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Sample records for shape index calculation

  1. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  2. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.

    PubMed

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  3. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing

    PubMed Central

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X. PMID:26085707

  4. Shape integral method for magnetospheric shapes. [boundary layer calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the shape of any magnetopause to arbitrarily high precision. The method uses an integral equation which is evaluated for a trial shape. The resulting values of the integral equation as a function of auxiliary variables indicate how close one is to the desired solution. A variational method can then be used to improve the trial shape. Some potential applications are briefly mentioned.

  5. New shape representation and similarity measure for efficient shape indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupeev, Konstantin Y.; Sivan, Zohar

    2001-12-01

    Efficient search and retrieval of similar shapes in large databases stipulates two hardly compatible demands to the shape representations. On one hand, shape similarity conveys similarity of spatial relations of the shape parts. Thus, the representation should embed a kind of graph description of the shape, and allow estimation of the (inexact) correspondence between these descriptions. On the other hand, the representation should enable fast retrieval in large databases. Current shape indexing solutions do not comply well to these stipulations simultaneously. The G-graphs have been introduced as shape descriptors conveying structural and quantitative shape information. In the current work we define a representation of the G-graphs by strings consisting of the symbols from a four-letter alphabet such that two G-graphs are isomorphic as G-graphs if and only if their string representations are identical. This allows us to represent shapes by vectors consisting of strings and to introduce a shape representation satisfying both above demands. Experimental results are presented.

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  7. GPU-based fast gamma index calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuejun; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-03-01

    The γ-index dose comparison tool has been widely used to compare dose distributions in cancer radiotherapy. The accurate calculation of γ-index requires an exhaustive search of the closest Euclidean distance in the high-resolution dose-distance space. This is a computational intensive task when dealing with 3D dose distributions. In this work, we combine a geometric method (Ju et al 2008 Med. Phys. 35 879-87) with a radial pre-sorting technique (Wendling et al 2007 Med. Phys. 34 1647-54) and implement them on computer graphics processing units (GPUs). The developed GPU-based γ-index computational tool is evaluated on eight pairs of IMRT dose distributions. The γ-index calculations can be finished within a few seconds for all 3D testing cases on one single NVIDIA Tesla C1060 card, achieving 45-75× speedup compared to CPU computations conducted on an Intel Xeon 2.27 GHz processor. We further investigated the effect of various factors on both CPU and GPU computation time. The strategy of pre-sorting voxels based on their dose difference values speeds up the GPU calculation by about 2.7-5.5 times. For n-dimensional dose distributions, γ-index calculation time on CPU is proportional to the summation of γn over all voxels, while that on GPU is affected by γn distributions and is approximately proportional to the γn summation over all voxels. We found that increasing the resolution of dose distributions leads to a quadratic increase of computation time on CPU, while less-than-quadratic increase on GPU. The values of dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria also have an impact on γ-index calculation time.

  8. Fast calculation of a voltage stability index

    SciTech Connect

    Loef, P.A.; Smed, T.; Andersson, G. ); Hill, D.J. )

    1992-02-01

    The minimum singular value of the power flow Jacobian matrix has been used as a static voltage stability index, indicating the distance between the studied operating point and the steady state voltage stability limit. In this paper a fast method to calculate the minimum singular value and the corresponding (left and right) singular vectors is presented. The main advantages of the developed algorithm are the small amount of computation time needed, and that it only requires information available from an ordinary program for power flow calculations. Furthermore, the proposed method fully utilizes the sparsity of the power flow Jacobian matrix and hence the memory requirements for the computation are low. These advantages are preserved when applied to various submatrices of the Jacobian matrix, which can be useful in constructing special voltage stability indices. The developed algorithm was applied to small test systems as well as to a large (real size) system with over 1000 nodes, with satisfactory results.

  9. Optimal embedding for shape indexing in medical image databases.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D; Fulbright, Robert K; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2010-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine X-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal Embedding for Shape Indexing in Medical Image Databases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D.; Fulbright, Robert K.; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine x-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape-similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding. PMID:20163981

  11. How to Calculate an Employee Relations Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, William B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes using an employee relations index (ERI) to measure factors affecting employee relations and job performance ability. Examines five of ten major ERI factors: attenance, turnover, safety, grievances/complaints, and motor vehicle accidents. Discusses weighing the factors and interpreting the outcome. (CSS)

  12. How to Calculate an Employee Relations Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, William B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes using an employee relations index (ERI) to measure factors affecting employee relations and job performance ability. Examines five of ten major ERI factors: attenance, turnover, safety, grievances/complaints, and motor vehicle accidents. Discusses weighing the factors and interpreting the outcome. (CSS)

  13. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  14. Calculating the Candy Price Index: A Classroom Inflation Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazlett, Denise; Hill, Cynthia D.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines how students develop a price index based on candy-purchasing decisions made by class members. Explains that students used the index to practice calculating inflation rates and to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the consumer price index (CPI). States that the exercise has been used in introductory and intermediate macroeconomics…

  15. Shape based indexing for faster search of RNA family databases.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Stefan; Reeder, Jens; Giegerich, Robert

    2008-02-29

    Most non-coding RNA families exert their function by means of a conserved, common secondary structure. The Rfam data base contains more than five hundred structurally annotated RNA families. Unfortunately, searching for new family members using covariance models (CMs) is very time consuming. Filtering approaches that use the sequence conservation to reduce the number of CM searches, are fast, but it is unknown to which sacrifice. We present a new filtering approach, which exploits the family specific secondary structure and significantly reduces the number of CM searches. The filter eliminates approximately 85% of the queries and discards only 2.6% true positives when evaluating Rfam against itself. First results also capture previously undetected non-coding RNAs in a recent human RNAz screen. The RNA shape index filter (RNAsifter) is based on the following rationale: An RNA family is characterised by structure, much more succinctly than by sequence content. Structures of individual family members, which naturally have different length and sequence composition, may exhibit structural variation in detail, but overall, they have a common shape in a more abstract sense. Given a fixed release of the Rfam data base, we can compute these abstract shapes for all families. This is called a shape index. If a query sequence belongs to a certain family, it must be able to fold into the family shape with reasonable free energy. Therefore, rather than matching the query against all families in the data base, we can first (and quickly) compute its feasible shape(s), and use the shape index to access only those families where a good match is possible due to a common shape with the query.

  16. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  17. How Uncertainty Bounds the Shape Index of Simple Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We propose a theoretical motivation to quantify actual physiological features, such as the shape index distributions measured by Jones and Palmer in cats and by Ringach in macaque monkeys. We will adopt the uncertainty principle associated to the task of detection of position and orientation as the main tool to provide quantitative bounds on the family of simple cells concretely implemented in primary visual cortex. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000)2010: 62P10, 43A32, 81R15. PMID:24742044

  18. A loudness calculation procedure applied to shaped sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is a procedure that can be used to calculate the loudness of sonic booms. The procedure is applied to a wide range of sonic booms, both classical N-waves and a variety of other shapes of booms. The loudness of N-waves is controlled by overpressure and the associated rise time. The loudness of shaped booms is highly dependent on the characteristics of the initial shock. A comparison of the calculated loudness values indicates that shaped booms may have significantly reduced loudness relative to N-waves having the same peak overpressure. This result implies that a supersonic transport designed to yield minimized sonic booms may be substantially more acceptable than an unconstrained design.

  19. The theoretical shape of sucrose crystals from energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saska, Michael; Myerson, Allan S.

    1983-05-01

    The surface energies of individual crystallographic faces of crystalline sucrose were calculated using two forms of the 6-exp (Buckingham) potential. Hydrogen bond energies were calculated as a sum of O-H, O…H and O…O interactions where the Lippincott-Schroeder short-range potential was used for O-H and O…H pairs and the 6-exp potential for the non-bonded O…O interactions. Assuming that the surface energy equals half of the cohesive energy of the crystal, the attachment and surface energies of most of the faces found on as sucrose crystal were calculated. A computer program was written to draw the theoretical shape of crystals given the positions (central distances) of its faces. The resulting sucrose shapes are elongated along the c-axis. It is argued that the c-axis elongated habit is an intrinsic shape for vapor grown sucrose crystals (if realizable) and it is suggested that the usual shapes of solution grown sucrose crystals can be explained in terms of solvent (water) adsorption.

  20. Calculation of electrostatic fields in periodic structures of complex shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravchenko, V. F.

    1978-01-01

    A universal algorithm is presented for calculating electrostatic fields in an infinite periodic structure consisting of electrodes of arbitrary shape which are located in mirror-symmetrical manner along the axis of electron-beam propagation. The method is based on the theory of R-functions, and the differential operators which are derived on the basis of the functions. Numerical results are presented and the accuracy of the results is examined.

  1. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  2. Calculating nonlocal optical properties of structures with arbitrary shape.

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, J. M.; Gray, S. K.; Schatz, G. C.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-07-16

    In a recent Letter [J. M. McMahon, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 097403 (2009)], we outlined a computational method to calculate the optical properties of structures with a spatially nonlocal dielectric function. In this paper, we detail the full method and verify it against analytical results for cylindrical nanowires. Then, as examples of our method, we calculate the optical properties of Au nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions. We first calculate the transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of thin films. Because of their simplicity, these systems demonstrate clearly the longitudinal (or volume) plasmons characteristic of nonlocal effects, which result in anomalous absorption and plasmon blueshifting. We then study the optical properties of spherical nanoparticles, which also exhibit such nonlocal effects. Finally, we compare the maximum and average electric field enhancements around nanowires of various shapes to local theory predictions. We demonstrate that when nonlocal effects are included, significant decreases in such properties can occur.

  3. New approaches for calculating Moran's index of spatial autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation plays an important role in geographical analysis; however, there is still room for improvement of this method. The formula for Moran's index is complicated, and several basic problems remain to be solved. Therefore, I will reconstruct its mathematical framework using mathematical derivation based on linear algebra and present four simple approaches to calculating Moran's index. Moran's scatterplot will be ameliorated, and new test methods will be proposed. The relationship between the global Moran's index and Geary's coefficient will be discussed from two different vantage points: spatial population and spatial sample. The sphere of applications for both Moran's index and Geary's coefficient will be clarified and defined. One of theoretical findings is that Moran's index is a characteristic parameter of spatial weight matrices, so the selection of weight functions is very significant for autocorrelation analysis of geographical systems. A case study of 29 Chinese cities in 2000 will be employed to validate the innovatory models and methods. This work is a methodological study, which will simplify the process of autocorrelation analysis. The results of this study will lay the foundation for the scaling analysis of spatial autocorrelation.

  4. Introducing "UCA-FUKUI" software: reactivity-index calculations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Márquez, Jesús; Zorrilla, David; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; de los Santos, Desireé M; Navas, Javier; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2014-11-01

    A new software (UCA-FUKUI) has been developed to facilitate the theoretical study of chemical reactivity. This program can calculate global parameters like hardness, softness, philicities, and Fukui condensed functions, and also local parameters from the condensed functions. To facilitate access to the program we have developed a very easy-to-use interface. We have tested the performance of the software by calculating the global and local reactivity indexes of a group of representative molecules. Finite difference and frontier molecular orbital methods were compared and their correlation tested. Finally, we have extended the analysis to a set of ligands of importance in coordination chemistry, and the results are compared with the exact calculation. As a general trend, our study shows the existence of a high correlation between global parameters, but a weaker correlation between local parameters.

  5. Landform and terrain shape indices are related to oak site index in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Jason L. Villwock; John M. Kabrick; W. Henry McNab; Daniel C. Dey

    2011-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, metrics for quantifying the geometric shape of the land surface (terrain shape index or "tsi") and of the landform (land form index or "lfi") were developed and found to be correlated to yellow-poplar site index. However, the utility of these metrics for predicting site index for oaks in the Ozark Highlands has not been...

  6. On the local operational geomagnetic index K calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankov, Stan; Stegen, Koen; Wautelet, Gilles; Warnant, Rene

    2010-05-01

    There is an ongoing demand for services that can provide real-time assessment of the (global and local) geomagnetic activity and identified as being of importance to the exploration geophysics, radio communications and precise position/navigation practices, space weather research and modelling, etc. Such services depend largely on the reduction of solar, geomagnetic and ionospheric observations to generate activity indices, one of the most widely used being the K index. The K index is a quasi-logarithmic index characterising the 3-hourly range in transient magnetic activity relative to the regular "quiet-day" activity for a single site location. A derivative "planetary" index (Kp), the mean standardized K index from several globally distributed stations, provides a convenient measure of the global geomagnetic activity. Computer-based derivation of K/Kp indices was a major step towards higher efficiency and lower costs. Nowadays, automated data acquisition, processing and generating the index in real time is mandatory for any reliable service. However, Kp may not be accurate enough when monitoring disturbances of smaller scale, so the local K index (derived from the nearest magnetic station/s) might be considered as the better choice. Moreover, the 3-hour time scale is much larger than the shorter characteristic time of localised ionospheric phenomena that are of particular interest to us. Our experience in developing a novel nowcast system for local operational geomagnetic index K calculation (K-LOGIC) will be presented. The system is based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, screening the dataset and removing the outliers, establishing the solar regular (Sr) variation of the geomagnetic field, calculating the K index, and issuing an alert if storm-level activity is indicated. This is a time-controlled (rather than event-driven) system delivering as regular output (time resolution set to 1 hour) the K value

  7. A New Body Shape Index Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Krakauer, Jesse C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI), it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC) is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC. Methods and Findings We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults () from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths). We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI) based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: –]), whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. (–) of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to (–) for BMI and (–) for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity), and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up. Conclusions Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors. PMID:22815707

  8. Human body shape index based on an experimentally derived model of human growth.

    PubMed

    Lebiedowska, Maria K; Alter, Katharine E; Stanhope, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    To test the assumption of geometrically similar growth by developing experimentally derived models of human body growth during the age interval of 5 to 18 years; to use these derived growth models to establish a new human body shape index (HBSI) based on natural age-related changes in human body shape (HBS); and to compare various metrics of relative body weight (body mass index [BMI], ponderal index [PI], and HBSI) in a sample of 5- to 18-year-old children. Nondisabled Polish children (n = 847) participated in this descriptive study. To model growth, the best fit between body height (H) and body mass (M) was calculated for each sex using the allometric equation M = m(i) H(chi). HBSI was calculated separately for girls and boys, using sex-specific values for chi and a general HBSI from combined data. The customary BMI and PI were calculated and compared with HBSI values. The models of growth were M = 13.11H(2.84) (R2 = 0.90) for girls and M = 13.64H(2.68) (R2 = 0.91) for boys. HBSI values contained less inherent variability and were less influenced by growth (age and height) compared with BMI and PI. Age-related growth during childhood is sex-specific and not geometrically similar. Therefore, indices of HBS formulated from experimentally derived models of human growth are superior to customary geometric similarity-based indices for characterizing HBS in children during the formative growth years.

