mechanism may represent the tremor that occurred after the passage of slow slip front.

  13. The role of dispersal mode and habitat specialization for metacommunity structure of shallow beach invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Jokinen, Henri; Ollus, Victoria; Wennhage, Håkan; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Alf

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity ecology recognizes the interplay between local and regional patterns in contributing to spatial variation in community structure. In aquatic systems, the relative importance of such patterns depends mainly on the potential connectivity of the specific system. Thus, connectivity is expected to increase in relation to the degree of water movement, and to depend on the specific traits of the study organism. We examined the role of environmental and spatial factors in structuring benthic communities from a highly connected shallow beach network using a metacommunity approach. Both factors contributed to a varying degree to the structure of the local communities suggesting that environmental filters and dispersal-related mechanisms played key roles in determining abundance patterns. We categorized benthic taxa according to their dispersal mode (passive vs. active) and habitat specialization (generalist vs. specialist) to understand the relative importance of environment and dispersal related processes for shallow beach metacommunities. Passive dispersers were predicted by a combination of environmental and spatial factors, whereas active dispersers were not spatially structured and responded only to local environmental factors. Generalists were predicted primarily by spatial factors, while specialists were only predicted by local environmental factors. The results suggest that the role of the spatial component in metacommunity organization is greater in open coastal waters, such as shallow beaches, compared to less-connected environmentally controlled aquatic systems. Our results also reveal a strong environmental role in structuring the benthic metacommunity of shallow beaches. Specifically, we highlight the sensitivity of shallow beach macrofauna to environmental factors related to eutrophication proxies. PMID:28196112

  14. Probing the transition from shallow to deep convection

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Zhiming; Gentine, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    In this funded project we highlighted the components necessary for the transition from shallow to deep convection. In particular we defined a prototype of shallow to deep convection, which is currently being implemented in the NASA GISS model. We also tried to highlight differences between land and oceanic convection.

  15. Shallow water benthic imaging and substrate characterization using recreational-grade sidescan-sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, lightweight, inexpensive, vessel-mounted ‘recreational grade’ sonar systems have rapidly grown in popularity among aquatic scientists, for swath imaging of benthic substrates. To promote an ongoing ‘democratization’ of acoustical imaging of shallow water environments, methods to carry out geometric and radiometric correction and georectification of sonar echograms are presented, based on simplified models for sonar-target geometry and acoustic backscattering and attenuation in shallow water. Procedures are described for automated removal of the acoustic shadows, identification of bed-water interface for situations when the water is too turbid or turbulent for reliable depth echosounding, and for automated bed substrate classification based on singlebeam full-waveform analysis. These methods are encoded in an open-source and freely-available software package, which should further facilitate use of recreational-grade sidescan sonar, in a fully automated and objective manner. The sequential correction, mapping, and analysis steps are demonstrated using a data set from a shallow freshwater environment.

  16. Shallow landslides: lessons from Sachseln 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Frank; Grunder, Karl

    2017-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of the heavy rainstorm in 1997 in Sachseln with almost 500 shallow landslides - half of them within forests, the other half in open land - reveals interesting perspectives. A total of 218 of these landslides were comprehensively documented, including 107 events triggered in forests that have been subjected to a more accurate analysis. A preliminary statistical approach based on distribution functions applied to slope inclination α and shear angle Φ' gives rise to the assumption that optimally managed forests have high protection potential - optimally managed in this context means the NaiS standard improved by findings of our project SOSTANAH. NaiS: www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publikation/00732/index.html?lang=de SOSTANAH: www.slf.ch/ueber/organisation/oekologie/gebirgsoekosysteme/projekte/SOSTANH/index_EN Thus, it can be speculated that up to about four-fifths of these landslides could have been prevented, provided the forests fit the corresponding requirements. In an exemplary calculation, only about 80 ha of the investigated forest area (˜400 ha) would have been affected or roughly 20 landslides triggered of the 107 analysed. Given the specific characteristics for sites and improvement in Sachseln, the approximate costs for forest management, starting from an almost uncovered landslide area up to a mature protection forest (120 years), are estimated at about 35'000 CHF ha-1, yielding yearly 300 CHF ha-1 (price basis: 2016). The expected average annual expenditure to sustainably ensure continued existence of optimal protection forests is slightly lower. In the case of Sachseln, this amounts to about 12 Mio CHF for the whole area of 400 ha and a 100-year period (cost estimate by oeko-b, Stans: www.oeko-b.ch). The total damage of the 1997 event in Sachseln, with an estimated return period of 100 years, exceeded 120 Mio CHF. Of course, destruction was not merely caused by or obviously linked to shallow landslides. Nevertheless, from a

  17. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  18. Geomorphological mapping of shallow landslides using UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    The mapping of event shallow landslides is a critical activity, due to the large number of phenomena, mostly with small dimension, affecting extensive areas. This is commonly done through aerial photo-interpretation or through field surveys. Nowadays, landslide maps can be realized exploiting other methods/technologies: (i) airborne LiDARs, (ii) stereoscopic satellite images, and (iii) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to the landslide maps, these methods/technologies allow the generation of updated Digital Terrain Models (DTM). In December 2013, in the Collazzone area (Umbria, Central Italy), an intense rainfall event triggered a large number of shallow landslides. To map the landslides occurred in the area, we exploited data and images obtained through (A) an airborne LiDAR survey, (B) a remote controlled optocopter (equipped with a Canon EOS M) survey, and (C) a stereoscopic satellite WorldView II MS. To evaluate the mapping accuracy of these methods, we select two landslides and we mapped them using a GPS RTK instrumentation. We consider the GPS survey as the benchmark being the most accurate system. The results of the comparison allow to highlight pros and cons of the methods/technologies used. LiDAR can be considered the most accurate system and in addition it allows the extraction and the classification of the digital surface models from the surveyed point cloud. Conversely, LiDAR requires additional time for the flight planning, and specific data analysis user capabilities. The analysis of the satellite WorldView II MS images facilitates the landslide mapping over large areas, but at the expenses of a minor resolution to detect the smaller landslides and their boundaries. UAVs can be considered the cheapest and fastest solution for the acquisition of high resolution ortho-photographs on limited areas, and the best solution for a multi-temporal analysis of specific landslide phenomena. Limitations are due to (i) the needs of optimal climatic

  19. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  20. Shallow processing of ambiguous pronouns: evidence for delay.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Andrew J; Holler, Judith; Kidd, Evan

    2007-12-01

    Two self-paced reading-time experiments examined how ambiguous pronouns are interpreted under conditions that encourage shallow processing. In Experiment 1 we show that sentences containing ambiguous pronouns are processed at the same speed as those containing unambiguous pronouns under shallow processing, but more slowly under deep processing. We outline three possible models to account for the shallow processing of ambiguous pronouns. Two involve an initial commitment followed by possible revision, and the other involves a delay in interpretation. In Experiment 2 we provide evidence that supports the delayed model of ambiguous pronoun resolution under shallow processing. We found no evidence to support a processing system that makes an initial commitment to an interpretation of the pronoun when it is encountered. We extend the account of pronoun resolution proposed by Rigalleau, Caplan, and Baudiffier (2004) to include the treatment of ambiguous pronouns under shallow processing.

  1. High-rate synthetic aperture communications in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Song, H C; Hodgkiss, W S; Kuperman, W A; Akal, T; Stevenson, M

    2009-12-01

    Time reversal communication exploits spatial diversity to achieve spatial and temporal focusing in complex ocean environments. Spatial diversity can be provided easily by a vertical array in a waveguide. Alternatively, spatial diversity can be obtained from a virtual horizontal array generated by two elements, a transmitter and a receiver, due to relative motion between them, referred to as a synthetic aperture. This paper presents coherent synthetic aperture communication results from at-sea experiments conducted in two different frequency bands: (1) 2-4 kHz and (2) 8-20 kHz. Case (1) employs binary-phase shift-keying modulation, while case (2) involves up to eight-phase shift keying modulation with a data rate of 30 kbits/s divided by the number of transmissions (diversity) to be accumulated. The receiver utilizes time reversal diversity combining followed by a single channel equalizer, with frequent channel updates to accommodate the time-varying channel due to coupling of space and time in the presence of motion. Two to five consecutive transmissions from a source moving at 4 kts over 3-6 km range in shallow water are combined successfully after Doppler compensation, confirming the feasibility of coherent synthetic aperture communications using time reversal.

  2. WISDOM, a polarimetric GPR for the shallow subsurface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, V.; Plettemeier, D.; Hassen-Kodja, R.; Clifford, S. M.; Wisdom Team

    2011-12-01

    WISDOM (Water Ice and Subsurface Deposit Observations on Mars) is a polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) that has been selected to be part of the Pasteur payload onboard the Rover of the 2018 ExoMars mission. It will perform large-scale scientific investigations of the sub-surface of the landing site and provide precise information about the subsurface structure prior to drilling. WISDOM has been designed to provide accurate information on the sub-surface structure down to a depth in excess to 2 meters (commensurate to the drill capacities) with a vertical resolution of a several centimetres. It will give access to the geological structure, electromagnetic nature, and, possibly, to the hydrological state of the shallow subsurface by retrieving the layering and properties of the layers and buried reflectors. The data will also be used to determine the most promising locations to collect underground samples with the drilling system mounted on board the rover. Polarimetric measurements have been recently acquired on perfectly known targets as well as in natural environments. They demonstrated the ability to provide a better understanding of sub-surface structure and significantly reduce the ambiguity associated with identifying the location of off-nadir reflectors, relative to the rover path. This work describes the instrument and its operating modes with particular emphasis on its polarimetric capacities.

  3. Monitoring nekton as a bioindicator in shallow estuarine habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raposa, K.B.; Roman, C.T.; Heltshe, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of estuarine nekton has many practical and ecological benefits but efforts are hampered by a lack of standardized sampling procedures. This study provides a rationale for monitoring nekton in shallow (< 1 m), temperate, estuarine habitats and addresses some important issues that arise when developing monitoring protocols. Sampling in seagrass and salt marsh habitats is emphasized due to the susceptibility of each habitat to anthropogenic stress and to the abundant and rich nekton assemblages that each habitat supports. Extensive sampling with quantitative enclosure traps that estimate nekton density is suggested. These gears have a high capture efficiency in most habitats and are small enough (e.g., 1 m(2)) to permit sampling in specific microhabitats. Other aspects of nekton monitoring are discussed, including spatial and temporal sampling considerations, station selection, sample size estimation, and data collection and analysis. Developing and initiating long-term nekton monitoring programs will help evaluate natural and human-induced changes in estuarine nekton over time and advance our understanding of the interactions between nekton and the dynamic estuarine environment.

  4. Fate of internal waves on a shallow shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kristen; Arthur, Robert; Reid, Emma; Decarlo, Thomas; Cohen, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Internal waves strongly influence the physical and chemical environment of coastal ecosystems worldwide. We report novel observations from a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system that tracked the transformation of internal waves from the shelf break to the surf zone over a shelf-slope region of a coral atoll in the South China Sea. The spatially-continuous view of the near-bottom temperature field provided by the DTS offers a perspective of physical processes previously available only in laboratory settings or numerical models. These processes include internal wave reflection off a natural slope, shoreward transport of dense fluid within trapped cores, internal ``tide pools'' (dense water left behind after the retreat of an internal wave), and internal run-down (near-bottom, offshore-directed jets of water preceding a breaking internal wave). Analysis shows that the fate of internal waves on this shelf - whether they are transmitted into shallow waters or reflected back offshore - is mediated by local water column density and shear structure, with important implications for nearshore distributions of energy, heat, and nutrients. We acknowledge the US Army Research Laboratory DoD Supercomputing Resource Center for computer time on Excalibur, which was used for the numerical simulations in this work. Funding for field work supported by Academia Sinica and for K.D. and E.R. from NSF.

  5. The lantern shark's light switch: turning shallow water crypsis into midwater camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Julien M.; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature in the permanent darkness of the deep-sea. In fishes, light is emitted by organs containing either photogenic cells (intrinsic photophores), which are under direct nervous control, or symbiotic luminous bacteria (symbiotic photophores), whose light is controlled by secondary means such as mechanical occlusion or physiological suppression. The intrinsic photophores of the lantern shark Etmopterus spinax were recently shown as an exception to this rule since they appear to be under hormonal control. Here, we show that hormones operate what amounts to a unique light switch, by acting on a chromatophore iris, which regulates light emission by pigment translocation. This result strongly suggests that this shark's luminescence control originates from the mechanism for physiological colour change found in shallow water sharks that also involves hormonally controlled chromatophores: the lantern shark would have turned the initial shallow water crypsis mechanism into a midwater luminous camouflage, more efficient in the deep-sea environment. PMID:20410033

  6. Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Antarctic shallow-water marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico; Vaca, Inmaculada; Chávez, Renato

    2013-10-01

    During the characterization of the mycobiota associated with shallow-water marine environments from Antarctic sea, a novel pink yeast species was isolated. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolated yeast was closely related to Rhodotorula pallida CBS 320(T) and Rhodotorula benthica CBS 9124(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel basidiomycetous yeast species, Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Pi2(T) ( = CBS 12733(T)  = CECT 13081(T)) which was isolated from shallow-water marine sediment in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica.

  7. Determination of Trophic State Changes with Diel Dissolved Oxygen: A Case Study in a Shallow Lake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-11-01

    Current trophic state indices (TSI) have been reported to have limitations in assessing changes in eutrophication status of shallow waters. This study aimed to use intensive measurements on dissolved oxygen (DO) to improve the determination of tropic state changes. The authors deployed an environment monitoring buoy in a eutrophic shallow lake and recorded water temperature, DO, and chlorophyll-a concentrations at 15-minute intervals for two 1-year periods: from August 2008 to July 2009 and from August 2013 to July 2014. In addition, they recorded water levels over the same periods and collected water samples for nutrient analysis. The authors analyzed the high-time resolution DO records, compared the diel DO trends between the two 1-year periods, and proposed a new TSI using DO. They found that analyzing the change in diel DO ranges can improve commonly used methods for classifying trophic states and assessing the change of eutrophication status of waterbodies.

  8. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R.

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform formore » the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.« less

  9. On the modelling of shallow turbidity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapidevskii, Valery Yu.; Dutykh, Denys; Gisclon, Marguerite

    2018-03-01

    In this study we investigate shallow turbidity density currents and underflows from mechanical point of view. We propose a simple hyperbolic model for such flows. On one hand, our model is based on very basic conservation principles. On the other hand, the turbulent nature of the flow is also taken into account through the energy dissipation mechanism. Moreover, the mixing with the pure water along with sediments entrainment and deposition processes are considered, which makes the problem dynamically interesting. One of the main advantages of our model is that it requires the specification of only two modeling parameters - the rate of turbulent dissipation and the rate of the pure water entrainment. Consequently, the resulting model turns out to be very simple and self-consistent. This model is validated against several experimental data and several special classes of solutions (such as travelling, self-similar and steady) are constructed. Unsteady simulations show that some special solutions are realized as asymptotic long time states of dynamic trajectories.

  10. Seismic Wave Velocity in Earth's Shallow Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Eaton, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Studies of the outer core indicate that it is composed of liquid Fe and Ni alloyed with a ~10% fraction of light elements such as O, S or Si. Recently, unusual features, such as sediment accumulation, immiscible fluid layers or stagnant convection, have been predicted in the shallow core region. Secular cooling and compositional buoyancy drive vigorous convection that sustains the geodynamo, although critical details of light-element composition and thermal regime remain uncertain. Seismic velocity models can provide important constraints on the light element composition, however global reference models, such as Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM), IASP91 and AK135 vary significantly in the 200 km below the core-mantle boundary. Past studies of the outermost core velocity structure have been hampered by traveltime uncertainties due to lowermost mantle heterogeneities. The recently published Empirical Transfer Function (ETF) method has been shown to reduce the uncertainty using a waveform stacking approach to improve global observations of SmKS teleseismic waves. Here, we apply the ETF method to achieve a precise top-of-core velocity measurement of 8.05 ± 0.03 km/s. This new model accords well with PREM. Since PREM is based on the adiabatic form of the Adams-Williamson equation, it assumes a well mixed (i.e. homogeneous) composition. This result suggests a lack of heterogeneity in the outermost core due to layering or stagnant convection.

  11. Velocity model of the shallow lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangi, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    The travel times of the seismic waves obtained for the Apollo-14 and -16 active seismic experiments and the Apollo-16 grenade launches are shown to be consistent with a powder-layer model of the shallow lunar crust. The velocity variation with depth determined from these data is: V(z) = approximately 110 z to the 1/6 power m/sec for z less than 10 meters and V(z) is nearly = to 250 m/sec for z greater than 10 meters. The velocity values found for the 10 meter depth are similar to those found by Kovach, et al. (1972). The z to the 1/6 power depth dependence for the velocity of the topmost layer is that predicted on the basis of a powder layer (Gangi, 1972). The Amplitude variation of the direct waves as a function of source-to-receiver separation, x, is A(x) = A(o)x to the -n power exp(-ax) where 1.5 n 2.2 and a is nearly = to 0.047 neper/m. Velocity-spectra analyses of the direct, surface-reflected, bottom-reflected and refracted waves give results that are consistent with the velocity model inferred from the traveltime data.

  12. Coupled effects of vertical mixing and benthic grazing on phytoplankton populations in shallow, turbid estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Holen, Jacqueline K.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Cloern, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Coastal ocean waters tend to have very different patterns of phytoplankton biomass variability from the open ocean, and the connections between physical variability and phytoplankton bloom dynamics are less well established for these shallow systems. Predictions of biological responses to physical variability in these environments is inherently difficult because the recurrent seasonal patterns of mixing are complicated by aperiodic fluctuations in river discharge and the high-frequency components of tidal variability. We might expect, then, less predictable and more complex bloom dynamics in these shallow coastal systems compared with the open ocean. Given this complex and dynamic physical environment, can we develop a quantitative framework to define the physical regimes necessary for bloom inception, and can we identify the important mechanisms of physical-biological coupling that lead to the initiation and termination of blooms in estuaries and shallow coastal waters? Numerical modeling provides one approach to address these questions. Here we present results of simulation experiments with a refined version of Cloern's (1991) model in which mixing processes are treated more realistically to reflect the dynamic nature of turbulence generation in estuaries. We investigated several simple models for the turbulent mixing coefficient. We found that the addition of diurnal tidal variation to Cloern's model greatly reduces biomass growth indicating that variations of mixing on the time scale of hours are crucial. Furthermore, we found that for conditions representative of South San Francisco Bay, numerical simulations only allowed for bloom development when the water column was stratified and when minimal mixing was prescribed in the upper layer. Stratification, however, itself is not sufficient to ensure that a bloom will develop: minimal wind stirring is a further prerequisite to bloom development in shallow turbid estuaries with abundant populations of benthic

  13. The Roles of Sea-Ice, Light and Sedimentation in Structuring Shallow Antarctic Benthic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Graeme F.; Stark, Jonathan S.; Palmer, Anne S.; Riddle, Martin J.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2017-01-01

    On polar coasts, seasonal sea-ice duration strongly influences shallow marine environments by affecting environmental conditions, such as light, sedimentation, and physical disturbance. Sea-ice dynamics are changing in response to climate, but there is limited understanding of how this might affect shallow marine environments and benthos. Here we present a unique set of physical and biological data from a single region of Antarctic coast, and use it to gain insights into factors shaping polar benthic communities. At sites encompassing a gradient of sea-ice duration, we measured temporal and spatial variation in light and sedimentation and hard-substrate communities at different depths and substrate orientations. Biological trends were highly correlated with sea-ice duration, and appear to be driven by opposing gradients in light and sedimentation. As sea-ice duration decreased, there was increased light and reduced sedimentation, and concurrent shifts in community structure from invertebrate to algal dominance. Trends were strongest on shallower, horizontal surfaces, which are most exposed to light and sedimentation. Depth and substrate orientation appear to mediate exposure of benthos to these factors, thereby tempering effects of sea-ice and increasing biological heterogeneity. However, while light and sedimentation both varied spatially with sea-ice, their dynamics differed temporally. Light was sensitive to the site-specific date of sea-ice breakout, whereas sedimentation fluctuated at a regional scale coincident with the summer phytoplankton bloom. Sea-ice duration is clearly the overarching force structuring these shallow Antarctic benthic communities, but direct effects are imposed via light and sedimentation, and mediated by habitat characteristics. PMID:28076438

  14. The Roles of Sea-Ice, Light and Sedimentation in Structuring Shallow Antarctic Benthic Communities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme F; Stark, Jonathan S; Palmer, Anne S; Riddle, Martin J; Johnston, Emma L

    2017-01-01

    On polar coasts, seasonal sea-ice duration strongly influences shallow marine environments by affecting environmental conditions, such as light, sedimentation, and physical disturbance. Sea-ice dynamics are changing in response to climate, but there is limited understanding of how this might affect shallow marine environments and benthos. Here we present a unique set of physical and biological data from a single region of Antarctic coast, and use it to gain insights into factors shaping polar benthic communities. At sites encompassing a gradient of sea-ice duration, we measured temporal and spatial variation in light and sedimentation and hard-substrate communities at different depths and substrate orientations. Biological trends were highly correlated with sea-ice duration, and appear to be driven by opposing gradients in light and sedimentation. As sea-ice duration decreased, there was increased light and reduced sedimentation, and concurrent shifts in community structure from invertebrate to algal dominance. Trends were strongest on shallower, horizontal surfaces, which are most exposed to light and sedimentation. Depth and substrate orientation appear to mediate exposure of benthos to these factors, thereby tempering effects of sea-ice and increasing biological heterogeneity. However, while light and sedimentation both varied spatially with sea-ice, their dynamics differed temporally. Light was sensitive to the site-specific date of sea-ice breakout, whereas sedimentation fluctuated at a regional scale coincident with the summer phytoplankton bloom. Sea-ice duration is clearly the overarching force structuring these shallow Antarctic benthic communities, but direct effects are imposed via light and sedimentation, and mediated by habitat characteristics.

  15. Ningaloo Reef: Shallow Marine Habitats Mapped Using a Hyperspectral Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kobryn, Halina T.; Wouters, Kristin; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Heege, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Research, monitoring and management of large marine protected areas require detailed and up-to-date habitat maps. Ningaloo Marine Park (including the Muiron Islands) in north-western Australia (stretching across three degrees of latitude) was mapped to 20 m depth using HyMap airborne hyperspectral imagery (125 bands) at 3.5 m resolution across the 762 km2 of reef environment between the shoreline and reef slope. The imagery was corrected for atmospheric, air-water interface and water column influences to retrieve bottom reflectance and bathymetry using the physics-based Modular Inversion and Processing System. Using field-validated, image-derived spectra from a representative range of cover types, the classification combined a semi-automated, pixel-based approach with fuzzy logic and derivative techniques. Five thematic classification levels for benthic cover (with probability maps) were generated with varying degrees of detail, ranging from a basic one with three classes (biotic, abiotic and mixed) to the most detailed with 46 classes. The latter consisted of all abiotic and biotic seabed components and hard coral growth forms in dominant or mixed states. The overall accuracy of mapping for the most detailed maps was 70% for the highest classification level. Macro-algal communities formed most of the benthic cover, while hard and soft corals represented only about 7% of the mapped area (58.6 km2). Dense tabulate coral was the largest coral mosaic type (37% of all corals) and the rest of the corals were a mix of tabulate, digitate, massive and soft corals. Our results show that for this shallow, fringing reef environment situated in the arid tropics, hyperspectral remote sensing techniques can offer an efficient and cost-effective approach to mapping and monitoring reef habitats over large, remote and inaccessible areas. PMID:23922921

  16. Deposition of shallow water sponges in response to seasonal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Enrique; Carballo, José Luis; Vega, Cristina; Camacho, Leonardo; Barrón-Álvarez, José J.; Padilla-Verdín, Claudia; Yáñez-Chávez, Benjamín

    2011-08-01

    Removal of organisms from the subtidal zone plays an important role in shaping benthic communities in shallow bays. The main objective of this research was to quantify the biomass of sponges washed up on the beach at Mazatlan Bay (Mexico, eastern Pacific Ocean), and to determine its relationship with local weather and oceanographic conditions. To know whether this process has a significant effect on the sponge populations, changes in abundance of the species washed into the beach were also quantified in adjoining sublittoral areas. The sponges that were washed ashore were mainly branching ( Mycale ramulosa), massive ( Haliclona caerulea) and cushion-shaped ( Callyspongia californica) species. Species with high content of spongin in their structure (e.g. Hyattella intestinalis) were common in the subtidal zone but were rarely found on the beach. Encrusting species were never found. Four-year data of sponge deposition on the beach showed that the total annual sponge biomass ranged from 30 to 60 g DW m - 2 with an inter-annual range from 0.1 to 17.3 g DW m - 2 . The highest deposition of sponges was during the spring-summer transition (from April to July), which was associated with a change in wind direction (from NW to WSW). This change also matched with low tides and a high resuspension of bottom sediments, suggesting a high-energy environment during this transition. The increase in sponge biomass washed on the beach coincided with a decrease in the density of adjacent sponge populations. A multiple regression analysis showed that 68.48% of the variation on sponge biomass on the beach could be statistically explained using a combination of environmental factors (wind speed, sediment resuspension and tides). Thus, seasonal changes in wind direction combined with the effect of low tides and sediment resuspension could serve to predict fragmentation/detachment events of benthic organisms in shallow sublittoral areas worldwide. This study also provides insights to

  17. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character.

  18. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a “small plain, big front” character. PMID

  19. Toward the Application of the Implicit Particle Filter to Real Data in a Shallow Water Model of the Nearshore Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R.

    2015-12-01

    Following the success of the implicit particle filter in twin experiments with a shallow water model of the nearshore environment, the planned next step is application to the intensive Sandy Duck data set, gathered at Duck, NC. Adaptation of the present system to the Sandy Duck data set will require construction and evaluation of error models for both the model and the data, as well as significant modification of the system to allow for the properties of the data set. Successful implementation of the particle filter promises to shed light on the details of the capabilities and limitations of shallow water models of the nearshore ocean relative to more detailed models. Since the shallow water model admits distinct dynamical regimes, reliable parameter estimation will be important. Previous work by other groups give cause for optimism. In this talk I will describe my progress toward implementation of the new system, including problems solved, pitfalls remaining and preliminary results

  20. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be

  1. High Attenuation Rate for Shallow, Small Earthquakes in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Hongjun; Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe

    2017-09-01

    We compared the attenuation characteristics of peak ground accelerations (PGAs) and velocities (PGVs) of strong motion from shallow, small earthquakes that occurred in Japan with those predicted by the equations of Si and Midorikawa (J Struct Constr Eng 523:63-70, 1999). The observed PGAs and PGVs at stations far from the seismic source decayed more rapidly than the predicted ones. The same tendencies have been reported for deep, moderate, and large earthquakes, but not for shallow, moderate, and large earthquakes. This indicates that the peak values of ground motion from shallow, small earthquakes attenuate more steeply than those from shallow, moderate or large earthquakes. To investigate the reason for this difference, we numerically simulated strong ground motion for point sources of M w 4 and 6 earthquakes using a 2D finite difference method. The analyses of the synthetic waveforms suggested that the above differences are caused by surface waves, which are predominant at stations far from the seismic source for shallow, moderate earthquakes but not for shallow, small earthquakes. Thus, although loss due to reflection at the boundaries of the discontinuous Earth structure occurs in all shallow earthquakes, the apparent attenuation rate for a moderate or large earthquake is essentially the same as that of body waves propagating in a homogeneous medium due to the dominance of surface waves.

  2. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones.

    PubMed

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh

    2013-01-02

    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  3. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Lipa, Belinda; Nyden, Bruce; Barrick, Don; Kohut, Josh

    2008-08-06

    HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  4. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water

    PubMed Central

    Lipa, Belinda; Nyden, Bruce; Barrick, Don; Kohut, Josh

    2008-01-01

    HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements. PMID:27873776

  5. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  6. Shallow (2-meter) Temperature Surveys in Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Richard E. Zehner

    2012-02-01

    Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54" outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods were planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m depth vary according to the amount of solar heating from above, as well as possible geothermal heating from below.

  7. Steady nonuniform shallow flow within emergent vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Jie; Huai, Wen-Xin; Thompson, Sally; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2015-12-01

    -runoff processes on shallow slopes using SVE.

  8. Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, B.W.; McMahon, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    ranged from nondetectable to 23 442 ??g l-1. Widespread detections and occasionally high concentrations point to VOCs as the major anthropogenic ground-water impact in this urban environment. Generally, the highest VOC concentrations occurred in samples from the industrial setting. The most frequently detected VOC was the gasoline additive methyl tertbutyl ether (MTBE, in 23 of 29 wells). Results from this study indicate that the quality of shallow ground water in major urban areas can be related to land-use settings. Moreover, some VOCs and pesticides may be widely distributed at low concentrations in shallow ground water throughout major urban areas. As a result, the differentiation between point and non-point sources for these compounds in urban areas may be difficult.

  9. Response to Letter Requesting Clarification on Determination that the Emission Offset Ruling (41 FR 55525) Does Not Apply to FEA's Choctaw Salt Dome Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Redox chemistry of shallow permafrost porewaters in western Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Eleanor; Rogers, Jade; Bak, Ebbe; Finster, Kai; Hodson, Andy; Mallon, Gunnar; Redeker, Kelly; Thornton, Steve; Yde, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The western coast of Spitsbergen, located in the zone of continuous permafrost, is kept relatively warm for its latitude by the north Atlantic current. This sensitivity to oceanic and atmospheric warming provides an early warning system for the response of permafrost to climate change. This response includes the release of stored organic carbon and nutrients, which can lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Arctic wetlands. The aims of this study are to i) develop a methodology to investigate in-situ processes contributing to GHG emissions in shallow permafrost, and ii) correlate the geochemical properties of these permafrost sediments with their potential to support GHG emission. The focus of this project is on three locations within 10 kilometres of Longyearbyen, Western Spitsbergen, Svalbard. All locations were covered by warm-based ice during the Last Glacial Maximum, and so it was only after the deglaciation around 10,000 years ago that permafrost aggraded. After deglaciation, the following depositional environments typical of Svalbard formed and were the subject of this study: i) a sequence of raised beaches, formed due to isostatic rebound, and ii) a prograding delta overlain by aeolian sediments. Ice-wedge polygons and wetlands developed at all study sites. Each location was drilled to a depth of 2 metres. The extracted sediment cores were transported frozen and stored at -18˚ C. Cores were subdivided at 2 centimetre depth resolution and the samples were equilibrated anaerobically with deionised, degassed water in sealed vials. Concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide in the vial headspace, the chemistry of the supernatant, and the initial moisture content of the sediments were determined. Results show a zonation of redox chemistry with depth. Low redox chemistries, indicating anoxia, appear only below 60 cm depth. A correlation of ferrous iron and sulphate is also clear, indicative of the process of sulphide oxidation via reduction of

  11. Removing sun glint from optical remote sensing images of shallow rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overstreet, Brandon T.; Legleiter, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Sun glint is the specular reflection of light from the water surface, which often causes unusually bright pixel values that can dominate fluvial remote sensing imagery and obscure the water-leaving radiance signal of interest for mapping bathymetry, bottom type, or water column optical characteristics. Although sun glint is ubiquitous in fluvial remote sensing imagery, river-specific methods for removing sun glint are not yet available. We show that existing sun glint-removal methods developed for multispectral images of marine shallow water environments over-correct shallow portions of fluvial remote sensing imagery resulting in regions of unreliable data along channel margins. We build on existing marine glint-removal methods to develop a river-specific technique that removes sun glint from shallow areas of the channel without overcorrection by accounting for non-negligible water-leaving near-infrared radiance. This new sun glint-removal method can improve the accuracy of spectrally-based depth retrieval in cases where sun glint dominates the at-sensor radiance. For an example image of the gravel-bed Snake River, Wyoming, USA, observed-vs.-predicted R2 values for depth retrieval improved from 0.66 to 0.76 following sun glint removal. The methodology presented here is straightforward to implement and could be incorporated into image processing workflows for multispectral images that include a near-infrared band.

  12. Characteristics of Leachate and Their Effect on Shallow Groundwater Quality (Case Study : TPA Cipayung, Depok)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, Atika; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The problems arising from landfill activity is leaked leachate that is not absorbed well into leachate stabilization pond which furthermore contaminates shallow groundwater around landfill, include Cipayung landfill. The aims of this study is to determine the characteristics of leachate and their effect on shallow groundwater quality around landfill based on temperature, pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), Mercury (Hg), and fecal coliform. Data were analyzed based on leachate samples at influent point, effluent point, and 7 sampling points of residents’s well with distance variation every 100 meters within 300 meters radius having leachate stabilization pond as benchmark. According to the standard of Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry law No. 59 of 2016, the results showed that leachate quality was still above the standard of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen parameters; 4178.0 mg/L, 70556.0 mg/L and 373.3 mg/L for influent point, and 3142.0 mg/L, 9055.2 mg/L, and 350 mg/L for the effluent point. Pollution Index of shallow groundwater is between lightly and moderately contaminated. This study showed that the further the distance between sampling point and leachate stabilization pond is, the lower the Polution Index is.

  13. Underwater partial polarization signatures from the shallow water real-time imaging polarimeter (SHRIMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, James S., Jr.; Davis, P. S.; Wolff, Lawrence B.