  9. Calculation of the room-temperature shapes of unsymmetric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    A theory explaining the characteristics of the cured shapes of unsymmetric laminates is presented. The theory is based on an extension of classical lamination theory which accounts for geometric nonlinearities. A Rayleigh-Ritz approach to minimizing the total potential energy is used to obtain quantitative information regarding the room temperature shapes of square T300/5208 (0(2)/90(2))T and (0(4)/90(4))T graphite-epoxy laminates. It is shown that, depending on the thickness of the laminate and the length of the side the square, the saddle shape configuration is actually unstable. For values of length and thickness that render the saddle shape unstable, it is shown that two stable cylindrical shapes exist. The predictions of the theory are compared with existing experimental data.

  10. Terrain shape index: quantifying effect of minor landforms on tree height

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    1989-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, the distribution and growth of trees are highly correlated with local topography, but the relationships have been ditficult to describe quantitatively. A quantitative expression of the geometric shape of the land surface (terrain shape index) is described and correlated with oventory tree heights and site quality. Application of the index...

  11. The Calculation of Adsorption Isotherms from Chromatographic Peak Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between adsorption isotherms and elution peak shapes in gas chromatography, and describes a laboratory experiment which involves the adsorption of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene on alumina at different temperatures. (MLH)

  12. The Calculation of Adsorption Isotherms from Chromatographic Peak Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between adsorption isotherms and elution peak shapes in gas chromatography, and describes a laboratory experiment which involves the adsorption of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene on alumina at different temperatures. (MLH)

  13. Shape indexes for semi-automated detection of windbreaks in thematic tree cover maps from the central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liknes, Greg C.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Kellerman, Todd A.

    2017-07-01

    best result. Thematic datasets derived from high-resolution imagery are becoming more available, and extracting useful information can be a challenge, partly due to the large amount of data to assess. Calculating the three shape indexes presented can assist with efficient identification of candidate windbreaks and as such, hold good promise for value-added analysis of tree function in the central United States.

  14. The shape of a rapidly rotating polytrope with index unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopik, Jerzy; Mach, Patryk; Odrzywołek, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We show that the solutions obtained in the paper `An exact solution for arbitrarily rotating gaseous polytropes with index unity' by Kong, Zhang, and Schubert represent only approximate solutions of the free-boundary Euler-Poisson system of equations describing uniformly rotating, self-gravitating polytropes with index unity. We discuss the quality of such solutions as approximations to the rigidly rotating equilibrium polytropic configurations.

  15. Calculation of bandwidth from index profiles of optical fibers. 1: Theory.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1979-06-15

    This paper describes a method for calculating the impulse response and bandwidth of multimode optical fibers from measured refractive-index profiles obtained either from the fiber itself or from its preform. The computational method is based on the WKB solution of the guided-mode problem. First, the pulse delay time of each mode is calculated. The different arrival times of impulses carried by the modes are then used to construct the shape of the impulse response curve whose Fourier transform may be used to predict the signal bandwidth of the multimode fiber. By omitting mode groups or weighting the power distribution among the modes, the influence of certain mode groups on pulse distortion can be studied separately. Dispersion of the host material and of one dopant can be taken into account. The method has been used to study the effects of deviations from the desired perfect index profile and the influence of a central dip. The practical value of the computer program is its ability to predict fiber performance from index measurements made on preforms even before the fiber is drawn.

  16. High-Performance CAD-CTC Scheme Using Shape Index, Multiscale Enhancement Filters, and Radiomic Features.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yacheng; Ma, Jingchen; Xiong, Junfeng; Lu, Lin; Zhao, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for computed tomography colonography (CTC) can automatically detect colorectal polyps. The main problem of currently developed CAD-CTC systems is the numerous false positives (FPs) caused by the existence of complicated colon structures (e.g., haustral fold, residual fecal material, inflation tube, and ileocecal valve). This study proposes a CAD-CTC scheme using shape index, multiscale enhancement filters, and radiomic features to address the FP issue. Shape index and multiscale enhancement filter calculated in the Gaussian smoothed geodesic distance field are combined to generate the polyp candidates. A total of 440 well-defined radiomic features collected from previous radiomic studies and 200 newly developed radiomic features are used to construct a supervised classification model to reduce the numerous FPs. The proposed CAD-CTC scheme was evaluated on 152 oral contrast-enhanced CT datasets from 76 patients with 103 polyps ≥5 mm. The detection results were 98.1% and 95.3% by-polyp sensitivity and per-scan sensitivity, respectively, with the same FP rate of 1.3 FPs per dataset for polyps ≥5 mm. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CAD-CTC scheme can achieve high sensitivity while maintaining a low FP rate. The proposed CAD-CTC scheme would be a beneficial tool in clinical colon examination.

  17. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: Day: Year: 2. ...

  18. Anisotropic zero-index waveguide with arbitrary shapes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun

    2014-01-01

    We design a series of waveguides composed of uniform anisotropic epsilon-near-zero media. Unlike normal waveguides in which the transmission rate strongly depends on the width and the boundary shape, such waveguides can achieve high transmission with almost arbitrary width and boundary shapes, leading to applications such as unusual waveguides, wave expanders and compressors, splitters, bends, and devices with combined purposes. The physical origin of such high transmission can be explained by using transformation optics and the condition for total transmission is derived. Numerical simulations with multilayers consisting of dielectric and negative-permittivity materials proved our theory. Our work provides a unified physical picture for waveguide structures based on anisotropic epsilon-near-zero media. PMID:25070679

  19. Content-Based Image Retrieval Based on Shape Similarity Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Cong; Ke, Shan-Wu

    2017-09-01

    In the content-based image retrieval technology, the performance of retrieval system using only a single image feature is generally unsatisfactory, and therefore the image retrieval system using two or more image features is more often used. When there is the target deformation or the size variation, the performance of image retrieval system using only shape features is not satisfactory, too. To solve these problems, in this paper, the extraction of image salient region and a shape representation methods of describing the image content are proposed, then they are used with image texture and color features to implement image retrieval. Experimental results show that the proposed image retrieval system can provide very good retrieval performance.

  20. Flowfield calculations past an entry probe with ablated nose shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.; Wellmuenster, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ablated nose shapes on the flowfield solutions are studied, using a time-dependent finite-difference method developed by Kumar, et al. (1979). Solutions are obtained for the laminar flow of a radiating mixture of H-He in chemical equilibrium past a blunt axisymmetric body at zero angle of attack. The freestream conditions correspond to a point on a typical Jovian entry trajectory, and the initial probe shape is a 45-deg half-angle spherically blunted cone. It is found that as nose bluntness increases, the following occur: in the nose region, shock standoff distances and radiative heating rates increase substantially; surface pressure level increases, but convective heating rates decrease.

  1. 3D field-shaping lens using all-dielectric gradient refractive index materials.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tongyu; Yi, Jianjia; Li, Haoyu; Zhang, Hailin; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2017-04-10

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) optical lens structure for electromagnetic field shaping based on spatial light transformation method is proposed at microwave frequencies. The lens is capable of transforming cylindrical wavefronts into planar ones, and generating a directive emission. Such manipulation is simulated and analysed by solving Laplace's equation, and the deformation of the medium during the transformation is theoretically described in detail. The two-dimensional (2D) design method producing quasi-isotropic parameters is further extended to a potential 3D realization with all-dielectric gradient refractive index metamaterials. Numerical full-wave simulations are performed on both 2D and 3D models to verify the functionality and broadband characteristics of the calculated lens. Far-field radiation patterns and near-field distributions demonstrate a highly radiated directive beam when the lens is applied to a conical horn antenna.

  2. Calculation of refractive-index distribution of hexagonal GRIN lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zigang; Zhang, Ren; Chen, Kai

    2007-12-01

    The GRIN lens is widely used in optical communication and imaging systems. Its array can be used to design integrated optic imaging system, especially for hexagonal GRIN. In this paper, the analytic solution of refractive-index distribution of regularly hexagonal GRIN was obtained by separating variables and transforming coordinate. Having been simulated and compared, the correctness of this analytic solution was proved qualitatively and quantitatively. It has great benefit for further research of regular hexagonal GRIN lens and compound eye imaging system. Furthermore, a universal solution of the refractive-index distribution of a regular N-gon (N is even) lens was obtained by this method.

  3. A short note on calculating the adjusted SAR index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple algebraic technique is presented for computing the adjusted SAR Index proposed by Suarez (1981). The statistical formula presented in this note facilitates the computation of the adjusted SAR without the use of either a look-up table, custom computer software or the need to compute exact a...

  4. ElectroShape: fast molecular similarity calculations incorporating shape, chirality and electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M Stuart; Morris, Garrett M; Finn, Paul W; Sharma, Raman; Moretti, Loris; Cooper, Richard I; Richards, W Graham

    2010-09-01

    We present ElectroShape, a novel ligand-based virtual screening method, that combines shape and electrostatic information into a single, unified framework. Building on the ultra-fast shape recognition (USR) approach for fast non-superpositional shape-based virtual screening, it extends the method by representing partial charge information as a fourth dimension. It also incorporates the chiral shape recognition (CSR) method, which distinguishes enantiomers. It has been validated using release 2 of the Directory of useful decoys (DUD), and shows a near doubling in enrichment ratio at 1% over USR and CSR, and improvements as measured by Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. These improvements persisted even after taking into account the chemotype redundancy in the sets of active ligands in DUD. During the course of its development, ElectroShape revealed a difference in the charge allocation of the DUD ligand and decoy sets, leading to several new versions of DUD being generated as a result. ElectroShape provides a significant addition to the family of ultra-fast ligand-based virtual screening methods, and its higher-dimensional shape recognition approach has great potential for extension and generalisation.

  5. ElectroShape: fast molecular similarity calculations incorporating shape, chirality and electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, M. Stuart; Morris, Garrett M.; Finn, Paul W.; Sharma, Raman; Moretti, Loris; Cooper, Richard I.; Richards, W. Graham

    2010-09-01

    We present ElectroShape, a novel ligand-based virtual screening method, that combines shape and electrostatic information into a single, unified framework. Building on the ultra-fast shape recognition (USR) approach for fast non-superpositional shape-based virtual screening, it extends the method by representing partial charge information as a fourth dimension. It also incorporates the chiral shape recognition (CSR) method, which distinguishes enantiomers. It has been validated using release 2 of the Directory of useful decoys (DUD), and shows a near doubling in enrichment ratio at 1% over USR and CSR, and improvements as measured by Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. These improvements persisted even after taking into account the chemotype redundancy in the sets of active ligands in DUD. During the course of its development, ElectroShape revealed a difference in the charge allocation of the DUD ligand and decoy sets, leading to several new versions of DUD being generated as a result. ElectroShape provides a significant addition to the family of ultra-fast ligand-based virtual screening methods, and its higher-dimensional shape recognition approach has great potential for extension and generalisation.

  6. Calculation of optical characteristics of graded-index lenses with two-dimensional distribution of defractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Mogileva, L.M.; Petrova, I.R.; Flegontov, Yu.A.

    1995-10-01

    A possibility of developing graded-index lenses with a two-dimensional refractive index is considered. The problem of convective diffusion in a gravitational field is solved with this purpose in mind, and then optical characteristics of a lens calculated in this way are considered. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  7. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the nonlinear intersubband transitions and refractive index changes of different QW shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Emine; Sokmen, Ismail

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the linear and nonlinear intersubband transitions and the refractive index changes in the conduction band of different quantum well shapes are theoretically calculated within framework of the effective mass approximation. Results obtained show that intersubband properties and the energy levels in different QWs can be modified and controlled by the hydrostatic pressure. The modulation of the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes which can be suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infrared optical device applications can be easily obtained by tuning the hydrostatic pressure strength.

  8. Determination of Slake Durability Index (Sdi) Values on Different Shape of Laminated Marl Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankara, Hüseyin; Çiçek, Fatma; Talha Deniz, İsmail; Uçak, Emre; Yerel Kandemir, Süheyla

    2016-10-01

    The slake durability index (SDI) test is widely used to determine the disintegration characteristic of the weak and clay-bearing rocks in geo-engineering problems. However, due to the different shapes of sample pieces, such as, irregular shapes displayed mechanical breakages in the slaking process, the SDI test has some limitations that affect the index values. In addition, shape and surface roughness of laminated marl samples have a severe influence on the SDI. In this study, a new sample preparation method called Pasha Method was used to prepare spherical specimens from the laminated marl collected from Seyitomer collar (SLI). Moreover the SDI tests were performed on equal size and weight specimens: three sets with different shapes were used. The three different sets were prepared as the test samples which had sphere shape, parallel to the layers in irregular shape, and vertical to the layers in irregular shape. Index values were determined for the three different sets subjected to the SDI test for 4 cycles. The index values at the end of fourth cycle were found to be 98.43, 98.39 and 97.20 %, respectively. As seen, the index values of the sphere sample set were found to be higher than irregular sample sets.

  9. How economic contexts shape calculations of yield in biodiversity offsetting.

    PubMed

    Carver, L; Sullivan, S

    2017-10-01

    We examined and analyzed methods used to create numerical equivalence between sites affected by development and proposed conservation offset sites. Application of biodiversity offsetting metrics in development impact and mitigation assessments is thought to standardize biodiversity conservation outcomes, sometimes termed yield by those conducting these calculations. The youth of biodiversity offsetting in application, however, means little is known about how biodiversity valuations and offset contracts between development and offset sites are agreed on in practice or about long-term conservation outcomes. We examined how sites were made commensurable and how biodiversity gains or yields were calculated and negotiated for a specific offset contract in a government-led pilot study of biodiversity offsets in England. Over 24 months, we conducted participant observations of various stages in the negotiation of offset contracts through repeated visits to 3 (anonymized) biodiversity offset contract sites. We conducted 50 semistructured interviews of stakeholders in regional and local government, the private sector, and civil society. We used a qualitative data analysis software program (DEDOOSE) to textually analyze interview transcriptions. We also compared successive iterations of biodiversity-offsetting calculation spreadsheets and planning documents. A particular focus was the different iterations of a specific biodiversity impact assessment in which the biodiversity offsetting metric developed by the U.K.'s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs was used. We highlight 3 main findings. First, biodiversity offsetting metrics were amended in creative ways as users adapted inputs to metric calculations to balance and negotiate conflicting requirements. Second, the practice of making different habitats equivalent to each other through the application of biodiversity offsetting metrics resulted in commensuration outcomes that may not provide projected

  10. Modulation index for VMAT considering both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyoungnyoun

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present a modulation index considering both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). As a modulation index considering only mechanical uncertainty of VMAT, MIt has been previously suggested. In this study, we developed a weighting factor which represents dose calculation uncertainty based on the aperture shapes of fluence maps at every control point of VMAT plans. In order to calculate the weighting factor, the thinning algorithm of image processing techniques was applied to measure field aperture irregularity. By combining this weighting factor with the previously suggested modulation index, MIt, comprehensive modulation index (MIc) was designed. To evaluate the performance of MIc, gamma passing rates, differences in mechanical parameters between plans and log files and differences in dose-volume parameters between plans and the plans reconstructed from log files were acquired with a total of 52 VMAT plans. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (rs) between the values of MIc and measures of VMAT delivery accuracy were calculated. The rs values of MIc (f = 0.5) to global gamma passing rates with 2%/2 mm, 1%/2 mm and 2%/1 mm were  -0.728,-0.847 and  -0.617, respectively (p  <  0.001). Those to local gamma passing rates were  -0.765,-0.767 and  -0.748, respectively (p  <  0.001). The rs values of MIc (f = 0.5) to multi-leaf collimator and gantry angle errors were 0.800 and  -0.712, respectively (p  <  0.001). The MIc (f = 0.5) showed a total of 20 rs values (p  <  0.05) to the differences in dose-volumetric parameters from a total of 35 tested cases. The MIc (f = 0.5) demonstrated considerable power to predict VMAT delivery accuracy showing strong correlations to various measures of VMAT delivery accuracy.

  11. Explicitly accounting for pixel dimension in calculating classical and fractal landscape shape metrics.

    PubMed

    Imre, Attila R; Rocchini, Duccio

    2009-09-01

    Different summarized shape indices, like mean shape index (MSI) and area weighted mean shape index (AWMSI) can change over multiple size scales. This variation is important to describe scale heterogeneity of landscapes, but the exact mathematical form of the dependence is rarely known. In this paper, the use of fractal geometry (by the perimeter and area Hausdorff dimensions) made us able to describe the scale dependence of these indices. Moreover, we showed how fractal dimensions can be deducted from existing MSI and AWMSI data. In this way, the equality of a multiscale tabulated MSI and AWMSI dataset and two scale-invariant fractal dimensions has been demonstrated.

  12. A Brownian Dynamics Approach to ESR Line Shape Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Matthew P.

    The work presented in this thesis uses a Monte Carlo technique to simulate spectra for 14N spin-labels and 15N spin labels. The algorithm presented here also has the capability to produce simulated spectra for any admixture of 14N and 15N. The algorithm makes use of `iterative loops' to model Brownian rotational diffusion and for the repeated evaluation of the spectral correlation function (relaxation function). The method described in this work starts with a derivation of an angular dependent "Spin Hamiltonian" that when diagonalized yields orientation dependent eigenvalues. The resulting eigenvalue equations are later used to calculate the energy trajectories of a nitroxide spin-label undergoing rotational diffusion. The energy trajectories are then used to evaluate the relaxation function. The absorption spectrum is obtained by applying a Fourier transform to the relaxation function. However, the application of the Fourier transform to the relaxation function produces "leakage" effects that manifest as spurious peaks in the first derivative spectrum. To counter "leakage" effects a data windowing function was applied to the relaxation function prior to the Fourier transform. In order to test the accuracy of this algorithm, simulated spectra for 14N, and 15N spin labels diffusing in a glycerol-water mixture as well as a 14N-15N admixture diffusing in the same solvent were produced and compared to experimental spectra. An attempt to quantify the level of agreement was made by calculating the mean square residual of the simulated and experimental spectra. The main spectral features were reproduced with reasonable fidelity by the simulated spectra.

  13. Computation of Southern Pine Site Index Using a TI-59 Calculator

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Guldin; Robert M. Farrar

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that permits computation of site index in the field using a Texas Instruments model TI-59 programmable, hand-held, battery-powered calculator. Based on a series of equations developed by R.M. Farrar, Jr., for the site index curves in USDA Miscellaneous Publication 50, the program can accommodate any index base age, tree age, and height within...

  14. Methods to Calculate the Heat Index as an Exposure Metric in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Peng, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental health research employs a variety of metrics to measure heat exposure, both to directly study the health effects of outdoor temperature and to control for temperature in studies of other environmental exposures, including air pollution. To measure heat exposure, environmental health studies often use heat index, which incorporates both air temperature and moisture. However, the method of calculating heat index varies across environmental studies, which could mean that studies using different algorithms to calculate heat index may not be comparable. Objective and Methods: We investigated 21 separate heat index algorithms found in the literature to determine a) whether different algorithms generate heat index values that are consistent with the theoretical concepts of apparent temperature and b) whether different algorithms generate similar heat index values. Results: Although environmental studies differ in how they calculate heat index values, most studies’ heat index algorithms generate values consistent with apparent temperature. Additionally, most different algorithms generate closely correlated heat index values. However, a few algorithms are potentially problematic, especially in certain weather conditions (e.g., very low relative humidity, cold weather). To aid environmental health researchers, we have created open-source software in R to calculate the heat index using the U.S. National Weather Service’s algorithm. Conclusion: We identified 21 separate heat index algorithms used in environmental research. Our analysis demonstrated that methods to calculate heat index are inconsistent across studies. Careful choice of a heat index algorithm can help ensure reproducible and consistent environmental health research. Citation: Anderson GB, Bell ML, Peng RD. 2013. Methods to calculate the heat index as an exposure metric in environmental health research. Environ Health Perspect 121:1111–1119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206273

  15. H-Index of Astrophysicists at Raman Research Institute: Performance of Different Calculators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meera, B. M.; Manjunath, M.

    2012-08-01

    H-index, a single number proposed by J. E. Hirsch in 2005 has gained popularity as an index number to measure the research performance of individuals, institutions, universities, etc. There are many calculators to derive the h-in dex number, such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc. However, h-index can be calculated manually, provided we have access to a complete list of publications of a scientist and the number of citations received by them. It is observed that h-index for a given scientist at a ny given point of time differs from one calculator to the other. Here is an attempt to calculate the H-index of scientists of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at Raman Research Institute using Google Scholar Free calculator, Web of Science Paid calculator and The SAO/NASA As trophysics Data System manual calculation and comparison of the results. Application of this h- index phenomenon to the research output of RRI scientists in a group is done while keeping in mi nd Hirsch's systematic in vestigation to predict the position of a scientist using h-index in physics. It is believed that the higher the academic age of a scientist, the higher will be the h-index. An attempt is made to find whether this assumption is true with respect to the sample studied by including the superannuated scientists from Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at Raman Research Institute under the purview of this study.

  16. Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    To ensure a safe drinking water supply, it is necessary to protect water quality. To classify the suitability of the Orós Reservoir (Northeast of Brazil) water for human consumption, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was enhanced and refined through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples were collected bi-monthly at seven points (P1 - P7) from July 2009 to July 2011. Samples were analysed for 29 physico-chemical attributes and 4 macroinvertebrate metrics associated with the macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. PCA allowed us to reduce the number of attributes from 33 to 12, and 85.32% of the variance was explained in five dimensions (C1 - C5). Components C1 and C3 were related to water-soluble salts and reflect the weathering process, while C2 was related to surface runoff. C4 was associated with macroinvertebrate diversity, represented by ten pollution-resistant families. C5 was related to the nutrient phosphorus, an indicator of the degree of eutrophication. The mean values for the WQIs ranged from 49 to 65 (rated as fair), indicating that water can be used for human consumption after treatment. The lowest values for the WQI were recorded at the entry points to the reservoir (P3, P1, P5, and P4), while the best WQIs were recorded at the exit points (P6 and P7), highlighting the reservoir's purification ability. The proposed WQI adequately expressed water quality, and can be used for monitoring surface water quality.

  17. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE SHAPE OF A ROTATIONALLY DISTORTED POLYTROPE OF INDEX UNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John E-mail: K.Zhang@exeter.ac.uk

    2013-02-15

    We present a new three-dimensional numerical method for calculating the non-spherical shape and internal structure of a model of a rapidly rotating gaseous body with a polytropic index of unity. The calculation is based on a finite-element method and accounts for the full effects of rotation. After validating the numerical approach against the asymptotic solution of Chandrasekhar that is valid only for a slowly rotating gaseous body, we apply it to models of Jupiter and a rapidly rotating, highly flattened star ({alpha} Eridani). In the case of Jupiter, the two-dimensional distributions of density and pressure are determined via a hybrid inverse approach by adjusting an a priori unknown coefficient in the equation of state until the model shape matches the observed shape of Jupiter. After obtaining the two-dimensional distribution of density, we then compute the zonal gravity coefficients and the total mass from the non-spherical model that takes full account of rotation-induced shape change. Our non-spherical model with a polytropic index of unity is able to produce the known mass of Jupiter with about 4% accuracy and the zonal gravitational coefficient J {sub 2} of Jupiter with better than 2% accuracy, a reasonable result considering that there is only one parameter in the model. For {alpha} Eridani, we calculate its rotationally distorted shape and internal structure based on the observationally deduced rotation rate and size of the star by using a similar hybrid inverse approach. Our model of the star closely approximates the observed flattening.

  18. A Three-dimensional Numerical Solution for the Shape of a Rotationally Distorted Polytrope of Index Unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John

    2013-02-01

    We present a new three-dimensional numerical method for calculating the non-spherical shape and internal structure of a model of a rapidly rotating gaseous body with a polytropic index of unity. The calculation is based on a finite-element method and accounts for the full effects of rotation. After validating the numerical approach against the asymptotic solution of Chandrasekhar that is valid only for a slowly rotating gaseous body, we apply it to models of Jupiter and a rapidly rotating, highly flattened star (α Eridani). In the case of Jupiter, the two-dimensional distributions of density and pressure are determined via a hybrid inverse approach by adjusting an a priori unknown coefficient in the equation of state until the model shape matches the observed shape of Jupiter. After obtaining the two-dimensional distribution of density, we then compute the zonal gravity coefficients and the total mass from the non-spherical model that takes full account of rotation-induced shape change. Our non-spherical model with a polytropic index of unity is able to produce the known mass of Jupiter with about 4% accuracy and the zonal gravitational coefficient J 2 of Jupiter with better than 2% accuracy, a reasonable result considering that there is only one parameter in the model. For α Eridani, we calculate its rotationally distorted shape and internal structure based on the observationally deduced rotation rate and size of the star by using a similar hybrid inverse approach. Our model of the star closely approximates the observed flattening.

  19. Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3D refractive index maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, Yongkeun

    2017-05-01

    Optical trapping can manipulate the three-dimensional (3D) motion of spherical particles based on the simple prediction of optical forces and the responding motion of samples. However, controlling the 3D behaviour of non-spherical particles with arbitrary orientations is extremely challenging, due to experimental difficulties and extensive computations. Here, we achieve the real-time optical control of arbitrarily shaped particles by combining the wavefront shaping of a trapping beam and measurements of the 3D refractive index distribution of samples. Engineering the 3D light field distribution of a trapping beam based on the measured 3D refractive index map of samples generates a light mould, which can manipulate colloidal and biological samples with arbitrary orientations and/or shapes. The present method provides stable control of the orientation and assembly of arbitrarily shaped particles without knowing a priori information about the sample geometry. The proposed method can be directly applied in biophotonics and soft matter physics.

  20. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Syed Ashiqur; Adjeroh, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI) is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved (“U-shaped”) relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI) that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality. Methods and Findings We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18–85), from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA), vertical trunk circumference (VTC), height (H) and waist circumference (WC). The surface-based body shape index (SBSI) is defined as follows: SBSI=(H7/4)(WC5/6)BSAVTC(1) SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)) in

  1. A multi-D-shaped optical fiber for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Tsao, Tzu-Chein; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of multi-D-shaped optical fiber suited for refractive index measurements is presented. The multi-D-shaped optical fiber was constructed by forming several D-sections in a multimode optical fiber at localized regions with femtosecond laser pulses. The total number of D-shaped zones fabricated could range from three to seven. Each D-shaped zone covered a sensor volume of 100 μm depth, 250 μm width, and 1 mm length. The mean roughness of the core surface obtained by the AFM images was 231.7 nm, which is relatively smooth. Results of the tensile test indicated that the fibers have sufficient mechanical strength to resist damage from further processing. The multi-D-shaped optical fiber as a high sensitive refractive-index sensor to detect changes in the surrounding refractive index was studied. The results for different concentrations of sucrose solution show that a resolution of 1.27 × 10(-3)-3.13 × 10(-4) RIU is achieved for refractive indices in the range of 1.333 to 1.403, suggesting that the multi-D-shaped fibers are attractive for chemical, biological, and biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions.

  2. The TITS Algorithm: A Simple and Robust Method for Calculating Stable Shapes of Axisymmetric Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Gerald

    2005-03-01

    I have implemented a simple and robust numerical technique for calculating axisymmetric equilibrium shapes of one-component lipid bilayer vesicles. This so-called Tethered Infinitesimal Tori and Spheres (TITS) Algorithm gives shapes that are automatically stable with respect to axisymmetric perturbations. The latest version of this algorithm can, but is not restricted to, impose constraints on any of three geometrical quantities: the area, volume and pole-to-pole distance (in the case of tether formation). In this talk, I will introduce the basic principles of the TITS Algorithm and demonstrate its versatility through a few example shape calculations involving the Helfrich and Area Difference Elasticity bending free energies.

  3. Global Calculations of Ground-State Axial Shape Asymmetry of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Peter; Bengtsson, Ragnar; Carlsson, B. Gillis; Olivius, Peter; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2006-10-20

    Important insight into the symmetry properties of the nuclear ground-state (gs) shape is obtained from the characteristics of low-lying collective energy-level spectra. In the 1950s, experimental and theoretical studies showed that in the gs many nuclei are spheroidal in shape rather than spherical. Later, a hexadecapole component of the gs shape was identified. In the 1970-1995 time frame, a consensus that reflection symmetry of the gs shape was broken for some nuclei emerged. Here we present the first calculation across the nuclear chart of axial symmetry breaking in the nuclear gs. We show that we fulfill a necessary condition: Where we calculate axial symmetry breaking, characteristic gamma bands are observed experimentally. Moreover, we find that, for those nuclei where axial asymmetry is found, a systematic deviation between calculated and measured masses is removed.