    2003-09-01

    Research has shown that naturally occurring light outdoors and underwater is partially linearly polarized. The polarized components can be combined to form an image that describes the polarization of the light in the scene. This image is known as the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image or partial polarization image. These naturally occurring polarization signatures can provide a diver or an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) with more information to detect, classify, and identify threats such as obstacles and/or mines in the shallow water environment. The SHallow water Real-time IMaging Polarimeter (SHRIMP), recently developed under sponsorship of Dr. Tom Swean at the Office of Naval Research (Code 321OE), can measure underwater partial polarization imagery. This sensor is a passive, three-channel device that simultaneously measures the three components of the Stokes vector needed to determine the partial linear polarization of the scene. The testing of this sensor has been completed and the data has been analyzed. This paper presents performance results from the field-testing and quantifies the gain provided by the partial polarization signature of targets in the Very Shallow Water (VSW) and Surf Zone (SZ) regions.

  14. Probing of molecular replication and accumulation in shallow heat gradients through numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Keil, Lorenz; Hartmann, Michael; Lanzmich, Simon; Braun, Dieter

    2016-07-27

    How can living matter arise from dead matter? All known living systems are built around information stored in RNA and DNA. To protect this information against molecular degradation and diffusion, the second law of thermodynamics imposes the need for a non-equilibrium driving force. Following a series of successful experiments using thermal gradients, we have shown that heat gradients across sub-millimetre pores can drive accumulation, replication, and selection of ever longer molecules, implementing all the necessary parts for Darwinian evolution. For these lab experiments to proceed with ample speed, however, the temperature gradients have to be quite steep, reaching up to 30 K per 100 μm. Here we use computer simulations based on experimental data to show that 2000-fold shallower temperature gradients - down to 100 K over one metre - can still drive the accumulation of protobiomolecules. This finding opens the door for various environments to potentially host the origins of life: volcanic, water-vapour, or hydrothermal settings. Following the trajectories of single molecules in simulation, we also find that they are subjected to frequent temperature oscillations inside these pores, facilitating e.g. template-directed replication mechanisms. The tilting of the pore configuration is the central strategy to achieve replication in a shallow temperature gradient. Our results suggest that shallow thermal gradients across porous rocks could have facilitated the formation of evolutionary machines, significantly increasing the number of potential sites for the origin of life on young rocky planets.

  15. Indicators: Shallow Water Habitat/In-stream Fish Habitat

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Shallow water habitat, also referred to as in-stream fish habitat, refers to areas that fish and other aquatic organisms need for concealment, breeding and feeding. This includes large woody snags, boulders, rock ledges, and undercut banks.

  16. The effects of soil suction on shallow slope stability.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the slope failures associated with clayey soils so engineers can better : understand the problem and better predict shallow slope stability, and implement preventive : measures if necessary. This research also examines the mec...

  17. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    This research study aims at investigating the potential benefits of using reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. To implement this objective, a total of 117 tests, includ...

  18. Monitoring culvert load with shallow filling under Geofoam areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    Geofoam and the "Imperfect Ditch" method can be used effectively on embankment projects to reduce pressures on underground structures when sufficient fill height is available to create an arching effect. When the fill height is too shallow the archin...

  19. Guide for fabricating and installing shallow ground water observation wells

    Treesearch

    Carolyn C. Bohn

    2001-01-01

    The fabrication and use of three tools to assist in the manual installation of shallow ground water observation wells are described. These tools are easily fabricated at a local machine shop. A method for calibrating pressure transducers is also described.

  20. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of this research study is to investigate potential benefits of using the reinforced soil foundations to improve the bearing capacity and to reduce the settlement of shallow foundations on soils. This includes examining influences o...

  1. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  2. Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skaugset, Arne E.

    1997-01-01

    increase in soil strength attributed to roots was controlled by the small (<4mm) diameter root fraction. These results were used to calculate the effect of timber harvesting on a small, approximately 7.6 m3 (10 yd3), hypothetical landslide in a shallow, cohesionless, forest soil. The root reinforcement model predicted a post-harvest reduction in soil strength of 14 and 19 percent for a soil with and without 5 kPa (105 lbs/ft2) of cohesion, respectively.

  3. Distribution, vertical position and ecological implications of shallow gas in Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, M. E.; Aliotta, S.; Fiori, S.; Ginsberg, S.

    2018-03-01

    There has been a growing interest in the study of shallow gas due its importance in relation to the marine environment, climate change and human activities. In Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina, shallow gas has a wide distribution. Acoustic turbidity and blanking are the main seismic evidence for the presence of shallow gas in the estuary. The former prevails in the inner sector of the estuary where gas is either near or in contact with the seabed. Gas deposits are generally associated with paleochannels corresponding to the Holocene paleodeltaic environment. Distribution studies of shallow gas in this estuary are necessary because its presence implies not only a geological risk for harbor activities but also because it may have noxious effects on the marine ecosystem, mainly on benthic communities. The comparison of benthic communities at a gas site (GS) with those at a control site (CS) indicated that gas could generate impoverishment in terms of individuals' abundance (GS: N = 357; CS: N = 724). Also, diversity indices showed great differences in the community structure at each site. This indicates that methane gas may act as a natural disturbance agent in estuarine ecosystems. The presence of gas in seabed sediments must therefore be taken into account when distribution studies are conducted of estuarine benthic communities.

  4. Analysis of flexible layered shallow shells on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupishin, L.; Kolesnikov, A.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2017-05-01

    This paper contains numerical analysis of a layered geometric nonlinear flexible shallow shell based on an elastic foundation. Rise of arch in the center of the shell, width, length and type of support are given. The design variable is taken to be the thickness of the shallow shell, the form of the middle surface forming and the characteristic of elastic foundations. Critical force coefficient and stress of shells are calculated by Bubnov-Galerkin. Stress, characteristic of elastic foundations - thickness dependence are presented.

  5. Topological soliton solutions for three shallow water waves models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangen; Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Yan

    2018-07-01

    In this article, we investigate three distinct physical structures for shallow water waves models by the improved ansatz method. The method was improved and can be used to obtain more generalized form topological soliton solutions than the original method. As a result, some new exact solutions of the shallow water equations are successfully established and the obtained results are exhibited graphically. The results showed that the improved ansatz method can be applied to solve other nonlinear differential equations arising from mathematical physics.

  6. Simulation of the evolution of root water foraging strategies in dry and shallow soils

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael; Poot, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The dynamic structural development of plants can be seen as a strategy for exploiting the limited resources available within their environment, and we would expect that evolution would lead to efficient strategies that reduce costs while maximizing resource acquisition. In particular, perennial species endemic to habitats with shallow soils in seasonally dry environments have been shown to have a specialized root system morphology that may enhance access to water resources in the underlying rock. This study aimed to explore these hypotheses by applying evolutionary algorithms to a functional–structural root growth model. Methods A simulation model of a plant's root system was developed, which represents the dynamics of water uptake and structural growth. The model is simple enough for evolutionary optimization to be computationally feasible, yet flexible enough to allow a range of structural development strategies to be explored. The model was combined with an evolutionary algorithm in order to investigate a case study habitat with a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, both spatially and temporally – the situation of perennial plants occurring on shallow soils in seasonally dry environments. Evolution was simulated under two contrasting fitness criteria: (1) the ability to find wet cracks in underlying rock, and (2) maximizing above-ground biomass. Key Results The novel approach successfully resulted in the evolution of more efficient structural development strategies for both fitness criteria. Different rooting strategies evolved when different criteria were applied, and each evolved strategy made ecological sense in terms of the corresponding fitness criterion. Evolution selected for root system morphologies which matched those of real species from corresponding habitats. Conclusions Specialized root morphology with deeper rather than shallower lateral branching enhances access to water resources in underlying rock. More

  7. Simulation of the evolution of root water foraging strategies in dry and shallow soils.

    PubMed

    Renton, Michael; Poot, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    The dynamic structural development of plants can be seen as a strategy for exploiting the limited resources available within their environment, and we would expect that evolution would lead to efficient strategies that reduce costs while maximizing resource acquisition. In particular, perennial species endemic to habitats with shallow soils in seasonally dry environments have been shown to have a specialized root system morphology that may enhance access to water resources in the underlying rock. This study aimed to explore these hypotheses by applying evolutionary algorithms to a functional-structural root growth model. A simulation model of a plant's root system was developed, which represents the dynamics of water uptake and structural growth. The model is simple enough for evolutionary optimization to be computationally feasible, yet flexible enough to allow a range of structural development strategies to be explored. The model was combined with an evolutionary algorithm in order to investigate a case study habitat with a highly heterogeneous distribution of resources, both spatially and temporally--the situation of perennial plants occurring on shallow soils in seasonally dry environments. Evolution was simulated under two contrasting fitness criteria: (1) the ability to find wet cracks in underlying rock, and (2) maximizing above-ground biomass. The novel approach successfully resulted in the evolution of more efficient structural development strategies for both fitness criteria. Different rooting strategies evolved when different criteria were applied, and each evolved strategy made ecological sense in terms of the corresponding fitness criterion. Evolution selected for root system morphologies which matched those of real species from corresponding habitats. Specialized root morphology with deeper rather than shallower lateral branching enhances access to water resources in underlying rock. More generally, the approach provides insights into both

  8. Deep and shallow water effects on developing preschoolers' aquatic skills.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aldo M; Marinho, Daniel A; Rocha, Helena; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Ferreira, Sandra S; Martins, Marta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess deep and shallow water teaching methods in swimming lessons for preschool children and identify variations in the basic aquatic skills acquired. The study sample included 32 swimming instructors (16 from deep water programs and 16 from shallow water programs) and 98 preschool children (50 from deep water swimming pool and 48 from shallow water swimming pool). The children were also studied regarding their previous experience in swimming (6, 12 and 18 months or practice). Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the teaching methodology. A discriminant analysis was conducted with Λ wilk's method to predict under what conditions students are better or worse (aquatic competence). Results suggest that regardless of the non-significant variations found in teaching methods, the water depth can affect aquatic skill acquisition - shallow water lessons seem to impose greater water competence particularly after 6 months of practice. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between groups and all predictors for 6 months of swimming practice (p<0.001). Body position in gliding and leg displacements were the main predictors. For 12 and 18 months of practice, the discriminant function do not revealed any significant association between groups. As a conclusion, it seems that the teaching methodology of aquatic readiness based on deep and shallow water programs for preschoolers is not significantly different. However, shallow water lessons could be preferable for the development of basic aquatic skills.

  9. Numerical simulation of mechanical compaction of deepwater shallow sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin; Wu, Shiguo; Deng, Jingen; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiliang; Gao, Jinwei

    2018-02-01

    To study the compaction law and overpressure evolution in deepwater shallow sediments, a large-strain compaction model that considers material nonlinearity and moving boundary is formulated. The model considers the dependence of permeability and material properties on void ratio. The modified Cam-Clay model is selected as the constitutive relations of the sediments, and the deactivation/reactivation method is used to capture the moving top surface during the deposition process. A one-dimensional model is used to study the compaction law of the shallow sediments. Results show that the settlement of the shallow sediments is large under their own weight during compaction. The void ratio decreases strictly with burial depth and decreases more quickly near the seafloor than in the deeper layers. The generation of abnormal pressure in the shallow flow sands is closely related to the compaction law of shallow sediments. The two main factors that affect the generation of overpressure in the sands are deposition rate and permeability of overlying clay sediments. Overpressure increases with an increase in deposition rate and a decrease in the permeability of the overlying clay sediment. Moreover, an upper limit for the overpressure exists. A two-dimensional model is used to study the differential compaction of the shallow sediments. The pore pressure will still increase due to the inflow of the pore fluid from the neighboring clay sediment even though the deposition process is interrupted.

  10. Deep and Shallow Water Effects on Developing Preschoolers’ Aquatic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aldo M.; Marinho, Daniel A.; Rocha, Helena; Silva, António J.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Ferreira, Sandra S.; Martins, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess deep and shallow water teaching methods in swimming lessons for preschool children and identify variations in the basic aquatic skills acquired. The study sample included 32 swimming instructors (16 from deep water programs and 16 from shallow water programs) and 98 preschool children (50 from deep water swimming pool and 48 from shallow water swimming pool). The children were also studied regarding their previous experience in swimming (6, 12 and 18 months or practice). Chi-Square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare the teaching methodology. A discriminant analysis was conducted with Λ wilk’s method to predict under what conditions students are better or worse (aquatic competence). Results suggest that regardless of the non-significant variations found in teaching methods, the water depth can affect aquatic skill acquisition - shallow water lessons seem to impose greater water competence particularly after 6 months of practice. The discriminant function revealed a significant association between groups and all predictors for 6 months of swimming practice (p<0.001). Body position in gliding and leg displacements were the main predictors. For 12 and 18 months of practice, the discriminant function do not revealed any significant association between groups. As a conclusion, it seems that the teaching methodology of aquatic readiness based on deep and shallow water programs for preschoolers is not significantly different. However, shallow water lessons could be preferable for the development of basic aquatic skills. PMID:23487406

  11. Bacterial Diversity and Biogeochemistry of Two Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Systems off Dominica (Lesser Antilles).

    PubMed

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Pichler, Thomas; Friedrich, Michael W; Bühring, Solveig I

    2017-01-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal systems represent extreme environments with unique biogeochemistry and high biological productivity, at which autotrophic microorganisms use both light and chemical energy for the production of biomass. Microbial communities of these ecosystems are metabolically diverse and possess the capacity to transform a large range of chemical compounds. Yet, little is known about their diversity or factors shaping their structure or how they compare to coastal sediments not impacted by hydrothermalism. To this end, we have used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and high-throughput Illumina sequencing combined with porewater geochemical analysis to investigate microbial communities along geochemical gradients in two shallow-water hydrothermal systems off the island of Dominica (Lesser Antilles). At both sites, venting of hydrothermal fluids substantially altered the porewater geochemistry by enriching it with silica, iron and dissolved inorganic carbon, resulting in island-like habitats with distinct biogeochemistry. The magnitude of fluid flow and difference in sediment grain size, which impedes mixing of the fluids with seawater, were correlated with the observed differences in the porewater geochemistry between the two sites. Concomitantly, individual sites harbored microbial communities with a significantly different community structure. These differences could be statistically linked to variations in the porewater geochemistry and the hydrothermal fluids. The two shallow-water hydrothermal systems of Dominica harbored bacterial communities with high taxonomical and metabolic diversity, predominated by heterotrophic microorganisms associated with the Gammaproteobacterial genera Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , indicating the importance of heterotrophic processes. Overall, this study shows that shallow-water hydrothermal systems contribute substantially to the biogeochemical heterogeneity and bacterial diversity of coastal

  12. Bacterial Diversity and Biogeochemistry of Two Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Systems off Dominica (Lesser Antilles)

    PubMed Central

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Pichler, Thomas; Friedrich, Michael W.; Bühring, Solveig I.

    2017-01-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal systems represent extreme environments with unique biogeochemistry and high biological productivity, at which autotrophic microorganisms use both light and chemical energy for the production of biomass. Microbial communities of these ecosystems are metabolically diverse and possess the capacity to transform a large range of chemical compounds. Yet, little is known about their diversity or factors shaping their structure or how they compare to coastal sediments not impacted by hydrothermalism. To this end, we have used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and high-throughput Illumina sequencing combined with porewater geochemical analysis to investigate microbial communities along geochemical gradients in two shallow-water hydrothermal systems off the island of Dominica (Lesser Antilles). At both sites, venting of hydrothermal fluids substantially altered the porewater geochemistry by enriching it with silica, iron and dissolved inorganic carbon, resulting in island-like habitats with distinct biogeochemistry. The magnitude of fluid flow and difference in sediment grain size, which impedes mixing of the fluids with seawater, were correlated with the observed differences in the porewater geochemistry between the two sites. Concomitantly, individual sites harbored microbial communities with a significantly different community structure. These differences could be statistically linked to variations in the porewater geochemistry and the hydrothermal fluids. The two shallow-water hydrothermal systems of Dominica harbored bacterial communities with high taxonomical and metabolic diversity, predominated by heterotrophic microorganisms associated with the Gammaproteobacterial genera Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas, indicating the importance of heterotrophic processes. Overall, this study shows that shallow-water hydrothermal systems contribute substantially to the biogeochemical heterogeneity and bacterial diversity of coastal

  13. Extremely heat tolerant photosymbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christiane; Danna, Titelboim; Janett, Brandt; Raphael, Morard; Barak, Herut; Sigal, Abramovich; Ahuva, Almogi-Labin; Michal, Kucera

    2016-04-01

    Thermal stress leads to the loss of algal symbionts (bleaching) in many shallow marine calcifiers including foraminifera. The bleaching threshold often occurs at water temperatures, which are likely to be exceeded in the near future due to global warming. Preadaptation represents one mechanism allowing photosymbiotic organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata recently discovered in the eastern Mediterranean. We identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We show that in the field, the foraminifera retains its pigments at a thermally polluted site, where peak water temperatures reach 36°C. To test whether this tolerance represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing populations from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures for up to three weeks. The populations were kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive diatom-bearing foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera. Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32°C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36°C and chronic photoinhibition (but not mortality) first occurred at 42°C. Survivorship was high in all treatments, and growth was observed under thermal conditions similar to summer maxima at the thermally polluted site (35-36°C). The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant for a photosymbiont-bearing eukaryote. The thermal tolerance of this photosymbiosis is present in a natural environment where its thermal threshold is never realized. These observations imply that photosymbiosis in marine protists can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of

  14. Joint forces and torques when walking in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Orselli, Maria Isabel Veras; Duarte, Marcos

    2011-04-07

    This study reports for the first time an estimation of the internal net joint forces and torques on adults' lower limbs and pelvis when walking in shallow water, taking into account the drag forces generated by the movement of their bodies in the water and the equivalent data when they walk on land. A force plate and a video camera were used to perform a two-dimensional gait analysis at the sagittal plane of 10 healthy young adults walking at comfortable speeds on land and in water at a chest-high level. We estimated the drag force on each body segment and the joint forces and torques at the ankle, knee, and hip of the right side of their bodies using inverse dynamics. The observed subjects' apparent weight in water was about 35% of their weight on land and they were about 2.7 times slower when walking in water. When the subjects walked in water compared with walking on land, there were no differences in the angular displacements but there was a significant reduction in the joint torques which was related to the water's depth. The greatest reduction was observed for the ankle and then the knee and no reduction was observed for the hip. All joint powers were significantly reduced in water. The compressive and shear joint forces were on average about three times lower during walking in water than on land. These quantitative results substantiate the use of water as a safe environment for practicing low-impact exercises, particularly walking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wave attenuation in the shallows of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, Jessica R.; MacVean, Lissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Waves propagating over broad, gently-sloped shallows decrease in height due to frictional dissipation at the bed. We quantified wave-height evolution across 7 km of mudflat in San Pablo Bay (northern San Francisco Bay), an environment where tidal mixing prevents the formation of fluid mud. Wave height was measured along a cross shore transect (elevation range−2mto+0.45mMLLW) in winter 2011 and summer 2012. Wave height decreased more than 50% across the transect. The exponential decay coefficient λ was inversely related to depth squared (λ=6×10−4h−2). The physical roughness length scale kb, estimated from near-bed turbulence measurements, was 3.5×10−3 m in winter and 1.1×10−2 m in summer. Estimated wave friction factor fw determined from wave-height data suggests that bottom friction dominates dissipation at high Rew but not at low Rew. Predictions of near-shore wave height based on offshore wave height and a rough formulation for fw were quite accurate, with errors about half as great as those based on the smooth formulation for fw. Researchers often assume that the wave boundary layer is smooth for settings with fine-grained sediments. At this site, use of a smooth fw results in an underestimate of wave shear stress by a factor of 2 for typical waves and as much as 5 for more energetic waves. It also inadequately captures the effectiveness of the mudflats in protecting the shoreline through wave attenuation.

  16. O2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Puckett, Larry J.

    2011-12-01

    O2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero- and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 μmol L-1 yr-1 to more than 140 μmol L-1 yr-1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr-1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; 0.06-0.30 yr-1) were observed in most areas with O2 concentrations below 60 μmol L-1, while higher rates (>100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; >0.36 yr-1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation.

  17. O 2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Puckett, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    O 2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero-and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O 2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 ??mol L -1 yr -1 to more than 140 ??mol L -1 yr -1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr -1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 ??mol N L -1 yr -1; 0.06-0.30 yr -1) were observed in most areas with O 2 concentrations below 60 mol L -1, while higher rates (>100 mol N L -1 yr -1; >0.36 yr -1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O 2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O 2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O 2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation. copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Equivalent electron fluence for space qualification of shallow junction heteroface GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.

    1984-01-01

    It is desirable to perform qualification tests prior to deployment of solar cells in space power applications. Such test procedures are complicated by the complex mixture of differing radiation components in space which are difficult to simulate in ground test facilities. Although it has been shown that an equivalent electron fluence ratio cannot be uniquely defined for monoenergetic proton exposure of GaAs shallow junction cells, an equivalent electron fluence test can be defined for common spectral components of protons found in space. Equivalent electron fluence levels for the geosynchronous environment are presented.

  19. Elastoviscoplastic snap-through behavior of shallow arches subjected to thermomechanical loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, George J.; Song, Yuzhao; Sheinman, Izhak

    1991-01-01

    The problem of snap-through buckling of clamped shallow arches under thermomechanical loads is investigated. The analysis is based on nonlinear kinematic relations and nonlinear rate-dependent unified constitutive equations. A finite element approach is employed to predict the, in general, inelastic buckling behavior. The construction material is alloy B1900 + Hf, which is commonly utilized in high-temperature environments. The effect of several parameters is assessed. These parameters include the rise parameter and temperature. Comparison between elastic and elastoviscoplastic responses is also presented.

  20. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (< 4-m) and high turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence

  1. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.

  2. Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsen, Line; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-01-01

    Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters. PMID:26214849

  3. Clicking in shallow rivers: short-range echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins in a shallow, acoustically complex habitat.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frants H; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M; Smith, Brian D; Janik, Vincent M; Madsen, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes.

  4. Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

  5. Shallow bedrock limits groundwater seepage-based headwater climate refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lane, John W.; Snyder, Craig D.; White, Eric A.; Johnson, Zachary; Nelms, David L.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater/surface-water exchanges in streams are inexorably linked to adjacent aquifer dynamics. As surface-water temperatures continue to increase with climate warming, refugia created by groundwater connectivity is expected to enable cold water fish species to survive. The shallow alluvial aquifers that source groundwater seepage to headwater streams, however, may also be sensitive to seasonal and long-term air temperature dynamics. Depth to bedrock can directly influence shallow aquifer flow and thermal sensitivity, but is typically ill-defined along the stream corridor in steep mountain catchments. We employ rapid, cost-effective passive seismic measurements to evaluate the variable thickness of the shallow colluvial and alluvial aquifer sediments along a headwater stream supporting cold water-dependent brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Shenandoah National Park, VA, USA. Using a mean depth to bedrock of 2.6 m, numerical models predicted strong sensitivity of shallow aquifer temperature to the downward propagation of surface heat. The annual temperature dynamics (annual signal amplitude attenuation and phase shift) of potential seepage sourced from the shallow modeled aquifer were compared to several years of paired observed stream and air temperature records. Annual stream water temperature patterns were found to lag local air temperature by ∼8–19 d along the stream corridor, indicating that thermal exchange between the stream and shallow groundwater is spatially variable. Locations with greater annual signal phase lag were also associated with locally increased amplitude attenuation, further suggestion of year-round buffering of channel water temperature by groundwater seepage. Numerical models of shallow groundwater temperature that incorporate regional expected climate warming trends indicate that the summer cooling capacity of this groundwater seepage will be reduced over time, and lower-elevation stream sections may no longer serve as larger

  6. Nonlinear Programming shallow tomography improves deep structure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Morozov, I.

    2004-05-01

    In areas with strong variations in topography or near-surface lithology, conventional seismic data processing methods do not produce clear images, neither shallow nor deep. The conventional reflection data processing methods do not resolve stacking velocities at very shallow depth; however, refraction tomography can be used to obtain the near-surface velocities. We use Nonlinear Programming (NP) via known velocity and depth in points from shallow boreholes and outcrop as well as derivation of slowness as constraint conditions to gain accurate shallow velocities. We apply this method to a 2D reflection survey shot across the Flame Mountain, a typical mountain with high gas reserve volume in Western China, by PetroChina and BGP in 1990s. The area has a highly rugged topography with strong variations of lithology near the surface. Over its hillside, the quality of reflection data is very good, but on the mountain ridge, reflection quality is poorer. Because of strong noise, only the first breaks are clear in the records, with velocities varying by more than 3 times in the near offsets. Because this region contains a steep cliff and an overthrust fold, it is very difficult to find a standard refraction horizon, therefore, GLI refractive statics conventional field and residual statics do not result in a good image. Our processing approach includes: 1) The Herglotz-Wiechert method to derive a starting velocity model which is better than horizontal velocity model; 2) using shallow boreholes and geological data, construct smoothness constraints on the velocity field as well as; 3) perform tomographic velocity inversion by NP algorithm; 4) by using the resulting accurate shallow velocities, derive the statics to correct the seismic data for the complex near-surface velocity variations. The result indicates that shallow refraction tomography can greatly improve deep seismic images in complex surface conditions.

  7. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flow through a very porous obstacle in a shallow channel.

    PubMed

    Creed, M J; Draper, S; Nishino, T; Borthwick, A G L

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical model, informed by numerical simulations based on the shallow water equations, is developed to predict the flow passing through and around a uniform porous obstacle in a shallow channel, where background friction is important. This problem is relevant to a number of practical situations, including flow through aquatic vegetation, the performance of arrays of turbines in tidal channels and hydrodynamic forces on offshore structures. To demonstrate this relevance, the theoretical model is used to (i) reinterpret core flow velocities in existing laboratory-based data for an array of emergent cylinders in shallow water emulating aquatic vegetation and (ii) reassess the optimum arrangement of tidal turbines to generate power in a tidal channel. Comparison with laboratory-based data indicates a maximum obstacle resistance (or minimum porosity) for which the present theoretical model is valid. When the obstacle resistance is above this threshold the shallow water equations do not provide an adequate representation of the flow, and the theoretical model over-predicts the core flow passing through the obstacle. The second application of the model confirms that natural bed resistance increases the power extraction potential for a partial tidal fence in a shallow channel and alters the optimum arrangement of turbines within the fence.

  9. Computing nonhydrostatic shallow-water flow over steep terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Flood and dambreak hazards are not limited to moderate terrain, yet most shallow-water models assume that flow occurs over gentle slopes. Shallow-water flow over rugged or steep terrain often generates significant nonhydrostatic pressures, violating the assumption of hydrostatic pressure made in most shallow-water codes. In this paper, we adapt a previously published nonhydrostatic granular flow model to simulate shallow-water flow, and we solve conservation equations using a finite volume approach and an Harten, Lax, Van Leer, and Einfeldt approximate Riemann solver that is modified for a sloping bed and transient wetting and drying conditions. To simulate bed friction, we use the law of the wall. We test the model by comparison with an analytical solution and with results of experiments in flumes that have steep (31??) or shallow (0.3??) slopes. The law of the wall provides an accurate prediction of the effect of bed roughness on mean flow velocity over two orders of magnitude of bed roughness. Our nonhydrostatic, law-of-the-wall flow simulation accurately reproduces flume measurements of front propagation speed, flow depth, and bed-shear stress for conditions of large bed roughness. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  10. 3D resistivity survey for shallow subsurface fault investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrit, Kraipat; Klamthim, Poonnapa; Duerrast, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    The shallow subsurface is subject to various human activities, and the place of occurrence of geohazards, e.g. shallow active faults. The identification of the location and orientation of such faults can be vital for infrastructure development. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost 3D resistivity survey system, with reasonable survey time for shallow fault investigations. The study area in Songkhla Province, Thailand is located in an old quarry where faults could be identified in outcrops. The study area was designed to cover the expected fault with 100 electrodes arranged in a 10×10 square grid with an electrode spacing of 3 meters in x and y axis. Each electrode in turn was used as a current and potential electrode using a dipole-dipole array. Field data have been processed and interpreted using 3DResINV. Results, presented in horizontal depth slices and vertical xz- and yz-cross sections, revealed through differences in resistivity down to 8 m depths a complex structural setting with two shallow faults and dipping sedimentary rock layers. In conclusion, this study has shown that a 3D resistivity survey can imagine complex tectonic structures, thus providing a far more insight into the shallow subsurface.

  11. Flow through a very porous obstacle in a shallow channel

    PubMed Central

    Draper, S.; Nishino, T.; Borthwick, A. G. L.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical model, informed by numerical simulations based on the shallow water equations, is developed to predict the flow passing through and around a uniform porous obstacle in a shallow channel, where background friction is important. This problem is relevant to a number of practical situations, including flow through aquatic vegetation, the performance of arrays of turbines in tidal channels and hydrodynamic forces on offshore structures. To demonstrate this relevance, the theoretical model is used to (i) reinterpret core flow velocities in existing laboratory-based data for an array of emergent cylinders in shallow water emulating aquatic vegetation and (ii) reassess the optimum arrangement of tidal turbines to generate power in a tidal channel. Comparison with laboratory-based data indicates a maximum obstacle resistance (or minimum porosity) for which the present theoretical model is valid. When the obstacle resistance is above this threshold the shallow water equations do not provide an adequate representation of the flow, and the theoretical model over-predicts the core flow passing through the obstacle. The second application of the model confirms that natural bed resistance increases the power extraction potential for a partial tidal fence in a shallow channel and alters the optimum arrangement of turbines within the fence. PMID:28484321

  12. Messinian Salinity Crisis' Primary Evaporites: the shallow gypsum vs. deep dolomite formation paradox solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, G. J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is a dramatic event that took place ~ 5.9 Ma ago, resulting in deposition of 1-3 km thick evaporites at the Mediterranean seafloor. A considerable, long-lasting controversy existed on the modes of their formation, including the observed shallow gypsum versus deep dolostone deposits for the early phase of MSC. The onset of MSC is marked by deposition of gypsum/sapropel-like alternations, thought to relate to arid/humid climate conditions at a precessional rhythm. Gypsum precipitation only occurred at marginal- and dolomite formation at deeper settings. A range of potential explanations was given, most of which cannot satisfactorily explain all observations. Biogeochemical processes during MSC are commonly neglected but may explain that different deposits formed in shallow vs deep environments without exceptional physical boundary conditions for each. A unifying mechanism is presented in which gypsum formation occurs at all shallow water depths but its preservation is limited to shallow sedimentary settings. In contrast, ongoing deep-basin anoxic organic matter (OM) degradation processes result in dolomite formation. Gypsum precipitation in evaporating seawater takes place at 3-7 times concentrated seawater; seawater is always oversaturated relative to dolomite but its formation is inhibited by the presence of dissolved sulphate. Thus conditions for formation of gypsum exclude those for formation of dolomite and vice versa. Another process linking the saturation states of gypsum and dolomite is that of OM degradation by sulphate reduction. In stagnant deep water, ongoing OM-degradation may result in reducing the sulphate and enhancing the dissolved carbonate content. Such low-sulphate / high carbonate conditions in MSC deepwater are. unfavorable for gypsum preservation and favorable for dolomite formation, and always coincide with anoxic, i.e. oxygen-free conditions. Including dynamic biogeochemical processes in the thusfar static

  13. Transport and potential attenuation of nitrogen in shallow groundwaters in the lower Rangitikei catchment, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Collins, S; Singh, R; Rivas, A; Palmer, A; Horne, D; Manderson, A; Roygard, J; Matthews, A

    2017-11-01

    Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832km 2 ), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area. Concurrent river flow gaugings (in January 2015) and a piezometric map, developed from measured depths to groundwater in 110 bores (in October 2014), suggest groundwater discharges to the Rangitikei River in the upper parts of the study area, while there is groundwater recharge near the coast. The groundwater redox characterisation, based on sampling and analysis of 15 mostly shallow bores (<30m below ground level (bgl)), suggests groundwater across the lower Rangitikei catchment in general is under anoxic/reduced conditions. The groundwater typically has low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (<1mg/L), suggesting the subsurface environment is conducive to potential attenuation by 'denitrification' of NO 3 -N in groundwater. We further measured NO 3 -N attenuation in shallow groundwater piezometers (3-6mbgl) using single-well push-pull tests. We found generally low levels (<0.5mg/L) of NO 3 -N in shallow groundwater piezometers (>5mbgl), despite being installed under intensive land uses, such as dairying and cropping. Our in-field push-pull tests showed NO 3 -N reduction at four shallow groundwater piezometers, with the rates of reduction varying from 0.04mgNL -1 h - 1 to 1.57mgNL -1 h - 1 . This highlights the importance of a sound understanding of not only the sources, but also transport and transformation, or fate

  14. Morphometric analysis with open source software to explore shallow hydrogeological features in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Di Leo, Margherita; Bonomi, Tullia; Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Hamidou Kane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    stratigraphic logs from water boreholes. We observed the relationships between the spatial distribution of hydrogeological features and the morphology, applying multivariate statistical analysis. The ultimate goal of this study is to infer hydrogeological information of shallow aquifers, exploiting morphometric parameters (together with other layers of information from existing thematic maps and remote sensing) and to reconstruct the geometry and the characteristic of shallow porous aquifer. This research is part of a larger project financed by NERC (National Environment Research Council, UK) in the framework of the program UPGRO (Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poors), with the collaboration of different partners from Italy, Senegal and Guinea

  15. Transport and potential attenuation of nitrogen in shallow groundwaters in the lower Rangitikei catchment, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S.; Singh, R.; Rivas, A.; Palmer, A.; Horne, D.; Manderson, A.; Roygard, J.; Matthews, A.