  4. Shape index distribution based local surface complexity applied to the human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Fonov, Vladimir; Collins, D. Louis; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of local surface complexity in the human cortex has shown to be of interest in investigating population differences as well as developmental changes in neurodegenerative or neurodevelopment diseases. We propose a novel assessment method that represents local complexity as the difference between the observed distributions of local surface topology to its best-fit basic topology model within a given local neighborhood. This distribution difference is estimated via Earth Move Distance (EMD) over the histogram within the local neighborhood of the surface topology quantified via the Shape Index (SI) measure. The EMD scores have a range from simple complexity (0.0), which indicates a consistent local surface topology, up to high complexity (1.0), which indicates a highly variable local surface topology. The basic topology models are categorized as 9 geometric situation modeling situations such as crowns, ridges and fundi of cortical gyro and sulci. We apply a geodesic kernel to calculate the local SI histrogram distribution within a given region. In our experiments, we obtained the results of local complexity that shows generally higher complexity in the gyral/sulcal wall regions and lower complexity in some gyral ridges and lowest complexity in sulcal fundus areas. In addition, we show expected, preliminary results of increased surface complexity across most of the cortical surface within the first years of postnatal life, hypothesized to be due to the changes such as development of sulcal pits. PMID:26028803

  5. On retrieving refractive index of dust-like particles using shape distributions of ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, O.; Nousiainen, T.; Merikallio, S.; Räisänen, P.

    2015-06-01

    Ellipsoid-based retrievals are widely used for investigating optical properties of non-ellipsoidal atmospheric particles, such as dust. In this work, the applicability of ellipsoids for retrieving the refractive index of dust-like target model particles from scattering data is investigated. This is a pure modeling study, where stereogrammetrically retrieved model dust shapes are used as targets. The primary objective is to study whether the refractive index of these target particles can be inverted from their scattering matrices using ellipsoidal model particles. To achieve this, first scattering matrices for the target model particles with known refractive indices are computed. On one hand, a non-negative least squares fitting is performed, separately for different scattering matrix elements, for a set of 46 differently shaped ellipsoids by using different assumed refractive indices. Then, the fitting error is evaluated to establish whether the ellipsoidal base best matches the target scattering matrix elements when the correct refractive index is assumed. On the other hand, we also test whether the ellipsoids best match the target data with the correct refractive index, if a predefined (uniform) shape distribution for ellipsoids is assumed, instead of optimizing the shape distribution separately for each tested refractive index. The results show that for both of these approaches using the ellipsoids with the true refractive index produces good results, but also that for each element even better results are acquired by using wrong refractive indices. In addition, the best agreement is found for different scattering matrix elements using different refractive indices. The findings imply that the inversion of refractive index of non-ellipsoidal particles may not be reliable using ellipsoids. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter between the best-match ellipsoid ensemble and the target particles may

  6. System and Method for Calculating the Directivity Index of a Passive Acoustic Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-27

    DIRECTIVITY INDEX OF A PASSIVE ACOUSTIC ARRAY STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or...directed to a system and method for calculating the directivity index of a passive acoustic array with directional sensors in an isotropic noise field...and to provide an efficient way to create, modify, and model any array geometry for the purposes of determining the directivity index of the array as

  7. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cost indexes? 591.220 Section 591.220 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM...

  8. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cost indexes? 591.220 Section 591.220 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a)...

  9. Decay hazard (Scheffer) index values calculated from 1971-2000 climate normal data

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Carll

    2009-01-01

    Climate index values for estimating decay hazard to wood exposed outdoors above ground (commonly known as Scheffer index values) were calculated for 280 locations in the United States (270 locations in the conterminous United States) using the most current climate normal data available from the National Climatic Data Center. These were data for the period 1971–2000. In...

  10. Line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia V (1997-2000). (Bibliography and citation index)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    2001-05-01

    The first part of the publication contains a review and anylysis of the results of spectral line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia for 1997-2000. In the second part, the bibliography of the contributions of Yugoslav and Serbian scientists for 1997-2000 is given, together with the Citation Index for 1997-2000 for articles published 1962-2000.

  11. Line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia III (1989 - 1993). (Bibliography and citation index).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    1994-08-01

    The first part of the publication contains review and analysis of the results of spectral line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia in the period 1989 - 1993. In the second part, the bibliography of the contributions of Yugoslav and Serbian scientists is given, together with the citation index.

  12. Line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia IV (1993 - 1997). (Bibliography and citation index).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    1997-09-01

    The first part of this publication contains review and analysis of the results of spectral line shapes investigations in Yugoslavia and Serbia for 1993 - 1997. In the second part, the bibliography of the contributions of Yugoslav and Serbian scientists for 1993 - 1997 is given, together with the citation index for 1993 - 1997 for articles published 1962 - 1997.

  13. Detecting Growth Shape Misspecifications in Latent Growth Models: An Evaluation of Fit Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the likelihood ratio test and fit indexes for detection of misspecifications of growth shape in latent growth models through a simulation study and a graphical analysis. They found that the likelihood ratio test, MFI, and root mean square error of approximation performed best for detecting model misspecification…

  14. Detecting Growth Shape Misspecifications in Latent Growth Models: An Evaluation of Fit Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the likelihood ratio test and fit indexes for detection of misspecifications of growth shape in latent growth models through a simulation study and a graphical analysis. They found that the likelihood ratio test, MFI, and root mean square error of approximation performed best for detecting model misspecification…

  15. FlowShape: a runoff connectivity index for patched environments, based on shape and orientation of runoff sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegaro, Chiara; Malkinson, Dan; Ursino, Nadia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    The properties of vegetation cover are recognized to be a key factor in determining runoff processes and yield over natural areas. Still, how the actual vegetation spatial distribution affects these processes is not completely understood. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, patched landscapes are often found, with clumped vegetation, grass or shrubs, surrounded by bare soil patches. These two phases produce a sink-source system for runoff, as precipitation falling over bare areas barely infiltrates and rather flows downslope. In contrast, vegetated patches have high infiltrability and can partially retain the runon water. We hypothesize that, at a relatively small scale, the shape and orientation of bare soil patches with respect to the runoff flow direction is a significant for the connectivity of the runoff flow paths, and consequently for runoff values. We derive an index, FlowShape, which is candidate to be a good proxy for runoff connectivity and thus runoff production in patched environments. FlowShape is an area-weighted average of the geometrical properties of each bare soil patch. Eight experimental plots in northern Israel were monitored during 2 years after a wildfire which occurred in 2006. Runoff was collected and measured - along with rainfall depth - after each rainfall event, at different levels of vegetation cover corresponding to post-fire recovery of vegetation and seasonality. We obtained a good correlation between FlowShape and the runoff coefficient, at two conditions: a minimal percentage of vegetation cover over the plot, and minimal rainfall depth. Our results support the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of the two phases (vegetation and bare soil) in patched landscapes dictates, at least partially, runoff yield. The correlation between the runoff coefficient and FlowShape, which accounts for shape and orientation of soil patches, is higher than the correlation between the runoff coefficient and the bare soil percentage alone

  16. The eye lens: age-related trends and individual variations in refractive index and shape parameters

    PubMed Central

    Pierscionek, Barbara; Bahrami, Mehdi; Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Regini, Justyn; Yagi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    The eye lens grows throughout life by cell accrual on its surface and can change shape to adjust the focussing power of the eye. Varying concentrations of proteins in successive cell layers create a refractive index gradient. The continued growth of the lens and age-related changes in proteins render it less able to alter shape with loss of capacity by the end of the sixth decade of life. Growth and protein ageing alter the refractive index but as accurate measurement of this parameter is difficult, the nature of such alterations remains uncertain. The most accurate method to date for measuring refractive index in intact lenses has been developed at the SPring-8 synchrotron. The technique, based on Talbot interferometry, has an X-ray source and was used to measure refractive index in sixty-six human lenses, aged from 16 to 91 years. Height and width were measured for forty-five lenses. Refractive index contours show decentration in some older lenses but individual variations mask age-related trends. Refractive index profiles along the optic axis have relatively flat central sections with distinct micro-fluctuations and a steep gradient in the cortex but do not exhibit an age-related trend. The refractive index profiles in the equatorial aspect show statistical significance with age, particularly for lenses below the age of sixty that had capacity to alter shape in vivo. The maximum refractive index in the lens centre decreases slightly with age with considerable scatter in the data and there are age-related variations in sagittal thickness and equatorial height. PMID:26416418

  17. Bayesian factor analysis to calculate a deprivation index and its uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel Angel; Borrell, Carme; Zurriaga, Oscar; Nolasco, Andreu; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas

    2011-05-01

    Procedures for calculating deprivation indices in epidemiologic studies often show some common problems because the spatial dependence between units of analysis and uncertainty of the estimates is not usually accounted for. This work highlights these problems and illustrates how spatial factor Bayesian modeling could alleviate them. This study applies a cross-sectional ecological design to analyze the census tracts of 3 Spanish cities. To calculate the deprivation index, we used 5 socioeconomic indicators that comprise the deprivation index calculated in the MEDEA project. The deprivation index was estimated by a Bayesian factor analysis using hierarchical models, which takes the spatial dependence of the study units into account. We studied the relationship between this index and the one obtained using principal component analysis. Various analyses were carried out to assess the uncertainty obtained in the index. A high correlation was observed between the index obtained and the non-Bayesian index, but this relationship is not linear and there is disagreement between the methods when the areas are grouped according to quantiles. When the deprivation index is calculated using summary statistics based on the posterior distributions, the uncertainty of the index in each census tract is not taken into account. Failure to take this uncertainty into account may result in misclassification bias in the census tracts when these are grouped according to quantiles of the deprivation index. Not taking uncertainty into account may result in misclassification bias in the census tracts. This bias could interfere in subsequent analyses that include the deprivation index. Our proposal provides another tool for identifying groups with greater deprivation and for improving decision-making for public policy planning.

  18. A toolbox for computing pebble shape and roundness indexes: experimental tests and recommendations for future applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, M.; Piegay, H.; Lave, J.

    2016-12-01

    Pebble rounding caused by attrition is, beside chemical dissolution, breakage, and grain size segregation, one of the key processes controlling bedload downstream fining in rivers. Downstream changes in pebble geometry is subject of consideration since Aristotle (Krynine, 1960) and its measurement represent a challenge since the end of 19th century, leading to a long standing debate (Blott and Pye, 2008). A toolbox developed by Roussillon et al. (2009) operate on automatic computation of several shape and roundness indexes from images of 2D projection plan of pebbles disposed on a one meter square red board. In order to promote the tool for future applications, we tested the effects of pebble position on board, of picture resolution and treatment on three shape and roundness indexes. We also compared the downstream patterns of these indexes on two pebble samples of the same lithology collected on the Progo River (Indonesia) based on field observations (i) and experimentation (ii). Shape and roundness were measured on (i) 8 sites distributed over a distance of 36 km along the river, and (ii) ten times on a set of particules collected on the Progo spring and transported in an annular flume over the same distance. This travel distance was monitored using passive low frequency RFID system. Results show that pebble position does not have a significant effect on shape and roundness indexes but these indexes are sensible to picture resolutions and treatments so that a clear protocol must be considered for avoiding any observer bias. Downstream changes in roundness indexes are very similar in field and experimental conditions, while abrasion environments are distinct. Discontinuities observed in downstream river pattern but not in experimental one underlined changes in Progo River pebble roundness are probably caused by sediment supplied from tributaries or bank erosion. These results highlight the toolbox potential for diagnosing river systems function.

  19. How many clusters: a validation index for arbitrary-shaped clusters.

    PubMed

    Bayá, Ariel E; Granitto, Pablo M

    2013-01-01

    Clustering validation indexes are intended to assess the goodness of clustering results. Many methods used to estimate the number of clusters rely on a validation index as a key element to find the correct answer. This paper presents a new validation index based on graph concepts, which has been designed to find arbitrary shaped clusters by exploiting the spatial layout of the patterns and their clustering label. This new clustering index is combined with a solid statistical detection framework, the gap statistic. The resulting method is able to find the right number of arbitrary-shaped clusters in diverse situations, as we show with examples where this information is available. A comparison with several relevant validation methods is carried out using artificial and gene expression data sets. The results are very encouraging, showing that the underlying structure in the data can be more accurately detected with the new clustering index. Our gene expression data results also indicate that this new index is stable under perturbation of the input data.

  20. Simulation of imperfections in plastic lenses - transferring local refractive index changes into surface shape modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, Josep; Pizarro, Carles; Blanco, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Injection molded plastic lenses have continuously improved their performance regarding optical quality and nowadays are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, during the manufacturing process unavoidable fluctuations in material density occur, resulting in local changes in the distribution of refractive index, which degrade the imaging properties of the polymer lens. Such material density fluctuations correlate to phase delays, which opens a path for their mapping. However, it is difficult to transfer the measured variations in refractive index into conventional optical simulation tool. Thus, we propose a method to convert the local variations in refractive index into local changes of one surface of the lens, which can then be described as a free-form surface, easy to introduce in conventional simulation tools. The proposed method was tested on a commercial gradient index (GRIN) lens for a set of six different object positions, using the MTF sagittal and tangential cuts to compare the differences between the real lens and a lens with homogenous refractive index, and the last surface converted into a free-form shape containing the internal refractive index changes. The same procedure was used to reproduce the local refractive index changes of an injected plastic lens with local index changes measured using an in-house built polariscopic arrangement, showing the capability of the method to provide successful results.

  1. The modified equipartition calculation for supernova remnants with the spectral index α = 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urošević, Dejan; Pavlović, Marko Z.; Arbutina, Bojan; Dobardžić, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the modified equipartition calculation for supernova remnants (SNRs) has been derived by Arbutina et al. (2012). Their formulae can be used for SNRs with the spectral indices between 0.5 < α < 1. Here, by using approximately the same analytical method, we derive the equipartition formulae useful for SNRs with spectral index α=0.5. These formulae represent next step upgrade of Arbutina et al. (2012) derivation, because among 30 Galactic SNRs with available observational parameters for the equipartition calculation, 16 have spectral index α = 0.5. For these 16 Galactic SNRs we calculated the magnetic field strengths which are approximately 40 per cent higher than those calculated by using Pacholczyk (1970) equipartition and similar to those calculated by using Beck & Krause (2005) calculation.

  2. Study of shape transitions in N{approx}90 isotopes with beyond mean field calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Tomas R.; Egido, J. L.

    2009-01-28

    We study the spherical to prolate-deformed shape transition in {sup 144-158}Sm and {sup 146-160}Gd isotopes with modern calculations beyond the mean field with the Gogny D1S force. We compare the results with the shape-phase transition predicted by the collective Hamiltonian model and with the experimental data. Our calculations do not support the existence of a first order phase transition in these isotopic chains in the viewpoint of the Bohr Hamiltonian neither the interpretation of the nuclei N = 90 as critical points.

  3. Ray tracing method in arbitrarily shaped radial graded-index waveguide.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kenji; Nihei, Eisuke

    2015-10-10

    A ray tracing algorithm for an arbitrarily shaped axially symmetric graded index waveguide was proposed. This was achieved by considering the center of the waveguide (optical axis) as a set of discrete points. The refractive index depends on the distance of the ray position from the optical axis. This distance was approximated as the shortest distance between the ray position and a point in the set. Using this algorithm, ray tracing could be performed, regardless of the waveguide configuration. In this study, a precise explanation of the algorithm is given and the errors are evaluated. A technique to reduce computing time is also included.

  4. Entering a new era of body indices: the feasibility of a body shape index and body roundness index to identify cardiovascular health status.

    PubMed

    Maessen, Martijn F H; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Verheggen, Rebecca J H M; Hopman, Maria T E; Verbeek, André L M; de Vegt, Femmie

    2014-01-01

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) are well-used anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but their validity is regularly questioned. Recently, A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) were introduced as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. This study assessed the capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease risk factors and determined whether they are superior to BMI and WC. 4627 Participants (54±12 years) of the Nijmegen Exercise Study completed an online questionnaire concerning CVD health status (defined as history of CVD or CVD risk factors) and anthropometric characteristics. Quintiles of ABSI, BRI, BMI, and WC were used regarding CVD prevalence. Odds ratios (OR), adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, were calculated per anthropometric index. 1332 participants (27.7%) reported presence of CVD or CVD risk factors. The prevalence of CVD increased across quintiles for BMI, ABSI, BRI, and WC. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile, adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD were significantly different for BRI 3.2 (1.4-7.2), BMI 2.4 (1.9-3.1), and WC 3.0 (1.6-5.6). The adjusted OR (95% CI) for CVD risk factors was for BRI 2.5 (2.0-3.3), BMI 3.3 (1.6-6.8), and WC 2.0 (1.6-2.5). No association was observed for ABSI in both groups. BRI, BMI, and WC are able to determine CVD presence, while ABSI is not capable. Nevertheless, the capacity of BRI as a novel body index to identify CVD was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices like BMI and WC.

  5. Evaluation of shape indexing methods for content-based retrieval of x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2003-01-01

    Efficient content-based image retrieval of biomedical images is a challenging problem of growing research interest. Feature representation algorithms used in indexing medical images on the pathology of interest have to address conflicting goals of reducing feature dimensionality while retaining important and often subtle biomedical features. At the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a R&D division of the National Library of Medicine, we are developing a content-based image retrieval system for digitized images of a collection of 17,000 cervical and lumbar x-rays taken as a part of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Shape is the only feature that effectively describes various pathologies identified by medical experts as being consistently and reliably found in the image collection. In order to determine if the state of the art in shape representation methods is suitable for this application, we have evaluated representative algorithms selected from the literature. The algorithms were tested on a subset of 250 vertebral shapes. In this paper we present the requirements of an ideal algorithm, define the evaluation criteria, and present the results and our analysis of the evaluation. We observe that while the shape methods perform well on visual inspection of the overall shape boundaries, they fall short in meeting the needs of determining similarity between the vertebral shapes based on the pathology.

  6. Nanoparticle shapes by using Wulff constructions and first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Barmparis, Georgios D; Lodziana, Zbigniew; Lopez, Nuria; Remediakis, Ioannis N

    2015-01-01

    The majority of complex and advanced materials contain nanoparticles. The properties of these materials depend crucially on the size and shape of these nanoparticles. Wulff construction offers a simple method of predicting the equilibrium shape of nanoparticles given the surface energies of the material. We review the mathematical formulation and the main applications of Wulff construction during the last two decades. We then focus to three recent extensions: active sites of metal nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis, ligand-protected nanoparticles generated as colloidal suspensions and nanoparticles of complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. Wulff construction, in particular when linked to first-principles calculations, is a powerful tool for the analysis and prediction of the shapes of nanoparticles and tailor the properties of shape-inducing species.

  7. Nanoparticle shapes by using Wulff constructions and first-principles calculations

    PubMed Central

    Barmparis, Georgios D; Lodziana, Zbigniew; Lopez, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The majority of complex and advanced materials contain nanoparticles. The properties of these materials depend crucially on the size and shape of these nanoparticles. Wulff construction offers a simple method of predicting the equilibrium shape of nanoparticles given the surface energies of the material. Results: We review the mathematical formulation and the main applications of Wulff construction during the last two decades. We then focus to three recent extensions: active sites of metal nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis, ligand-protected nanoparticles generated as colloidal suspensions and nanoparticles of complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. Conclusion: Wulff construction, in particular when linked to first-principles calculations, is a powerful tool for the analysis and prediction of the shapes of nanoparticles and tailor the properties of shape-inducing species. PMID:25821675

  8. Comparison of K-index Calculations between Several Geomagnetic Stations during IQDs and IDDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Kim, Hang-Pyo; Park, Young-Deuk

    2013-09-01

    BOH magnetometer was installed at Mt. Bohyun in 2007 and has provided continuous dataset for 3-axis geomagnetic field over the South Korea. We have calculated real-time K-index based on BOH magnetic field data using well-known FMI method. Local K-index is calculated eight times a day, per every three hours. To calculate K-index, it is critical to get the Quiet Day Curve (QDC). For QDC calculation, we take the previous one month's average of H-component. In this paper, we compared four geomagnetic stations' magnetic field data over South Korea and Japan and K-indices of each stations; Bohyun, Gangneung, Jeju, and Kakioka for two years data, 2011-2012. To investigate the difference depending on the latitude, longitude and local time in more detail, we compare K-index on International Quiet Days (IQDs) and International Disturbed Days (IDDs). As a result, we report the correlation between local K-indices are higher than those between Kp and local K-indices, and the correlation is much better after sunset than after sunrise. As the geomagnetic activity becomes stronger, the correlation between the local K-indices and global Kp-index become higher.

  9. Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3D refractive index maps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2017-01-01

    Optical trapping can manipulate the three-dimensional (3D) motion of spherical particles based on the simple prediction of optical forces and the responding motion of samples. However, controlling the 3D behaviour of non-spherical particles with arbitrary orientations is extremely challenging, due to experimental difficulties and extensive computations. Here, we achieve the real-time optical control of arbitrarily shaped particles by combining the wavefront shaping of a trapping beam and measurements of the 3D refractive index distribution of samples. Engineering the 3D light field distribution of a trapping beam based on the measured 3D refractive index map of samples generates a light mould, which can manipulate colloidal and biological samples with arbitrary orientations and/or shapes. The present method provides stable control of the orientation and assembly of arbitrarily shaped particles without knowing a priori information about the sample geometry. The proposed method can be directly applied in biophotonics and soft matter physics. PMID:28530232

  10. Single-mode D-shaped optical fiber sensor for the refractive index monitoring of liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Hummad Habib; Mohammad, Abu Bakar bin; Ahmad, Harith; Zamani Zulkifli, Mohd; Wadi Harun, Sulaiman

    2016-04-01

    A new fabrication method is introduced for the production of D-shaped optical fiber. A mechanical end and edge polishing system with aluminum oxide polishing film is utilized to perform sequential polishing on one side (lengthwise) of single-mode optical fiber in order to obtain a D-shaped cross section. Adjusting specific mechanical parameters allows for control of the volume of the D-shaped zone, while the fiber surface smoothness is governed by selection of polishing film grit size. To meet the accuracy and repeatability requirements, optical power loss is monitored during the entire polishing process in situ and in real time. This proposed technique possesses advantages of rapidity, safety, simplicity, repeatability and stability with high precision in comparison with contemporary methods for production. Sensor performance tests on the fiber reveal a linear response with linearity up to R2 = 0.984 for surrounding refractive index in the range of 1.320-1.342 refractive index, which corresponds to different concentrations of the glucose solution test environment. The produced D-shaped optical fiber has potential sensing and monitoring applications in chemical, environmental, biological and biochemical fields.

  11. Toward automated classification of acetabular shape in ultrasound for diagnosis of DDH: Contour alpha angle and the rounding index.

    PubMed

    Hareendranathan, Abhilash Rakkunedeth; Mabee, Myles; Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Noga, Michelle; Jaremko, Jacob L

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) in infants is currently made primarily by ultrasound. However, two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) images capture only an incomplete portion of the acetabular shape, and the alpha and beta angles measured on 2DUS for the Graf classification technique show high inter-scan and inter-observer variability. This variability relates partly to the manual determination of the apex point separating the acetabular roof from the ilium during index measurement. This study proposes a new 2DUS image processing technique for semi-automated tracing of the bony surface followed by automatic calculation of two indices: a contour-based alpha angle (αA), and a new modality-independent quantitative rounding index (M). The new index M is independent of the apex point, and can be directly extended to 3D surface models. We tested the proposed indices on a dataset of 114 2DUS scans of infant hips aged between 4 and 183 days scanned using a 12MHz linear transducer. We calculated the manual alpha angle (αM), coverage, contour-based alpha angle and rounding index for each of the recordings and statistically evaluated these indices based on regression analysis, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Processing time for calculating αA and M was similar to manual alpha angle measurement, ∼30s per image. Reliability of the new indices was high, with inter-observer intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) 0.90 for αA and 0.89 for M. For a diagnostic test classifying hips as normal or dysplastic, AUC was 93.0% for αA vs. 92.7% for αM, 91.6% for M alone, and up to 95.7% for combination of M with αM, αA or coverage. The rounding index provides complimentary information to conventional indices such as alpha angle and coverage. Calculation of the contour-based alpha angle and rounding index is rapid, shows potential to improve the reliability and accuracy of DDH diagnosis from 2DUS

  12. Microcomputer software for calculating the western Oregon elk habitat effectiveness index.

    Treesearch

    Alan Ager; Mark. Hitchcock

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the microcomputer program HEIWEST, which was developed to automate calculation of the western Oregon elk habitat effectiveness index (HEI). HEIWEST requires little or no training to operate and vastly simplifies the task of measuring HEI for either site-specific project analysis or long-term monitoring of elk habitat. It is...

  13. Taking into account nighttime annoyance in the calculation of the psophic index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francois, J.

    1981-01-01

    The annoyance factor caused by air traffic noise on the residents of areas near airports is discussed. The psophic index is used to predict the level of overall annoyance suffered on the average by residents around airports. The calculation method differentiates between daytime and nighttime annoyance.

  14. Thermal and shape stability of high-index-faceted rhodium nanoparticles: a molecular dynamics investigation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2015-02-28

    Nanosized noble metallic particles enclosed by high-index facets exhibit superior catalytic activity because of their high density of low-coordinated step atoms at the surface, and thus have attracted growing interest over the past decade. In this article, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of tetrahexahedral Rh nanoparticles respectively covered by {210}, {310}, and {830} facets during the heating process. Our results reveal that the {210} faceted nanoparticle exhibits better thermal and shape stability than the {310} and {830} faceted ones. Meanwhile, because the {830} facet consists of {210} and {310} subfacets, the stability of the {830} faceted Rh nanoparticle is dominated by the {310} subfacet, which possesses a relatively poor stability. Furthermore, the shape transformation of these nanoparticles occurs much earlier than their melting. Further analyses indicate that surface atoms with higher coordination numbers display lower surface diffusivity, and are thus more helpful for stabilizing the particle shape. This study offers an atomistic understanding of the thermodynamic behaviors of high-index-faceted Rh nanoparticles.

  15. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Filipa; Duarte, Daniel; Bilro, Lúcia; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi; Cennamo, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for refractive index (RI) sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR). POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471) through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI) range (1.33–1.39), the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10−3 refractive index units, RIU) was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41–1.47), the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost. PMID:27983608

  16. BetaShape: A new code for improved analytical calculations of beta spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougeot, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    The new code BetaShape has been developed in order to improve the nuclear data related to beta decays. An analytical model was considered, except for the relativistic electron wave functions, for ensuring fast calculations. Output quantities are mean energies, log ft values and beta and neutrino spectra for single and multiple transitions. The uncertainties from the input parameters, read from an ENSDF file, are propagated. A database of experimental shape factors is included. A comparison over the entire ENSDF database with the standard code currently used in nuclear data evaluations shows consistent results for the vast majority of the transitions and highlights the improvements that can be expected with the use of BetaShape.

  17. Three-dimensional surface grid generation for calculation of thermal radiation shape factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aly, Hany M.

    1992-01-01

    A technique is described to generate three dimensional surface grids suitable for calculating shape factors for thermal radiative heat transfer. The surface under consideration is approximated by finite triangular elements generated in a special manner. The grid is generated by dividing the surface into a two dimensional array of nodes. Each node is defined by its coordinates. Each set of four adjacent nodes is used to construct two triangular elements. Each triangular element is characterized by the vector representation of its vertices. Vector algebra is used to calculate all desired geometric properties of grid elements. The properties are used to determine the shape factor between the element and an area element in space. The grid generation can be graphically displayed using any software with three dimensional features. DISSPLA was used to view the grids.

  18. A simple method of calculating pulse amplitudes and shapes arising from reflection from linear segments

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.

    1988-01-02

    A new formulation for the amplitude and pulse shape from reflections from a linear segment for a bistatic planar geometry is presented. The formulation is useful in calculating reverberation from high intensity signals in an deep ocean basin where long range propagation can occur. This reverberation is important in calculating the acoustic interference to sonar arising from the detonation of nuclear or large chemical explosives, and for modeling long range active sonar. The reflections computed with the new formulation are significantly different from those of earlier versions of the reverberation model, with pulses generally shorter and more intense, leading to predictions of louder but more sporadic reverberation than previously estimated. 9 refs

  19. Calculation of the Shape of S-State Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Humphrey J.; Guo, Wei

    2007-08-01

    We consider the shape of electron bubbles in liquid helium. Grinfeld and Kojima (Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 105301, 2003) have shown that the in a certain pressure range the 2S electron bubble is unstable against small distortions with l=3 and loses its spherical symmetry. We report more detailed calculations of this effect and also study the behavior of the 3S and 2P bubbles.

  20. SU-E-T-601: Output Factor Calculation of Irregular Shape Electron Cutout at Extended SSD

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhatib, H; Gebreamlak, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To calculate the output factor of irregular shape electron beam at extended SSD using modified lateral build-up-ratio method. Methods: Circular cutouts from 2.0cm diameter to maximum possible sizes were prepared for applicator cone size of 15×15cm. In addition, different irregular cutouts were prepared. Percentage depth dose (PDD) curves were measured for each cutout using 6, 9, 12 and 16-MeV at the standard SSD of 100cm. The scanning was done using Multidata system and Scanditronix diodes on 2100SC Varian LINAC. In addition, for each cutout and electron beam energy doses were measured at SSD values of 100, 105, 110, 115cm using EDR2 films and diodes. Results: The measured PDD were normalized to the depth of 1.0mm. The lateral build-up-ratio (LBR) and the lateral scatter parameter (sigma) were calculated for each circular cutout using the open 15X15-cm2 field as the reference field. Taking the linear increase of sigma with cutout size into account, PDD of the irregular cutouts were calculated at 100 cm SSD. Furthermore, using the dose measured at different SSDs, the effective SSD value for each circular cutout and electron beam energy was determined. Employing the LBR and the effective-SSD values of the circular cutouts along with the calculated PDD of the irregular cutouts, the output factors of the irregular cutout at different extended SSD values were calculated. Finally, the calculated output factors were compared with the measured values. Conclusion: In this research, it is shown that output factor of irregular shape electron beam at extended SSD can be determined by using the LBR and the effective SSD values of circular cutouts. The percentage difference of the calculated output factor from the measured output factor for irregular cutouts at extended SSD were within 3.0%.