    2017-11-01

    Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832 km2), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area. Concurrent river flow gaugings (in January 2015) and a piezometric map, developed from measured depths to groundwater in 110 bores (in October 2014), suggest groundwater discharges to the Rangitikei River in the upper parts of the study area, while there is groundwater recharge near the coast. The groundwater redox characterisation, based on sampling and analysis of 15 mostly shallow bores (< 30 m below ground level (bgl)), suggests groundwater across the lower Rangitikei catchment in general is under anoxic/reduced conditions. The groundwater typically has low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (< 1 mg/L), suggesting the subsurface environment is conducive to potential attenuation by 'denitrification' of NO3-N in groundwater. We further measured NO3-N attenuation in shallow groundwater piezometers (3-6 m bgl) using single-well push-pull tests. We found generally low levels (< 0.5 mg/L) of NO3-N in shallow groundwater piezometers (> 5 m bgl), despite being installed under intensive land uses, such as dairying and cropping. Our in-field push-pull tests showed NO3-N reduction at four shallow groundwater piezometers, with the rates of reduction varying from 0.04 mg N L- 1 h-1 to 1.57 mg N L- 1 h-1. This highlights the importance of a sound understanding of not only the sources, but also transport and transformation, or

  16. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunitymore » for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.« less

  17. Tools to Perform Local Dense 3D Reconstruction of Shallow Water Seabed ‡

    PubMed Central

    Avanthey, Loïca; Beaudoin, Laurent; Gademer, Antoine; Roux, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Tasks such as distinguishing or identifying individual objects of interest require the production of dense local clouds at the scale of these individual objects of interest. Due to the physical and dynamic properties of an underwater environment, the usual dense matching algorithms must be rethought in order to be adaptive. These properties also imply that the scene must be observed at close range. Classic robotized acquisition systems are oversized for local studies in shallow water while the systematic acquisition of data is not guaranteed with divers. We address these two major issues through a multidisciplinary approach. To efficiently acquire on-demand stereoscopic pairs using simple logistics in small areas of shallow water, we devised an agile light-weight dedicated system which is easy to reproduce. To densely match two views in a reliable way, we devised a reconstruction algorithm that automatically accounts for the dynamics, variability and light absorption of the underwater environment. Field experiments in the Mediterranean Sea were used to assess the results. PMID:27196913

  18. Snowmelt induced hydrologic perturbations drive dynamic microbiological and geochemical behaviors across a shallow riparian aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danczak, Robert; Yabusaki, Steven; Williams, Kenneth; Fang, Yilin; Hobson, Chad; Wilkins, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.

  19. Environmentally adaptive processing for shallow ocean applications: A sequential Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Candy, J V

    2015-09-01

    The shallow ocean is a changing environment primarily due to temperature variations in its upper layers directly affecting sound propagation throughout. The need to develop processors capable of tracking these changes implies a stochastic as well as an environmentally adaptive design. Bayesian techniques have evolved to enable a class of processors capable of performing in such an uncertain, nonstationary (varying statistics), non-Gaussian, variable shallow ocean environment. A solution to this problem is addressed by developing a sequential Bayesian processor capable of providing a joint solution to the modal function tracking and environmental adaptivity problem. Here, the focus is on the development of both a particle filter and an unscented Kalman filter capable of providing reasonable performance for this problem. These processors are applied to hydrophone measurements obtained from a vertical array. The adaptivity problem is attacked by allowing the modal coefficients and/or wavenumbers to be jointly estimated from the noisy measurement data along with tracking of the modal functions while simultaneously enhancing the noisy pressure-field measurements.

  20. Bacterial Community Associated with Organs of Shallow Hydrothermal Vent Crab Xenograpsus testudinatus near Kuishan Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan-Hua; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Hsu, Tin-Chang; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Shallow-water hydrothermal vents off Kueishan Island (northeastern Taiwan) provide a unique, sulfur-rich, highly acidic (pH 1.75-4.6) and variable-temperature environment. In this species-poor habitat, the crab Xenograpsus testudinatus is dominant, as it mainly feeds on zooplankton killed by sulfurous plumes. In this study, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate diversity and composition of bacteria residing in digestive gland, gill, stomach, heart, and mid-gut of X. testudinatus, as well as in surrounding seawater. Dominant bacteria were Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria that might be capable of autotrophic growth by oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds and are usually resident in deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Dominant bacterial OTUs in X. testudinatus had both host and potential organ specificities, consistent with a potential trophic symbiotic relationship (nutrient transfer between host and bacteria). We inferred that versatile ways to obtain nutrients may provide an adaptive advantage for X. testudinatus in this demanding environment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of bacterial communities in various organs/tissues of a crustacean in a shallow-water hydrothermal system, and as such, may be a convenient animal model for studying these systems.

  1. Snowmelt Induced Hydrologic Perturbations Drive Dynamic Microbiological and Geochemical Behaviors across a Shallow Riparian Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Danczak, Robert E.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a 6-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species inmore » reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Thus, reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.« less

  2. Snowmelt Induced Hydrologic Perturbations Drive Dynamic Microbiological and Geochemical Behaviors across a Shallow Riparian Aquifer

    DOE PAGES

    Danczak, Robert E.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Williams, Kenneth H.; ...

    2016-05-11

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a 6-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species inmore » reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Thus, reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.« less

  3. Metagenomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Nutrient Cycling Pathways in the Microbiota of Deep-Sea and Shallow-Water Sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Fang; He, Liming; He, Ying; Wang, Shenyue

    2016-12-01

    Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae were detected in both shallow-water sponge T. swinhoei and deep-sea sponge N. huxleyi, and different microbial community structures were indicated between these two sponges. Metagenome-based gene abundance analysis indicated that, though the two sponge microbiota have similar core functions, they showed different potential strategies in detailed metabolic processes, e.g., in the transformation and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur by corresponding microbial symbionts. This study provides insight into the putative metabolic potentials of the microbiota associated with the shallow-water and deep-sea sponges at the whole community level, extending our knowledge of the sponge microbiota's functions, the association of sponge- microbes, as well as the adaption of sponge microbiota to the marine environment.

  4. Bioavailable metals and cellular effects in the digestive gland of marine limpets living close to shallow water hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Luís; Amaral, André; Medeiros, Vera; Martins, Gustavo M; Wallenstein, Francisco F M M; Couto, Ruben P; Neto, Ana I; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2008-04-01

    The pressure exerted by shallow water hydrothermal vents on edible gastropods and their cellular responses triggered by these stresses are almost unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of metals in the Macaronesian endemic limpet Patella candei gomesii living close to shallow water hydrothermal vents, and the structural differences in their digestive gland as well as the levels of apoptosis in that organ. Limpets were sampled in four sites, two with the presence of hydrothermalism and the other two without it. Whole body concentrations of several metals (Ca, Cd, Cs, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn) were obtained, morphometry analysis of the digestive gland and TUNEL test for apoptosis were also performed. Results revealed that the presence of shallow water hydrothermal vents is a source of chronic metal stress to limpets, imposing modifications in the morphometry and cell composition of the digestive gland of those limpets that may constitute cell and tissue adaptations to the environment they live in. This study sets up new baseline data for further research on the influence of shallow water hydrothermal vents over communities living in these habitats.

  5. Variability of and Factors Controlling Precipitation Production in Shallow Cumulus - Results from the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2016-12-01

    Shallow cumulus clouds are by far the most frequently observed cloud type over the Earth's oceans and frequently produce warm rain. However, quantitative rainfall estimates from these clouds are challenging to acquire from satellites due to their small horizontal scale. Here, two years of observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site located on Graciosa Island in the Azores are used to characterize the frequency, intensity, and fractional coverage of shallow cumulus precipitation. The analyzed dataset is the most comprehensive of its type, considering both its temporal extent and the sophistication of the ground-based observations. The precipitation rate at the base of shallow cumulus is estimated using combined radar-lidar observations and the rain retrievals are compared to the rainfall measurements available at the ground by optical disdrometers. Using synergy between surfaced-based observations of aerosols and thermodynamic soundings, the vertical structure of the Marine Boundary Layer and the temporal variability of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration are determined. The observed variability in shallow cumulus precipitation is examined in relation to the variability of the large-scale environment as captured by the humidity profile, the magnitude of the low-level horizontal winds and aerosol loading.

  6. Nanodiamond finding in the hyblean shallow mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Simakov, S K; Kouchi, A; Mel'nik, N N; Scribano, V; Kimura, Y; Hama, T; Suzuki, N; Saito, H; Yoshizawa, T

    2015-06-01

    Most of Earth's diamonds are connected with deep-seated mantle rocks; however, in recent years, μm-sized diamonds have been found in shallower metamorphic rocks, and the process of shallow-seated diamond formation has become a hotly debated topic. Nanodiamonds occur mainly in chondrite meteorites associated with organic matter and water. They can be synthesized in the stability field of graphite from organic compounds under hydrothermal conditions. Similar physicochemical conditions occur in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems. Herein, we report the first finding of nanodiamonds, primarily of 6 and 10 nm, in Hyblean asphaltene-bearing serpentinite xenoliths (Sicily, Italy). The discovery was made by electron microscopy observations coupled with Raman spectroscopy analyses. The finding reveals new aspects of carbon speciation and diamond formation in shallow crustal settings. Nanodiamonds can grow during the hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks, as well as during the lithogenesis of sediments bearing organic matter.

  7. Nitrogen transformations along a shallow subterranean estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, Mathilde; Tommi-Morin, Gwendoline; Sirois, Maude; Rao, Alexandra; Nozais, Christian; Chaillou, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-01

    The transformations of chemical constituents in subterranean estuaries (STEs) control the delivery of nutrient loads from coastal aquifers to the ocean. It is important to determine the processes and sources that alter nutrient concentrations at a local scale in order to estimate accurate regional and global nutrient fluxes via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), particularly in boreal environments, where data are still very scarce. Here, the biogeochemical transformations of nitrogen (N) species were examined within the STE of a boreal microtidal sandy beach located in the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada). This study revealed the vertical and horizontal distribution of nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), ammonia (NH4+), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) measured in beach groundwater during four spring seasons (June 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015) when aquifer recharge was maximal after snowmelt. Inland groundwater supplied high concentrations of NOx and DON to the STE, whereas inputs from seawater infiltration were very limited. Non-conservative behaviour was observed along the groundwater flow path, leading to low NOx and high NH4+ concentrations in the discharge zone. The long transit time of groundwater within the beach (˜ 166 days), coupled with oxygen-depleted conditions and high carbon concentrations, created a favourable environment for N transformations such as heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification and ammonium production. Biogeochemical pathways led to a shift in nitrogen species along the flow path from NOx-rich to NOx-poor groundwater. An estimate of SGD fluxes of N was determined to account for biogeochemical transformations within the STE based on a N-species inventory and Darcy's flow. Fresh inland groundwater delivered 37 mol NOx yr-1 per metre of shoreline and 63 mol DON m-1 yr-1 to the STE, and NH4+ input was negligible. Near the discharge zone, the potential export of N species was estimated around 140, 1

  8. Pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, M.T.; Banks, W.S.L.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A regional study of the areal and depth distribution of pesticides in shallow groundwater in the Delmarva Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia was done to (i) relate the pesticides detected to landscape and shallow subsurface features, and (ii) evaluate aquifer vulnerability and the potential contamination of drinking-water supplies. Water samples collected at 100 wells from 1988 to 1990 were analyzed for concentrations of 36 pesticides, four metabolites, and other constituents. The most commonly detected residues were atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Concentrations were low; few exceeded 3 ??g L-1. Most detections correlate with the intensive use of these herbicides in three widely distributed and commonly rotated crops-corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and small grain-particularly if grown in well- drained soils. Most detections occurred in samples collected from shallow wells screened within 10 m of the overlying water table. The shallow depth distribution of most residues is consistent with their suspected history of use (ca. 20 yr), and patterns in shallow groundwater flow in the surficial aquifer in the study area. The areal and depth distributions of detectable residues in groundwater did not correlate with a vulnerability index, nor any of the component scores developed to estimate that index using the DRASTIC method. The shallow depth of most detections also indicates why few samples from water-supply wells in this study had measurable concentrations of pesticides; most supply wells are deeper than 10 m below the water table. The low number of contaminated samples from supply wells implies that deep groundwater currently (1992) used for drinking generally does not contain detectable pesticide residues.

  9. Coherent and Noncoherent Joint Processing of Sonar for Detection of Small Targets in Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Jingning; Li, Si; Ding, Zhenping; Pan, Chen; Gong, Xianyi

    2018-04-10

    A coherent-noncoherent joint processing framework is proposed for active sonar to combine diversity gain and beamforming gain for detection of a small target in shallow water environments. Sonar utilizes widely-spaced arrays to sense environments and illuminate a target of interest from multiple angles. Meanwhile, it exploits spatial diversity for time-reversal focusing to suppress reverberation, mainly strong bottom reverberation. For enhancement of robustness of time-reversal focusing, an adaptive iterative strategy is utilized in the processing framework. A probing signal is firstly transmitted and echoes of a likely target are utilized as steering vectors for the second transmission. With spatial diversity, target bearing and range are estimated using a broadband signal model. Numerical simulations show that the novel sonar outperforms the traditional phased-array sonar due to benefits of spatial diversity. The effectiveness of the proposed framework has been validated by localization of a small target in at-lake experiments.

  10. Coherent and Noncoherent Joint Processing of Sonar for Detection of Small Targets in Shallow Water

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingning; Li, Si; Ding, Zhenping; Pan, Chen; Gong, Xianyi

    2018-01-01

    A coherent-noncoherent joint processing framework is proposed for active sonar to combine diversity gain and beamforming gain for detection of a small target in shallow water environments. Sonar utilizes widely-spaced arrays to sense environments and illuminate a target of interest from multiple angles. Meanwhile, it exploits spatial diversity for time-reversal focusing to suppress reverberation, mainly strong bottom reverberation. For enhancement of robustness of time-reversal focusing, an adaptive iterative strategy is utilized in the processing framework. A probing signal is firstly transmitted and echoes of a likely target are utilized as steering vectors for the second transmission. With spatial diversity, target bearing and range are estimated using a broadband signal model. Numerical simulations show that the novel sonar outperforms the traditional phased-array sonar due to benefits of spatial diversity. The effectiveness of the proposed framework has been validated by localization of a small target in at-lake experiments. PMID:29642637

  11. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    With the objective of demonstrating the feasibility of fabricating 2 x 2 cm efficient, shallow homojunction GaAs solar cells for space applications, this program addresses the basic problems of material preparation and device fabrication. Significant progress was made and conversion efficiencies close to 16 percent at AM0 were obtained on 2 x 2 cm cells. Measurements and computer analyses on the n(+)/p/p(+) shallow homojunction cells indicate that such cell configuration should be very resistant to 1 MeV electron irradiation.

  12. Kelvin Wave Influence on the Shallow-to-Deep Transition Over the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A.; Serra, Y. L.

    2017-12-01

    The suite of observations from GOAmazon and CHUVA offers a unique opportunity to examine land-based convective processes in the tropics, including the poorly represented shallow-to-deep transition. This study uses these data to investigate impacts of Kelvin waves on the the shallow-to-deep transition over the Central Amazon. The Kelvin waves that propagate over the region often originate over the tropical central and east Pacific, with local generation over the Andes also observed. The observed 15 m s-1 phase speed and 4500 km wave length during the two-year campaign are in agreement with previously published studies of these waves across the tropics. Also in agreement with previous studies, we find the waves are most active during the wet season (November-May) for this region. Using four separate convective event classes (clear-sky, nonprecipitating cumulus congestus, afternoon deep convection, and mesoscale convective systems), we examine how the convection preferentially develops for different phases of the Kelvin waves seen during GOAmazon. We additionally examine surface meteorological variables, the vertical thermodynamic and dynamic structure of the troposphere, vertical moist static stability, integrated column water vapor and liquid water, and surface energy fluxes within the context of these convective classes to identify the important environmental factors contributing to observed periods of enhanced deep convection related to the waves. Results suggest that the waves significantly modify the local environment, such as creating a deep layer of moisture throughout the troposphere, favoring more organized convection in the active than in the suppressed phase of the wave. The significance of wave-related environmental modifications are assessed by comparing local rainfall accumulations during Kelvin wave activity to that when the waves are not present. Future work will further explore the shallow-to-deep transition and its modulation by Kelvin wave activity

  13. Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) in Northern Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) on Mars are part of a growing inventory of post-Noachian landforms that may be related to late, widespread aqueous activity that occurred during a period once thought to be less favorable for precipitation and runoff. Constraining the source, magnitude, timing and duration of FSVs will provide insight into the mechanism and extent of fluvial activity on Mars and the geologic and climatic environments in which they formed. Unlike the older Noachian-Hesperian valleys that are characterized by integrated, dissected and degraded networks that cover large spatial extents, FSVs are typically narrow, short or discontinuous valleys with low drainage densities. They are generally incised no more than a few decameters, slightly degraded at multi-meter scales, and cluster in the mid-latitudes (35-50° in both hemispheres). A high concentration of FSVs occurs in Northern Arabia Terra (~33°N, 8°E), a Noachian-aged landscape characterized by broad, irregular depressions. Many of the FSVs in this region are 150+ km long and some appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water at the time of formation. Examples of broad, flat floored FSVs with incised channels could either indicate a complex history of a single flow event or multiple flow events. The occurrence of "pollywogs," fairly fresh, small (typically 2-10 km in diameter) craters with a single channel extending from the rim outward, implies overflow of the crater, the presence of a deep lake and the involvement of artesian groundwater flow. Roughly 25% of the FSVs in our northern Arabia Terra study region occur on relatively fresh crater ejecta, which may be related to formation age, topography, surface materials and (or) substrate. Ejecta with dense concentrations of FSVs average 25.5 km in diameter, have more degraded crater interiors, and well developed petal-like ejecta. Ejecta with sparse or no FSVs have radial ejecta with less distinct petals and are associated with

  14. Microbial arsenic oxidation in a shallow marine hydrothermal vent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J. P.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Pichler, T.; Price, R.; Herndon, E.; Hsia, N.

    2005-12-01

    The toxic effects of arsenic are well documented, but this Group V element can also serve as an energy source to a diverse group of microorganisms. Most of the attention has been on arsenate (AsV) reduction, but the focus is shifting to include arsenite (AsIII) oxidation and subsequent immobilization through coprecipitation with iron (oxy)hydroxides. The shallow marine hydrothermal fluids near Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea are characterized by arsenite concentrations of up to 1,000 μg/L. Directly proximal to the vent orifices, arsenate coprecipitates with 2-line ferrihydrite, coating rocks and corals in red and green biofilms up to 1 cm thick. DNA extracted from these coatings was amplified with archaeal- and bacterial-specific primers, and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Both biofilm samples revealed archaeal communities exclusively composed of uncultured Crenarchaea. The bacterial members are primarily gamma Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes in the red biofilm, but 60% of the community in the green biofilm affiliate with the alpha Proteobacteria and candidate group OP11; there is minimal overlap in bacterial phylotypes between the two coatings. Slurries from these coatings were also used to inoculate geochemically designed growth media supplemented with various redox couples, including aerobic and anaerobic As(III) oxidation. On a medium targeting anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic arsenic oxidation coupled to ferric iron reduction at 50 °C, predominantly rod-shaped organisms (~5×105 cells/ml) were enriched. In contrast, on an aerobic arsenic oxidation medium, coccoid-shaped organisms (~3×106 cells/ml) were enriched. The respective thermophilic microbial communities may be taking advantage of overall metabolisms represented by H3AsO3(aq) + 2FeOOH(s) + 3H+ = H2AsO4- + 2Fe2+ + 3H2O (1) and H3AsO3(aq) + 1/2O2(aq) = H2AsO4- + H+. (2) To date, no arsenite oxidizers are known to use ferric iron as a terminal electron acceptor (reaction 1). However, this

  15. Shallow velocity structure across the Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, S.; Kaminski, E. C.; Carazzo, G.; Limare, A.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric injection of volcanic ash during explosive eruptions is controlled by the dynamics of a volcanic column and associated umbrella cloud, which are subject to a wind field, and are connected by a turbulent fountain which initiates horizontal spreading at the neutral buoyancy level. We present a new theoretical and experimental study of an axisymmetric turbulent umbrella cloud intruding horizontally at its neutral buoyancy level into a static environment linearly stratified in density. The intrusion is fed by a constant horizontal volume flux (Q0) at a finite radius (R0), where it has a constant thickness (2H0). The characteristics of the fountain (R0, H0, Q0) derive from a vertical forced plume (source momentum and buoyancy fluxes Mi , Fi) and environmental stratification N. Buoyancy drives horizontal flow but, despite high Reynolds number, impedes entrainment of ambient fluid into the umbrella cloud. Turbulent stresses are nevertheless crucial in the momentum balance. Our theory highlights the vertical profiles of density and velocity within the current of which we present experimental measurements. Initially, current buoyancy is opposed by the inertia of the ambient fluid, and current radius (RN(t)) grows linearly in time. Subsequently, turbulent drag opposes buoyancy, and the current breaks down into two parts: i) between the source and a transition radius (R0T(t)), a steady region where current thickness (2H) and mean velocity (U) are time-independent and decreasing functions of r ; ii), a contiguous unsteady « frontal » region, between the transition radius and the front (RTN), in which the current thickens. The theory predicts current shape and an asymptotic spreading behaviour (RN t^5/9) which agree well with experimental data. Our analysis of satellite observations of several sustained plinian events including the Pinatubo 1991 climactic eruption shows that both the initial and asymptotic spreading regimes predicted by the model are present.

  16. Validation testing of shallow notched round-bar screening test specimens. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroman, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The capability of shallow-notched, round-bar, tensile specimens for screening critical environments as they affect the material fracture properties of the space shuttle main engine was tested and analyzed. Specimens containing a 0.050-inch-deep circumferential sharp notch were cyclically loaded in a 5000-psi hydrogen environment at temperatures of +70 and -15 F. Replication of test results and a marked change in cyclic life because of temperature variation demonstrated the validity of the specimen type to be utilized for screening tests.

  17. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    Treesearch

    Dino Bellugi; William E. Dietrich; Jonathan Stock; Jim McKean; Brian Kazian; Paul Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so...

  18. Testing the Shallow Structure Hypothesis in L2 Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Language processing heuristics are one of the possible sources of divergence between first and second language systems. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006) proposes that non-native language processing relies primarily on semantic, and not syntactic, information, and that second language (L2) processing is therefore…

  19. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  20. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  1. Digging Postholes Adds Depth and Authenticity to a Shallow Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtue, David C.; Buchanan, Anne; Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of high-stakes testing and accountability, many social studies teachers struggle to find creative ways to add depth and authenticity to a broad, shallow curriculum. Teachers can use the time after tests are administered for students to reflect back on the social studies curriculum and select topics they want to study more deeply…

  2. Acoustic MIMO communications in a very shallow water channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuehai; Cao, Xiuling; Tong, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Underwater acoustic channels pose significant difficulty for the development of high speed communication due to highly limited band-width as well as hostile multipath interference. Enlightened by rapid progress of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technologies in wireless communication scenarios, MIMO systems offer a potential solution by enabling multiple spatially parallel communication channels to improve communication performance as well as capacity. For MIMO acoustic communications, deep sea channels offer substantial spatial diversity among multiple channels that can be exploited to address simultaneous multipath and co-channel interference. At the same time, there are increasing requirements for high speed underwater communication in very shallow water area (for example, a depth less than 10 m). In this paper, a space-time multichannel adaptive receiver consisting of multiple decision feedback equalizers (DFE) is adopted as the receiver for a very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication system. The performance of multichannel DFE receivers with relatively small number of receiving elements are analyzed and compared with that of the multichannel time reversal receiver to evaluate the impact of limited spatial diversity on multi-channel equalization and time reversal processing. The results of sea trials in a very shallow water channel are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of very shallow water MIMO acoustic communication.

  3. Quantification of Shallow Groundwater Nutrient Dynamics in Septic Areas

    Treesearch

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Of all groundwater pollution sources, septic systems are the second largest source of groundwater nitrate contamination in USA. This study investigated shallow groundwater (SGW) nutrient dynamics in septic areas at the northern part of the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA. Thirty-five SGW-monitoring wells, located at nine different urban areas served by septic...

  4. Shallow Processing and Attention Capture in Written and Spoken Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Alison J. S.; Sanford, Anthony J.; Molle, Jo; Emmott, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Processing of discourse seems to be far from uniform with much evidence indicating that it can be quite shallow. The question is then what modulates depth of processing? A range of discourse devices exist that we believe may lead to more detailed processing of language input (Attention Capturers), thus serving as modulators of processing enabling…

  5. Reaction of Hardwood Timber to Shallow-Water Impoundments

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot

    1958-01-01

    In recent years farmers and sportsmen have built many temporary shallow-water impoundments in southern hardwood forests. While the main purpose has been to attract waterfowl, a recent study shows that these forest lakes, if properly managed, can also benefit the timber.

  6. Adult Developmental Dyslexia in a Shallow Orthography: Are There Subgroups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Service, Elisabet; Lipsanen, Jari; Virsu, Veijo

    2012-01-01

    The existence and stability of subgroups among adult dyslexic readers of a shallow orthography was explored by comparing three different cluster analyses based on previously suggested combinations of two variables. These were oral reading speed versus accuracy, word versus pseudoword reading speed, and phonological awareness versus rapid naming.…

  7. On the Shallow Processing (Dis)Advantage: Grammar and Economy.

    PubMed

    Koornneef, Arnout; Reuland, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the psycholinguistic literature it has been proposed that readers and listeners often adopt a "good-enough" processing strategy in which a "shallow" representation of an utterance driven by (top-down) extra-grammatical processes has a processing advantage over a "deep" (bottom-up) grammatically-driven representation of that same utterance. In the current contribution we claim, both on theoretical and experimental grounds, that this proposal is overly simplistic. Most importantly, in the domain of anaphora there is now an accumulating body of evidence showing that the anaphoric dependencies between (reflexive) pronominals and their antecedents are subject to an economy hierarchy. In this economy hierarchy, deriving anaphoric dependencies by deep-grammatical-operations requires less processing costs than doing so by shallow-extra-grammatical-operations. In addition, in case of ambiguity when both a shallow and a deep derivation are available to the parser, the latter is actually preferred. This, we argue, contradicts the basic assumptions of the shallow-deep dichotomy and, hence, a rethinking of the good-enough processing framework is warranted.

  8. Investigating controls on boron isotope ratios in shallow marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang; Henehan, Michael J.; Hull, Pincelli M.; Reid, R. Pamela; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Hood, Ashleigh v. S.; Planavsky, Noah J.

    2017-01-01

    The boron isotope-pH proxy has been widely used to reconstruct past ocean pH values. In both planktic foraminifera and corals, species-specific calibrations are required in order to reconstruct absolute values of pH, due to the prevalence of so-called vital effects - physiological modification of the primary environmental signals by the calcifying organisms. Shallow marine abiotic carbonate (e.g. ooids and cements) could conceivably avoid any such calibration requirement, and therefore provide a potentially useful archive for reconstructions in deep (pre-Cenozoic) time. However, shallow marine abiotic carbonates could also be affected by local shifts in pH caused by microbial photosynthesis and respiration, something that has up to now not been fully tested. In this study, we present boron isotope measurements from shallow modern marine carbonates, from the Bahama Bank and Belize to investigate the potential of using shallow water carbonates as pH archives, and to explore the role of microbial processes in driving nominally 'abiogenic' carbonate deposition. For Bahama bank samples, our boron-based pH estimates derived from a range of carbonate types (i.e. ooids, peloids, hardground cements, carbonate mud, stromatolitic micrite and calcified filament micrite) are higher than the estimated modern mean-annual seawater pH values for this region. Furthermore, the majority (73%) of our marine carbonate-based pH estimates fall out of the range of the estimated pre-industrial seawater pH values for this region. In shallow sediment cores, we did not observe a correlation between measured pore water pH and boron-derived pH estimates, suggesting boron isotope variability is a depositional rather than early diagenetic signal. For Belize reef cements, conversely, the pH estimates are lower than likely in situ seawater pH at the time of cement formation. This study indicates the potential for complications when using shallow marine non-skeletal carbonates as marine pH archives

  9. Sources and fate of high levels of ammonium in surface water and shallow groundwater of the Jianghan Plain, Central China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yao; Ma, Teng; Deng, Yamin; Shen, Shuai; Lu, Zongjie

    2017-02-22

    High levels of ammonium from anthropogenic sources threaten the quality of surface waters and groundwaters in some areas worldwide, but elevated ammonium levels of natural sources also have been identified. High levels of ammonium have been detected in both surface water and shallow groundwater of the Jianghan Plain, an alluvial plain of the Yangtze River. This study used N isotopes coupled with ancillary chemistry to identify ammonium in this region. Ammonium in the Tongshun River (up to 10.25 mg L -1 ) showed a sharp accumulation in the upstream and gradual attenuation in the downstream. The δ 15 N values of ammonium in the TSR were high and ranged narrowly from +12.5 to +15.4‰, suggesting an anthropogenic source that was septic effluent from industrial waste discharge. Sorption and nitrification were likely to respectively serve as the principal processes contributing to ammonium attenuation in different reaches of the downstream TSR. In shallow groundwater, high levels of ammonium (up to 14.10 mg L -1 ) occurred in a reducing environment. The narrow δ 15 N variation with low values (+2.3 to +4.5‰) in the lower aquifer suggested a natural source that was organic N mineralization. The δ 15 N values in the shallow aquitard exhibited a wide range from -1.8 to +9.4‰, owing to various sources. Two types of water in the shallow aquitard could be identified: (1) type-1 water with relatively longer residence time was similar to those in the aquifer where ammonium was mainly sourced from organic N mineralization; (2) type-2 water with shorter residence time was jointly affected by surface input, chemical attenuation and mineralization of organic N. The aquitard prevents prompt ammonium exchange between the surface and aquifer, and the shallower part of the aquitard provides a sufficient reaction time and an active reaction rate for ammonium removal.

  10. Evidence for direct water absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants in desert-oasis ecotone, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Besides the absorption by roots from the soil substrate, it has long been known that plants exhibit alternative water-absorption strategies, particularly in drought-prone environments. For many tropical epiphytic orchids, air moisture can be absorbed directly by aerial roots. Some conifers are also found to utilize air moisture by foliar absorption during the summer fog season. However, few studies have been carried out on the atmospheric water vapor absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants. We conducted experiments in desert-oasis ecotone and investigated the effects of dew absorbed by three kinds of shallow-rooted seedlings on net photosynthesis rate, as well as on other water relations variables. Three kinds of typical shallow-rooted desert species (Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola collina and Corispermum declinatum) have been chosen and potted. Each species were subjected to contrasting watering regimes (normal and deficient) and different air moisture conditions (having dew and having no dew) for 10 weeks. Net photosynthesis rate was measured on six occasions during the study. Other water relations variables (midday shoot water potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance) were also measured. Under the dew conditions, average net photosynthesis rate, shoot water potential, leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance increased, with greater responses observed for plants subjected to a deficient watering regime than for well-watered plants. These results indicated dew occurred in arid region could be utilized through foliar absorption by some shallow-rooted plants, and for the shallow-rooted plants, the presence of dew could significantly relieve the deficit of water in water-stressed regime.

  11. The Seabed and Shallow Geology Mapping of the Porcupine Bank, West of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaudeau, B.; Monteys, X.; McCarron, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The "Porcupine Bank" is a bathymetric high of over 40,000 km2 linked to the western shelf of Ireland which lies between 51-54° N and 11-15° W approximately 100 km west of Ireland. Water depths are as shallow as 145 m over the "Porcupine Ridge". The Bank's location on the north eastern fringe of the Atlantic Ocean, in a critical position between the shelf edge and the main land and along the line of the Polar Front, means it may contain significant indications of glacial/interglacial changes in northern hemisphere climate and in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. But it also means that it consists of strategically important marine environments with very likely future developmental pressures. Peer-reviewed publications on the geology of the Bank are very limited and this current state of knowledge will hamper any marine ecosystem research and protection. This paper will describe the first results of a research project aiming at filling the gap of our understanding of the region's shallow geology and subseabed resources and characteristics. As a first step, seabed geomorphology mapping using high resolution MBES and sub bottom data have highlighted a wealth of glacially derived features such as iceberg scours and elongated ridges whose formation could be directly influenced by the presence of ice on or nearby the bank. Other features interpreted as sand waves could help understand relict or modern currents. In addition to these surface features, this paper introduces recent geological mapping of the shallow stratigraphy of the bank using 2D seismic and sub bottom profiler data collected at a high density correlated with recently collected vibro-cores. The seismic units and corresponding lithofacies (some with radiocarbon dates) are consistently described and a regional correlation built.