  1. Relationships Between Abrasion Index and Shape Properties of Progressively Abraded Dolerite Railway Ballasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okonta, F. N.

    2014-07-01

    Sub-angular-shaped aggregates are used as rail foundation ballasts and must remain sub-angular during their service life time to maintain particle-particle interlocking, in order to ensure the stability of the rail line and prevent accidents by derailment. Here, the screening of dolerite quarry aggregates for use as railway foundation ballasts was investigated by employing simple digital image and chart methods. The average particle size ( d 50), flakiness index (FI), Los Angeles abrasion index (LAAI), sphericity (SPH) and roundness (RND) were determined for two batches of dolerite ballasts from the Rooikraal quarry in Johannesburg and Ngagane quarry in Newcastle. Thirty samples from each of the two batches of ballast were analysed. The ballasts were progressively abraded using a Los Angeles abrasion device and were analysed after each cycle of abrasion. A decrease in d 50 and an increase in FI with increased number of abrasion cycles were observed for both batches of dolerite ballast. The difference in the chart and digital image values of RND and SPH were marginal before abrasion; however, these differences increased with each abrasion cycle. The LAAI, d 50, mean RND and mean SPH correlated significantly and were found to have high regression coefficients. Thus, statistical models are proposed for the non-destructive routine screening of in-place ballasts in order to track marginal changes in aggregate shapes, facilitate ballast replacement programmes and avoid rail line instability.

  2. Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus

    PubMed Central

    Poot-Salazar, Alicia; Hernández-Flores, Álvaro; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Age and growth analysis is essential to fisheries management. Indirect methods to calculate growth are widely used; however, length frequency data analysis in sea cucumbers is complicated by high data variability caused by body wall elasticity. Here we calculated Isostichopus badionotus parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function. In order to address bias produced by body wall elasticity, we compared the performance of four measurements and one compound index that combines different biometric parameters: the square root of the length-width product (SLW). Results showed that variability in length data due to body wall elasticity was controlled by using body length (Le) from the SLW compound index. Growth in I. badionotus follows a negative allometric tendency. Slow or zero growth periods were observed during October and November, when weather conditions were adverse. PMID:24909262

  3. Automated fetal cardiac valve movement detection for modified myocardial performance index calculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Henry, Amanda; Welsh, Alec W; Redmond, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    The Modified Myocardial Performance Index (Mod-MPI) is becoming an important index in fetal cardiac function evaluation. However, the current method for Mod-MPI calculation can be time-consuming and demonstrates poor inter-operator repeatability. This paper presents an automated method for detecting the opening and closing events of fetal cardiac valves with the aim of automating the Mod-MPI calculation. Fifty-four Doppler ultrasound images, showing blood inflow and outflow for the left ventricle, are analyzed to attempt to automatically detect the timings of a total of 905 opening and closing events for both aortic and mitral valves. Timings are found according to the morphological characteristics of waveforms as well as intensity information of images. The proposed method can detect the four valve movement events with high sensitivity (95.60-98.64%) and precision (96.85-100.00%). Results are verified by comparison with manual annotation of same images from an expert.

  4. New Approaches for Calculating Moran’s Index of Spatial Autocorrelation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation plays an important role in geographical analysis; however, there is still room for improvement of this method. The formula for Moran’s index is complicated, and several basic problems remain to be solved. Therefore, I will reconstruct its mathematical framework using mathematical derivation based on linear algebra and present four simple approaches to calculating Moran’s index. Moran’s scatterplot will be ameliorated, and new test methods will be proposed. The relationship between the global Moran’s index and Geary’s coefficient will be discussed from two different vantage points: spatial population and spatial sample. The sphere of applications for both Moran’s index and Geary’s coefficient will be clarified and defined. One of theoretical findings is that Moran’s index is a characteristic parameter of spatial weight matrices, so the selection of weight functions is very significant for autocorrelation analysis of geographical systems. A case study of 29 Chinese cities in 2000 will be employed to validate the innovatory models and methods. This work is a methodological study, which will simplify the process of autocorrelation analysis. The results of this study will lay the foundation for the scaling analysis of spatial autocorrelation. PMID:23874592

  5. A technology for the calculation and manufacture of devices for shaping a proton beam in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, A. V.; Endzheichak, D.; Luchin, E. I.; Mitsyn, G. V.; Molokanov, A. G.; Shipulin, K. N.

    2012-11-01

    A therapeutic proton beam for an actual irradiation procedure is shaped using customized collimator leaves made out of Cerrobend, while to make the proton-beam depth-dose distribution conformal to the target volume, so-called boluses (compensators) with sophisticated shapes are calculated and then fabricated to compensate for the heterogeneities of a patient's tissues and organs in the beam path. This article describes the main stages of testing a technology for manufacturing bolus from industrial wax which was developed at the Medico-Technical Complex (MTC) at the Dzelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (DLNP JINR), by comparing the spatial dose distributions obtained under a computer simulation of proton irradiation and the actually measured ones under the experiment.

  6. Matrix method calculation of the Kerr effect transient and ac stationary responses of arbitrary shaped macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, Yuri P

    2009-08-21

    A new and simple matrix method of evaluating the Kerr effect transient and ac stationary responses of rigid polar and polarizable particles (macromolecules) of arbitrary shape undergoing the noninertial anisotropic rotational diffusion in the presence of an external electric field is presented. The matrix calculations are accomplished by solving the corresponding coupled differential-recurrence equations for the statistical moments (ensemble averages of the Wigner D functions). The results so obtained are in agreement with previously available solutions for various particular cases and are amenable to comparison with experiment.

  7. Vegetation Canopies and Objects of Arbitrary Shapes: Computer Generation and Bidirectional Reflectance Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narenda S.; Rozehnal, I.; Thompson, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    A general computer graphics based model is presented for computer generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) and scattering from them, in the optical region. The computer generation uses a modified Lindemayer system (L system) approach. For rendering on a computer screen, the object is divided into polygons, and innovative computer graphics techniques are used to display the object and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The use of the technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants and from a snow covered mountain. The scattering is quantified using measures like BRF and albedo and by rendering the objects with brightness of each of the two facets of a polygon proportional to the amount of light scattered from the object in the viewer's direction.

  8. [DETECTION OF DEGREE OF MICROECOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE OF INTESTINE BASED ON CALCULATION OF LOCAL ANTIOXIDANT INDEX].

    PubMed

    Gapon, M N; Ternovskaya, L N

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of dysbiotic condition of intestine based on determination of local antioxidant index (LAI). 155 patients with bacteriologically confirmed intestine dysbacteriosis were examined: 20 individuals with normobiocenosis of the intestine served as control. Feces dilution 10⁻² was used for biochemical study. Catalase, superoxide-dismutase activity and level of malonic dialdehyde was evaluated photometrically by the value of optical density of the samples. Microbial landscape of feces was studied by a bacteriologic method with parallel determination in samples of coprofiltrates of activity of the indicated enzymes and content of malonic dialdehyde. Evaluation of disturbances of microecology of the intestine was carried out by a biochemical method by calculating local antioxidant index in juxtaposition with microbial map data. LAI parameter was significantly higher than 20 in coprofiltrates of people with intestine normobiocenosis. In patients with detected intestine dysbacteriosis, depending on its degree, LAI parameter, changes were registered in the range from negative to 20. Dysbacteriosis in a part of patients had a prolonged character, LAI was lower than 14, that reflected the presence of a persistent inflammation. A tendency of normalization of microbial ecology and growth of LAI was observed during administration of a probiotic preparation. A screening criteria is proposed, that differentiates the degree of severity of intestine dysbacteriosis based on calculation of local antioxidant index.

  9. The Use of Ab Initio Wavefunctions in Line-Shape Calculations for Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamache, Robert R.; Lamouroux, Julien; Schwenke, David W.

    2014-06-01

    In semi-classical line-shape calculations, the internal motions of the colliding pair are treated via quantum mechanics and the collision trajectory is determined by classical dynamics. The quantum mechanical component, i.e. the determination of reduced matrix elements (RME) for the colliding pair, requires the wavefunctions of the radiating and the perturbing molecules be known. Here the reduced matrix elements for collisions in the ground vibrational state of water vapor are calculated by two methods and compared. First, wavefunctions determined by diagonalizing an effective (Watson) Hamiltonian are used to calculate the RMEs and, second, the ab initio wavefunctions of Partridge and Schwenke are used. While the ground vibrational state will yield the best approximation of the wavefunctions from the effective Hamiltonian approach, this study clearly identifies problems for states not included in the fit of the Hamiltonian and for extrapolated states. RMEs determined using ab initio wavefunctions use ˜100000 times more computational time; however, all ro-vibrational interactions are included. Hence, the ab initio approach will yield better RMEs as the number of vibrational quanta exchanged in the optical transition increases, resulting in improvements in calculated half-widths and line shifts. It is important to note that even for pure rotational transitions the use of ab initio wavefunctions will yield improved results.

  10. Calculation of translational friction and intrinsic viscosity. I. General formulation for arbitrarily shaped particles.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H X

    1995-01-01

    A general method for calculating translational friction and intrinsic viscosity is developed through exploiting relations between hydrodynamics and electrostatics. An approximate relation xi = 6 pi eta 0C between the translational friction coefficient xi of a particle (eta 0: solvent viscosity) and its capacitance C was derived previously. This involved orientationally preaveraging the Oseen tensor, but the result was found to be very accurate. Based on preaveraging, we find that the intrinsic viscosity [eta] of a particle can be estimated from its polarizability alpha through [eta] = 3/4 alpha + 1/4 Vp, where Vp is the volume of the particle. Both the capacitance and the polarizability can be obtained in a single calculation using the boundary-element technique. An efficient approach is thus found for estimating [eta], a quantity that is very useful in practice because of its sensitivity to particle shape but is notoriously difficult to calculate. Illustrative calculations on ellipsoids, cylinders, and dumbbells demonstrate both the accuracy of the approximate relations and the efficiency of the present method. PMID:8599636

  11. Comparative evaluation of orthodontic bracket base shapes on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Dennis; Bollu, Prashanti; Chaudhry, Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic bracket base shape on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index. Material and Methods In this in vitro study using 140 bovine incisors, shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets with different base shapes (rectangle, flower, round, heart, diamond, star, and football) were measured with an Instron testing machine and tested until bond failure. Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scoring was evaluated after debonding to evaluate the location of bond failure. Descriptive and one-way ANOVA post-hoc Tukey statistical analyses were performed with a statistical significance set at p≤0.05. Results Statistically significant difference in mean SBS in Newtons was observed for multiple base shapes (p<0.05). The highest mean SBS (N ± SD) was observed in football and flower base shapes (73.83 N ± 53.46; 65.82 N ± 37.89 respectively); the lowest mean was observed with diamond and heart shapes (30.51 N ± 11.73; 33.28 N ± 16.89 respectively). When reported in Megaspascals, statistically significant difference was observed for rectangle base shape (3.54 MPa ± 2.69) when compared to all other base shapes. Conclusions Bracket base shape has an effect on SBS. Higher SBS (N) for rectangle, flower, and football base shape indicates even stress distributions throughout the bracket base. Base shape with a pronounced converging tip over the axial plane may contribute to the reduction in SBS due to increased peak stress concentration resulting in bond failure. Key words:Shaped brackets, Shear bond strength, Adhesive remnant index, WildSmiles®. PMID:28828149

  12. Brittleness index calculation and evaluation for CBM reservoirs based on AVO simultaneous inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Dong, Shouhua; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Haolong; Chen, Guiwu

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed for coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir brittleness index (BI) calculations. The BI, as a guide for fracture area selection, is calculated by dynamic elastic parameters (dynamic Young's modulus Ed and dynamic Poisson's ratio υd) obtained from an amplitude versus offset (AVO) simultaneous inversion. Among the three different classes of CBM reservoirs distinguished on the basis of brittleness in the theoretical part of this study, class I reservoirs with high BI values are identified as preferential target areas for fracturing. Therefore, we derive the AVO approximation equation expressed by Ed and υd first. This allows the direct inversion of the dynamic elastic parameters through the pre-stack AVO simultaneous inversion, which is based on Bayes' theorem. Thereafter, a test model with Gaussian white noise and a through-well seismic profile inversion is used to demonstrate the high reliability of the inversion parameters. Accordingly, the BI of a CBM reservoir section from the Qinshui Basin is calculated using the proposed method and a class I reservoir section detected through brittleness evaluation. From the outcome of this study, we believe the adoption of this new approach could act as a guide and reference for BI calculations and evaluations of CBM reservoirs.

  13. Development, validation and evaluation of an electronic pharmacological tool: The Drug Burden Index Calculator©.

    PubMed

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Hilmer, Sarah N

    The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a pharmacological risk assessment tool that measures the total exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medicines, which may impair function in older adults. A computerized clinical decision support system (CCDSS) for DBI has not been previously developed or evaluated. (a) Develop a CCDSS that calculates and generates reports on DBI; (b) validate the CCDSS for accuracy; and (c) evaluate the CCDSS for use in clinical practice. The DBI Calculator© application, based on the published formula and Australian registered prescribing information was built and designed using Microsoft Access 2010. Accuracy testing involved the comparison of DBI scores computed manually (gold standard) with those computed using The DBI Calculator© for 25 published medication review case studies. Agreement was measured using Cohen's Kappa statistic. To evaluate the CCDSS application in practice, ten pharmacists completed a performance test and usability survey. Participants were timed performing a DBI calculation with the application for a fictitious patient case. The interface, functionality, clinical applications and user satisfaction of the application were rated using 5-point, Likert-type scales. Excellent agreement between the manual and CCDSS application was observed (Cohen's Kappa 0.95). In the evaluation phase, the average time (mins:sec ± SD) for participants to complete the task was 7:20 ± 1:45 and the DBI Calculator© was considered useful by 80% of pharmacists for recognizing sedative and anticholinergic medicines in practice. A reliable CCDSS has been developed to report DBI of older patients taking multiple medications. Future studies should test the utility of The DBI Calculator© in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Substituent effects on some calculated NMR data in T-shaped configuration of benzene dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoodi, Hamid Reza; Zakarianezhad, Mohammad; Bagheri, Sotoodeh; Makiabadi, Batoul; Shool, Motahareh

    2014-10-01

    Some NMR data of T-shaped configuration of benzene dimer are theoretically examined in the presence of different substituents. The geometries are optimized at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The NMR calculations are performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and PBE0/6-311++G(d,p) levels. The correlation between NMR data and electron-donating (or -withdrawing) of substituents is investigated. Linear relationships between Hammett constants and some NMR data can be found with good correlation coefficients. In addition to geometrical features and binding energies, the study of the topological properties of electron charge density aids in better understanding of NMR data in these complexes.