  12. Biodiversity patterns of rock encrusting fauna from the shallow sublittoral of the Admiralty Bay.

    PubMed

    Krzeminska, Malgorzata; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2018-08-01

    The Antarctic sublittoral is one of the most demanding habitat for polar bottom-dwelling organisms, as the disturbance of this zone is highly intense. Rapid changes in the marine environment, such as increases in atmosphere and surface water temperatures, can cause dramatic changes in biodiversity, especially in glacial fjords affected by heavy melt water inputs from the retreating glaciers. In such areas, rocks are often an important support for local diversity, providing habitats for a number of encrusting organisms. Thus, understanding the patterns of diversity of shallow rock encrusting fauna and factors controlling it are particularly important. The structure and diversity patterns of rock encrusting fauna were examined from four ecologically contrasting sites in the shallow sublittoral (6-20 m) of Admiralty Bay (King George Island). The results revealed a rich and abundant encrusting community with bryozoans and polychaetes outcompeting representatives of other fauna such as foraminifera and porifera. Spatial variability in species composition, as well as biological parameters, revealed the trend of encrusting assemblages declining towards the inner fjord areas - strongly affected by high sediment input (species richness: 13.3 ± 1.2, and abundance: 68,932.99 ± 11,915.98 individuals m -2  ± standard error). In contrast, at sites more open to the central basin, a peak of biological parameters was observed (24.8 ± 1.4 and 297,360.9 ± 30,314.72, respectively). We suggest that increased sedimentation was the major factor structuring the encrusting assemblages in Ezcurra Inlet, masking the influence of other parameters, such as food and light availability, which are important for the distribution of epifauna. Thus, if the increasing intensity of glacial processes will continue in the upcoming years, the diversity of the encrusting fauna in the shallow sublittoral could dramatically decrease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review.

    PubMed

    Vial, Jessica; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Vogel, Raphaela

    2017-01-01

    Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented analyses across a range of models and for observations. The trade-wind cloud feedbacks appear to depend on two important aspects: (1) how cloudiness near cloud-base is controlled by the local interplay between turbulent, convective and radiative processes; (2) how these processes interact with their surrounding environment and are influenced by mesoscale organization. Our synthesis of studies that have explored these aspects suggests that the large diversity of model responses is related to fundamental differences in how the processes controlling trade cumulus operate in models, notably, whether they are parameterized or resolved. In models with parameterized convection, cloudiness near cloud-base is very sensitive to the vigor of convective mixing in response to changes in environmental conditions. This is in contrast with results from high-resolution models, which suggest that cloudiness near cloud-base is nearly invariant with warming and independent of large-scale environmental changes. Uncertainties are difficult to narrow using current observations, as the trade cumulus variability and its relation to large-scale environmental factors strongly depend on the time and/or spatial scales at which the mechanisms are evaluated. New opportunities for testing physical understanding of the factors controlling shallow cumulus cloud responses using

  14. Modelling gas transport in the shallow subsurface in the Maguelone field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basirat, Farzad; Niemi, Auli; Perroud, Hervé; Lofi, Johanna; Denchik, Nataliya; Lods, Gérard; Pezard, Philippe; Sharma, Prabhakar; Fagerlund, Fritjof

    2013-04-01

    Developing reliable monitoring techniques to detect and characterize CO2 leakage in shallow subsurface is necessary for the safety of any GCS project. To test different monitoring techniques, shallow injection-monitoring experiment have and are being carried out at the Maguelone, along the Mediterranean lido of the Gulf of Lions, near Montpellier, France. This experimental site was developed in the context of EU FP7 project MUSTANG and is documented in Lofi et al. (2012). Gas injection experiments are being carried out and three techniques of pressure, electrical resistivity and seismic monitoring have been used to detect the nitrogen and CO2 release in the near surface environment. In the present work we use the multiphase and multicomponent TOUGH2/EOS7CA model to simulate the gaseous nitrogen and CO2 transport of the experiments carried out so far. The objective is both to gain understanding of the system performance based on the model analysis as well as to further develop and validate modelling approaches for gas transport in the shallow subsurface, against the well-controlled data sets. Numerical simulation can also be used for the prediction of experimental setup limitations. We expect the simulations to represent the breakthrough time for the different tested injection rates. Based on the hydrogeological formation data beneath the lido, we also expect the vertical heterogeneities in grain size distribution create an effective capillary barrier against upward gas transport in numerical simulations. Lofi J., Pezard P.A., Bouchette F., Raynal O., Sabatier P., Denchik N., Levannier A., Dezileau L., and Certain R. Integrated onshore-offshore geophysical investigation of a layered coastal aquifer, NW Mediterranean. Ground Water, (2012).

  15. The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Koren, Ilan; Remer, Lorraine A.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Rudich, Yinon

    2005-01-01

    Clouds developing in a polluted environment tend to have more numerous but smaller droplets. This property may lead to suppression of precipitation and longer cloud lifetime. Absorption of incoming solar radiation by aerosols, however, can reduce the cloud cover. The net aerosol effect on clouds is currently the largest uncertainty in evaluating climate forcing. Using large statistics of 1-km resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data, we study the aerosol effect on shallow water clouds, separately in four regions of the Atlantic Ocean, for June through August 2002: marine aerosol (30°S–20°S), smoke (20°S–5°N), mineral dust (5°N–25°N), and pollution aerosols (30°N– 60°N). All four aerosol types affect the cloud droplet size. We also find that the coverage of shallow clouds increases in all of the cases by 0.2–0.4 from clean to polluted, smoky, or dusty conditions. Covariability analysis with meteorological parameters associates most of this change to aerosol, for each of the four regions and 3 months studied. In our opinion, there is low probability that the net aerosol effect can be explained by coincidental, unresolved, changes in meteorological conditions that also accumulate aerosol, or errors in the data, although further in situ measurements and model developments are needed to fully understand the processes. The radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere incurred by the aerosol effect on the shallow clouds and solar radiation is –11 ± 3 W/m2 for the 3 months studied; 2/3 of it is due to the aerosol-induced cloud changes, and 1/3 is due to aerosol direct radiative effect. PMID:16076949

  16. Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jessica; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Vogel, Raphaela

    Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented analyses across a range of models and for observations. The trade-wind cloud feedbacks appear to depend on two important aspects: (1) how cloudiness near cloud-base is controlled by the local interplay between turbulent, convective and radiative processes; (2) how these processes interact with their surrounding environment and are influenced by mesoscale organization. Our synthesis of studies that have explored these aspects suggests that the large diversity of model responses is related to fundamental differences in how the processes controlling trade cumulus operate in models, notably, whether they are parameterized or resolved. In models with parameterized convection, cloudiness near cloud-base is very sensitive to the vigor of convective mixing in response to changes in environmental conditions. This is in contrast with results from high-resolution models, which suggest that cloudiness near cloud-base is nearly invariant with warming and independent of large-scale environmental changes. Uncertainties are difficult to narrow using current observations, as the trade cumulus variability and its relation to large-scale environmental factors strongly depend on the time and/or spatial scales at which the mechanisms are evaluated. New opportunities for testing physical understanding of the factors controlling shallow cumulus cloud responses using

  17. Investigation of shallow gas hydrate occurrence and gas seep activity on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Young Keun; Baranov, Boris; Obzhirov, Anatoly; Salomatin, Alexander; Derkachev, Alexander; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hrotsugu; Kuk Hong, Jong

    2016-04-01

    The Sakhalin continental slope has been a well-known gas hydrate area since the first finding of gas hydrate in 1980's. This area belongs to the southernmost glacial sea in the northern hemisphere where most of the area sea is covered by sea ice the winter season. Very high organic carbon content in the sediment, cold sea environment, and active tectonic regime in the Sakhalin slope provide a very favorable condition for occurring shallow gas hydrate accumulation and gas emission phenomena. Research expeditions under the framework of a Korean-Russian-Japanese long-term international collaboration projects (CHAOS, SSGH-I, SSGH-II projects) have been conducted to investigate gas hydrate occurrence and gas seepage activities on the Sakhalin continental slope, Russia from 2003 to 2015. During the expeditions, near-surface gas hydrate samples at more than 30 sites have been retrieved and hundreds of active gas seepage structures on the seafloor were newly registered by multidisciplinary surveys. The gas hydrates occurrence at the various water depths from about 300 m to 1000 m in the study area were accompanied by active gas seepage-related phenomena in the sub-bottom, on the seafloor, and in the water column: well-defined upward gas migration structures (gas chimney) imaged by high-resolution seismic, hydroacoustic anomalies of gas emissions (gas flares) detected by echosounders, seafloor high backscatter intensities (seepage structures) imaged by side-scan sonar and bathymetric structures (pockmarks and mounds) mapped by single/multi-beam surveys, and very shallow SMTZ (sulphate-methane transition zone) depths, strong microbial activities and high methane concentrations measured in sediment/seawater samples. The highlights of the expeditions are shallow gas hydrate occurrences around 300 m in the water depth which is nearly closed to the upper boundary of gas hydrate stability zone in the area and a 2,000 m-high gas flare emitted from the deep seafloor.

  18. Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Jessica; Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Vogel, Raphaela

    2017-11-01

    Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important topic of investigation. We review physical understanding of these key controlling factors and discuss the value of the different approaches that have been developed so far, based on global and high-resolution model experimentations and process-oriented analyses across a range of models and for observations. The trade-wind cloud feedbacks appear to depend on two important aspects: (1) how cloudiness near cloud-base is controlled by the local interplay between turbulent, convective and radiative processes; (2) how these processes interact with their surrounding environment and are influenced by mesoscale organization. Our synthesis of studies that have explored these aspects suggests that the large diversity of model responses is related to fundamental differences in how the processes controlling trade cumulus operate in models, notably, whether they are parameterized or resolved. In models with parameterized convection, cloudiness near cloud-base is very sensitive to the vigor of convective mixing in response to changes in environmental conditions. This is in contrast with results from high-resolution models, which suggest that cloudiness near cloud-base is nearly invariant with warming and independent of large-scale environmental changes. Uncertainties are difficult to narrow using current observations, as the trade cumulus variability and its relation to large-scale environmental factors strongly depend on the time and/or spatial scales at which the mechanisms are evaluated. New opportunities for testing physical understanding of the factors controlling shallow cumulus cloud responses using

  19. An Ecological Tipping Point Defined by Shallow Marine Foraminifera in the latest Paleocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. M.; Spivey, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is recognized in marine sediments by a carbonate dissolution zone, the extinction or turnover of benthic taxa, and a radiation of planktic excursion taxa, all accompanied by a rapid-onset, negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). We present foraminiferal evidence from shallow marine sediments in southeastern Maryland, USA, where accumulation rates are high, for a minor ocean acidification event in the latest Paleocene that coincides with a relatively small (-2‰) CIE. This pre-onset excursion (POE) precedes the larger (-4‰) PETM CIE onset and dissolution event. During the POE, the benthic assemblage is reconfigured toward agglutinated species in order to adapt to increased acidity, and the planktic assemblage begins to speciate due to perturbed mixed layer conditions. The benthic assemblage returns to normal, without interruption, as the POE recovers, but planktic excursion taxa continue to appear in very low numbers. This is contrasted to the major ocean acidification event associated with the PETM CIE onset that results in a zone of complete dissolution followed by distinctive benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblages. Our microfossil evidence documents a biotic response to bottom water and mixed layer perturbations that illustrates how coastal ecosystems react to both moderate and severe ocean acidification events, bracketing the ecological tipping point of shallow marine ecosystems. The POE, roughly half the magnitude of the CIE onset, provides insight into the nature of the initial effects of climate perturbation as well as an example of one that is fully recoverable. It is here that research aimed to better understand the long-term effects and reversibility of modern deteriorating oceanic conditions should focus. This study provides an initial metric by which to measure modern ecosystem disturbances and will help to define the tipping point for the shallow marine environment.

  20. Assessing Methane in Shallow Groundwater in Unconventional Oil and Gas Play Areas, Eastern Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Parris, Thomas M; Taylor, Charles J; Webb, Steven E; Davidson, Bart; Smath, Richard; Richardson, Stephen D; Molofsky, Lisa J; Kromann, Jenna S; Smith, Ann P

    2018-05-01

    The expanding use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology to produce oil and gas from tight rock formations has increased public concern about potential impacts on the environment, especially on shallow drinking water aquifers. In eastern Kentucky, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have been used to develop the Berea Sandstone and the Rogersville Shale. To assess baseline groundwater chemistry and evaluate methane detected in groundwater overlying the Berea and Rogersville plays, we sampled 51 water wells and analyzed the samples for concentrations of major cations and anions, metals, dissolved methane, and other light hydrocarbon gases. In addition, the stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of methane (δ 13 C-CH 4 and δ 2 H-CH 4 ) was analyzed for samples with methane concentration exceeding 1 mg/L. Our study indicates that methane is a relatively common constituent in shallow groundwater in eastern Kentucky, where methane was detected in 78% of the sampled wells (40 of 51 wells) with 51% of wells (26 of 51 wells) exhibiting methane concentrations above 1 mg/L. The δ 13 C-CH 4 and δ 2 H-CH 4 ranged from -84.0‰ to -58.3‰ and from -246.5‰ to -146.0‰, respectively. Isotopic analysis indicated that dissolved methane was primarily microbial in origin formed through CO 2 reduction pathway. Results from this study provide a first assessment of methane in the shallow aquifers in the Berea and Rogersville play areas and can be used as a reference to evaluate potential impacts of future horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing activities on groundwater quality in the region. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Deteriorating water clarity in shallow waters: Evidence from long term MODIS and in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Pan, Delu

    2018-06-01

    Water clarity (Secchi disk depth: SDD), as a proxy of water transparency, provides important information on the light availability to the water or lake ecosystem. Shallow lakes have been experienced dramatic environmental and climatic change. This study demonstrated using combination of long-term MODIS and in-situ measurements to track the dynamics of SDD with these environmental and climate changes in shallow water environments. We selected a typical turbid shallow Lake Taihu as our case study. Based on MODIS-Aqua data, an empirical model for estimating SDD was developed and validated. Subsequently, we employed the proposed model to derive the spatial and temporal SDD distribution patterns of Lake Taihu from 2003 to 2015. Combining MODIS-derived SDD time series of 2003-2015 and long-term in-situ SDD observations dated back to 1993, we elucidated SDD long-term variation trends and driving mechanism. Deteriorating water clarity from the long-term SDD observations indicated that Lake Taihu became more and more turbid and water quality was decreasing. Increasing in cyanobacterial bloom area, as a result of decreasing in wind speed and eutrophication, may partially be responsible for the decreasing trend. A predicted future decrease in the wind speed in Lake Taihu region could enhance the formation of cyanobacterial blooms and consequently lead to a further decrease in water clarity. This study suggested that coupling remote sensing monitoring and long-term in-situ observations could provide robust evidence and new insights to elucidate long-term dynamics in aquatic ecosystem evolution.

  2. Refining the Magnitude of the Shallow Slip Deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Tong, X.; Sandwell, D. T.; Milliner, C. W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic inversions for slip versus depth for several major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (e.g. 1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine, 2010 El_Mayor-Cucapah) show a 10% to 40% reduction in slip near surface (depth < 2 km) compared to the slip at deeper depths (5 to 8 km). This has been called the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions used incomplete data that do not go close to fault so the shallow portions of the slip models were poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study we improve the geodetic inversion, especially at shallow depth by: 1) refining the InSAR processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU using a correlation mask and allowing a phase discontinuity along the rupture; 2) including near-fault offset data from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; 3) using more detailed fault geometry; 4) and using additional campaign GPS data. With these improved observations, the slip inversion has significantly increased resolution at shallow depth. For the Landers rupture the SSD is reduced from 45% to 16%. Similarly for the Hector Mine rupture the SSD is reduced from 15% to 5%. We are assembling all the relevant co-seismic data for the El Major-Cucapah earthquake and will report the inversion result with its SSD at the meeting.

  3. Chlorate origin and fate in shallow groundwater below agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Vincenzi, Fabio; Colombani, Nicolò; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    In agricultural lowland landscapes, intensive agricultural is accompanied by a wide use of agrochemical application, like pesticides and fertilizers. The latter often causes serious environmental threats such as N compounds leaching and surface water eutrophication; additionally, since perchlorate can be present as impurities in many fertilizers, the potential presence of perchlorates and their by-products like chlorates and chlorites in shallow groundwater could be a reason of concern. In this light, the present manuscript reports the first temporal and spatial variation of chlorates, chlorites and major anions concentrations in the shallow unconfined aquifer belonging to Ferrara province (in the Po River plain). The study was made in 56 different locations to obtain insight on groundwater chemical composition and its sediment matrix interactions. During the monitoring period from 2010 to 2011, in June 2011 a nonpoint pollution of chlorates was found in the shallow unconfined aquifer belonging to Ferrara province. Detected chlorates concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 38 mg/l with an average value of 2.9 mg/l. Chlorates were found in 49 wells out of 56 and in all types of lithology constituting the shallow aquifer. Chlorates concentrations appeared to be linked to NO 3 - , volatile fatty acids (VFA) and oxygen reduction potential (ORP) variations. Chlorates behaviour was related to the biodegradation of perchlorates, since perchlorates are favourable electron acceptors for the oxidation of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater. Further studies must take into consideration to monitor ClO 4 - in pore waters and groundwater to better elucidate the mass flux of ClO 4 - in shallow aquifers belonging to agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategies towards an optimized use of the shallow geothermal potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelenz, S.; Firmbach, L.; Kalbacher, T.; Goerke, U.; Kolditz, O.; Dietrich, P.; Vienken, T.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling and thermal energy storage is increasingly gaining importance in reconsideration of future energy supplies, e.g. in the course of German energy transition, with application shifting from isolated to intensive use. The planning and dimensioning of (geo-)thermal applications is strongly influenced by the availability of exploration data. Hence, reliable site-specific dimensioning of systems for the thermal use of the shallow subsurface will contribute to an increase in resource efficiency, cost reduction during installation and operation, as well as reduction of environmental impacts and prevention of resource over-exploitation. Despite large cumulative investments that are being made for the utilization of the shallow thermal potential, thermal energy is in many cases exploited without prior on-site exploration and investigation of the local geothermal potential, due to the lack of adequate and cost-efficient exploration techniques. We will present new strategies for an optimized utilization of urban thermal potential, showcased at a currently developed residential neighborhood with high demand for shallow geothermal applications, based on a) enhanced site characterization and b) simulation of different site specific application scenarios. For enhanced site characterization, surface geophysics and vertical high resolution direct push-profiling were combined for reliable determination of aquifer structure and aquifer parameterization. Based on the site characterization, different site specific geothermal application scenarios, including different system types and system configurations, were simulated using OpenGeoSys to guarantee an environmental and economic sustainable thermal use of the shallow subsurface.

  5. Measurement of shallow sea floor motion with GPS on a rigid buoy: system design and synthetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, T. H.; Xie, S.; Malservisi, R.; Lembke, C.; Iannaccone, G.; Law, J.; Rodgers, M.; Russell, R.; Voss, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    A GPS-buoy system has been built and is currently undergoing test to measure precise 3D sea floor motion in the shallow (less than 200 m) continental shelf environment. Offshore deformation is undersampled in most subduction zones. In Cascadia, the shallow shelf environment constitutes roughly 20%-25% of the offshore area between the coastline and the trench. In the system being tested, the GPS receiver at the top of the buoy is connected to the sea floor through a rigid structure supported by a float. A similar design has been used by INGV (Italy) to measure vertical deformation on the sea floor near the Campi Flegrei caldera. Synthetic analysis shows that by adding a 3-axis digital compass to measure heading and tilt, along with kinematic GPS measurements, position of the anchor can be recovered to an accuracy of several centimeters or better, depending on water depth and GPS baseline length. Synthetic resolution tests show that our ability to detect shallow slow slip events on subduction plate boundaries can be greatly improved by adding offshore GPS-buoy sites.

  6. A study of electric field components in shallow water and water half-space models in seabed logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Amir; Soleimani, Hassan; Yahya, Noorhana; Nyamasvisva, Tadiwa Elisha; Rauf, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Seabed logging (SBL) is an electromagnetic (EM) method to detect hydrocarbon (HC) laid beneath the seafloor, which is a development of marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method. CSEM is a method to show resistivity log of geological layers, transmitting ultra-low frequency EM wave. In SBL a net of receivers, placed on the seafloor, detect reflected and refracted EM wave by layers with different resistivity. Contrast of electrical resistivity of layers impacts on amplitude and phase of the EM wave response. The most indispensable concern in SBL is to detect guided wave via high resistive layer under the seafloor that can be an HC reservoir. Guided wave by HC creates a remarkable difference in received signal when HC reservoir does not exist. While the major contribution of received EM wave in large offset, especially in shallow water environment, is airwave, which is refracted by sea surface due to extremely high resistivity of atmosphere, airwave can affect received guided wave, dramatically. Our objective for this work is to compare HC delineation of tangential and normal components of electric field in shallow water area, using finite element method simulation. Will be reported that, in shallow water environment, minor contribution of air wave in normal component of E field (Ey) versus its major contribution in the tangential component (Ex), causes a considerable contrast on HC delineation of Ey for deeply buried reservoirs (more than 3000 m), while Ex is unable to show different contrasts of received data for with and without HC media at the same condition.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in

  8. How propeller suction is the dominant factor for ship accidents at shallow water conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The laminar flow comes to the fore with the disappearance of the several other directions in the internal displacements in the water current. Due to the dominant speed direction during the straightforward motion of the ship, the underwater hull is associated with the continuous flow of laminar currents. The open marine environment acts as a compressible liquid medium because of the presence of many variables about water volume overflow boundaries where the ship is associated. Layers of water rising over the sea surface due to ship's body and the propeller's water push provides loss of liquid lifting force for the ship. These situations change the well-known sea-floor morphology and reliable depth limits, and lead to probable accidents. If the ship block coefficient for the front side is 0.7 or higher, the "squat" will be more on the bow, because the associated factor "displacement volume" causes to the low-pressure environment due to large and rapid turbulence. Thus, the bow sinks further, which faced with liquid's weaker lift force. The vessels Gerardus Mercator, Queen Elizabeth and Costa Concordia had accidents because of unified reasons of squat, fast water mass displacement by hull push and propeller suction interaction. In the case of water mass displacement from the bow side away, that accident occurred in 2005 by the vessel Gerardus Mercator with excessive longitudinal trim angularity in the shallow water. The vessel Costa Concordia (2012), voluminous water displaced from the rear left side was an important factor because of the sharp manoeuvre of that the captain made before the accident. Observations before the accident indicate that full-speed sharp turn provided listed position for the ship from left (port side) in the direction of travel before colliding and then strike a rock on the sloping side of the seabed. The reason why the ship drifted to the left depends mainly the water discharge occurred at the left side of the hull during left-hand rudder

  9. Presence of Antibiotics in Shallow Groundwater in the Northern and Southwestern Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Lang, Hang; Liu, Fei; Jin, Song; Yan, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotics are widely used, and there is a serious concern about its adverse impacts on the environment and human health. To our knowledge, prior to this work, there was no evidence of the potential presence of antibiotics in groundwater in China, despite populous speculations. This study reported the detection of 35 target antibiotics of 6 groups (chloramphenicois, lincosamides, marcrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines), in shallow groundwater samples collected in northern and southwestern China. Thirty-four of thirty-five target antibiotics were detected in the groundwater samples; 73 of 74 monitoring wells contained at least one antibiotic; and at least two antibiotics were detected in 72 of the 74 wells. Ofloxacin (1199.7 ng/L), lincomycin (860.7 ng/L), and norfloxacin (441.9 ng/L) as well as antibiotics with the highest detection frequency such as sulfapyridine (70%), norfloxacin (69%), and lincomycin (64%) were detected at elevated concentrations. The highest detection frequency and concentration of lincosamides were observed in those groundwater samples, but no clear distribution patterns were observed for the six antibiotic groups. Moreover, shallow groundwater in southwestern China seemed to contain most antibiotics, likely due to the high antibiotics discharge and frequent exchange of groundwater with surface matrices. The findings from this work suggest that groundwater in China has been widely contaminated by antibiotics, and presumably other pharmaceutical compounds that have not been investigated to date. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  11. Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vents represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. Vents are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water vents have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water vents off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant vent fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the vent, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the vent fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of vent fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the vent crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with vents and inhabit the vent mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments. PMID:26849440

  12. Characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of colloids in eutrophic shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; Xu, Mengwen; Li, Yani; Liu, Xin; Guo, Laodong; Jiang, Helong

    2018-05-31

    Stability of colloidal particles contributes to the turbidity in the water column, which significantly influences water quality and ecological functions in aquatic environments especially shallow lakes. Here we report characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of aquatic colloids, including natural colloidal particles (NCPs) and total inorganic colloidal particles (TICPs), in a highly turbid shallow lake, via field observations, simulation experiments, ultrafiltration, spectral and microscopic, and light scattering techniques. The colloidal particles were characterized with various shapes (spherical, polygonal and elliptical) and aluminum-, silicon-, and ferric-containing mineralogical structures, with a size range of 20-200 nm. The process of sediment re-suspension under environmentally relevant conditions contributed 78-80% of TICPs and 54-55% of NCPs in Lake Taihu, representing an important source of colloids in the water column. Both mono- and divalent electrolytes enhanced colloidal aggregation, while a reverse trend was observed in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The influence of NOM on colloidal stability was highly related to molecular weight (MW) properties with the high MW fraction exhibiting higher stability efficiency than the low MW counterparts. However, the MW-dependent aggregation behavior for NCPs was less significant than that for TICPs, implying that previous results on colloidal behavior using model inorganic colloids alone should be reevaluated. Further studies are needed to better understand the mobility/stability and transformation of aquatic colloids and their role in governing the fate and transport of pollutants in natural waters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Detection of Potential Shallow Aquifer Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at UTHM Campus, Johor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzaty Riwayat, Akhtar; Nazri, Mohd Ariff Ahmad; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) has become part of important method in preliminary stage as to gain more information in indicate the hidden water in underground layers. The problem faces by engineers is to determine the exact location of groundwater zone in subsurface layers. ERI seen as the most suitable tools in exploration of groundwater as this method have been applied in geotechnical and geo-environment investigation. This study was conducted using resistivity at UTHM campus to interpret the potential shallow aquifer and potential location for borehole as observation well. A Schlumberger array was setup during data acquisition as this array is capable in imaging deeper profile data and suitable for areas with homogeneous layer. The raw data was processed using RES2DINV software for 2D subsurface image. The result obtained indicate that the thickness of shallow aquifer for both spread line varies between 7.5 m to 15 m. The analysis of rest raw data using IP showed that the chargeability parameter is equal to 0 which strongly indicated the presence of groundwater aquifer in the study area.

  14. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Qureshi, Riffat M; Ahmad, Nasir; Solaija, Tariq Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast has been carried out using a gamma spectrometry technique. The activity concentration measured in various sediment samples off the Sindh coast has been found to vary from 15.93 +/- 5.22 to 30.53 +/- 4.70 Bq kg(-1) for 226Ra, from 11.72 +/- 1.22 to 33.94 +/- 1.86 Bq kg(-1) for 228Ra and from 295.22 +/- 32.83 to 748.47 +/- 28.75 Bq kg(-1) for 40K. The calculated mean values of radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate and effective dose are 98 Bq kg(-1), 49 nGy h(-1) and 0.06 mSv y(-1), respectively. No artificial radionuclide was detected in the samples measured from the study area. As no data on radioactivity of the coastal environment of Pakistan are available, the data presented here will serve as baseline information on radionuclide concentration in shallow sea sediments off the Sindh coast. The data will also be useful for tracking pollution inventories from unusual radiological events (if any) in the territorial waters of the study area. Further, the information presented will contribute to modelling of a regional radioactivity database from the perspectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database and Global Marine Radioactivity Database.

  15. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  16. [Ichthyofauna associated to a shallow reef in Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López-Ordaz, A; Rodríguez-Quintal, J G

    2010-10-01

    Ichthyofauna associated to a shallow reef in Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. Morrocoy National Park is one of the most studied coastal marine environments in Venezuela; however, efforts have been concentrated in south zone. In this study we select a shallow reef located in the north zone, characterized the benthic community and the structure of the fish community was studied using visual censuses. The benthic community was dominated by dead coral covered by algae (31%) and the live coral coverage was 12%. A total of 65 fish species belonging to 24 families were recorded, being Pomacentridae (43%), Scaridae (19%) and Haemulidae (15%) the most abundant families. Significant differences in the fish species abundances were found along the depth gradient, which could be related to the habitat characteristics, nevertheless herbivorous species dominance was evident at all depth strata. There seems to be a trend towards greater richness and density in the south zone reefs, and these differences may be related to the presence of extensive seagrass meadows and mangrove forests in that area or to differences in the recruitment patterns.

  17. Notable increases in nutrient concentrations in a shallow lake during seasonal ice growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yang; Changyou, Li; Leppäranta, Matti; Xiaonghong, Shi; Shengnan, Zhao; Chengfu, Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Nutrients may be eliminated from ice when liquid water is freezing, resulting in enhanced concentrations in the unfrozen water. The nutrients diluted from the ice may contribute to accumulated concentrations in sediment during winter and an increased risk of algae blooms during the following spring and summer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of ice cover on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the water and sediment of a shallow lake, through an examination of Ulansuhai Lake, northern China, from the period of open water to ice season in 2011-2013. The N and P concentrations were between two and five times higher, and between two and eight times higher, than in unfrozen lakes, respectively. As the ice thickness grew, contents of total N and total P showed C-shaped profiles in the ice, and were lower in the middle layer and higher in the bottom and surface layers. Most of the nutrients were released from the ice to liquid water. The results confirm that ice can cause the nutrient concentrations in water and sediment during winter to increase dramatically, thereby significantly impacting on processes in the water environment of shallow lakes.

  18. Groundwater depth prediction in a shallow aquifer in north China by a quantile regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fawen; Wei, Wan; Zhao, Yong; Qiao, Jiale

    2017-01-01

    There is a close relationship between groundwater level in a shallow aquifer and the surface ecological environment; hence, it is important to accurately simulate and predict the groundwater level in eco-environmental construction projects. The multiple linear regression (MLR) model is one of the most useful methods to predict groundwater level (depth); however, the predicted values by this model only reflect the mean distribution of the observations and cannot effectively fit the extreme distribution data (outliers). The study reported here builds a prediction model of groundwater-depth dynamics in a shallow aquifer using the quantile regression (QR) method on the basis of the observed data of groundwater depth and related factors. The proposed approach was applied to five sites in Tianjin city, north China, and the groundwater depth was calculated in different quantiles, from which the optimal quantile was screened out according to the box plot method and compared to the values predicted by the MLR model. The results showed that the related factors in the five sites did not follow the standard normal distribution and that there were outliers in the precipitation and last-month (initial state) groundwater-depth factors because the basic assumptions of the MLR model could not be achieved, thereby causing errors. Nevertheless, these conditions had no effect on the QR model, as it could more effectively describe the distribution of original data and had a higher precision in fitting the outliers.

  19. Plant pigment types, distributions, and influences on shallow water submerged aquatic vegetation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert

    2004-11-01

    Development of robust protocols for use in mapping shallow water habitats using hyperspectral imagery requires knowledge of absorbing and scattering features present in the environment. These include, but are not limited to, water quality parameters, phytoplankton concentrations and species, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) species and densities, epiphytic growth on SAV, benthic microalgae and substrate reflectance characteristics. In the Indian River Lagoon, Fl. USA we conceptualize the system as having three possible basic layers, water column and SAV bed above the bottom. Each layer is occupied by plants with their associated light absorbing pigments that occur in varying proportions and concentrations. Phytoplankton communities are composed primarily of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria. SAV beds, including flowering plants and green, red, and brown macro-algae exist along density gradients ranging in coverage from 0-100%. SAV beds may be monotypic, or more typically, mixtures of the several species that may or may not be covered in epiphytes. Shallow water benthic substrates are colonized by periphyton communities that include diatoms, dinoflagellates, chlorophytes and cyanobacteria. Inflection spectra created form ASIA hyperspectral data display a combination of features related to water and select plant pigment absorption peaks.

  20. A shallow lake remediation regime with Phragmites australis: Incorporating nutrient removal and water evapotranspiration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Zhifeng; Xia, Xinghui; Wang, Fei

    2012-11-01

    Shallow lake eutrophication has been an important issue of global water environment. Based on the simulation and field sampling experiments in Baiyangdian Lake, the largest shallow lake in North China, this study proposed a shallow lake remediation regime with Phragmites australis (reed) incorporating its opposite effects of nutrient removal and water evapotranspiration on water quality. The results of simulation experiments showed that both total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies increased with the increasing reed coverage. The TN removal efficiencies by reed aboveground uptake and rhizosphere denitrification were 11.2%, 13.8%, 22.6%, 28.4%, and 29.6% for the reed coverage of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Correspondingly, TP removal efficiencies by aboveground reed uptake were 1.4%, 2.5%, 4.4%, 7.4% and 7.9%, respectively. However, the water quality was best when the reed coverage was 60% (72 plants m(-2)). This was due to the fact that the concentration effect of reed evapotranspiration on nutrient increased with reed coverage. When the reed coverage was 100% (120 plants m(-2)), the evapotranspiration was approximately twice that without reeds. The field sampling results showed that the highest aboveground nutrient storages occurred in September. Thus, the proposed remediation regime for Baiyangdian Lake was that the reed coverage should be adjusted to 60%, and the aboveground biomass of reeds should be harvested in each September. With this remediation regime, TN and TP removal in Baiyangdian Lake were 117.8 and 4.0 g m(-2), respectively, and the corresponding removal efficiencies were estimated to be 49% and 8.5% after six years. This study suggests that reed is an effective plant for the remediation of shallow lake eutrophication, and its contrasting effects of nutrient removal and evapotranspiration on water quality should be considered for establishing the remediation regime in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier

  1. Relative Importance of Chemoautotrophy for Primary Production in a Light Exposed Marine Shallow Hydrothermal System.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V; Pop Ristova, Petra; Sievert, Stefan M; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Bühring, Solveig I

    2017-01-01

    study highlights the relative importance of chemoautotrophy compared to photoautotrophy in a shallow-water hydrothermal system, emphasizing chemosynthesis as a prominent process for biomass production in marine coastal environments influenced by hydrothermalism.