  15. U-shaped relationship between depression and body mass index in the Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Park, S K; Ryoo, J-H; Oh, C-M; Choi, J-M; McIntyre, R S; Mansur, R B; Kim, H; Hales, S; Jung, J Y

    2017-06-03

    Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30kg/m(2)). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D)≥16 and≥25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14-1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85-1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91-1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05-1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in women and 23kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in men. There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A body shape index has a good correlation with postoperative complications in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Yoon, Hong Man; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between obesity and surgical complications has been controversial. A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is a newly developed anthropometric index based on waist circumference adjusted for height and weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ABSI and surgical complications. From November 2001 to September 2012, 4,813 patients underwent curative resection for gastric cancer. ABSI was defined as waist circumference divided by (BMI(2/3)height(1/2)). Data of clinicopathologic characteristics and morbidity were collected by retrospective review. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analyses to determine whether ABSI was independently associated with postoperative complications. The incidence of overall surgical complications was 13.4 %, and the most common complication was ileus (2.8 %). In the multivariable analysis, ABSI was an independent factor for overall complications [odds ratio (OR), 1.22; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.48; P = 0.041). However, BMI showed no statistical significance (OR, 1.03; 95 % CI 1.00-1.06; P = 0.063). In the subgroup analyses, ABSI was significantly associated with overall complications regarding open gastrectomy (OR, 1.26; 95 % CI 1.01-1.57; P = 0.039). Regarding laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy, ABSI had no significant effect on overall complications (P = 0.844). ABSI shows good correlation with surgical complications in patients with gastric cancer. Further studies are needed for the various clinical roles of ABSI, and the results could be helpful to determine the effect of abdominal obesity on gastric cancer surgery and the clinical usefulness of ABSI.

  17. Potentiation of Femtosecond Laser Intratissue Refractive Index Shaping (IRIS) in the Living Cornea with Sodium Fluorescein

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Lana J.; Ding, Li; Xu, Lisen; Knox, Wayne H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effectiveness of intratissue refractive index shaping (IRIS) in living corneas and test the hypothesis that it can be enhanced by increasing the two-photon absorption (TPA) of the tissue. Methods. Three corneas were removed from adult cats and cut into six pieces, which were placed in preservative (Optisol-GS; Bausch & Lomb, Inc., Irvine, CA) containing 0%, 0.25%, 1%, 1.5%, or 2.5% sodium fluorescein (Na-Fl). An 800-nm Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser with a 100-fs pulse duration and 80-MHz repetition rate was used to perform IRIS in each piece, creating several refractive index (RI) modification lines at different speeds (between 0.1 and 5 mm/s). The lines were 1 μm wide, 10 μm apart, and ∼150 μm below the tissue surface. The RI change of each grating was measured using calibrated, differential interference contrast microscopy. TUNEL staining was performed to assess whether IRIS or Na-Fl doping causes cell death. Results. Scanning at 0.1 mm/s changed the RI of undoped, living corneas by 0.005. In doped corneas, RI changes between 0.01 and 0.02 were reliably achieved with higher scanning speeds. The magnitude of RI changes attained was directly proportional to Na-Fl doping concentration and inversely proportional to the scanning speed used to create the gratings. Conclusions. IRIS can be efficiently performed in living corneal tissue. Increasing the TPA of the tissue with Na-Fl increased both the scanning speeds and the magnitude of RI changes in a dose-dependent manner. Ongoing studies are exploring the use of IRIS to alter the optical properties of corneal tissue in situ, over an extended period. PMID:19815735

  18. Refractive index, band gap energy, dielectric constant and polarizability calculations of ferroelectric Ethylenediaminium Tetrachlorozincate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanaraman, S.; Shajinshinu, P. M.; . Vijayalakshmi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Single crystal of Ethylenediaminium Tetrachlorozincate has been grown by slow evaporation method. The single crystal XRD study confirms the orthorhombic structure of the crystal. The presence of functional group vibrations are ascertained through FTIR and Raman studies. In optical studies, the insulating behaviour of the material is established by Tauc plot. The refractive index and the real dielectric constant of the crystal are calculated. The electronic polarizability in the high frequency optical region is also calculated from the dielectric constant values by using the Clausius-Mossotti equation. The large value of dielectric constant is identified through dielectric studies and it points to the ferroelectric behaviour of the material. Further an experimental study confirms the ferroelectric behaviour of the material. The total polarizability of the crystal owing to the space charge, dipole, ionic and electronic polarizability contributions is obtained experimentally, and it matches well with the theoretically obtained value from Penn analysis. Further, Plasmon energy and Fermi energy of the material are also calculated using Penn analysis.

  19. Calculation of Compressible Flows past Aerodynamic Shapes by Use of the Streamline Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perl, W

    1947-01-01

    A simple approximate method is given for the calculation of isentropic irrotational flows past symmetrical airfoils, including mixed subsonic-supersonic flows. The method is based on the choice of suitable values for the streamline curvature in the flow field and the subsequent integration of the equations of motion. The method yields limiting solutions for potential flow. The effect of circulation is considered. A comparison of derived velocity distributions with existing results that are based on calculation to the third order in the thickness ratio indicated satisfactory agreement. The results are also presented in the form of a set of compressibility correction rules that lie between the Prandtl-Glauert rule and the von Karman-Tsien rule (approximately). The different rules correspond to different values of the local shape parameter square root sign YC sub a, in which Y is the ordinate and C sub a is the curvature at a point on an airfoil. Bodies of revolution, completely supersonic flows, and the significance of the limiting solutions for potential flow are also briefly discussed.

  20. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    categories. A quarry matches with a combination of these categories depending on its current state. This quarry state, as will the index, can vary over time according to its extension. In order to correlate and properly weight these parameters in the calculation of the interaction index, the discrete choice model has been used (Train, 2009). Depending on the interaction index value, the quarry will present a low, a medium, a high, or a very high impact on the regional hydrogeology. This will determine the level of investigation of the feasibility study, namely (1) a geological and hydrogeological contextualization, (2) a continuous piezometric monitoring, (3) a steady flow mathematical modeling and, the most detailed, (4) a non-steady flow transient state model.

  1. High efficient coupling between wedged-shaped fiber and planar lightwave circuit chip using gradient refractive-index media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Qu, Shuting; Xiao, Jinbiao; Sun, Xiaohan

    2006-10-01

    Planar lightwave circuit (PLC) chips based on III-V semiconductor MQW rib waveguide promise to be not only a solution to information access, but also direct the issues of bandwidth, pin count, reliability and complexity. Nanopositioning and precision alignment addresses vital importance in high-efficient connectivity between PLC chips and fiber arrays. Refractive-index mismatching between fused silica and III-V compound is one of the most serious problem which remains unsolved on one hand as well as mode field mismatching which can be mitigated in other hand through gradient geometry structure such as tapered spot size converter (SSC) and specialty fibers such as wedge-shaped fiber (WSF). Spherical gradient refractive-index (SGRIN) media intervened between WSF and MQW rib waveguide is put forward. The GRIN media virtually eliminates the reflection losses associated with the fused silica-air interface and III-V semiconductor-air interface. The beam spot emitted from WSF are observed by digital camera and the fundamental mode of MQW rib waveguide was calculated out. Lightwave propagation and mode field evolution in the WSF-SGRIN-PLC system is simulated by FDTD method with the coupling loss of 8.54dB at a wavelength of 1.55μm. An LED signal is injected into WSF, transmitted along GRIN media and PLC waveguide and output through single mode fiber (SMF). Optical power meter-based measurement verifies the whole system coupling loss to be consistent with the numeric estimation. The approach provides an experimental prototype for coupling and packaging technique of integrated photonic devices, hence supplying foundation for photonic network.

  2. Prediction of Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of Disease State Index and IMPACT Calculator.

    PubMed

    Liedes, Hilkka; Mattila, Jussi; Lingsma, Hester; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Menon, David; Tenovuo, Olli; van Gils, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, especially in young adults. A reliable prediction of outcome after TBI is of great importance in clinical practice and research. We aimed to compare performance of the well-established IMPACT calculator and an alternative method, Disease State Index (DSI), in the prediction of six-month outcome after TBI. Performance of the models was evaluated using 2036 patients with moderate or severe TBI from the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) database. Prediction performance of both models was similar. The models with more variables provided better performance than the simpler models. This study showed that the DSI is a valid tool with efficient visualizations that can help clinicians with their decision making process in clinical practice.

  3. Aerial image mosaics built using images with vegetation index pre-calculated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendo Candido, Leandro; de Castro Jorge, Lúcio André; Luppe, Maximiliam

    2016-10-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) has offered a multitude of benefits to farmers, such as cost reduction, accuracy and speed in decision making. Among the tools that work with PA, the aerial image mosaics have key role in accurate mapping of diseases and pests in crops. A mosaic is the combination of multiple images, creating a new image that covers the property or plots accurately. One of the important analysis for farmers is based on the properties of the reflectance in each range of the electromagnetic spectrum of vegetation. Performing mathematical combinations of the different spectral bands has a better understanding of the spectral response of the vegetation. These combinations are called vegetation index (VI) and are useful for the control of the biomass, water content in leaf, chlorophyll content and others. It is usually calculated VI after the construction of the mosaic, as well the farmer has an accurate analysis of its vegetation. However, building a mosaic of images, it has a high computational cost, taking hours to complete and then apply the VI and to have the first test results. In order to reduce the computational cost of this process, this work aims to present a mosaic of images constructed from images with the VI already pre-calculated providing faster analysis to the farmer, given the fact that applying VI on the image came a this reduction in density image and thus have the gain in computational cost to build the mosaic.

  4. A U-Shaped Relationship between Body Mass Index and Dysmenorrhea: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hong; Jones, Mark; Mishra, Gita D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both obesity and dysmenorrhea are prevalent among women. Few population-based longitudinal studies investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and dysmenorrhea yielding mixed results, especially for obesity. This study aims to investigate the long-term association between BMI and dysmenorrhea. Methods 9,688 women from a prospective population-based cohort study were followed for 13 years. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires. The longitudinal association between dysmenorrhea and BMI or BMI change was investigated by logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations to account for the repeated measures. Results When the women were aged 22 to 27 years, approximately 11% were obese, 7% underweight, and 25% reported dysmenorrhea. Compared to women with a normal weight, significantly higher odds of reporting dysmenorrhea were detected for both women who were underweight (odds ratio (OR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.57) and obese (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11, 1.35). Compared to women who remained at normal weight or overweight over time, significant risk was detected for women who: remained underweight or obese (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20, 1.48), were underweight despite weight gain (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58), became underweight (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02, 1.61). However the higher risk among obese women disappeared when they lost weight (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.85, 1.32). Conclusions A U-shaped association was revealed between dysmenorrhea and BMI, revealing a higher risk of dysmenorrhea for both underweight and obese women. Maintaining a healthy weight over time may be important for women to have pain-free periods. PMID:26218569

  5. Shooting and bouncing rays - Calculating the RCS of an arbitrarily shaped cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Hao; Chou, Ri-Chee; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1989-01-01

    A ray-shooting approach is presented for calculating the interior radar cross section (RCS) from a partially open cavity. In the problem considered, a dense grid of rays is launched into the cavity through the opening. The rays bounce from the cavity walls based on the laws of geometrical optics and eventually exit the cavity via the aperture. The ray-bouncing method is based on tracking a large number of rays launched into the cavity through the opening and determining the geometrical optics field associated with each ray by taking into consideration (1) the geometrical divergence factor, (2) polarization, and (3) material loading of the cavity walls. A physical optics scheme is then applied to compute the backscattered field from the exit rays. This method is so simple in concept that there is virtually no restriction on the shape or material loading of the cavity. Numerical results obtained by this method are compared with those for the modal analysis for a circular cylinder terminated by a PEC plate. RCS results for an S-bend circular cylinder generated on the Cray X-MP supercomputer show significant RCS reduction. Some of the limitations and possible extensions of this technique are discussed.

  6. Shooting and bouncing rays - Calculating the RCS of an arbitrarily shaped cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Hao; Chou, Ri-Chee; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1989-01-01

    A ray-shooting approach is presented for calculating the interior radar cross section (RCS) from a partially open cavity. In the problem considered, a dense grid of rays is launched into the cavity through the opening. The rays bounce from the cavity walls based on the laws of geometrical optics and eventually exit the cavity via the aperture. The ray-bouncing method is based on tracking a large number of rays launched into the cavity through the opening and determining the geometrical optics field associated with each ray by taking into consideration (1) the geometrical divergence factor, (2) polarization, and (3) material loading of the cavity walls. A physical optics scheme is then applied to compute the backscattered field from the exit rays. This method is so simple in concept that there is virtually no restriction on the shape or material loading of the cavity. Numerical results obtained by this method are compared with those for the modal analysis for a circular cylinder terminated by a PEC plate. RCS results for an S-bend circular cylinder generated on the Cray X-MP supercomputer show significant RCS reduction. Some of the limitations and possible extensions of this technique are discussed.

  7. Shooting and bouncing rays - Calculating the RCS of an arbitrarily shaped cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hao; Chou, Ri-Chee; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1989-02-01

    A ray-shooting approach is presented for calculating the interior radar cross section (RCS) from a partially open cavity. In the problem considered, a dense grid of rays is launched into the cavity through the opening. The rays bounce from the cavity walls based on the laws of geometrical optics and eventually exit the cavity via the aperture. The ray-bouncing method is based on tracking a large number of rays launched into the cavity through the opening and determining the geometrical optics field associated with each ray by taking into consideration (1) the geometrical divergence factor, (2) polarization, and (3) material loading of the cavity walls. A physical optics scheme is then applied to compute the backscattered field from the exit rays. This method is so simple in concept that there is virtually no restriction on the shape or material loading of the cavity. Numerical results obtained by this method are compared with those for the modal analysis for a circular cylinder terminated by a PEC plate. RCS results for an S-bend circular cylinder generated on the Cray X-MP supercomputer show significant RCS reduction. Some of the limitations and possible extensions of this technique are discussed.

  8. Quasicontiguous frequency-fluctuation model for calculation of hydrogen and hydrogenlike Stark-broadened line shapes in plasmas.

    PubMed

    Stambulchik, E; Maron, Y

    2013-05-01

    We present an analytical method for the calculation of shapes of Stark-broadened spectral lines in plasmas, applicable to hydrogen and hydrogenlike transitions (including Rydberg ones) with Δn>1. The method is based on the recently suggested quasicontiguous approximation of the static Stark line shapes, while the dynamical effects are accounted for using the frequency-fluctuation-model approach. Comparisons with accurate computer simulations show excellent agreement.