  2. Energy balance and economic feasibility of shallow geothermal systems for winery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Mazarrón, F.; Almoguera-Millán, J.; García-Llaneza, J.; Perdigones, A.

    2012-04-01

    The search of energy efficient solutions has not yet been accomplished in agro-food constructions, for which technical studies and orientations are needed to find energy efficient solutions adapted to the environment. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effectiveness of using shallow geothermal energy for the winery industry. World wine production in 2009 stood at 27100 millions of litres [1]. World spends 320 billion Euros on wine a year, according to industry insiders. On average, it is estimated that producing 1 litre of wine sold in a 75 cl glass bottle costs around 0.5-1.2 Euros /litre [2]. The process of ageing the wine could substantially increase production costs. Considering the time required for the aging of wine (months or years) and the size of the constructions, the use of an air conditioning system implies a considerable increase in energy consumption. Underground wine cellars have been in use for centuries for making and ageing wine. Ground thermal inertia provides protection from outdoor temperature oscillation and maintains thermal stability without energy consumption [3]. Since the last century, production of wine has moved to buildings above ground that have several advantages: lower construction cost, more space, etc. Nevertheless, these constructions require a large energy consumption to maintain suitable conditions for the ageing and conservation of wine. This change of construction techniques is the cause of an increase in energy consumption in modern wineries. The use of shallow geothermal energy can be a good alternative to take advantage of the benefits of aboveground buildings and underground constructions simultaneously. Shallow geothermal systems can meet the needs of heating and cooling using a single installation, maintaining low energy consumption. Therefore, it could be a good alternative to conventional HVAC systems. The main disadvantage of geothermal systems is the high cost of investment required. This

  3. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +}-implants in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S.

    2012-12-15

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 Multiplication-Signmore » 10{sup 13} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 Degree-Sign C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H{sup +} beam by utilizing the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha})2{alpha} nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C.« less

  4. Relative Importance of Chemoautotrophy for Primary Production in a Light Exposed Marine Shallow Hydrothermal System

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Pop Ristova, Petra; Sievert, Stefan M.; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Bühring, Solveig I.

    2017-01-01

    highlights the relative importance of chemoautotrophy compared to photoautotrophy in a shallow-water hydrothermal system, emphasizing chemosynthesis as a prominent process for biomass production in marine coastal environments influenced by hydrothermalism. PMID:28484442

  5. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Warneford, Emma S., E-mail: emma.warneford@maths.ox.ac.uk; Dellar, Paul J., E-mail: dellar@maths.ox.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their modelmore » does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet

  6. Model-based interpretation of sediment concentration and vertical flux measurements in a shallow estuarine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Andreas; Lacy, Jessica R.; Gladding, Steve; Holleman, Rusty; Stacey, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model describing tidally varying vertical mixing and settling was used to interpret sediment concentrations and vertical fluxes observed in the shoals of South San Francisco Bay by two acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) at elevations of 0.36 m and 0.72 m above bed. Measured sediment concentrations changed by up to 100 g m−3 over the semidiurnal tidal cycle. These dynamics were dominated by local resuspension and settling. Multiple particle class models suggested the existence of a class with fast settling velocities (ws of 9.0 × 10−4 m s−1 in spring and 5.8 × 10−4 m s−1 in fall) and a slowly settling particle fraction (ws of <1 × 10−7 m s−1 in spring and 1.4 × 10−5 m s−1 in fall). Modeled concentrations of slowly settling particles at 0.36 m were as high as 20 g m−3 during fall and varied with the spring-neap cycle while fine sediment concentrations in spring were constant around 5 g m−3. Analysis of in situ water column floc size distributions suggested that floc properties in the lower part of the water column were most likely governed by particle-size distribution on the bed and not by coagulation, validating our multiple particle size approach. A comparison of different sediment bed models with respect to model performance, sensitivity, and identifiability suggested that the use of a sediment erosion model linear in bottom shear stress τb (E = M (τb − τc)) was the most appropriate choice to describe the field observations when the critical shear stress τc and the proportionality factor M were kept constant.

  7. A Modal Investigation of Elastic Anisotropy in Shallow Water Environments: A Study of Anisotropy Beyond VTI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    sediments, Geophys. J. Int., 104, 241-254. Bohlke, B.M. and Bennett, R.H., 1980. Mississippi prodelta crusts: a clay fabric and geotech - nical analysis...Mar. Geotech ., 4, 55-81. Carlson, R.L., Schafternaar, C.H., and Moore, R.P.,, 1984. Causes of compressional-wave anisotropy in carbonate-bearing, deep

  8. Sonobuoy-Based, 3-D Acoustic Characterization of Shallow-Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    10.1109/JOE.2014.2362838, ( IEEE Xplore Early Access, 4 Dec 2014)]. For each type of buoy, the eigenvalues at 50, 75, 125, and 175 Hz were used as input...using sonobuoys,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 607-620, Jul. 2015 (DOI: 10.1109/JOE.2014.2362838, ( IEEE Xplore Early Access, 4 Dec 2014...et al, “Modal mapping experiment and geoacoustic inversion using sonobuoys,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 607- 620, Jul. 2015 (DOI

  9. Continuous in situ monitoring of sediment deposition in shallow benthic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whinney, James; Jones, Ross; Duckworth, Alan; Ridd, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Sedimentation is considered the most widespread contemporary, human-induced perturbation on reefs, and yet if the problems associated with its estimation using sediment traps are recognized, there have been few reliable measurements made over time frames relevant to the local organisms. This study describes the design, calibration and testing of an in situ optical backscatter sediment deposition sensor capable of measuring sedimentation over intervals of a few hours. The instrument has been reconfigured from an earlier version to include 15 measurement points instead of one, and to have a more rugose measuring surface with a microtopography similar to a coral. Laboratory tests of the instrument with different sediment types, colours, particle sizes and under different flow regimes gave similar accumulation estimates to SedPods, but lower estimates than sediment traps. At higher flow rates (9-17 cm s-1), the deposition sensor and SedPods gave estimates >10× lower than trap accumulation rates. The instrument was deployed for 39 d in a highly turbid inshore area in the Great Barrier Reef. Sediment deposition varied by several orders of magnitude, occurring in either a relatively uniform (constant) pattern or a pulsed pattern characterized by short-term (4-6 h) periods of `enhanced' deposition, occurring daily or twice daily and modulated by the tidal phase. For the whole deployment, which included several very high wind events and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) >100 mg L-1, deposition rates averaged 19 ± 16 mg cm-2 d-1. For the first half of the deployment, where SSCs varied from <1 to 28 mg L-1 which is more typical for the study area, the deposition rate averaged only 8 ± 5 mg cm-2 d-1. The capacity to measure sedimentation rates over a few hours is discussed in terms of examining the risk from sediment deposition associated with catchment run-off, natural wind/wave events and dredging activities.

  10. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving.

  11. Acoustic Blind Deconvolution and Unconventional Nonlinear Beamforming in Shallow Ocean Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    this year’s work, contains natural bowhead whale calls recorded with a 12-element vertical array in the Arctic Ocean off the north coast of Alaska...This data set was collected and shared with this research project by Dr. Aaron Thode of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The whale call frequencies...performance of STR and conventional mode filtering for ranging the recorded whale calls. Figure 1. Arctic ocean sound channel used for simulations of

  12. Frequency-Difference Source Localization and Blind Deconvolution in Shallow Ocean Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    investigations were recorded as part of the KAM11 experiment and were provided for this research effort by Dr. Heechun Song of Scripps Institution of...kHz ≤ f ≤ 20 kHz, could not. Based on this simulation success, suitable broadband experimental measurements were sought, and Dr. Song of SIO...PROJECTS This project currently uses acoustic array recordings of sounds that propagated through the ocean. In FY14, Dr. Heechun Song of SIO

  13. Analysis of wind-driven ambient noise in a shallow water environment with a sandy seabed.

    PubMed

    Knobles, D P; Joshi, S M; Gaul, R D; Graber, H C; Williams, N J

    2008-09-01

    On the New Jersey continental shelf ambient sound levels were recorded during tropical storm Ernesto that produced wind speeds up to 40 knots in early September 2006. The seabed at the position of the acoustic measurements can be approximately described as coarse sand. Differences between the ambient noise levels for the New Jersey shelf measurements and deep water reference measurements are modeled using both normal mode and ray methods. The analysis is consistent with a nonlinear frequency dependent seabed attenuation for the New Jersey site.

  14. Primary Evaporites for the Messinian Salinity Crisis: the shallow gypsum vs. deep dolomite formation paradox solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2014-05-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) is a dramatic event that took place ~ 5.9 Ma ago, and resulted in the deposition of 0.3-3 km thick evaporites at the Mediterranean seafloor. A considerable and long-lasting controversy existed on the modes of their formation. During the CIESM Almeria Workshop a consensus was reached on several aspects. In addition, remaining issues to be solved were identified, such as for the observed shallow gypsum versus deep dolostone deposits for the early phase of MSC. The onset of MSC is marked by deposition of gypsum/sapropel-like alternations, thought to relate to arid/humid climate conditions. Gypsum precipitation only occurred at marginal settings, while dolomite containing rocks have been reported from deeper settings. A range of potential explanations have been reported, most of which cannot satisfactorily explain all observations. Biogeochemical processes during MSC are poorly understood and commonly neglected. These may, however, explain that different deposits formed in shallow versus deep environments without needing exceptional physical boundary conditions for each. We present here a unifying mechanism in which gypsum formation occurs at all shallow water depths but its preservation is mostly limited to shallow sedimentary settings. In contrast, ongoing anoxic organic matter (OM) degradation processes in the deep basin result in the formation of dolomite. Gypsum precipitation in evaporating seawater takes place at 3-7 times concentrated seawater; seawater is always largely oversaturated relative to dolomite but its formation is thought to be inhibited by the presence of dissolved sulphate. Thus the conditions for formation of gypsum exclude those for the formation of dolomite and vice versa. Another process that links the saturation states of gypsum and dolomite is that of OM degradation by sulphate reduction. In stagnant deep water, oxygen is rapidly depleted through OM degradation, then sulphate becomes the main oxidant for OM

  15. Investigating the explosivity of shallow sub-aqueous basaltic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, R.; White, J. D. L.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce pyroclasts containing vesicles, clearly implying exsolution of volatiles from the magma has occurred. Our aim is to understand the textural characteristics of vesiculated clasts as a quantitative indicator of the eruptive behaviour of a volcano. Assessing water's role in volatile degassing and outgassing has been and is being well documented for terrestrial eruptions; the same cannot be said, however, for their shallow subaqueous counterparts. The eruptive behaviour of Surtseyan volcanoes, which include both subaqueous and subaerial phases (for example, the type-location Surtsey, Iceland in 1963) is under investigation here and for good reason. Volcanic eruptions during which water and basaltic magma come into contact appear to ignite violent eruptions of many of the small "monogenetic" volcanoes so abundant on Earth. A key problem remains that detailed conditions of water-magma interactions are not yet fully understood. Field samples obtained from exposed sequences deposited originally in a subaqueous environment allow for the necessary analysis of lapilli. With the aid of experimental data, mathematical modelling and terrestrial analogues the ambition is to unravel volatile degassing, ascent histories and fragmentation processes, allowing us ultimately to identify both the role water plays in the explosivity of shallow subaqueous eruptions, and the rise history of magma to the point of interaction. The first site, Pahvant Butte is located in southwest Utah, U.S. It is a well preserved tuff cone overlying a subaqueously deposited mound of glassy ash composed of sideromelane and tachylite. It was erupted under ~85m of water into Lake Bonneville approximately 15,300 years ago. Our focus is on samples collected from a well-bedded, broadly scoured coarse ash and lapilli lithofacies on the eastern flank of the edifice. Vesicularity indices span from 52.6% - 60.8%, with very broad vesicularity ranges, 20.6% - 81.0% for one extreme sample. The

  16. Nonlinear and linear bottom interaction effects in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O.; Hsiao, S. V.; Hasselmann, K.; Herterich, K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines wave-energy dissipation rates in shallow water calculated from measured wave spectra at different distances from the shore. Different linear and nonlinear transfer and dissipation mechanisms are discussed. The various data sets are interpreted in terms of prevailing mechanisms at the respective sites. The incorporation of different processes in a predictive shallow-water model is outlined. The analysis suggests that bottom motion is primarily responsible for wave-energy dissipation in the Delta Region of the Gulf of Mexico, that friction is mainly responsible for wave-energy dissipation in Marineland, Panama City and Melkbosstrand, and that percolation is probably the dominant mechanism in the JONSWAP area of the North Sea.

  17. Law of Strata Pressure Behavior in Shallow Coal Seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian; Liu, Leibin; Zheng, Zhiyang

    2018-02-01

    The law of strata pressure behavior in shallow coal seam is analyzed, according to the load data of Jinjie Coal Mine 31109 working face hydraulic supports. The first weighting distance of main roof is 80 m, and the periodic weighting distance of main roof is about 20 m. And according to the load data in the middle and both ends of the working face, the working resistance of hydraulic supports and the setting load are a bit small, so they couldn’t meet the needs of supporting roof. Then, the front abutment pressure of working face is analyzed by numerical simulation. It does not only explain the reason that the load is too big, but also explains the reason that the strata pressure behavior in shallow coal seam is serious. The length of undamaged main roof rock beam verifies the correctness of the periodic weighting distance.

  18. Mechanisms of sediment flux between shallows and marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Schile, L.M.; Callaway, J.C.; Ferner, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a field study to investigate temporal variation and forcing mechanisms of sediment flux between a salt marsh and adjacent shallows in northern San Francisco Bay. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), tidal currents, and wave properties were measured over the marsh, in marsh creeks, and in bay shallows. Cumulative sediment flux in the marsh creeks was bayward during the study, and was dominated by large bayward flux during the largest tides of the year. This result was unexpected because extreme high tides with long inundation periods are commonly assumed to supply sediment to marshes, and long-term accretion estimates show that the marsh in the study site is depositional. A water mass-balance shows that some landward transport bypassed the creeks, most likely across the marsh-bay interface. An estimate of transport by this pathway based on observed SSC and inferred volume indicates that it was likely much less than the observed export.

  19. Numerical modeling of the thin shallow solar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bryan, J. B.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinear, numerical computation with the NIMROD code is used to explore and validate the thin shallow solar dynamo model [T.R. Jarboe et al. 2017], which explains the observed global temporal evolution (e.g. magnetic field reversal) and local surface structures (e.g. sunspots) of the sun. The key feature of this model is the presence and magnetic self-organization of global magnetic structures (GMS) lying just below the surface of the sun, which resemble 1D radial Taylor states of size comparable to the supergranule convection cells. First, we seek to validate the thin shallow solar dynamo model by reproducing the 11 year timescale for reversal of the solar magnetic field. Then, we seek to model formation of GMS from convection zone turbulence. Our computations simulate a slab covering a radial depth 3Mm and include differential rotation and gravity. Density, temperature, and resistivity profiles are taken from the Christensen-Dalsgaard model.

  20. Geologic structure of shallow maria. [topography of lunar maria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Isopach maps and structural contour maps of the eastern mare basins (30 deg N to 30 deg S; 0 deg to 100 deg E), constructed from measurements of partially buried craters, are presented and discussed. The data, which are sufficiently scattered to yield gross thickness variations, are restricted to shallow maria with less than 1500-2000 m of mare basalts. The average thickness of basalt in the irregular maria is between 200 and 400 m. Correlations between surface topography, basalt thickness, and basin floor structure are apparent in most of the basins that were studied. The mare surface is commonly depressed in regions of thick mare basalts; mare ridges are typically located in regions of pronounced thickness changes; and arcuate mare rilles are confined to thin mare basalts. Most surface structures are attributed to shallow stresses developed within the mare basalts during consolidation and volume reduction.

  1. Wind wave prediction in shallow water: Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaleri, L.; Rizzoli, P.M.

    1981-11-20

    A wind wave forecasting model is described, based upon the ray technique, which is specifically designed for shallow water areas. The model explicitly includes wave generation, refraction, and shoaling, while nonlinear dissipative processes (breaking and bottom fricton) are introduced through a suitable parametrization. The forecast is provided at a specified time and target position, in terms of a directional spectrum, from which the one-dimensional spectrum and the significant wave height are derived. The model has been used to hindcast storms both in shallow water (Northern Adriatic Sea) and in deep water conditions (Tyrrhenian Sea). The results have been compared withmore » local measurements, and the rms error for the significant wave height is between 10 and 20%. A major problems has been found in the correct evaluation of the wind field.« less

  2. The Challenge of High-resolution Mapping of Very Shallow Coastal Areas: Case Study of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madricardo, F.; Foglini, F.; Kruss, A.; Bajo, M.; Campiani, E.; Ferrarin, C.; Fogarin, S.; Grande, V.; Janowski, L.; Keppel, E.; Leidi, E.; Lorenzetti, G.; Maicu, F.; Maselli, V.; Montereale Gavazzi, G.; Pellegrini, C.; Petrizzo, A.; Prampolini, M.; Remia, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Rovere, M.; Sarretta, A.; Sigovini, M.; Toso, C.; Zaggia, L.; Trincardi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Very shallow coastal environments are often highly urbanized with half of the world's population and 13 of the largest mega-cities located close to the coast. These environments undergo rapid morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure that will likely be enhanced in the near future by mean sea-level rise. Therefore, there is a strong need for high resolution seafloor mapping to monitor and protect shallow coastal areas. To date, only about 5% of their seafloor has been mapped: their shallowness has prevented so far the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features; their turbidity often hindered the efficient use of LIDAR technology, particularly in lagoons and estuaries. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present the results of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea (surface area of about 550 km2, average depth of about 1 m) and it is a UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage site together with the historical city of Venice which is currently endangered by relative sea-level rise. Major engineering works are ongoing at the lagoon inlets (MOSE project) to protect Venice from flood events. In the last century, the morphology and ecology of the lagoon changed dramatically: the extent of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon deepened by more than 1 m with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice in view of the inlet modifications and mean sea-level rise, CNR-ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to

  3. DTMs Assessment to the Definition of Shallow Landslides Prone Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago D.; Oka-Fiori, Chisato; Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Montgomery, David R.

    2017-04-01

    Predictive methods have been developed, especially since the 1990s, to identify landslide prone areas. One of the examples it is the physically based model SHALSTAB (Shallow Landsliding Stability Model), that calculate the potential instability for shallow landslides based on topography and physical soil properties. Normally, in such applications in Brazil, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM), is obtained mainly from conventional contour lines. However, recently the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system has been largely used in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate different DTM's, generated from conventional data and LiDAR, and their influence in generating susceptibility maps to shallow landslides using SHALSTAB model. For that were analyzed the physical properties of soil, the response of the model when applying conventional topographical data and LiDAR's in the generation of DTM, and the shallow landslides susceptibility maps based on different topographical data. The selected area is in the urban perimeter of the municipality of Antonina (PR), affected by widespread landslides in March 2011. Among the results, it was evaluated different LiDAR data interpolation, using GIS tools, wherein the Triangulation/Natural Neighbor presented the best performance. It was also found that in one of evaluation indexes (Scars Concentration), the LiDAR derived DTM presented the best performance when compared with the one originated from contour lines, however, the Landslide Potential index, has presented a small increase. Consequently, it was possible to assess the DTM's, and the one derived from LiDAR improved very little the certitude percentage. It is also noted a gap in researches carried out in Brazil on the use of products generated from LiDAR data on geomorphological analysis.

  4. A Galerkin approximation for linear elastic shallow shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, I. N.; Trabucho, L.

    1992-03-01

    This work is a generalization to shallow shell models of previous results for plates by B. Miara (1989). Using the same basis functions as in the plate case, we construct a Galerkin approximation of the three-dimensional linearized elasticity problem, and establish some error estimates as a function of the thickness, the curvature, the geometry of the shell, the forces and the Lamé costants.

  5. Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Perepelitsa, Mikhail

    2012-12-01

    We establish the inviscid limit of the viscous shallow water equations to the Saint-Venant system. For the viscous equations, the viscosity terms are more degenerate when the shallow water is close to the bottom, in comparison with the classical Navier-Stokes equations for barotropic gases; thus, the analysis in our earlier work for the classical Navier-Stokes equations does not apply directly, which require new estimates to deal with the additional degeneracy. We first introduce a notion of entropy solutions to the viscous shallow water equations and develop an approach to establish the global existence of such solutions and their uniform energy-type estimates with respect to the viscosity coefficient. These uniform estimates yield the existence of measure-valued solutions to the Saint-Venant system generated by the viscous solutions. Based on the uniform energy-type estimates and the features of the Saint-Venant system, we further establish that the entropy dissipation measures of the viscous solutions for weak entropy-entropy flux pairs, generated by compactly supported C 2 test-functions, are confined in a compact set in H -1, which yields that the measure-valued solutions are confined by the Tartar-Murat commutator relation. Then, the reduction theorem established in Chen and Perepelitsa [5] for the measure-valued solutions with unbounded support leads to the convergence of the viscous solutions to a finite-energy entropy solution of the Saint-Venant system with finite-energy initial data, which is relative with respect to the different end-states of the bottom topography of the shallow water at infinity. The analysis also applies to the inviscid limit problem for the Saint-Venant system in the presence of friction.

  6. A semi-Lagrangian approach to the shallow water equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. R.; Mccormick, Stephen F.; Ruge, John; Sholl, David S.; Yavneh, Irad

    1993-01-01

    We present a formulation of the shallow water equations that emphasizes the conservation of potential vorticity. A locally conservative semi-Lagrangian time-stepping scheme is developed, which leads to a system of three coupled PDE's to be solved at each time level. We describe a smoothing analysis of these equations, on which an effective multigrid solver is constructed. Some results from applying this solver to the static version of these equations are presented.

  7. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  8. Sediment Transport at Density Fronts in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-16

    June 2009 on the Skagit Tidal flats in Puget Sound, coordinated with other researchers in the Tidal Flats DRI. Focused observations of the shallow...on wind correlation length scales and implications for coastal ocean modeling (Raubenheimer et al., 2013). We also worked on applying to the model...From the Skagit model results, we found that the rate of change of stratification, quantified as the integrated potential energy anomaly O (Simpson

  9. Boron Isotope Evidence for Shallow Fluid Transfer Across Subduction Zones by Serpentinized Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, M.; Tonarini, S.; Agostini, S.; Cannaò, E.

    2012-12-01

    Boron Isotope Evidence for Shallow Fluid Transfer Across Subduction Zones by Serpentinized Mantle M. Scambelluri (1), S. Tonarini (2), S. Agostini (2), E. Cannaò (1) (1) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Ambiente e vita, University of Genova, Italy (2) Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse-CNR, Pisa, Italy In subduction zones, fluid-mediated chemical exchange between slabs and mantle dictates volatile and incompatible element cycles and influences arc magmatism. Outstanding issues concern the sources of water for arc magmas and its slab-to-mantle wedge transport. Does it occur by slab dehydration beneath arc fronts, or by hydration of fore-arc mantle and subsequent subduction of the hydrated mantle? So far, the deep slab dehydration hypothesis had strong support, but the hydrated mantle wedge idea is advancing supported by studies of fluid-mobile elements in serpentinized wedge peridotites and their subducted high-pressure (HP) equivalents. Serpentinites are volatile and fluid-mobile element reservoirs for subduction: their dehydration causes large fluid and element flux to the mantle.However, direct evidence for their key role in arc magmatism and identification of dehydration environments has been elusive and boron isotopes can trace the process. Until recently, the altered oceanic crust (AOC) was considered the 11B reservoir for arcs, which largely display positive δ11B. However, shallow slab dehydration transfers 11B to the fore-arc mantle and leaves the residual AOC very depleted in 11B below arcs. Here we present high positive δ11B of HP serpentinized peridotites from Erro Tobbio (Ligurian Alps), recording subduction metamorphism from hydration at low-grade to eclogite-facies dehydration. We show a connection among serpentinite dehydration, release of 11B-rich fluids and arc magmatism. The dataset is completed by B isotope data on other HP Alpine serpentinites from Liguria and Lanzo Massif. In general, the δ11B of these rocks is heavy (16 to + 30 permil

  10. Magma Transport from Deep to Shallow Crust and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.; Green, R. G.; Brandsdottir, B.; Hudson, T.; Woods, J.; Donaldson, C.; Ágústsdóttir, T.

    2016-12-01

    We have mapped magma transport paths from the deep (20 km) to the shallow (6 km) crust and in two cases to eventual surface eruption under several Icelandic volcanoes (Askja, Bardarbunga, Eyjafjallajokull, Upptyppingar). We use microearthquakes caused by brittle fracture to map magma on the move and tomographic seismic studies of velocity perturbations beneath volcanoes to map the magma storage regions. High-frequency brittle failure earthquakes with magnitudes of typically 0-2 occur where melt is forcing its way through the country rock, or where previously frozen melt is repeatedly re-broken in conduits and dykes. The Icelandic crust on the rift zones where these earthquakes occur is ductile at depths greater than 7 km beneath the surface, so the occurrence of brittle failure seismicity at depths as great as 20 km is indicative of high strain rates, for which magma movement is the most likely explanation. We suggest that high volatile pressures caused by the exsolution of carbon dioxide in the deep crust is driving the magma movement and seismicity at depths of 15-20 km. Eruptions from shallow crustal storage areas are likewise driven by volatile exsolution, though additional volatiles, and in particular water are also involved in the shallow crust.

  11. Rainfall characteristics for shallow landsliding in Seattle, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Chleborad, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow landsliding in the Seattle, Washington, area, has caused the occasional loss of human life and millions of dollars in damage to property. The effective management of the hazzard requires an understanding of the rainfall conditions that result in landslides. We present an empirical approach to quantify the antecedent moisture conditions and rainstorm intensity and duration that have triggered shallow landsliding using 25 years of hourly rainfull data and a complementary record of landslide occurrence. Our approach combines a simple water balance to estimate the antecedent moisture conditions of hillslope materials and a rainfall intensity-duration threshold to identify periods when shallow landsliding can be expected. The water balance is calibrated with field-monitoring data and combined with the rainfall intensity-duration threshold using a decision tree. Results are cast in terms of a hypothetical landslide warning system. Two widespread landslide events are correctly identified by the warning scheme; however, it is less accurate for more isolated landsliding. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Shallow-landslide hazard map of Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.; Laprade, William T.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides, particularly debris flows, have long been a significant cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Puget Sound region. Following the years of 1996 and 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) designated Seattle as a 'Project Impact' city with the goal of encouraging the city to become more disaster resistant to the effects of landslides and other natural hazards. A major recommendation of the Project Impact council was that the city and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborate to produce a landslide hazard map of the city. An exceptional data set archived by the city, containing more than 100 years of landslide data from severe storm events, allowed comparison of actual landslide locations with those predicted by slope-stability modeling. We used an infinite-slope analysis, which models slope segments as rigid friction blocks, to estimate the susceptibility of slopes to shallow landslides which often mobilize into debris flows, water-laden slurries that can form from shallow failures of soil and weathered bedrock, and can travel at high velocities down steep slopes. Data used for analysis consisted of a digital slope map derived from recent Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) imagery of Seattle, recent digital geologic mapping, and shear-strength test data for the geologic units in the surrounding area. The combination of these data layers within a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform allowed the preparation of a shallow landslide hazard map for the entire city of Seattle.

  14. Relationship between structure of macrobenthic assemblages and environmental variables in shallow sublittoral soft bottoms.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Puri; Redondo, Waldo; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Rubal, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    We establish baseline knowledge of abundance, diversity and multivariate structure of macrobenthos from shallow sublitoral soft bottoms in the North Portuguese coast and elucidate main environmental factors that shape their spatial patterns. In this area distribution of soft bottoms is patchy, surrounded by boulders and rocky substrates. This particular landscape and the lack of significant anthropogenic disturbances are values for the conservation of this habitat. Sediment and physicochemical properties of the water column were studied to provide models for each studied macrobenthic variable. Our models highlighted that most of variation (59%-72%) in macrobenthic spatial patterns was explained by the studied environmental variables. Sedimentary variables were more relevant that those of the water column. Therefore, disturbances affecting sedimentary environment could cause dramatic changes in macrobenthic assemblages because of the limited availability of soft bottoms in the area. In this way, results are useful to adopt right management and conservation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental detection and focusing in shallow water by decomposition of the time reversal operator.

    PubMed

    Prada, Claire; de Rosny, Julien; Clorennec, Dominique; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Aubry, Alexandre; Fink, Mathias; Berniere, Lothar; Billand, Philippe; Hibral, Sidonie; Folegot, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    A rigid 24-element source-receiver array in the 10-15 kHz frequency band, connected to a programmable electronic system, was deployed in the Bay of Brest during spring 2005. In this 10- to 18-m-deep environment, backscattered data from submerged targets were recorded. Successful detection and focusing experiments in very shallow water using the decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT method) are shown. The ability of the DORT method to separate the echo of a target from reverberation as well as the echo from two different targets at 250 m is shown. An example of active focusing within the waveguide using the first invariant of the time reversal operator is presented, showing the enhanced focusing capability. Furthermore, the localization of the scatterers in the water column is obtained using a range-dependent acoustic model.

  16. Sound of shallow and deep water lobsters: Measurements, analysis, and characterization (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, G.; Senthilvadivu, S.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2005-05-01

    Study of sound made by marine species aid in ambient noise studies and characterization. This letter presents the work carried out on measurement of sound made by lobsters in a controlled environment and the data processing and the spectral analysis to identify the frequency contents. Lobsters collected in the shallow waters as well as deep waters in the ocean have been used for the sound measurement. The Panulirus Homarus and Palinustur Waguersis species were kept in a tank in a laboratory and measurements were made. Their fundamental frequencies, harmonics, and peaks are analyzed in the band 3 to 100 kHz under different conditions such as molting and nonmolting states. Analysis with respect to diurnal variations is also carried out. The results show that lobsters produce sound like musical instruments, which agree with the observations of Patek [Nature (London) 411, 153-154 (2001)]. .

  17. 77 FR 1501 - Special Purpose Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...-FF01M01000] Special Purpose Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set... the operation of the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius... albatross, by NMFS in its regulation of the shallow-set longline fishery based in Hawaii. This fishery...

  18. Quantifying the Benefits of Shallow Posthole Installation for the Future French Permanent Broadband Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, J.; Charade, O.; Bonaime, S.; Louis-Xavier, T.; Arnold, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (réseau sismologique et géodésique français) infrastructure, more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations have to be deployed in metropolitan France within the forthcoming years. This requires a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost, especially for the 60 percent of stations that we expect to be settled in open environments. During the last two years we tested various types of sensor's hosting infrastructures with a strong focus on recently released posthole sensors that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes. Tests were performed at 3 different sites (two GEOSCOPE stations and a dedicated open-field prototype site) with geological conditions spanning from hard rocks to very soft soils. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed at different depths, from the surface to a maximum of 20m deep, and in different types of casing. Moreover, a reference sensor, either installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault, has been operated continuously. We present a comprehensive comparison of the seismic noise level measured in the different hosting infrastructures and for several frequency bands corresponding to various sources of noise. At high and low frequencies, seismic noise level in some boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. Between 0.005 and 0.05Hz, we observe a strong decrease of seismic noise level on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and is mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved clearly depends on the local geology. All these tests, together with estimated installation costs, point toward the deployment of sensors in shallow boreholes at the future French broadband stations located in open environments.

  19. Snowmelt Induced Hydrologic Perturbations Drive Dynamic Microbiological and Geochemical Behaviors across a Shallow Riparian Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Danczak, Robert E.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species inmore » reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments. Frontiers in Earth Science Journal Impact & Description - ResearchGate - Impact Rankings ( 2015 and 2016 ). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/journal/2296-6463_Frontiers_in_Earth_Science [accessed Jul 25, 2016].« less

  20. Shallow water mud-mounds of the Early Devonian Buchan Group, East Gippsland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosolini, A.-M. P.; Wallace, M. W.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Devonian Rocky Camp Member of the Murrindal Limestone, Buchan Group of southeastern Australia consists of a series of carbonate mud-mounds and smaller lagoonal bioherms. The Rocky Camp mound is the best exposed of the mud-mounds and has many characteristics in common with Waulsortian (Carboniferous) mounds. Detailed paleoecological and sedimentological studies indicate that the mound initially accumulated in the photic zone, in contrast to most of the previously recorded mud-mounds. Five facies are present in the mud-mound: a Dasycladacean Wackestone Facies at the base of the mound represents a moderate energy, shallow water bank environment within the photic zone. A Crinioidal Wackestone Facies was deposited in a laterally equivalent foreslope setting. A Poriferan-Crinoidal Mudstone Facies developed in a quiet, deeper water, lee-side mound setting associated with a minor relative sea-level rise. A Stromatoporoid-Coralline Packstone Facies in the upper part of the mound deposited in a high-energy, fair-weather wave base, mound-front environment. The crest of the mound is represented by a Crinoidal-Receptaculitid Packstone Facies indicative of a moderate-energy mound-top environment in the photic zone, sheltered by the mound-front stromatoporoid-coral communities. A mound flank facies is present on the southern side of the mound and this consists of high-energy crinoidal grainstones. Mud-mound deposition was terminated by a transgression that deposited dark gray, fossil-poor marl of the overlying Taravale Formation. The Rocky Camp mound appears to have originated in shallow water photic zone conditions and grew into a high-energy environment, with the mound being eventually colonized by corals and stromatoporoids. The indications of a high-energy environment during later mound growth (growth form of colonial metazoans and grainstones of the flanking facies) suggest that the micrite in the mound was autochthonous and implies the presence of an energy

  1. Optimal designs of bioretention cells in shallow groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioretention cells, as one representative low impact development practices, have been proved to be effective in controlling surface runoff, removing pollutants and recharging groundwater. However, they are often not recommended in shallow groundwater areas due to potential groundwater pollution, reduction in runoff control performance and groundwater drainage through the underdrain. Most design guidelines only require a minimum distance between bioretention cell bottom and seasonal high groundwater table without guiding the design of bioretention cells to mitigate the problem of shallow groundwater. This study therefore proposed some design recommendations of bioretention cells for different rainfall runoff loads, native soil types and initial water table depths. A variably saturated flow model was employed to conduct event-based simulations on one single hypothetical bioretention cell in shallow groundwater, which was calibrated using experimental and simulation data of an on-site bioretention cell. A wide range of climatic and geophysical factors (i.e. initial groundwater depths, native soils, rainfall runoff loads) and bioretention designs (i.e. media soil types and underdrain sizes) were considered. Surface runoff reduction, time before groundwater mound formation, as well as maximum height of groundwater mound were evaluated. Less-permeable media types (i.e. sandy loam) are recommended in areas with many extreme rainfall events (i.e. 40 - 70 mm/h or larger) and of shallower groundwater, which can better protect groundwater from mounding and possibly contamination although may slightly compromise the runoff control performance. For areas having seasonal high groundwater table of 0 - 1 m below bioretention bottom, underdrain is recommended to maintain good infiltration capacity without draining groundwater. However, underdrain is not recommended for areas of groundwater table always near or above the bioretention bottom, only if an impermeable sheet is added

  2. Hydrologic Controls on Shallow Landslide Location, Size, and Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; Milledge, D.; Perron, T.; McKean, J. A.; Dietrich, W.; Rulli, M.

    2012-12-01

    Shallow landslides, typically involving just the soil mantle, are principally controlled by topography, soil and root strengths, and soil thickness, and are typically triggered by storm-induced increases in pore water pressure. The response of a landscape to landslide-triggering storms will thus depend on factors such as rainfall totals, storm intensity and duration, and antecedent moisture conditions. The two dominant mechanisms that generate high pore water pressures at a point are topographically-steered lateral subsurface flow (over timescales of days to weeks), and rapid vertical infiltration (over timescales of minutes to hours). We aim to understand the impact of different storm characteristics and hydrologic regimes on shallow landslide location, size, and shape. We have developed a regional-scale model, which applies a low-parameter grid-based multi-dimensional slope stability model within a novel search algorithm, to generate discrete landslide predictions. This model shows that the spatial organization of parameters such as root strength and pore water pressure has a strong control on shallow landslide location, size, and shape. We apply this model to a field site near Coos Bay, OR, where a ten-year landslide inventory has been mapped onto high-resolution topographic data. Our model predicts landslide size generally increases with increasing rainfall intensity, except when root strength is extremely high and pore pressures are topographically steered. The distribution of topographic index values (the ratios of contributing area to slope) of predicted landslides is a clear signature of the pore water pressure generation mechanism: as laterally dominated flow increases, landslides develop in locations with lower slopes and higher contributing areas; in contrast, in the case of vertically-dominated pore pressure rise, landslides are consistently found in locations with higher slopes and lower contributing areas. While in both cases landslides are found in

  3. Analysis of P and Pdiff Coda Arrivals for Water Reverberations to Evaluate Shallow Slip Extent in Large Megathrust Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, A.; Lay, T.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the up-dip rupture extent of large megathrust ruptures is important for understanding their tsunami excitation, frictional properties of the shallow megathrust, and potential for separate tsunami earthquake occurrence. On land geodetic data have almost no resolution of the up-dip extent of faulting and teleseismic observations have limited resolution that is strongly influenced by typically poorly known shallow seismic velocity structure near the toe of the accretionary prism. The increase in ocean depth as slip on the megathrust approaches the trench has significant influence on the strength and azimuthal distribution of water reverberations in the far-field P wave coda. For broadband P waves from large earthquakes with dominant signal periods of about 10 s, water reverberations generated by shallow fault slip under deep water may persist for over a minute after the direct P phases have passed, giving a clear signal of slip near the trench. As the coda waves can be quickly evaluated following the P signal, recognition of slip extending to the trench and associated enhanced tsunamigenic potential could be achieved within a few minutes after the P arrival, potentially contributing to rapid tsunami hazard assessment. We examine the broadband P wave coda at distances from 80 to 120° for a large number of recent major and great earthquakes with independently determined slip distributions and known tsunami excitation to evaluate the prospect for rapidly constraining up-dip rupture extent of large megathrust earthquakes. Events known to have significant shallow slip, at least locally extending to the trench (e.g., 2016 Illapel, Chile; 2010 Maule, 2010 Mentawai) do have relatively enhanced coda levels at all azimuths, whereas events that do not rupture the shallow megathrust (e.g., 2007 Sumatra, 2014 Iquique, 2003 Hokkaido) do not. Some events with slip models lacking shallow slip show strong coda generation, raising questions about the up-dip resolution of

  4. Middle Cretaceous to Oligocene rise of the Middle American landbridge - documented by south-eastwards younging shallow water carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Barat, Flore

    2013-04-01

    Basements of Southern Central America are oceanic in origin, including the southern half of the classical "Chortis Block" formed by subduction/accretion mélanges named Mesquito Composite Oceanic Terrane (MCOT). The rise of these oceanic basements into the photic zone and eventual emergence was controlled by convergent, collision tectonics, and/or arc development. In this context, shallow carbonate palaeo-environments were short-lived and formed not only on uplifted basements and arcs, but also on (now accreted) volcanic edifices of Pacific oceanic seamounts. From Northern Nicaragua (NW) to Eastern Panama (SE) we observe a systematic younging of the first shallow water carbonate facies encroaching on basements and/or older deep-water formations: In the Siuna area (NE-Nicaragua) Aptian-Albian shallow water limestones dated by rudists and Orbitolina texana rest unconformably on the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous Siuna Serpentinite Mélange, part of the MCOT. In N-Costa Rica, the assembly of several terranes (Santa Elena Ultramafic Unit, Nicoya Complex s. s., Matambu and Manzanillo Terranes) is overlapped by Late Campanian-Maastrichtian shallow water facies dated by rudists and Larger Foraminifera, such as Pseudorbitoides rutteni, Pseudorbitoides israelski, Sulcoperculina sp. and Sulcoperculina globosa. Reworked Campanian-Maastrichtian shallow water material including Larger Foraminifera was found in the Herradura Promontory (central Pacific coast of Costa Rica). It could be derived from an accreted seamount. No shallow carbonates are known so far from the early Palaeocene. The Tempisque Basin (N-Costa Rica) hosts the Barra Honda carbonate Platform (originally >900 km2) dated as late Palaeocene (Thanetian) by planktonic Foraminifera, 87Sr / 86Sr ratios and Ranikothalia spp. Other late Palaeocene shallow carbonates documented in S-Costa Rica/W-Panama (Quepos, Burica) are interpreted as insular carbonate shoals (atolls?) on now accreted seamounts. To the SE of the S

  5. Utilizing the R/V Marcus G. Langseth's streamer to measure the acoustic radiation of its seismic source in the shallow waters of New Jersey's continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Crone, Timothy J; Tolstoy, Maya; Gibson, James C; Mountain, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Shallow water marine seismic surveys are necessary to understand a range of Earth processes in coastal environments, including those that represent major hazards to society such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and sea-level rise. Predicting the acoustic radiation of seismic sources in shallow water, which is required for compliance with regulations designed to limit impacts on protected marine species, is a significant challenge in this environment because of variable reflectivity due to local geology, and the susceptibility of relatively small bathymetric features to focus or shadow acoustic energy. We use data from the R/V Marcus G. Langseth's towed hydrophone streamer to estimate the acoustic radiation of the ship's seismic source during a large survey of the shallow shelf off the coast of New Jersey. We use the results to estimate the distances from the source to acoustic levels of regulatory significance, and use bathymetric data from the ship's multibeam system to explore the relationships between seafloor depth and slope and the measured acoustic radiation patterns. We demonstrate that existing models significantly overestimate mitigation radii, but that the variability of received levels in shallow water suggest that in situ real-time measurements would help improve these estimates, and that post-cruise revisions of received levels are valuable in accurately determining the potential acoustic impact of a seismic survey.

  6. Integrated ecological and chemical food web accumulation modeling explains PAH temporal trends during regime shifts in a shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Liu, Wenxiu; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Xu, Fuliu; Mooij, Wolf M; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-08-01

    Shallow lakes can switch suddenly from a turbid situation with high concentrations of phytoplankton and other suspended solids to a vegetated state with clear water, and vice versa. These alternative stable states may have a substantial impact on the fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). Models that are fit to simulate impacts from these complex interactions are scarce. We developed a contaminant fate model which is linked to an ecosystem model (PCLake) for shallow lakes. This integrated model was successful in simulating long-term dynamics (1953-2012) of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the main biotic and abiotic components in a large shallow lake (Chaohu in China), which has undergone regime shifts in this period. Historical records from sediment cores were used to evaluate the model. The model revealed that regime shifts in shallow lakes had a strong impact on the fate of less hydrophobic compounds due to the large storage capacity of macrophytes, which accumulated up to 55.6% of phenanthrene in the clear state. The abrupt disappearance of macrophytes after the regime shift resulted in a sudden change in phenanthrene distribution, as the sediment became the major sink. For more hydrophobic compounds such as benzo(a)pyrene, the modeled impact of the regime shift was negligible for the whole environment, yet large for biotic compartments. This study is the first to provide a full mechanistic analysis of the impact of regime shifts on the fate of PAHs in a real lake ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shallow cloud statistics over Tropical Western Pacific: CAM5 versus ARM Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, A.; Zhang, C.; Klein, S. A.; Ma, H. Y.; Kollias, P.; Xie, S.

    2014-12-01

    The role of shallow convection in the tropical convective cloud life cycle has received increasing interest because of its sensitivity to simulate large-scale tropical disturbances such as MJO. Though previous studies have proposed several hypotheses to explain the role of shallow clouds in the convective life cycle, our understanding on the role of shallow clouds is still premature. There are more questions needs to be addressed related to the role of different cloud population, conditions favorable for shallow to deep convection transitions, and their characteristics at different stages of the convective cloud life. The present study aims to improve the understanding of the shallow clouds by documenting the role of different shallow cloud population for the Year of Tropical Convection period using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement observations at the Tropical Western Pacific Manus site. The performance of the CAM5 model to simulate shallow clouds are tested using observed cloud statistics.

  8. Investigation of aerosol effects on shallow marine convection - Lidar measurements during NARVAL-I and NARVAL-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß, Silke; Wirth, Martin; Gutleben, Manuel; Ewald, Florian; Kiemle, Christoph; Kölling, Tobias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Clouds and aerosols have a large impact on the Earth's radiation budget by scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation. Furthermore aerosols can modify cloud properties and distribution. Up to now no sufficient understanding in aerosol-cloud interaction and in climate feedback of clouds is achieved. Especially shallow marine convection in the trade wind regions show large uncertainties in climate feedback. Thus a better understanding of these shallow marine convective clouds and how aerosols affect these clouds, e.g. by changing the cloud properties and distribution, is highly demanded. During NARVAL-I (Next-generation airborne remote-sensing for validation studies) and NARVAL-II a set of active and passive remote sensing instruments, i.e. a cloud radar, an aerosol and water vapor lidar system, microwave radiometer, a hyper spectral imager (NARVAL-II only) and radiation measurements, were installed on the German research aircraft HALO. Measurements were performed out of Barbados over the tropical North-Atlantic region in December 2013 and August 2016 to study shallow trade wind convection as well as its environment in the dry and wet season. While no or only few aerosol layers were observed above the marine boundary layer during the dry season in December 2013, part of the measurement area was influenced by high aerosol load caused by long-range transport of Saharan dust during the NARVAL-II measurements in August 2016. Measurement flights during NARVAL-II were conducted the way that we could probed aerosol influenced regions as well as areas with low aerosol load. Thus the measurements during both campaigns provide the opportunity to investigate if and how the transported aerosol layers change the distribution and formation of the shallow marine convection by altering their properties and environment. In our presentation we will focus on the lidar measurements performed during NARVAL-I and NARVAL-II. We will give an overview of the measurements

  9. Vertical accretion and shallow subsidence in a mangrove forest of southwestern Florida, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of vertical accretion from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change from sedimentation-erosion table (SET) plots were used to evaluate the processes related to soil building in range, basin, and overwash mangrove forests located in a low-energy lagoon which recieves minor inputs of terregenous sediments. Vertical accretion measures reflect the contribution of surficial sedimentation (sediment deposition and surface root growth). Measures of elevation change reflect not only the contributions of vertical accretion but also those of subsurface processes such as compaction, decomposition and shrink-swell. The two measures were used to calculate amounts of shallow subsidence (accretion minus elevation change) in each mangrove forest. The three forest types represent different accretionary envrionments. The basin forest was located behind a natural berm. Hydroperiod here was controlled primarily by rainfall rather than tidal exchange, although the basin flooded during extreme tidal events. Soil accretion here occurred primarily by autochthonous organic matter inputs, and elevation was controlled by accretion and shrink-swell of the substrate apparently related to cycles of flooding-drying and/or root growth-decomposition. This hydrologically-restricted forest did not experience an accretion or elevation deficit relative to sea-level rise. The tidally dominated fringe and overwash island forests accreted through mineral sediment inputs bound in place by plant roots. Filamentous turf algae played an important role in stabilizing loose muds in the fringe forest where erosion was prevalent. Elevation in these high-energy environments was controlled not only by accretion but also by erosion and/or shallow subsidence. The rate of shallow subsidence was consistently 3-4 mm y-1 in the fringe and overwash island forests but was negligible in the basin forest. Hence, the vertical development of mangrove soils was influenced by both

  10. Shallow stratification prevailed for ∼1700 to ∼1300 Ma ocean: Evidence from organic carbon isotopes in the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Genming; Junium, Christopher K.; Kump, Lee R.; Huang, Junhua; Li, Chao; Feng, Qinglai; Shi, Xiaoying; Bai, Xiao; Xie, Shucheng

    2014-08-01

    The Late Paleoproterozoic to Early Mesoproterozoic (from ∼1700 Ma to ∼1300 Ma) was highlighted by the assembly of the Nuna supercontinent, expansion of euxinic marine environments and apparent stasis in the diversity of eukaryotes. The isotopic composition of carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) was surprisingly constant during this interval, but little is known about the secular variation in the organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13Corg). Here we report δ13Corg data from the latest Paleoproterozoic (>1650 Ma) to Early Mesoproterozoic (∼1300 Ma) succession in North China. The δ13Corg values range from -25‰ to -34‰, and are dependent on sedimentary facies. In subtidal and deeper environments δ13Corg values are low and constant, ca. -32‰, but relatively enriched and more variable in shallower intertidal and supratidal environments. We attribute the facies-dependent variation in δ13Corg to the presence of a shallow chemocline. A probable result of a shallow chemocline is that it supported significant contributions of organic matter produced by chemoautotrophic and/or anaerobic photoautotrophic microbes in relatively deep environments from the latest Paleoproterozoic to Early Mesoproterozoic continental shelf of North China.

  11. Shallow cumuli ensemble statistics for development of a stochastic parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakradzija, Mirjana; Seifert, Axel; Heus, Thijs

    2014-05-01

    According to a conventional deterministic approach to the parameterization of moist convection in numerical atmospheric models, a given large scale forcing produces an unique response from the unresolved convective processes. This representation leaves out the small-scale variability of convection, as it is known from the empirical studies of deep and shallow convective cloud ensembles, there is a whole distribution of sub-grid states corresponding to the given large scale forcing. Moreover, this distribution gets broader with the increasing model resolution. This behavior is also consistent with our theoretical understanding of a coarse-grained nonlinear system. We propose an approach to represent the variability of the unresolved shallow-convective states, including the dependence of the sub-grid states distribution spread and shape on the model horizontal resolution. Starting from the Gibbs canonical ensemble theory, Craig and Cohen (2006) developed a theory for the fluctuations in a deep convective ensemble. The micro-states of a deep convective cloud ensemble are characterized by the cloud-base mass flux, which, according to the theory, is exponentially distributed (Boltzmann distribution). Following their work, we study the shallow cumulus ensemble statistics and the distribution of the cloud-base mass flux. We employ a Large-Eddy Simulation model (LES) and a cloud tracking algorithm, followed by a conditional sampling of clouds at the cloud base level, to retrieve the information about the individual cloud life cycles and the cloud ensemble as a whole. In the case of shallow cumulus cloud ensemble, the distribution of micro-states is a generalized exponential distribution. Based on the empirical and theoretical findings, a stochastic model has been developed to simulate the shallow convective cloud ensemble and to test the convective ensemble theory. Stochastic model simulates a compound random process, with the number of convective elements drawn from a

  12. The 2011 Hawthorne, Nevada, Earthquake Sequence; Shallow Normal Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. D.; Johnson, C.; Davies, J. A.; Agbaje, T.; Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Kent, G.

    2011-12-01

    An energetic sequence of shallow earthquakes that began in early March 2011 in western Nevada, near the community of Hawthorne, has slowly decreased in intensity through mid-2011. To date about 1300 reviewed earthquake locations have been compiled; we have computed moment tensors for the larger earthquakes and have developed a set of high-precision locations for all reviewed events. The sequence to date has included over 50 earthquakes ML 3 and larger with the largest at Mw 4.6. Three 6-channel portable stations configured with broadband sensors and accelerometers were installed by April 20. Data from the portable instruments is telemetered through NSL's microwave backbone to Reno where it is integrated with regional network data for real-time notifications, ShakeMaps, and routine event analysis. The data is provided in real-time to NEIC, CISN and the IRIS DMC. The sequence is located in a remote area about 15-20 km southwest of Hawthorne in the footwall block of the Wassuk Range fault system. An initial concern was that the sequence might be associated with volcanic processes due to the proximity of late Quaternary volcanic flows; there have been no volcanic signatures observed in near source seismograms. An additional concern, as the sequence has proceeded, was a clear progression eastward toward the Wassuk Range front fault. The east dipping range bounding fault is capable of M 7+ events, and poses a significant hazard to the community of Hawthorne and local military facilities. The Hawthorne Army Depot is an ordinance storage facility and the nation's storage site for surplus mercury. The sequence is within what has been termed the 'Mina Deflection' of the Central Walker Lane Belt. Faulting along the Whiskey Flat section of the Wassuk front fault would be primarily down-to-the-east, with an E-W extension direction; moment tensors for the 2011 earthquake show a range of extension directions from E-W to NW-SE, suggesting a possible dextral component to the Wassuk

  13. The legacy of large regime shifts in shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Ramstack Hobbs, Joy M; Hobbs, William O; Edlund, Mark B; Zimmer, Kyle D; Theissen, Kevin M; Hoidal, Natalie; Domine, Leah M; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Cotner, James B

    2016-12-01

    Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. We examine the modern and historical stability of 11 shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a clear-water state, three are consistently turbid-water, and four have been observed to change state from year to year (transitional). Lake sediment records spanning the past 150-200 yr suggest that (1) the diatom assemblage is characteristic of either clear or turbid lakes, (2) prior to significant landscape alteration, all of the lakes existed in a regime of a stable clear-water state, (3) lakes that are currently classified as turbid or transitional have experienced one strong regime shift over the past 150-200 yr and have since remained in a regime where turbid-water predominates, and (4) top-down impacts to the lake food-web from fish introductions appear to be the dominant driver of strong regime shifts and not increased nutrient availability. Based on our findings we demonstrate a method that could be used by lake managers to identify lakes that have an ecological history close to the clear-turbid regime threshold; such lakes might more easily be returned to a clear-water state through biomanipulation. The unfortunate reality is that many of these lakes are now part of a managed landscape and will likely require continued intervention. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Muon background studies for shallow depth Double - Chooz near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.

    2015-08-01

    Muon events are one of the main concerns regarding background in neutrino experiments. The placement of experimental set-ups in deep underground facilities reduce considerably their impact on the research of the expected signals. But in the cases where the detector is installed on surface or at shallow depth, muon flux remains high, being necessary their precise identification for further rejection. Total flux, mean energy or angular distributions are some of the parameters that can help to characterize the muons. Empirically, the muon rate can be measured in an experiment by a number of methods. Nevertheless, the capability to determine the muons angular distribution strongly depends on the detector features, while the measurement of the muon energy is quite difficult. Also considering that on-site measurements can not be extrapolated to other sites due to the difference on the overburden and its profile, it is necessary to find an adequate solution to perform the muon characterization. The method described in this work to obtain the main features of the muons reaching the experimental set-up, is based on the muon transport simulation by the MUSIC software, combined with a dedicated sampling algorithm for shallow depth installations based on a modified Gaisser parametrization. This method provides all the required information about the muons for any shallow depth installation if the corresponding overburden profile is implemented. In this work, the method has been applied for the recently commissioned Double - Chooz near detector, which will allow the cross-check between the simulation and the experimental data, as it has been done for the far detector.

  15. Micro Unmanned Surface Vehicle for Shallow Littoral Data Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R. R.; Wilde, G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the creation of an autonomous air boat that can be carried by one person, called a micro unmanned surface vehicle (USV), for sensor sampling in shallow littoral areas such as inlets and creeks. A USV offers advantages over other types of unmanned marine vehicles. Unlike an autonomous underwater vehicle, the Challenge 1.0 air boat can operate in shallow water of less than 15 cm depth and maintain network connectivity for control and data sampling. A USV does not require a tether, like a remotely operated marine vehicle (ROV), which would limit the distance and mobility. However, a USV operating in shallow littoral areas poses several challenges. Navigation is a challenge since rivers and bays may have semi-submerged obstacles and there may be no depth maps; the approach taken in the Challenge 1.0 project is to let the operator specify a safe area of the water by visual inspection and then the USV autonomously creates a path to optimally sample the collision free area. Navigation is also a challenge because of platform dynamics-the USV we describe is a non-holonomic vehicle; this paper explores spiral paths rather than boustrophedon paths. Another challenge is the quality of sensing. Water-based sensing is noisy and thus a reading at a single point may not reflect the overall value. In practice, areas are sampled rather than a single point, but the noise in the point values within the sampled area produce a survey with widely varying numbers and are difficult for humans to interpret. This paper implements an inverse distance weighting interpolation algorithm to produce a visual "heatmap" that reliably portrays the smoothed data.

  16. Equatorial Magnetohydrodynamic Shallow Water Waves in the Solar Tachocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz

    2018-03-01

    The influence of a toroidal magnetic field on the dynamics of shallow water waves in the solar tachocline is studied. A sub-adiabatic temperature gradient in the upper overshoot layer of the tachocline causes significant reduction of surface gravity speed, which leads to trapping of the waves near the equator and to an increase of the Rossby wave period up to the timescale of solar cycles. Dispersion relations of all equatorial magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shallow water waves are obtained in the upper tachocline conditions and solved analytically and numerically. It is found that the toroidal magnetic field splits equatorial Rossby and Rossby-gravity waves into fast and slow modes. For a reasonable value of reduced gravity, global equatorial fast magneto-Rossby waves (with the spatial scale of equatorial extent) have a periodicity of 11 years, matching the timescale of activity cycles. The solutions are confined around the equator between latitudes ±20°–40°, coinciding with sunspot activity belts. Equatorial slow magneto-Rossby waves have a periodicity of 90–100 yr, resembling the observed long-term modulation of cycle strength, i.e., the Gleissberg cycle. Equatorial magneto-Kelvin and slow magneto-Rossby-gravity waves have the periodicity of 1–2 years and may correspond to observed annual and quasi-biennial oscillations. Equatorial fast magneto-Rossby-gravity and magneto-inertia-gravity waves have periods of hundreds of days and might be responsible for observed Rieger-type periodicity. Consequently, the equatorial MHD shallow water waves in the upper overshoot tachocline may capture all timescales of observed variations in solar activity, but detailed analytical and numerical studies are necessary to make a firm conclusion toward the connection of the waves to the solar dynamo.

  17. Why and Where do Large Shallow Slab Earthquakes Occur?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2001-12-01

    Within a shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of subducting slabs, it has been believed that large earthquakes seldom occur because the differential stress is generally expected to be low between bending at the trench-outer rise and unbending at the intermediate-depth. However, there are several regions in which large ( M>=7.0 ) earthquakes, including three events early in this year, have occurred in this portion. Searching such events from published individual studies and Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find nineteen events in eastern Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW Japan, Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, Chile, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Cascadia. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of those large events and smaller events are tensional in a slab dip direction. However, ages of the subducting oceanic plates are generally young, which denies a possibility that the slab pull works as a cause. Except for Manila and Sumatra, the stresses in the overriding plates are characterized by the change in {σ }Hmax direction from arc-parallel in the back-arc to arc-perpendicular in the fore-arc, which implies that a horizontal stress gradient exists in the across-arc direction. Peru and Chile, where the back-arc is compressional, can be categorized into this type, because a horizontal stress gradient exists over the continent from tension in east to compression in the west. In these regions, it is expected that mantle drag forces are operating beneath the upper plates, which drive the upper plates to the trenchward overriding the subducting oceanic plates. Assuming that the mantle drag forces beneath the upper plates originate from the mantle convection currents or upwelling plumes, we infer that the upper plates driven by the convection suck the oceanic plates, making the shallow portion of the slabs in extra-tension, thus resulting in the large shallow slab earthquakes in this tectonic regime.

  18. HFT events - Shallow moonquakes. [High-Frequency Teleseismic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A few large distant seismic events of distinctly high signal frequency, designated HFT (high-frequency teleseismic) events, are observed yearly by the Apollo lunar seismic network. Their sources are located on or near the surface of the moon, leaving a large gap in seismic activity between the zones of HFT sources and deep moonquakes. No strong regularities are found in either their spatial or temporal distributions. Several working hypotheses for the identity of these sources have advanced, but many characteristics of the events seem to favor a hypothesis that they are shallow moonquakes. Simultaneous observations of other lunar phenomena may eventually enable the determination of their true identity.

  19. Jupiter's Great Red Spot as a shallow water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager cloud-top velocity data for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is used to derive the bottom topography up to a constant that depends on the unknown radius of deformation. The bottom topography is inferred from the Bernoulli streamfunction, kinetic energy per unit mass, and absolute vorticity values derived from the velocity data. The results are used to calculate potential vorticity versus latitude far from the vortex. It is found that the deep atmosphere is in differential motion and that the far-field potential vorticity gradient changes sign at several latitudes. Numerical experiments are conducted to study the time-dependent behavior of the shallow water analog of Jupiter's analog.

  20. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  1. Modal processing for acoustic communications in shallow water experiment.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Andrey K; Preisig, James C; Papp, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Acoustical array data from the Shallow Water Acoustics experiment was processed to show the feasibility of broadband mode decomposition as a preprocessing method to reduce the effective channel delay spread and concentrate received signal energy in a small number of independent channels. The data were collected by a vertical array designed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Phase-shift Keying (PSK) m-sequence modulated signals with different carrier frequencies were transmitted at a distance 19.2 km from the array. Even during a strong internal waves activity a low bit error rate was achieved.

  2. Biaxial strain in graphene adhered to shallow depressions.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Constanze; Rémi, Sebastian; Liu, Mengkun; Kusminskiy, Silvia V; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B

    2010-01-01

    Measurements on graphene exfoliated over a substrate prepatterned with shallow depressions demonstrate that graphene does not remain free-standing but instead adheres to the substrate despite the induced biaxial strain. The strain is homogeneous over the depression bottom as determined by Raman measurements. We find higher Raman shifts and Gruneisen parameters of the phonons underlying the G and 2D bands under biaxial strain than previously reported. Interference modeling is used to determine the vertical position of the graphene and to calculate the optimum dielectric substrate stack for maximum Raman signal.

  3. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  4. Analysis of the Shallow Groundwater Flow System at Fire Island National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) occupies 42 kilometers of the barrier island for which it is named that lies off the southern shore of Suffolk County, N.Y. Freshwater in the highly permeable, sandy aquifer underlying Fire Island is bounded laterally by marine surface waters and at depth by saline groundwater. Interspersed throughout FIIS are 17 pre-existing residential communities that in summer months greatly increase in population through the arrival of summer residents and vacationers; in addition, the National Park Service (NPS) has established several facilities on the island to accommodate visitors to FIIS. The 2.2 million people estimated by the NPS to visit Fire Island annually impact groundwater quality through the release of waste-derived contaminants, such as nutrients, pathogens, and organic compounds, into the environment. Waste-contaminated groundwater can move through the aquifer and threaten the ecological health of the adjacent back-barrier estuaries to which much of the groundwater ultimately discharges. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NPS, began a 3-year investigation to (1) collect groundwater levels and water-quality (nutrient) samples, (2) develop a three-dimensional model of the shallow (water-table) aquifer system and adjacent marine surface waters, and (3) calculate nitrogen loads in simulated groundwater discharges from the aquifer to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean. The hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer system was characterized from the results of exploratory drilling, geophysical surveying, water-level monitoring, and water-quality sampling. The investigation focused on four areas-the communities of Kismet and Robbins Rest, the NPS Visitor Center at Watch Hill, and the undeveloped Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness. Thirty-five observation wells were installed within FIIS to characterize subsurface hydrogeology and establish a water-table monitoring network in the four study areas

  5. Shipboard magnetic field "noise" reveals shallow heavy mineral sediment concentrations in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Vogt, Peter R.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Newell, Wayne L.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Willard, Debra A.; Hagen, Rick A.; Brozena, John; Hofstra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Shipboard magnetic field data collected over Chesapeake Bay exhibit low-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies that most likely indicate shallow concentrations of heavy mineral sediments. Piston core layers and black sand beach samples exhibit enhanced magnetic susceptibilities and carry remanent magnetization, with mineralogical analyses indicating ilmenite and trace magnetite and/or maghemite and hematite. The anomalies are subtle and would be filtered as noise using traditional approaches, but can instead be highlighted using spectral methods, thus providing nearly continuous coverage along survey tracks. The distribution of the anomalies provides constraints on relevant sorting mechanisms. Comparisons to sonar data and previous grab samples show that two of three areas surveyed exhibit short-wavelength anomalies that are clustered over sand-covered areas, suggesting initial sorting through settling mechanisms. This is supported by a correlation between core magnetic susceptibility and grain size. Near the Choptank River, where sediment resuspension is wave-dominated, anomalies show a sharp decrease with seafloor depth that cannot be explained by signal attenuation alone. In Pocomoke Sound, where both tidal currents and wave-action impact sediment resuspension, anomalies show a more gradual decrease with depth. Near the mouth of the bay, where there is a higher influx of sediments from the continental shelf, short-wavelength anomalies are isolated and do not appear to represent heavy mineral sand concentrations. These combined observations suggest the importance of further sorting by erosional processes in certain parts of the bay. Additionally, comparisons of these data to cores sampling pre-Holocene sediments suggest that the sorting of heavy minerals in higher energy, shallow water environments provides a mechanism for correlations between core magnetic susceptibility and sea-level changes.

  6. Update of the Graizer-Kalkan ground-motion prediction equations for shallow crustal continental earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, Vladimir; Kalkan, Erol

    2015-01-01

    A ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) for computing medians and standard deviations of peak ground acceleration and 5-percent damped pseudo spectral acceleration response ordinates of maximum horizontal component of randomly oriented ground motions was developed by Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) to be used for seismic hazard analyses and engineering applications. This GMPE was derived from the greatly expanded Next Generation of Attenuation (NGA)-West1 database. In this study, Graizer and Kalkan’s GMPE is revised to include (1) an anelastic attenuation term as a function of quality factor (Q0) in order to capture regional differences in large-distance attenuation and (2) a new frequency-dependent sedimentary-basin scaling term as a function of depth to the 1.5-km/s shear-wave velocity isosurface to improve ground-motion predictions for sites on deep sedimentary basins. The new model (GK15), developed to be simple, is applicable to the western United States and other regions with shallow continental crust in active tectonic environments and may be used for earthquakes with moment magnitudes 5.0–8.0, distances 0–250 km, average shear-wave velocities 200–1,300 m/s, and spectral periods 0.01–5 s. Directivity effects are not explicitly modeled but are included through the variability of the data. Our aleatory variability model captures inter-event variability, which decreases with magnitude and increases with distance. The mixed-effects residuals analysis shows that the GK15 reveals no trend with respect to the independent parameters. The GK15 is a significant improvement over Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009), and provides a demonstrable, reliable description of ground-motion amplitudes recorded from shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions over a wide range of magnitudes, distances, and site conditions.

  7. Crude oil in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer-II. Organic geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Baedecker, M.J.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Aiken, G.R.; Thorn, K.A.; Dorsey, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    Crude oil spilled from a pipeline break in a remote area of north-central Minnesota has contaminated a shallow glacial outwash aquifer. Part of the oil was sprayed over a large area to the west of the pipeline and part of it accumulated in an oil body that floats at the water table to the east of the point of discharge. Total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) concentrations in shallow groundwater collected in the oil spray area reach 16 mg/l. This is nearly an order of magnitude higher than the TDOC concentrations of native groundwater (???2-3 mg/l). The additional TDOC derives from the partial degradation of petroleum residues deposited at the land surface and transported to the aquifer by vertical recharge. In the vicinity of the oil body, TDOC concentrations in groundwater are 48 mg/l, 58% of the TDOC being composed of non-volatile organic C. The majority of the volatile DOC (63%) is a mixture of low-molecular-weight saturated, aromatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons derived from the oil. Downgradient from the oil body along the direction of groundwater flow, concentrations of all measured constituents of the TDOC pool decrease. Concentrations begin to decline most rapidly, however, in the zone where dissolved O2 concentrations begin to increase, ???50 m downgradient from the leading edge of the oil. Within the anoxic zone near the oil body, removal rates of isometric monoaromatic hydrocarbons vary widely. This indicates that the removal processes are mediated mainly by microbiological activity. Molecular and spectroscopic characterization of the TDOC and its spatial and temporal variation provide evidence of the importance of biogeochemical processes in attenuating petroleum contaminants in this perturbed subsurface environment. ?? 1993.

  8. Mapping Shallow Landslide Slope Inestability at Large Scales Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avalon Cullen, C.; Kashuk, S.; Temimi, M.; Suhili, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall induced landslides are one of the most frequent hazards on slanted terrains. They lead to great economic losses and fatalities worldwide. Most factors inducing shallow landslides are local and can only be mapped with high levels of uncertainty at larger scales. This work presents an attempt to determine slope instability at large scales. Buffer and threshold techniques are used to downscale areas and minimize uncertainties. Four static parameters (slope angle, soil type, land cover and elevation) for 261 shallow rainfall-induced landslides in the continental United States are examined. ASTER GDEM is used as bases for topographical characterization of slope and buffer analysis. Slope angle threshold assessment at the 50, 75, 95, 98, and 99 percentiles is tested locally. Further analysis of each threshold in relation to other parameters is investigated in a logistic regression environment for the continental U.S. It is determined that lower than 95-percentile thresholds under-estimate slope angles. Best regression fit can be achieved when utilizing the 99-threshold slope angle. This model predicts the highest number of cases correctly at 87.0% accuracy. A one-unit rise in the 99-threshold range increases landslide likelihood by 11.8%. The logistic regression model is carried over to ArcGIS where all variables are processed based on their corresponding coefficients. A regional slope instability map for the continental United States is created and analyzed against the available landslide records and their spatial distributions. It is expected that future inclusion of dynamic parameters like precipitation and other proxies like soil moisture into the model will further improve accuracy.

  9. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    PubMed

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by

  10. Shallow boomerang-shaped influenza hemagglutinin G13A mutant structure promotes leaky membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alex L; Tamm, Lukas K

    2010-11-26

    Our previous studies showed that an angled boomerang-shaped structure of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion domain is critical for virus entry into host cells by membrane fusion. Because the acute angle of ∼105° of the wild-type fusion domain promotes efficient non-leaky membrane fusion, we asked whether different angles would still support fusion and thus facilitate virus entry. Here, we show that the G13A fusion domain mutant produces a new leaky fusion phenotype. The mutant fusion domain structure was solved by NMR spectroscopy in a lipid environment at fusion pH. The mutant adopted a boomerang structure similar to that of wild type but with a shallower kink angle of ∼150°. G13A perturbed the structure of model membranes to a lesser degree than wild type but to a greater degree than non-fusogenic fusion domain mutants. The strength of G13A binding to lipid bilayers was also intermediate between that of wild type and non-fusogenic mutants. These membrane interactions provide a clear link between structure and function of influenza fusion domains: an acute angle is required to promote clean non-leaky fusion suitable for virus entry presumably by interaction of the fusion domain with the transmembrane domain deep in the lipid bilayer. A shallower angle perturbs the bilayer of the target membrane so that it becomes leaky and unable to form a clean fusion pore. Mutants with no fixed boomerang angle interacted with bilayers weakly and did not promote any fusion or membrane perturbation.

  11. Shallow Boomerang-shaped Influenza Hemagglutinin G13A Mutant Structure Promotes Leaky Membrane Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Alex L.; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that an angled boomerang-shaped structure of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion domain is critical for virus entry into host cells by membrane fusion. Because the acute angle of ∼105° of the wild-type fusion domain promotes efficient non-leaky membrane fusion, we asked whether different angles would still support fusion and thus facilitate virus entry. Here, we show that the G13A fusion domain mutant produces a new leaky fusion phenotype. The mutant fusion domain structure was solved by NMR spectroscopy in a lipid environment at fusion pH. The mutant adopted a boomerang structure similar to that of wild type but with a shallower kink angle of ∼150°. G13A perturbed the structure of model membranes to a lesser degree than wild type but to a greater degree than non-fusogenic fusion domain mutants. The strength of G13A binding to lipid bilayers was also intermediate between that of wild type and non-fusogenic mutants. These membrane interactions provide a clear link between structure and function of influenza fusion domains: an acute angle is required to promote clean non-leaky fusion suitable for virus entry presumably by interaction of the fusion domain with the transmembrane domain deep in the lipid bilayer. A shallower angle perturbs the bilayer of the target membrane so that it becomes leaky and unable to form a clean fusion pore. Mutants with no fixed boomerang angle interacted with bilayers weakly and did not promote any fusion or membrane perturbation. PMID:20826788

  12. Shallow water imaging sonar system for environmental surveying. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The scope of this research is to develop a shallow water sonar system designed to detect and map the location of objects such as hazardous wastes or discarded ordnance in coastal waters. The system will use high frequency wide-bandwidth imaging sonar, mounted on a moving platform towed behind a boat, to detect and identify objects on the sea bottom. Resolved images can be obtained even if the targets are buried in an overlayer of silt. The specific technical objective of this research was to develop and test a prototype system that is capable of (1) scan at high speeds (upmore » to 10m/s), even in shallow water (depth to ten meters), without motion blurring or loss of resolution; (2) produce images of the bottom structure that are detailed enough for unambiguous detection of objects as small as 15cm, even if they are buried up to 30cm deep in silt or sand. The critical technology involved uses an linear FM (LFM) or similar complex waveform, which has a high bandwidth for good range resolution, with a long pulse length for similar Dopper resolution. The lone duration signal deposits more energy on target than a narrower pulse, which increases the signal-to-noise ratio and signal-to-clutter ratio. This in turn allows the use of cheap, lightweight, low power, piezoelectric transducers at the 30--500 kHz range.« less

  13. Shallow plumbing systems inferred from spatial analysis of pockmark arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, A.; Cartwright, J. A.; Andersen, E.

    2016-12-01

    This study describes and analyses an extraordinary array of pockmarks at the modern seabed of the Lower Congo Basin (offshore Angola), in order to understand the fluid migration routes and shallow plumbing system of the area. The 3D seismic visualization of feeding conduits (pipes) allowed the identification of the source interval for the fluids expelled during pockmark formation. Spatial statistics are used to show the relationship between the underlying (polarised) polygonal fault (PPFs) patterns and seabed pockmarks distributions. Our results show PPFs control the linear arrangement of pockmarks and feeder pipes along fault strike, but faults do not act as conduits. Spatial statistics also revealed pockmark occurrence is not considered to be random, especially at short distances to nearest neighbours (<200m) where anti-clustering distributions suggest the presence of an exclusion zone around each pockmark in which no other pockmark will form. The results of this study are relevant for the understanding of shallow fluid plumbing systems in offshore settings, with implications on our current knowledge of overall fluid flow systems in hydrocarbon-rich continental margins.

  14. Shallow and Deep Groundwater Contributions to Ephemeral Streamflow Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, M. A.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Our understanding of streamflow generation processes in low relief, humid landscapes is limited. To address this, we utilized an ephemeral-to-intermittent drainage network in the Piedmont region of the United States to gain new understanding about the drivers of ephemeral streamflow generation, stream-groundwater interactions, and longitudinal expansion and contraction of the stream network. We used hydrometric and chemical data collected within zero through second order catchments to characterize streamflow and overland, shallow soil, and deep subsurface flow across landscape positions. Results showed bi-directionality in stream-groundwater gradients that were dependent on catchment storage state. This led to annual groundwater recharge magnitudes that were similar to annual streamflow. Perched shallow and deep water table contributions shifted dominance with changes in catchment storage state, producing distinct stream hydrograph recession constants. Active channel length versus runoff followed a consistent relationship independent of storage state, but exhibited varying discharge-solute hysteresis directions. Together, our results suggest that temporary streams can act as both important groundwater recharge and discharge locations across the landscape, especially in this region where ephemeral drainage densities are among the highest recorded. Our results also highlight that the internal catchment dynamics that generate temporary streams play an important role in dictating biogeochemical fluxes at the landscape scale.

  15. Wind-driven currents in a shallow lake or sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Gedney, R. T.

    1971-01-01

    For shallow lakes and seas such as the great lakes (especially Lake Erie) where the depth is not much greater than the Ekman depth, the usual Ekman dynamics cannot be used to predict the wind driven currents. The necessary extension to include shallow bodies of water, given by Welander, leads to a partial differential equation for the surface displacement which in turn determines all other flow quantities. A technique for obtaining exact analytical solutions to Welander's equation for bodies of water with large class of bottom topographies which may or may not contain islands is given. It involves applying conformal mapping methods to an extension of Welander's equation into the complex plane. When the wind stress is constant (which is the usual assumption for lakes) the method leads to general solutions which hold for bodies of water of arbitrary shape (the shape appears in the solutions through a set of constants which are the coefficients in the Laurent expansion of a mapping of the particular lake geometry). The method is applied to an elliptically shaped lake and a circular lake containing an eccentrically located circular island.

  16. Sustainable yields from large diameter wells in shallow weathered aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, K. R.; de Silva, C. S.

    2016-08-01

    Large diameter wells in shallow weathered aquifers provide a valuable source of water for domestic and agricultural purposes in many locations including the Indian subcontinent. However, when used for irrigation, these wells often fail towards the end of the dry season. By considering two case studies in the dry and intermediate rainfall zones of Sri Lanka, reasons for the limited yield of these wells are identified. The first case study is concerned with a sloping catchment; a significant proportion of the precipitation during the rainy season either becomes runoff or passes down-gradient through the aquifer and is discharged at the ground surface. Furthermore, during the dry season, groundwater discharge continues. In the second case study the topography is generally flat but, even though the aquifer fills most years during the rainy season, there is often only sufficient water to irrigate about half of each farmer's holding. These investigations are based on field information and the development of conceptual and computational models. Of critical importance in assessing the long term yield of a well is the formation of a seepage face on the side of the well, with the water table a significant distance above the pumping water level. Consequently the water table may only be lowered to about half the depth of the well. The paper concludes with recommendations for the exploitation of groundwater from shallow weathered aquifers to minimise the risk of failure during the dry season.

  17. Polarization Lidar for Shallow Water Supraglacial Lake Depth Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S.; Adler, J.; Thayer, J. P.; Hayman, M.

    2010-12-01

    A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532 nanometers and using a single photomultiplier tube is developed for applications of shallow water depth measurement, in particular those often found in supraglacial lakes of the ablation zone on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction detection schemes to determine depth. The minimum resolvable water depth is no longer dictated by the system’s laser or detector pulse width and can achieve better than an order of magnitude improvement over current water depth determination techniques. In laboratory tests, a Nd:YAG microchip laser coupled with polarization optics, a photomultiplier tube, a constant fraction discriminator and a time to digital converter are used to target various water depths, using ice as the floor to simulate a supraglacial lake. Measurement of 1 centimeter water depths with an uncertainty of ±3 millimeters are demonstrated using the technique. This novel technique enables new approaches to designing laser bathymetry systems for shallow depth determination from remote platforms while not compromising deep water depth measurement, and will support comprehensive hydrodynamic studies of supraglacial lakes. Additionally, the compact size and low weight (<15 kg) of the field system currently in development presents opportunities for use in small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for large areal surveys of the ablation zone.

  18. Imaging Shallow Salt With 3D Refraction Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschuyver, C. J.; Hilterman, F. J.

    2005-05-01

    In offshore West Africa, numerous salt walls are within 200 m of sea level. Because of the shallowness of these salt walls, reflections from the salt top can be difficult to map, making it impossible to build an accurate velocity model for subsequent pre-stack depth migration. An accurate definition of salt boundaries is critical to any depth model where salt is present. Unfortunately, when a salt body is very shallow, the reflection from the upper interface can be obscured due to large offsets between the source and near receivers and also due to the interference from multiples and other near-surface noise events. A new method is described using 3D migration of the refraction waveforms which is simplified because of several constraints in the model definition. The azimuth and dip of the refractor is found by imaging with Kirchhoff theory. A Kirchhoff migration is performed where the traveltime values are adjusted to use the CMP refraction traveltime equation. I assume the sediment and salt velocities to be known such that once the image time is specified, then the dip and azimuth of the refraction path can be found. The resulting 3D refraction migrations are in excellent depth agreement with available well control. In addition, the refraction migration time picks of deeper salt events are in agreement with time picks of the same events on the reflection migration.

  19. Progress in the development of shallow-water mapping systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, E.; Worley, C.R.; O'Brien, T.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS (US Geological Survey) Coastal and Marine Geology has deployed an advance autonomous shallow-draft robotic vehicle, Iris, for shallow-water mapping in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The vehicle incorporates a side scan sonar system, seismic-reflection profiler, single-beam echosounder, and global positioning system (GPS) navigation. It is equipped with an onboard microprocessor-based motor controller, delivering signals for speed and steering to hull-mounted brushless direct-current thrusters. An onboard motion sensor in the Sea Robotics vehicle control system enclosure has been integrated in the vehicle to measure the vehicle heave, pitch, roll, and heading. Three water-tight enclosures are mounted along the vehicle axis for the Edgetech computer and electronics system including the Sea Robotics computer, a control and wireless communications system, and a Thales ZXW real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS receiver. The vehicle has resulted in producing high-quality seismic reflection and side scan sonar data, which will help in developing the baseline oyster habitat maps.

  20. Liquid Water in the Extremely Shallow Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, A.; Shivak, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of liquid water is one of the major constraints for the potential Martian biosphere. Although liquid water is unstable on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressures, it has been suggested that liquid films of water could be present in the Martian soil. Here we explored a possibility of the liquid water formation in the extremely shallow (1-3 cm) subsurface layer under low atmospheric pressures (0.1-10 mbar) and low ("Martian") surface temperatures (approx.-50 C-0 C). We used a new Goddard Martian simulation chamber to demonstrate that even in the clean frozen soil with temperatures as low as -25C the amount of mobile water can reach several percents. We also showed that during brief periods of simulated daylight warming the shallow subsurface ice sublimates, the water vapor diffuses through porous surface layer of soil temporarily producing supersaturated conditions in the soil, which leads to the formation of additional liquid water. Our results suggest that despite cold temperatures and low atmospheric pressures, Martian soil just several cm below the surface can be habitable.

  1. Nonlinear processes generated by supercritical tidal flow in shallow straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordois, Lucie; Auclair, Francis; Paci, Alexandre; Dossmann, Yvan; Nguyen, Cyril

    2017-06-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a nonhydrostatic and non-Boussinesq regional oceanic circulation model to investigate the nonlinear processes generated by supercritical tidal flow in shallow straits. Our approach relies on idealized direct numerical simulations inspired by oceanic observations. By analyzing a large set of simulations, a regime diagram is proposed for the nonlinear processes generated in the lee of these straits. The results show that the topography shape of the strait plays a crucial role in the formation of internal solitary waves (ISWs) and in the occurrence of local breaking events. Both of these nonlinear processes are important turbulence producing phenomena. The topographic control, observed in mode 1 ISW formation in previous studies [Y. Dossmann, F. Auclair, and A. Paci, "Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Primary generation and topographic control," Phys. Fluids 25, 066601 (2013) and Y. Dossmann et al., "Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements," Phys. Fluids 26, 056601 (2014)], is clearly reproducible for mode-2 ISW above shallow straits. Strong plunging breaking events are observed above "narrow" straits (straits with a width less than mode 1 wavelength) when the fluid velocity exceeds the local mode 1 wave speed. These results are a step towards future works on vertical mixing quantification and localization around complex strait areas.

  2. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Davis, Curtiss O.

    2002-01-01

    Ocean color sensors were designed mainly for remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations over the clear open oceanic areas (case 1 water) using channels between 0.4 and 0.86 micrometers. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts is equipped with narrow channels located within a wider wavelength range between 0.4 and 2.5 micrometers for a variety of remote sensing applications. The wide spectral range can provide improved capabilities for remote sensing of the more complex and turbid coastal waters (case 2 water) and for improved atmospheric corrections for Ocean scenes. In this article, we describe an empirical algorithm that uses this wide spectral range to identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. The algorithm takes advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micrometer that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  3. Assessing Tsunami Vulnerabilities of Geographies with Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    Tsunami preparedness is crucial for saving human lives in case of disasters that involve massive water movement. In this work, we develop a framework for visual assessment of tsunami preparedness of geographies. Shallow water equations (also called Saint Venant equations) are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations that are derived by depth-integrating the Navier-Stokes equations and provide a great abstraction of water masses that have lower depths compared to their free surface area. Our specific contribution in this study is to use Microsoft's XNA Game Studio to import underwater and shore line geographies, create different tsunami scenarios, and visualize the propagation of the waves and their impact on the shore line geography. Most importantly, we utilized the computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs) as HLSL based shader files and delegated all of the heavy computations to the GPU. Finally, we also conducted a validation study, in which we have tested our model against a controlled shallow water experiment. We believe that such a framework with an easy to use interface that is based on readily available software libraries, which are widely available and easily distributable, would encourage not only researchers, but also educators to showcase ideas.

  4. THE RAPID SHALLOW BREATHING RESULTING FROM PULMONARY CONGESTION AND EDEMA

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Edward D.; Cope, Oliver

    1929-01-01

    These experiments record the effects of the experimental production of pulmonary congestion and edema in a lung completely isolated from the general circulation, but with an intact nerve supply. The resulting changes are: a slowing of the heart rate, a fall in systemic blood pressure and a temporary inhibition of respiration succeeded by rapid shallow breathing. The pulse rate and blood pressure show a rapid and spontaneous return to initial conditions. The respirations show a partial but not a complete return to their former rate and depth. The effects on respiration are similar to those described by Dunn and Binger and Moore which follow multiple embolism of the pulmonary circuit with starch granules. The alterations in the pulse rate and blood pressure are characteristic of the effects of vagal stimulation. A chemical effect on the respiratory center is excluded by the nature of the preparation. These results, therefore, add further evidence to support the hypothesis that the rapid shallow breathing attending congestion and edema of the lungs is due to the stimulation of nerve endings in the lungs. PMID:19869562

  5. Shallow Methane Hydrates: Rates, Mechanisms of Formation and Environmental Significance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Trehu, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Shallow gas hydrates have been identified at more than 20 locations worldwide, and are commonly associated with observations of bubble discharge at the seafloor. These deposits are host to active chemosynthetic communities and are likely to play a predominant role in energy, climate and carbon cycle issues associated with hydrate processes. Because seafloor gas hydrates are not in equilibrium with seawater, these deposits require a constant supply of methane to replace loss by continuous diffusion to bottom water. We will summarize evidence documenting that at the shallow deposits on Hydrate Ridge (OR) methane must be delivered in the free gas phase and present simple models used to infer formation rates, which are orders of magnitude higher than those for hydrates formed deeper in the sediment column (Torres et al., 2004). At Hydrate Ridge, methane gas is channeled from deep accretionary margin sequences to the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) through a permeable layer that has been mapped seismically (Horizon A). High gas pressure in this horizon can drive gas through the GHSZ to the seafloor (Trehu et al., 2004). We will review current ideas that address mechanisms whereby gas migrates from Horizon A to the seafloor, including inhibition by capillary effects and the development of a high salinity front that can shift the hydrate stability field enough to allow for methane transport as a gas phase.

  6. Optical lattice clock with atoms confined in a shallow trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonde, Pierre; Wolf, Peter; Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, 92312 Sevres Cedex

    2005-09-15

    We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose themore » use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.« less

  7. Optimization of shallow arches against instability using sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, Manohar P.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the problem of optimization of shallow frame structures which involve a coupling of axial and bending responses. A shallow arch of a given shape and of given weight is optimized such that its limit point load is maximized. The cross-sectional area, A(x) and the moment of inertia, I(x) of the arch obey the relationship I(x) = rho A(x) sup n, n = 1,2,3 and rho is a specified constant. Analysis of the arch for its limit point calculation involves a geometric nonlinear analysis which is performed using a corotational formulation. The optimization is carried out using a second-order projected Lagrangian algorithm and the sensitivity derivatives of the critical load parameter with respect to the areas of the finite elements of the arch are calculated using implicit differentation. Results are presented for an arch of a specified rise to span ratio under two different loadings and the limitations of the approach for the intermediate rise arches are addressed.

  8. A pitfall in shallow shear-wave refraction surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Wightman, E.; Nigbor, R.

    2002-01-01

    The shallow shear-wave refraction method works successfully in an area with a series of horizontal layers. However, complex near-surface geology may not fit into the assumption of a series of horizontal layers. That a plane SH-wave undergoes wave-type conversion along an interface in an area of nonhorizontal layers is theoretically inevitable. One real example shows that the shallow shear-wave refraction method provides velocities of a converted wave rather than an SH- wave. Moreover, it is impossible to identify the converted wave by refraction data itself. As most geophysical engineering firms have limited resources, an additional P-wave refraction survey is necessary to verify if velocities calculated from a shear-wave refraction survey are velocities of converted waves. The alternative at this time may be the surface wave method, which can provide reliable S-wave velocities, even in an area of velocity inversion (a higher velocity layer underlain by a lower velocity layer). ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Frechet derivatives for shallow water ocean acoustic inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Robert I.

    2003-04-01

    For any inverse problem, finding a model fitting the data is only half the problem. Most inverse problems of interest in ocean acoustics yield nonunique model solutions, and involve inevitable trade-offs between model and data resolution and variance. Problems of uniqueness and resolution and variance trade-offs can be addressed by examining the Frechet derivatives of the model-data functional with respect to the model variables. Tarantola [Inverse Problem Theory (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 613] published analytical formulas for the basic derivatives, e.g., derivatives of pressure with respect to elastic moduli and density. Other derivatives of interest, such as the derivative of transmission loss with respect to attenuation, can be easily constructed using the chain rule. For a range independent medium the analytical formulas involve only the Green's function and the vertical derivative of the Green's function for the medium. A crucial advantage of the analytical formulas for the Frechet derivatives over numerical differencing is that they can be computed with a single pass of any program which supplies the Green's function. Various derivatives of interest in shallow water ocean acoustics are presented and illustrated by an application to the sensitivity of measured pressure to shallow water sediment properties. [Work supported by ONR.

  10. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step

  11. Flow and coherent structures around circular cylinders in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jie; Constantinescu, George

    2017-06-01

    Eddy-resolving numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of the large-scale coherent structures around a circular cylinder in an open channel under very shallow flow conditions where the bed friction significantly affects the wake structure. Results are reported for three test cases, for which the ratio between the cylinder diameter, D, and the channel depth, H, is D/H = 10, 25, and 50, respectively. Simulation results show that a horseshoe vortex system forms in all test cases and the dynamics of the necklace vortices is similar to that during the breakaway sub-regime observed for cases when a laminar horseshoe vortex forms around the base of the cylinder. Given the shallow conditions and turbulence in the incoming channel flow, the necklace vortices occupy a large fraction of the flow depth (they penetrate until the free surface in the shallower cases with D/H = 25 and 50). The oscillations of the necklace vortices become less regular with increasing polar angle magnitude and can induce strong amplification of the bed shear stress beneath their cores. Strong interactions are observed between the legs of the necklace vortices and the eddies shed in the separated shear layers in the cases with D/H = 25 and 50. In these two cases, a vortex-street type wake is formed and strong three-dimensional effects are observed in the near-wake flow. A secondary instability in the form of arrays of co-rotating parallel horizontal vortices develops. Once the roller vortices get away from the cylinder, the horizontal vortices in the array orient themselves along the streamwise direction. This instability is not present for moderately shallow conditions (e.g., D/H ≈ 1) nor for very shallow cases when the wake changes to an unsteady bubble type (e.g., D/H = 50). For cases when this secondary instability is present, the horizontal vortices extend vertically over a large fraction of the flow depth and play an important role in the vertical mixing of fluid

  12. Shallow and marginal marine Triassic trace fossils and ichnofabric from northwest Australia (ocean drilling program leg 122)

    SciTech Connect

    Droser, M.L.; O'Connell, S.

    The ichnofabric index method of ranking amount of bioturbation was used for the first time in conjunction with discrete trace fossils to examine shallow-water marine cores. Previous ichnological studies on cores have focused primarily on outer shelf and deep-sea discrete trace fossils. Upper Triassic cores examined in this study were recovered off northwest Australia during ODP Leg 122. These sediments were deposited in a shallow-water and continental shelf setting, which included swamp and prodelta environments. The most common lithology is siltstone with interbedded mudstone and sandstone. Sediments deposited in a swamp setting have rootlets and coal beds with an ichnologicalmore » record consisting primarily of mottled bedding rather than discrete trace fossils. Ichnofabric indices 1 through 5 were recorded. Marginal marine/lagoonal facies have a low trace fossil diversity with common Chondrites, Planolites, and Teichichnus. Recorded ichnofabric indices include 1, 2, and 3. Laminated mudstones and siltstones (ii1) are most common. Fully marine open shelf strata are thoroughly bioturbated (ii5 and ii6) with Thalassinoides, Zoophycos, Teichichnus, and Planolites. Wackestone and packstone occur in discrete uppermost Triassic intervals and have ii1 through ii6 represented. In part due to the drilling process, sandstones and reefal limestones were poorly recovered and ichnofabric is not well preserved. Physical sedimentary structures and lateral facies relationships can be difficult to discern in core. In shallow marine deposits, the distribution of ichnofabric indices and discrete trace fossils within these strata provide an additional important data base to evaluate depositional environments.« less

  13. Multimedia fate modeling of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in the shallow lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Wei; Xu, Fuliu; Koelmans, Albert A; Mooij, Wolf M

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater shallow lake ecosystems provide valuable ecological services to human beings. However, these systems are subject to severe contamination from anthropogenic sources. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), are among the contaminants that have received substantial attention, primarily due to abundant applications, environment persistence, and potential threats to ecological and human health. Understanding the environmental behavior of these contaminants in shallow freshwater lake environments using a modeling approach is therefore critical. Here, we characterize the fate, transport and transformation of both PFOA and PFOS in the fifth largest freshwater lake in China (Chaohu) during a two-year period (2013-2015) using a fugacity-based multimedia fate model. A reasonable agreement between the measured and modeled concentrations in various compartments confirms the model's reliability. The model successfully quantifies the environmental processes and identifies the major sources and input pathways of PFOA and PFOS to the Chaohu water body. Sensitivity analysis reveals the critical role of nonlinear Freundlich sorption, which contributes to a variable fraction of the model true uncertainty in different compartments (8.1%-93.6%). Through additional model scenario analyses, we further elucidate the importance of nonlinear Freundlich sorption that is essential for the reliable model performance. We also reveal the distinct composition of emission sources for the two contaminants, as the major sources are indirect soil volatilization and direct release from human activities for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. The present study is expected to provide implications for local management of PFASs pollution in Lake Chaohu and to contribute to developing a general model framework for the evaluation of PFASs in shallow lakes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Robustness of fossil fish teeth for seawater neodymium isotope reconstructions under variable redox conditions in an ancient shallow marine setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Claire E.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Röhl, Ursula; Hammond, Samantha J.

    2016-03-01

    Fossil fish teeth from pelagic open ocean settings are considered a robust archive for preserving the neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of ancient seawater. However, using fossil fish teeth as an archive to reconstruct seawater Nd isotopic compositions in different sedimentary redox environments and in terrigenous-dominated, shallow marine settings is less proven. To address these uncertainties, fish tooth and sediment samples from a middle Eocene section deposited proximal to the East Antarctic margin at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1356 were analyzed for major and trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotopes. Major and trace element analyses of the sediments reveal changing redox conditions throughout deposition in a shallow marine environment. However, variations in the Nd isotopic composition and rare earth element (REE) patterns of the associated fish teeth do not correspond to redox changes in the sediments. REE patterns in fish teeth at Site U1356 carry a typical mid-REE-enriched signature. However, a consistently positive Ce anomaly marks a deviation from a pure authigenic origin of REEs to the fish tooth. Neodymium isotopic compositions of cleaned and uncleaned fish teeth fall between modern seawater and local sediments and hence could be authigenic in nature, but could also be influenced by sedimentary fluxes. We conclude that the fossil fish tooth Nd isotope proxy is not sensitive to moderate changes in pore water oxygenation. However, combined studies on sediments, pore waters, fish teeth, and seawater are needed to fully understand processes driving the reconstructed signature from shallow marine sections in proximity to continental sources.

  15. Carbonate-periplatform sedimentation by density flows: A mechanism for rapid off-bank and vertical transport of shallow-water fines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, P.A.; Roberts, Harry H.

    1993-01-01

    Existing theories of off-bank sediment transport cannot account for rapid rates of sedimentation observed in Bahama bank and Florida shelf periplatform environments. Analysis of the physical processes operating during winter cold fronts suggests that accelerated off-bank transport of shallow-water mud may be achieved by sinking off-bank flows of sediment-charged hyperpycnal (super-dense) platform waters.

  16. Seasonal changes in fish assemblage structure at a shallow seamount in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Salvador J; Klimley, A Peter; Muhlia-Melo, Arturo; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Seamounts have generally been identified as locations that can promote elevated productivity, biomass and predator biodiversity. These properties attract seamount-associated fisheries where elevated harvests can be obtained relative to surrounding areas. There exists large variation in the geological and oceanographic environment among the thousands of locations that fall within the broad definition of seamount. Global seamount surveys have revealed that not all seamounts are hotspots of biodiversity, and there remains a strong need to understand the mechanisms that underlie variation in species richness observed. We examined the process of fish species assembly at El Bajo Espiritu Santo (EBES) seamount in the Gulf of California over a five-year study period. To effectively quantify the relative abundance of fast-moving and schooling fishes in a 'blue water' habitat, we developed a simplified underwater visual census (UVC) methodology and analysis framework suitable for this setting and applicable to future studies in similar environments. We found correlations between seasonally changing community structure and variability in oceanographic conditions. Individual species responses to thermal habitat at EBES revealed three distinct assemblages, a 'fall assemblage' tracking warmer overall temperature, a 'spring assemblage' correlated with cooler temperature, and a 'year-round assemblage' with no significant response to temperature. Species richness was greatest in spring, when cool and warm water masses stratified the water column and a greater number of species from all three assemblages co-occurred. We discuss our findings in the context of potential mechanisms that could account for predator biodiversity at shallow seamounts.

  17. GPR detectability of rocks in a Martian-like shallow subsoil: A numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Guido; Galli, Alessandro; Matteo Barone, Pier; Lauro, Sebastian E.; Mattei, Elisabetta; Pettinelli, Elena

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the ability of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to detect rocks buried in composite soil is studied in connection with the planned ExoMars mission, as GPR will be used during this mission to scan the Martian subsurface to help define feasible sites for shallow drilling. A realistic model of the operating environment is implemented through a full-wave electromagnetic simulator, taking into account the antenna system and the signal features. The flexibility and efficiency of this numerical approach has allowed for the analysis of a great variety of configurations. The regolith is modeled based on data from recent explorations, while various kinds of embedded rocks are considered that have different geometrical and physical characteristics. The simulated results are compared with ad hoc GPR measurements performed on basalts buried in a mixture of glass beads, as an analogue of a dry sandy Martian soil. A very good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is found, thus validating the proposed numerical approach. This research has defined useful and reliable information concerning the prediction of scattering effects from buried objects in the environment where the ExoMars rover will operate.

  18. High frequency source localization in a shallow ocean sound channel using frequency difference matched field processing.

    PubMed

    Worthmann, Brian M; Song, H C; Dowling, David R

    2015-12-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an established technique for source localization in known multipath acoustic environments. Unfortunately, in many situations, particularly those involving high frequency signals, imperfect knowledge of the actual propagation environment prevents accurate propagation modeling and source localization via MFP fails. For beamforming applications, this actual-to-model mismatch problem was mitigated through a frequency downshift, made possible by a nonlinear array-signal-processing technique called frequency difference beamforming [Abadi, Song, and Dowling (2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3018-3029]. Here, this technique is extended to conventional (Bartlett) MFP using simulations and measurements from the 2011 Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI experiment (KAM11) to produce ambiguity surfaces at frequencies well below the signal bandwidth where the detrimental effects of mismatch are reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results suggest that frequency difference MFP can be more robust against environmental mismatch than conventional MFP. In particular, signals of frequency 11.2 kHz-32.8 kHz were broadcast 3 km through a 106-m-deep shallow ocean sound channel to a sparse 16-element vertical receiving array. Frequency difference MFP unambiguously localized the source in several experimental data sets with average peak-to-side-lobe ratio of 0.9 dB, average absolute-value range error of 170 m, and average absolute-value depth error of 10 m.

  19. Interaction of deep and shallow convection is key to Madden-Julian Oscillation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang J.; Song, Xiaoliang

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the role of the interaction between deep and shallow convection in MJO simulation using the NCAR CAM3. Two simulations were performed, one using a revised Zhang-McFarlane convection scheme for deep convection and the Hack scheme for shallow convection, and the other disallowing shallow convection below 700 mb in the tropical belt. The two simulations produce dramatically different MJO characteristics. While the control simulation produces realistic MJOs, the simulation without shallow convection has very weak MJO signals in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Composite analysis finds that shallow convection serves to precondition the lower troposphere by moistening it ahead of deep convection. It also produces enhanced low-level mass convergence below 850 mb ahead of deep convection. This work, together with previous studies, suggests that a correct simulation of the interaction between deep and shallow convection is key to MJO simulation in global climate models.

  20. The control of palaeo-topography in the preservation of shallow gas accumulation: Examples from Brazil, Argentina and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Klein, Antonio H. F.; Green, Andrew N.; Aliotta, Salvador; de Mahiques, Michel M.; Ayres Neto, Arthur; Terra, Laurício C.; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Calliari, Lauro J.; Montoya, Isabel; Ginsberg, Silvia S.; Griep, Gilberto H.

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic anomalies in seismic records have revealed that gas-charged sediments are very common features in the coastal environments around the world. The ubiquitous gassy sediments challenge the effective acoustic mapping of shallow stratigraphy by seismic means, as well as having an important influence on environmental issues related to the coastal zone occupation and management. This paper documents examples of gassy sediments from coastal lagoons, estuaries, rivers, bays and the inner shelf and nearshore environments of Brazil, Argentina and South Africa. Seismic echograms from selected areas show several gas-related anomalies, which present distinctive morphologies for sediment-trapped gas, leaking or free gas discharge into the water column. In several places the gas-charged sediments occur in areas of palaeo-topographic lows related to fluvial channels and valleys that developed in the coastal zone due to sea level oscillations during the Quaternary period. This forcing by palaeo-topographic features results in the occurrence of shallow gas being controlled in most coastal sites by the previous environmental scenario, the stratigraphic arrangement of the transgressive infilling elements, and the local hydrodynamic conditions.

  1. Upper Mississippi embayment shallow seismic velocities measured in situ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Huaibao P.; Hu, Y.; Dorman, J.; Chang, T.-S.; Chiu, J.-M.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical seismic compressional- and shear-wave (P- and S-wave) profiles were collected from three shallow boreholes in sediment of the upper Mississippi embayment. The site of the 60-m hole at Shelby Forest, Tennessee, is on bluffs forming the eastern edge of the Mississippi alluvial plain. The bluffs are composed of Pleistocene loess, Pliocene-Pleistocene alluvial clay and sand deposits, and Tertiary deltaic-marine sediment. The 36-m hole at Marked Tree, Arkansas, and the 27-m hole at Risco, Missouri, are in Holocene Mississippi river floodplain sand, silt, and gravel deposits. At each site, impulsive P- and S-waves were generated by man-made sources at the surface while a three-component geophone was locked downhole at 0.91-m intervals. Consistent with their very similar geology, the two floodplain locations have nearly identical S-wave velocity (VS) profiles. The lowest VS values are about 130 m s-1, and the highest values are about 300 m s-1 at these sites. The shear-wave velocity profile at Shelby Forest is very similar within the Pleistocene loess (12m thick); in deeper, older material, VS exceeds 400 m s-1. At Marked Tree, and at Risco, the compressional-wave velocity (VP) values above the water table are as low as about 230 m s-1, and rise to about 1.9 km s-1 below the water table. At Shelby Forest, VP values in the unsaturated loess are as low as 302 m s-1. VP values below the water table are about 1.8 km s-1. For the two floodplain sites, the VP/VS ratio increases rapidly across the water table depth. For the Shelby Forest site, the largest increase in the VP/VS ratio occurs at ???20-m depth, the boundary between the Pliocene-Pleistocene clay and sand deposits and the Eocene shallow-marine clay and silt deposits. Until recently, seismic velocity data for the embayment basin came from earthquake studies, crustal-scale seismic refraction and reflection profiles, sonic logs, and from analysis of dispersed earthquake surface waves. Since 1991, seismic data

  2. Nocturnal cooling in a very shallow cold air pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovec, Jože; Skok, Gregor; Žabkar, Rahela; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2015-04-01

    Cold air pools (CAPs) may develop during nights in very shallow depressions. The depth of the stagnant air within a CAP influences the process of the cooling of nocturnal air and the resulting minimum temperature. A seven-month long field experiment was performed during winter 2013/2014 in an orchard near Kr\\vsko, Slovenia, located inside a very shallow basin only a few meters deep and approximately 500 m wide. Two locations at different elevations inside the basin were selected for measurement. The results showed that the nights (in terms of cooling) can be classified into three main categories; nights with overcast skies and weak cooling, windy nights with clear sky and strong cooling but with no difference in temperatures between locations inside the basin, and calm nights with even stronger cooling and significant temperature differences between locations inside the basin. On calm nights with clear skies, the difference at two measuring sites inside the basin can be up to 5 °C but the presence of even weak winds can cause sufficient turbulent mixing to negate any difference in temperature. To better understand the cooling process on calm, clear nights, we developed a simple 1-D thermodynamic conceptual model focusing on a very shallow CAP. The model has 5-layers (including two air layers representing air inside the CAP), and an analytical solution was obtained for the equilibrium temperatures. Sensitivity analysis of the model was performed. As expected, a larger soil heat conductivity or higher temperature in the ground increases the morning minimum temperatures. An increase in temperature of the atmosphere also increases the simulated minimum temperatures, while the temperature difference between the higher and lower locations remains almost the same. An increase in atmosphere humidity also increases the modelled equilibrium temperatures, while an increase of the humidity of the air inside the CAP results in lower equilibrium temperatures. The humidity of

  3. A Shallow Layer Approach for Geo-flow emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Mecedonio, G.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical flows such as lahars or lava flows severely threat the communities located on or near the volcano flanks. Risks and damages caused by the propagation of this kind of flows require a quantitative description of this phenomenon and reliable tools for forecasting their emplacement. Computational models are a valuable tool for planning risk mitigation countermeasures, such as human intervention to force flow diversion, artificial barriers, and allow for significant economical and social benefits. A FORTRAN 90 code based on a Shallow Layer Approach for Geo-flows (SLAG) for describing transport and emplacement of diluted lahars, water and lava was developed in both serial and parallel version. Three rheological models, such as those describing i) a viscous, ii) a turbulent, and iii) a dilatant flow respectively, were implemented in order to describe transport of lavas, water and diluted lahars. The code was made user-friendly by creating some interfaces that allow the user to easily define the problem, extract and interpolate the topography of the simulation domain. Moreover SLAG outputs can be written in both GRD format (e.g., Surfer), NetCDF format, or visualized directly in GoogleEarth. In SLAG the governing equations were treated using a Godunov splitting method following George (2008) algorithm based on a Riemann solver for the shallow water equations that decomposes an augmented state variable the depth, momentum, momentum flux, and bathymetry into four propagating discontinuities or waves. For our application, the algorithm was generalized for solving the energy equation. For validating the code in simulating real geophysical flows, we performed few simulations the lava flow event of the the 3rd and 4th January 1992 Etna eruption, the July 2001 Etna lava flows, January 2002 Nyragongo lava flows and few test cases for simulating transport of diluted lahars. Ref: George, D.L. (2008), Augmented Riemann Solvers for the Shallow Water Equations over Variable

  4. Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response Project: Measured Shallow Soil Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, B. A.; Louie, J.; Beeston, H. E.; Skidmore, V.; Concha, A.

    2002-12-01

    The Las Vegas valley in Nevada is a deep (up to 5 km) alluvial basin filled with interlayered gravels, sands, and clays. The climate is arid. The water table ranges from a few meters to many tens of meters deep. Laterally extensive thin carbonate-cemented lenses are commonly found across parts of the valley. Lenses range beyond 2 m in thickness, and occur at depths exceeding 200 m. Shallow seismic datasets have been collected at approximately ten sites around the Las Vegas valley, to characterize shear and compression wave velocities in the near surface. Purposes for the surveys include modeling of ground response to dynamic loads, both natural and manmade, quantification of soil stiffness to aid structural foundation design, and non-intrusive materials identification. Borehole-based measurement techniques used include downhole and crosshole, to depths exceeding 100 m. Surface-based techniques used include refraction and three different methods involving inversion of surface-wave dispersion datasets. This latter group includes two active-source techniques, the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method and the Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method; and a new passive-source technique, the Refraction Mictrotremor (ReMi) method. Depths to halfspace for the active-source measurements ranged beyond 50 m. The passive-source method constrains shear wave velocities to 100 m depths. As expected, the stiff cemented layers profoundly affect local velocity gradients. Scale effects are evident in comparisons of (1) very local measurements typified by borehole methods, to (2) the broader coverage of the SASW and MASW measurements, to (3) the still broader and deeper resolution made possible by the ReMi measurements. The cemented layers appear as sharp spikes in the downhole datasets and are problematic in crosshole measurements due to refraction. The refraction method is useful only to locate the depth to the uppermost cemented layer. The surface

  5. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  6. Studies of the Vector Field in Shallow Water and in the Presence of 3-D Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Studies of the Vector Field in Shallow Water and in the...including noise variability in shallow water and the influence of three-dimensional environmental variability on the propagation of acoustic energy...issue, known to be a problem in SSF algorithms in shallow water . Figure 1 displays results of TL traces at a depth of 100m for a 100Hz source

  7. Iowa's Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue explores the changes in Iowa's environment. When Native Americans lived in Iowa hundreds of years ago, the land was rich in tall grasslands, fertile soil, wildlife, wetlands, and unpolluted waters. When European-American pioneers settled Iowa in 1833, they changed the environment in order to survive. The first article in this…

  8. Modeling of SAR signatures of shallow water ocean topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kozma, A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrodynamic/electromagnetic model was developed to explain and quantify the relationship between the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observed signatures and the bottom topography of the ocean in the English Channel region of the North Sea. The model uses environmental data and radar system parameters as inputs and predicts SAR-observed backscatter changes over topographic changes in the ocean floor. The model results compare favorably with the actual SEASAT SAR observed backscatter values. The developed model is valid for only relatively shallow water areas (i.e., less than 50 meters in depth) and suggests that for bottom features to be visible on SAR imagery, a moderate to high velocity current and a moderate wind must be present.

  9. Equatorially trapped convection in a rapidly rotating shallow shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miquel, Benjamin; Xie, Jin-Han; Featherstone, Nicholas; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of subsurface oceans on planetary moons and the interest they have generated, we explore convective flows in shallow spherical shells of dimensionless gap width ɛ2≪1 in the rapid rotation limit E ≪1 , where E is the Ekman number. We employ direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Boussinesq equations to compute the local heat flux Nu (λ ) as a function of the latitude λ and use the results to characterize the trapping of convection at low latitudes, around the equator. We show that these results are quantitatively reproduced by an asymptotically exact nonhydrostatic equatorial β -plane convection model at a much more modest computational cost than DNS. We identify the trapping parameter β =ɛ E-1 as the key parameter that controls the vigor and latitudinal extent of convection for moderate thermal forcing when E ˜ɛ and ɛ ↓0 . This model provides a theoretical paradigm for nonlinear investigations.

  10. Shallow fluid pressure transients caused by seismogenic normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Karl Henry

    1993-10-01

    Clastic dikes, induced by paleo-seismic slip along the Jonesboro Fault, can be used to estimate the magnitude of shallow fluid pressure transients. Fractures show evidence of two phases of seismically induced dilation by escaping fluids. Initial dilation and propagation through brittle rocks was caused by expulsion of trapped reducing fluids from beneath a clay cap. Second phase fluids were thixotropic clays which flowed vertically from clay beds upwards into the main fracture. Using the differential dilation and fracture trace lengths, the fluid pressure pulse is estimated to have ranged from 0.312-0.49 MPa, which is approximately equal to the vertical load during deformation. Field observations in adjacent rocks record evidence of large-magnitude seismic events, which are consistent with the large nature of the fluid pressure fluctuation.

  11. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  12. Nonlinear shallow ocean-wave soliton interactions on flat beaches.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Baldwin, Douglas E

    2012-09-01

    Ocean waves are complex and often turbulent. While most ocean-wave interactions are essentially linear, sometimes two or more waves interact in a nonlinear way. For example, two or more waves can interact and yield waves that are much taller than the sum of the original wave heights. Most of these shallow-water nonlinear interactions look like an X or a Y or two connected Ys; at other times, several lines appear on each side of the interaction region. It was thought that such nonlinear interactions are rare events: they are not. Here we report that such nonlinear interactions occur every day, close to low tide, on two flat beaches that are about 2000 km apart. These interactions are closely related to the analytic, soliton solutions of a widely studied multidimensional nonlinear wave equation. On a much larger scale, tsunami waves can merge in similar ways.

  13. Expansion shock waves in regularized shallow-water theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.; Shearer, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We identify a new type of shock wave by constructing a stationary expansion shock solution of a class of regularized shallow-water equations that include the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and Boussinesq equations. An expansion shock exhibits divergent characteristics, thereby contravening the classical Lax entropy condition. The persistence of the expansion shock in initial value problems is analysed and justified using matched asymptotic expansions and numerical simulations. The expansion shock's existence is traced to the presence of a non-local dispersive term in the governing equation. We establish the algebraic decay of the shock as it is gradually eroded by a simple wave on either side. More generally, we observe a robustness of the expansion shock in the presence of weak dissipation and in simulations of asymmetric initial conditions where a train of solitary waves is shed from one side of the shock.

  14. Canonical structures for dispersive waves in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyzi, Fahrünisa; Nutku, Yavuz

    1987-07-01

    The canonical Hamiltonian structure of the equations of fluid dynamics obtained in the Boussinesq approximation are considered. New variational formulations of these equations are proposed and it is found that, as in the case of the KdV equation and the equations governing long waves in shallow water, they are degenerate Lagrangian systems. Therefore, in order to cast these equations into canonical form it is again necessary to use Dirac's theory of constraints. It is found that there are primary and secondary constraints which are second class and it is possible to construct the Hamiltonian in terms of canonical variables. Among the examples of Boussinesq equations that are discussed are the equations of Whitham-Broer-Kaup which Kupershmidt has recently expressed in symmetric form and shown to admit tri-Hamiltonian structure.

  15. Applications of Cosmic Muon Tracking at Shallow Depth Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Hamar, G.; Melegh, H. G.; Surányi, G.; Varga, D.

    2014-06-01

    A portable cosmic muon telescope has been developed for environmental and geophysical applications, as well as cosmic background measurements for nuclear research in underground labs by the REGARD group (Wigner RCP of the HAS and Eötvös Loránd University collaboration on gaseous detector R&D). The modular, low power consuming (5 W) Close Cathode Chamber-based tracking system has 10 mrad angular resolution with its sensitive area of 0.1 m2. The angular distribution of cosmic muons has been measured at shallow depth underground (< 70 meter-rock-equivalent) in four different remote locations. Application of cosmic muon detection for the reconstruction of underground caverns and building structures are demonstrated by the measurements.

  16. Tracking fronts in solutions of the shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Andrew F.; Cummins, Patrick F.

    1988-02-01

    A front-tracking algorithm of Chern et al. (1986) is tested on the shallow-water equations, using the Parrett and Cullen (1984) and Williams and Hori (1970) initial state, consisting of smooth finite amplitude waves depending on one space dimension alone. At high resolution the solution is almost indistinguishable from that obtained with the Glimm algorithm. The latter is known to converge to the true frontal solution, but is 20 times less efficient at the same resolution. The solutions obtained using the front-tracking algorithm at 8 times coarser resolution are quite acceptable, indicating a very substantial gain in efficiency, which encourages application in realistic ocean models possessing two or three space dimensions.

  17. Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.

  18. GaAs shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating space resistant, high efficiency, light weight, low cost GaAs shallow homojunction solar cells for space application is investigated. The material preparation of ultrathin GaAs single crystal layers, and the fabrication of efficient GaAs solar cells on bulk GaAs substrates are discussed. Considerable progress was made in both areas, and conversion efficiency about 16% AMO was obtained using anodic oxide as a single layer antireflection coating. A computer design shows that even better cells can be obtained with double layer antireflection coating. Ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells were obtained from GaAs films prepared by the CLEFT process, with conversion efficiency as high as 17% at AMI from a 10 micrometers thick GaAs film. A organometallic CVD was designed and constructed.

  19. Expansion shock waves in regularized shallow-water theory

    PubMed Central

    El, Gennady A.; Shearer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We identify a new type of shock wave by constructing a stationary expansion shock solution of a class of regularized shallow-water equations that include the Benjamin–Bona–Mahony and Boussinesq equations. An expansion shock exhibits divergent characteristics, thereby contravening the classical Lax entropy condition. The persistence of the expansion shock in initial value problems is analysed and justified using matched asymptotic expansions and numerical simulations. The expansion shock's existence is traced to the presence of a non-local dispersive term in the governing equation. We establish the algebraic decay of the shock as it is gradually eroded by a simple wave on either side. More generally, we observe a robustness of the expansion shock in the presence of weak dissipation and in simulations of asymmetric initial conditions where a train of solitary waves is shed from one side of the shock. PMID:27279780

  20. Large-scale field testing on flexible shallow landslide barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnion, Louis; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna; Roth, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Open shallow landslides occur regularly in a wide range of natural terrains. Generally, they are difficult to predict and result in damages to properties and disruption of transportation systems. In order to improve the knowledge about the physical process itself and to develop new protection measures, large-scale field experiments were conducted in Veltheim, Switzerland. Material was released down a 30° inclined test slope into a flexible barrier. The flow as well as the impact into the barrier was monitored using various measurement techniques. Laser devices recording flow heights, a special force plate measuring normal and shear basal forces as well as load cells for impact pressures were installed along the test slope. In addition, load cells were built in the support and retaining cables of the barrier to provide data for detailed back-calculation of load distribution during impact. For the last test series an additional guiding wall in flow direction on both sides of the barrier was installed to achieve higher impact pressures in the middle of the barrier. With these guiding walls the flow is not able to spread out before hitting the barrier. A special constructed release mechanism simulating the sudden failure of the slope was designed such that about 50 m3 of mixed earth and gravel saturated with water can be released in an instant. Analysis of cable forces combined with impact pressures and velocity measurements during a test series allow us now to develop a load model for the barrier design. First numerical simulations with the software tool FARO, originally developed for rockfall barriers and afterwards calibrated for debris flow impacts, lead already to structural improvements on barrier design. Decisive for the barrier design is the first dynamic impact pressure depending on the flow velocity and afterwards the hydrostatic pressure of the complete retained material behind the barrier. Therefore volume estimation of open shallow landslides by assessing

  1. Hydraulic jump and Bernoulli equation in nonlinear shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Yih

    2018-06-01

    A shallow water model was applied to study the hydraulic jump and Bernoulli equation across the jump. On a flat terrain, when a supercritical flow plunges into a subcritical flow, discontinuity develops on velocity and Bernoulli function across the jump. The shock generated by the obstacle may propagate downstream and upstream. The latter reflected from the inflow boundary, moves downstream and leaves the domain. Before the reflected wave reaching the obstacle, the short-term integration (i.e., quasi-steady) simulations agree with Houghton and Kasahara's results, which may have unphysical complex solutions. The quasi-steady flow is quickly disturbed by the reflected wave, finally, flow reaches steady and becomes critical without complex solutions. The results also indicate that Bernoulli function is discontinuous but the potential of mass flux remains constant across the jump. The latter can be used to predict velocity/height in a steady flow.

  2. Subharmonic edge waves on a large, shallow island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foda, Mostafa A.

    1988-08-01

    Subharmonic resonance of edge waves by incident and reflected waves has been studied thus far for the case of a plane infinite beach. The analysis will be extended here to the case of a curved coastline, with a large radius of curvature and slowly varying beach slope in the longshore direction. It will be shown that the effects of such slow beach slope changes on a propagating edge wave are similar to the familiar shoaling effects on incident waves. The case of subharmonic edge wave generation on large shallow islands will be discussed in detail. The nonlinear analysis will show that within a certain range of island sizes, the generation mechanism can produce a stable standing edge wave around the island. For larger islands the solution disintegrates into two out-of-phase envelopes of opposite-going edge waves. For still larger islands, the generated progressive edge waves become unstable to sideband modulations.

  3. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California:

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix II addresses the first Wilhelm Sands and its sub unites and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have beenmore » determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end.« less

  4. Shallow translational slides hazard evaluation in Santa Marta de Penaguião (Douro valley - Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Luís Zêzere, José; Bateira, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The present study is developed for the municipality of Santa Marta de Penaguião (70 square kilometers), located in the Douro Valley region (Northern Portugal). In the past, several destructive landslides occurred in this area, and were responsible for deaths and destruction of houses and roads. Despite these losses, mitigation and landslide zonation programs are missing, and the land use planning at the municipal level did not solve yet the problem. The study area is mainly composed by metamorphic rocks (e.g., schist and quartzite). These rocks are strongly fractured, and weathered materials are abundant in clayed schist, mainly in those areas where agricultural terraces were constructed centuries ago for the vineyard monoculture. From the geomorphologic point of view, the study area is characterized by deep incised valleys, tectonic depressions and slopes controlled by the geological structure. Elevation ranges from 49 m to 1416 m. The main landslide triggering factor is rainfall and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 700 mm (in the bottom of fluvial valleys) to 2500 mm (in the mountains top). A landslide inventory was performed in 2005-2009 using aerial photo-interpretation (1/5.000 scale) and field work. The inventory includes 848 landslides, most of shallow translational slide type (85% of total slope movements). The landslide density is 10.5 events/square kilometers, and the average landslide area is 535 square meters. The susceptibility to shallow translational slide occurrence was assessed at the 1: 10 000 scale in a GIS environment. Two different bivariate statistical methods were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility: the Information Value and the Fuzzy Logic Gamma operator. Eight conditioning factors were weighted and integrated to model susceptibility: slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, lithology, geomorphologic units, fault density, land use and terrace structures build in slopes. The susceptibility results were validated using a

  5. Electrical and Magnetic Imaging of Proppants in Shallow Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denison, J. L. S.; Murdoch, L. C.; LaBrecque, D. J.; Slack, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is an important tool to increase the productivity of wells used for oil and gas production, water resources, and environmental remediation. Currently there are relatively few tools available to monitor the distribution of proppants within a hydraulic fracture, or the propagation of the fracture itself. We have been developing techniques for monitoring hydraulic fractures by injecting electrically conductive, dielectric, or magnetically permeable proppants. We then use the resulting contrast with the enveloping rock to image the proppants using geophysical methods. Based on coupled laboratory and numerical modeling studies, three types of proppants were selected for field evaluation. Eight hydraulic fractures were created near Clemson, SC in May of 2015 by injecting specialized proppants at a depth of 1.5 m. The injections created shallow sub-horizontal fractures extending several meters from the injection point.Each cell had a dense array of electrodes and magnetic sensors on the surface and four shallow vertical electrode arrays that were used to obtain data before and after hydraulic fracturing. Net vertical displacement and transient tilts were also measured. Cores from 130 boreholes were used to characterize the general geometries, and trenching was used to characterize the forms of two of the fractures in detail. Hydraulic fracture geometries were estimated by inverting pre- and post-injection geophysical data. Data from cores and trenching show that the hydraulic fractures were saucer-shaped with a preferred propagation direction. The geophysical inversions generated images that were remarkably similar in form, size, and location to the ground truth from direct observation. Displacement and tilt data appear promising as a constraint on fracture geometry.

  6. Tracing organic carbon processes in a shallow coastal sandy aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, K.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; O'Carrol, D. M.; Bryan, E.; Zainuddin, N. S.; Rutlidge, H.; McDonough, L.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal groundwater resources are likely to be impacted by climate change due to changes in recharge patterns, surface water flow and sea-level rise, which all have the potential to change how carbon is transported and stored within a catchment. Large quantities of carbon are currently stored within coastal wetland systems, so understanding carbon dynamics is important for climate change predictions into the future. Furthermore, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can play a major role in weathering processes and deterioration of water quality, therefore understanding the sources, degradation pathways and its reactivity is important. Groundwater samples were collected from five nested sites (15 wells) from a shallow (0-20m) coastal sandy aquifer system located at Anna Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Surface water samples were also collected from the adjacent wetland. Waters were measured for major ion chemistry, carbon isotopes (δ13CDIC, δ13CDOC and 14CDIC) and tritium (3H). The dissolved organic matter (DOM) character was determined using optical spectroscopy and liquid chromatography. DOC was found to be elevated in the wetland (18 ppm) and had the lowest δ13CDOC value (-30.3 ‰). The shallow (3.5 m) groundwater located closest to but downgradient of the wetland (5 m) had similar characteristics to the wetland sample but contained significantly lower DOC concentrations (5 ppm) and were 1 ‰ more enriched in δ13CDOC values. This suggests that the aquifer is a sink for organic matter and the process fractionates the carbon isotopes. Higher resolution studies are underway to characterise and constrain timescales for the DOC transformation processes.

  7. Shallow Subsurface transport and eruption of basaltic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic fissure vents are difficult to quantify, and details of eruptive behavior are elusive even though it is the most common eruption mechanism on Earth and across the solar system. A fissure's surface expression is typically concealed, but when a fissure remains exposed, its subsurface conduit can be mapped post-eruptively with VolcanoBot. The robot uses a NIR structured light sensor that reproduces a 3D surface model to cm-scale accuracy, documenting the shallow conduit. VolcanoBot3 has probed >1000m3 of volcanic fissure vents at the Mauna Ulu fissure system on Kilauea. Here we present the new 3D model of a flared vent on the Mauna Ulu fissure system. We see a self-similar pattern of irregularities on the fissure walls throughout the entire shallow subsurface, implying a fracture mechanical origin similar to faults. These irregularities are typically 1 m across, protrude 30 cm horizontally into the drained fissure, and have a vertical spacing of 2-3 m. However, irregularity size is variable and distinct with depth, potentially reflecting stratigraphy in the wall rock. Where piercing points are present, we infer the dike broke the wall rock in order to propagate upwards; where they are not, we infer that syn-eruptive mechanical erosion has taken place. One mechanism for mechanical erosion is supersonic shocks, which may occur in Hawaiian fountains. We are calculating the speed of sound in 64% basaltic foam, which appears to be the same velocity (or slightly slower) than inferred eruption velocities. Irregularities are larger than the maximum 10% wall roughness used in engineering fluid dynamic studies, indicating that magma fluid dynamics during fissure eruptions are probably not as passive nor as simple as previously thought. We are currently using the mapped conduit geometries and derived speed of sound for basaltic foam in fluid dynamical modeling of fissure-fed lava fountains.

  8. A generic model for the shallow velocity structure of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, Philippe; Heap, Michael J.; Kushnir, Alexandra

    2018-05-01

    The knowledge of the structure of volcanoes and of the physical properties of volcanic rocks is of paramount importance to the understanding of volcanic processes and the interpretation of monitoring observations. However, the determination of these structures by geophysical methods suffers limitations including a lack of resolution and poor precision. Laboratory experiments provide complementary information on the physical properties of volcanic materials and their behavior as a function of several parameters including pressure and temperature. Nevertheless combined studies and comparisons of field-based geophysical and laboratory-based physical approaches remain scant in the literature. Here, we present a meta-analysis which compares 44 seismic velocity models of the shallow structure of eleven volcanoes, laboratory velocity measurements on about one hundred rock samples from five volcanoes, and seismic well-logs from deep boreholes at two volcanoes. The comparison of these measurements confirms the strong variability of P- and S-wave velocities, which reflects the diversity of volcanic materials. The values obtained from laboratory experiments are systematically larger than those provided by seismic models. This discrepancy mainly results from scaling problems due to the difference between the sampled volumes. The averages of the seismic models are characterized by very low velocities at the surface and a strong velocity increase at shallow depth. By adjusting analytical functions to these averages, we define a generic model that can describe the variations in P- and S-wave velocities in the first 500 m of andesitic and basaltic volcanoes. This model can be used for volcanoes where no structural information is available. The model can also account for site time correction in hypocenter determination as well as for site and path effects that are commonly observed in volcanic structures.

  9. Understanding the ecocline at shallow coasts of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenartz, B.; Jurasinski, G.; Voss, M.; Janssen, M.

    2017-12-01

    We report on results of the Research Training Group Baltic TRANSCOAST. The overall aim of Baltic TRANSCOAST is to enhance our knowledge of the shallow coast ecocline. How is the marine coastal zone influenced by terrestrial processes? How is the terrestrial coastal zone influenced by marine processes? These questions lead our research within the three research fields covering hydro-dynamic, (bio)geochemical and biological processes. Regarding the hydro-dynamics we assess how the peatland's water balance, the current dynamics and hydraulic properties of the marine sediments and the subsoil influence sea water intrusions into the peatland and/or submarine groundwater discharge into the Baltic Sea. With respect to (bio)geochemical processes we address how (bio)geochemical transformation processes both in the marine and the terrestrial part of the coast are influenced by water and matter inputs from the respective other coastal domain. Finally, reagrding the biological processes, we are interested in revealing how the primary production and the composition of the micro- and macro-phytobenthos in the shallow Baltic Sea influence matter transformation processes. The integrative approach of Baltic TRANSCOAST allows us to get to grips with questions that are otherwise hard to tackle. For instance, we address how the pore water constituents drive microbial processes and the deposition of nutrients and and how they are impacted by sediment resuspension and translocation. We investigate how the hydrology of the peat layers interferes with the generation of trace gases and investigate the role of the nearby Warnow river and its plume and how this changes under the impact of wind direction and wind strength. For the latter we rely on data and models. Further, as a common basis for all topics addressed in Baltic TRANSCOAST we established the geology of the study area and learned that regional variability may play a major role in shaping the processes under study.

  10. Automated reconstruction of rainfall events responsible for shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, G.; Parise, M.; Brunetti, M. T.; Peruccacci, S.; Rossi, M.; Vennari, C.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, many contributions have been devoted to identifying the empirical rainfall thresholds (e.g. intensity vs. duration ID, cumulated rainfall vs. duration ED, cumulated rainfall vs. intensity EI) for the initiation of shallow landslides, based on local as well as worldwide inventories. Although different methods to trace the threshold curves have been proposed and discussed in literature, a systematic study to develop an automated procedure to select the rainfall event responsible for the landslide occurrence has rarely been addressed. Nonetheless, objective criteria for estimating the rainfall responsible for the landslide occurrence (effective rainfall) play a prominent role on the threshold values. In this paper, two criteria for the identification of the effective rainfall events are presented: (1) the first is based on the analysis of the time series of rainfall mean intensity values over one month preceding the landslide occurrence, and (2) the second on the analysis of the trend in the time function of the cumulated mean intensity series calculated from the rainfall records measured through rain gauges. The two criteria have been implemented in an automated procedure written in R language. A sample of 100 shallow landslides collected in Italy by the CNR-IRPI research group from 2002 to 2012 has been used to calibrate the proposed procedure. The cumulated rainfall E and duration D of rainfall events that triggered the documented landslides are calculated through the new procedure and are fitted with power law in the (D,E) diagram. The results are discussed by comparing the (D,E) pairs calculated by the automated procedure and the ones by the expert method.

  11. Understanding shallow gas occurrences in the Gulf of Lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Garcia, Ana; Tesi, Tommaso; Orange, Daniel L.; Lorenson, T.; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, L.; Herbert, I.; Dougherty, J.

    2007-01-01

    New coring data have been acquired along the western Gulf of Lions showing anomalous concentrations of methane (up to 95,700 ppm) off the Rho??ne prodelta and the head of the southern canyons Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus. Sediment cores were acquired with box and kasten cores during 2004-2005 on several EuroSTRATAFORM cruises. Anomalous methane concentrations are discussed and integrated with organic carbon data. Sampled sites include locations where previous surveys identified acoustic anomalies in high-resolution seismic profiles, which may be related to the presence of gas. Interpretation of the collected data has enabled us to discuss the nature of shallow gas along the Gulf of Lions, and its association with recent sedimentary dynamics. The Rho??ne prodelta flood deposits deliver significant amounts of terrigenous organic matter that can be rapidly buried, effectively removing this organic matter from aerobic oxidation and biological uptake, and leading to the potential for methanogenesis with burial. Away from the flood-related sediments off the Rho?