  9. [EEG synchronization index spectrum: definition, calculation and the changes related to visual selective response].

    PubMed

    Wei, J H; Zhao, L; Ren, W; Yan, G D; Li, D C; Yang, M H

    2000-04-01

    EEG synchronization is usually estimated in terms of coherence amplitude, but the estimation is with apparent uncertainty because of the poor resolution both in time and frequency. The purpose of this work is to surmount this problem. A new definition of EEG synchronization index spectrum [SynI(f)] was developed basing on the distribution characteristics of EEG coherence phase which was calculated by a tested algorithm with 1 s and 1 Hz resolution. The basic feature and its changes during visual selective responses were calculated in 25 normal subjects. EEG signals were recorded from 9 locations in two conditions: looking at the central LED only(VC) and making switch response to the target LED flash signals (T) differentially (DR): switch to left or right for Ts from left (LVF) or right (RVF) visual field, repectively but making no response to the non-target ones (NT). (1) The frequency dependency of SynI varied with brain location, e.g., SynI was higher in alpha range than others at frontal locations but the situation reversed at posterior locations. (2) The SynIs between midline and right brain locations were higher than that between mid line and left ones. (3) As compared with VC, SynI was increased in DR condition at central and posterior brain locations but not frontal ones, it happened mainly in 7-23 Hz at central locations but in 1-4 Hz at posterior ones. (4) The augmentation of SynI in DR was greater for T than for NT signals. The results indicated that the SynI(f) was meaningful for studying the frequency-spatial feature of EEG synchronization change among brain locations related to cognitive activities.

  10. First-and Second-Order Displacement Transfer Functions for Structural Shape Calculations Using Analytically Predicted Surface Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2012-01-01

    New first- and second-order displacement transfer functions have been developed for deformed shape calculations of nonuniform cross-sectional beam structures such as aircraft wings. The displacement transfer functions are expressed explicitly in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains (uniaxial bending strains) obtained at equally spaced strain stations along the surface of the beam structure. By inputting the measured or analytically calculated surface strains into the displacement transfer functions, one could calculate local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the nonuniform beam structure for mapping the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The accuracy of deformed shape calculations by the first- and second-order displacement transfer functions are determined by comparing these values to the analytically predicted values obtained from finite element analyses. This comparison shows that the new displacement transfer functions could quite accurately calculate the deformed shapes of tapered cantilever tubular beams with different tapered angles. The accuracy of the present displacement transfer functions also are compared to those of the previously developed displacement transfer functions.

  11. Interpretation of an index of phytoplankton population composition calculated from Remote Airborne Fluorsensor (RAF) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    The calculation of indices of phytoplankton population composition from chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm excited by narrow band light at 454 and 539 nm is discussed. The ratio of the fluorescence excited by light of these two wavelengths is a function of the distribution of the phytoplankton between two color groups, designated the golden-brown and the green. The golden-brown group consists of those species which have the highly photosynthetically active carotenoid-chlorophyll-a-protein complexes, i.e. members of the classes Bacillariophyceae, diatoms Dinophyceae, dinoflagellates, and some members of the class Prymnesiophyceae. The green color group consists those species of phytoplankton which apparently lack those complexes, i.e. members of the classes Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Xanthophyceae, and a few members of the Prymnesiophyceae. A few species of phytoplankton appear to have intermediate characteristics, and would apparently belong to neither group. Most of these species are members of the class Cryptophyceae. The composition index for this class is examined in detail.

  12. Comparison of Different Methods for the Calculation of the Microvascular Flow Index

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Mario O.; Kanoore Edul, Vanina S.; Ince, Can; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    The microvascular flow index (MFI) is commonly used to semiquantitatively characterize the velocity of microcirculatory perfusion as absent (0), intermittent (1), sluggish (2), or normal (3). There are three approaches to compute MFI: (1) the average of the predominant flow in each of the four quadrants (MFIby quadrants), (2) the direct assessment during the bedside video acquisition (MFIpoint of care), and (3) the mean value of the MFIs determined in each individual vessel (MFIvessel by vessel). We hypothesized that the agreement between the MFIs is poor and that the MFIvessel by vessel better reflects the microvascular perfusion. For this purpose, we analyzed 100 videos from septic patients. In 25 of them, red blood cell (RBC) velocity was also measured. There were wide 95% limits of agreement between MFIby quadrants and MFIpoint of care (1.46), between MFIby quadrants and MFIvessel by vessel (2.85), and between MFIby point of care and MFIvessel by vessel (2.56). The MFIs significantly correlated with the RBC velocity and with the fraction of perfused small vessels, but MFIvessel by vessel showed the best R 2. Although the different methods for the calculation of MFI reflect microvascular perfusion, they are not interchangeable and MFIvessel by vessel might be better. PMID:22593824

  13. Index of biventricular interdependence calculated using cardiac MRI: a proof of concept study in patients with and without constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Anavekar, Nandan S; Wong, Benjamin F; Foley, Thomas A; Bishu, Kalkidan; Kolipaka, Arunark; Koo, Chi Wan; Khandaker, Masud H; Oh, Jae K; Young, Phillip M

    2013-02-01

    We sought to propose a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived index of biventricular interdependence as a diagnostic parameter to distinguish patients with surgically-confirmed pericardial constriction from those without. Free-breathing real time MR pulse sequences of seventeen subjects with surgically proven constrictive pericarditis and thirty-five patients referred for clinically-indicated cardiac MR examinations but without documented constriction were analyzed using a novel index of biventricular interdependence. Cross-sectional biventricular areas at end diastole using the epicardial surface were traced at the mid left ventricular level at end-inspiration and end-expiration and an index of biventricular interdependence, defined as the ratio of (biventricular end-diastolic area at end-inspiration)/(biventricular end-diastolic area at end-expiration) was calculated for each subject. The mean index for both groups was calculated and results were statistically compared. The index of biventricular interdependence approximated unity (mean index 1.03 ± 0.03 SD) in patients with surgically confirmed pericardial constriction, indicating similar biventricular area at end-inspiration and end-expiration, and was significantly lower than in individuals without constrictive pericarditis (mean index 1.28 ± 0.10 SD; p < 0.0001). The MR-derived index of biventricular interdependence was significantly different between subjects with surgically-confirmed pericardial constriction and subjects where pericardial constraint was not suspected and may serve as a useful metric in the hemodynamic assessment of patients with a potential diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis.

  14. [Calculating method for the necessary lamps and sterile rate in a tube-shaped ultraviolet air washer].

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Chen, C; Shen, J

    1998-05-01

    It has much more advantage to use the cylindric ultraviolet air washer than to use the ordinary ultraviolet lamps. There was a calculation method for determining necessary lamps in a rectangled ultraviolet air washer, but it had a limiting condition. This paper developed two calculating methods for determining necessary lamps and its sterile rate in a tube-shaped ultraviolet air washer. The sterile rate can be extracted with any parameter. Necessary lamps can also be extracted with its sterile rate.

  15. Shape-to-String Mapping: A Novel Approach to Clustering Time-Index Biomics Data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herein we describe a qualitative approach for clustering time-index biomics data. The data are transformed into angles from the intensity-ratios between adjacent time-points. A code is used to map a qualitative representation of the numerical time-index data which captures the features in the data ...

  16. Spectral shapes of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering sensitive to the refractive index of media around single Ag nanoaggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Itoh, Tamitake; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2009-12-01

    We found large spectral changes in surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) with increasing refractive index of media around single Ag nanoaggregates. We analyzed relationship between the spectral changes in SERRS and those in plasma (plasmon) resonance based on the twofold electromagnetic (EM) enhancement theory. The analysis revealed that the changes in SERRS spectra are induced by changes in spectral shapes of twofold EM enhancement factors, which arise from coupling of plasma resonance with both incident and Raman scattering light.

  17. Body Shape, Adiposity Index, and Mortality in Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Garcia, David O.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Hingle, Melanie D.; Bea, Jennifer W.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Rohan, Thomas; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Lewis, Cora E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies evaluating the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality demonstrate a U-shaped association. To expand, this study evaluated the relationship between adiposity indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body adiposity index (BAI), and mortality in 77,505 postmenopausal women. Methods A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in the Women’s Health Initiative to ascertain the independent relationships between adiposity indices and mortality in order to inform on the clinical usefulness of alternate measures of mortality risk. ABSI (waist circumference (cm)/[BMI2/3 × height (cm)1/2]), BAI (hip circumference (cm)/[height (m)1.5] − 18), weight, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in relation to mortality risk using adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results ABSI showed a linear association with mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.28–1.47 for quintile 5 vs. 1) while BMI and BAI had U-shaped relationships with HR of 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20–1.40 for obesity II/III BMI and 1.06, 95% CI, 0.99–1.13 for BAI. Higher WC (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.13–1.29 for quintile 5 vs. 1) showed relationships similar to BMI. Conclusions ABSI appears to be a clinically useful measure for estimating mortality risk, perhaps more so than BAI and BMI in postmenopausal women. PMID:26991923

  18. Enigmas in tumor resistance to kinase inhibitors and calculation of the drug resistance index for cancer (DRIC).

    PubMed

    Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-11-16

    Darwinian selection is also applicable when antibiotics, the immune system or other host factors shape the repertoire of microorganisms, and similarly, clonal selection is the hallmark of tumor evolution. The ongoing revolution in new anti-cancer treatment modalities, combined with an unprecedented precision in characterizing malignant clones at the level below one percent, profoundly improves the understanding of repertoire-tuning mechanisms. There is no fundamental difference between selection of the tumor cells in the presence, or absence, of therapy. However, under treatment the influence of a single agent can be measured, simplifying the analysis. Because of their beneficial and selective therapeutic effect, the focus in this review is set on protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs), predominantly tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This is one of the most rapidly growing families of novel cancer medicines. In order to limit the number of drugs, the following representative target kinases are included: ALK, BCR-ABL, BRAF, BTK, and EGFR. A key therapeutic challenge is how to reduce tumor growth after treatment, since this is rate-limiting for the generation and expansion of more malignant escape mutants. Thus, upon efficient treatment, tumor cell loss often enables a profoundly increased growth rate among resistant cells. Strategies to reduce this risk, such as concomitant, competitive outgrowth of non-transformed cells, are described. Seven parameters: 1. Drug type, 2. tumor type, 3. presence of metastases or phenotypic change, 4. tumor cell number, 5. net growth rate (proliferation minus cell death), 6. inherited genetic- and 7. epigenetic- variations are crucial for drug responses. It is envisaged that it might become possible to calculate a clinically relevant Drug Resistance Index for Cancer (DRIC) for each patient.

  19. Inter-rater reliability of h-index scores calculated by Web of Science and Scopus for clinical epidemiology scientists.

    PubMed

    Walker, Benjamin; Alavifard, Sepand; Roberts, Surain; Lanes, Andrea; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the inter-rater reliability of Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus when calculating the h-index of 25 senior scientists in the Clinical Epidemiology Program of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. Bibliometric information and the h-indices for the subjects were computed by four raters using the automatic calculators in WoS and Scopus. Correlation and agreement between ratings was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot, respectively. Data could not be gathered from Google Scholar due to feasibility constraints. The Spearman's rank correlation between the h-index of scientists calculated with WoS was 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.92) and with Scopus was 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.99). The Bland-Altman plot showed no significant rater bias in WoS and Scopus; however, the agreement between ratings is higher in Scopus compared to WoS. Our results showed a stronger relationship and increased agreement between raters when calculating the h-index of a scientist using Scopus compared to WoS. The higher inter-rater reliability and simple user interface used in Scopus may render it the more effective database when calculating the h-index of senior scientists in epidemiology. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  20. Analysis of the three-dimensional tongue shape using a three-index factor analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanli; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Pizza, Shamala

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional tongue shape during vowel production is analyzed using the three-mode PARAFAC (parallel factors) model. Three-dimensional MRI images of five speakers (9 vowels) are analyzed. Sixty-five virtual fleshpoints (13 segments along the rostral-caudal dimension and 5 segments along the right-left direction) are chosen based on the interpolated tongue shape images. Methods used to adjust the alignment of MRI images, to set up the fleshpoints, and to measure the position of the fleshpoints are presented. PARAFAC analysis of this 3D coordinate data results in a stable two-factor solution that explains about 70% of the variance.

  1. Development and evaluation of a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 using the Nutrition Data System for Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To develop and evaluate a method for calculating the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) with the widely used Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) based on the method developed for use with the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrient Dietary Data System (FNDDS) and M...

  2. A new bibliometric index based on the shape of the citation distribution.

    PubMed

    Lando, Tommaso; Bertoli-Barsotti, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the h-index in terms of its accuracy and sensitivity to the form of the citation distribution, we propose the new bibliometric index [symbol in text]. The basic idea is to define, for any author with a given number of citations, an "ideal" citation distribution which represents a benchmark in terms of number of papers and number of citations per publication, and to obtain an index which increases its value when the real citation distribution approaches its ideal form. The method is very general because the ideal distribution can be defined differently according to the main objective of the index. In this paper we propose to define it by a "squared-form" distribution: this is consistent with many popular bibliometric indices, which reach their maximum value when the distribution is basically a "square". This approach generally rewards the more regular and reliable researchers, and it seems to be especially suitable for dealing with common situations such as applications for academic positions. To show the advantages of the [symbol in text]-index some mathematical properties are proved and an application to real data is proposed.

  3. Controlling ultrashort pulses shape using one-dimensional graded index photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bananej, A.; Khalkhali, T. Fathollahi

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we analyze the characteristics of a one dimensional coupled cavity-waveguide composed of SiO2 / TiO2 layers in which three defects are located symmetrically in structure, using finite-time domain-method and transfer matrix method. Then we introduced a new structure based on mentioned one-dimensional structure in which the higher refractive index material is maintained constant, while lower refractive index slightly increases with a constant step value from the beginning to the end of the structure. Simulation results reveal that the graded structure represents unique features in comparison with the conventional structure.

  4. In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its applicationto detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Ruderman, Sarah; DelaCruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-04-01

    Polarization-gated spectroscopy is an established method to depth-selectively interrogate the structural properties of biological tissue. We employ this method in vivo in the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model to monitor the morphological changes that occur in the field of a tumor during early carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate a statistically significant change in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function for AOM-treated rats versus saline-treated controls. Since refractive index is linearly proportional to mass density, these refractive-index changes can be directly linked to alterations in the spatial distribution patterns of macromolecular density. Furthermore, we found that alterations in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function shape were an indicator of both present and future risk of tumor development. These results suggest that noninvasive measurement of the shape of the refractive-index correlation function could be a promising marker of early cancer development.

  5. In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its applicationto detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Ruderman, Sarah; DelaCruz, Mart; Wali, Ramesh K.; Roy, Hemant K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Polarization-gated spectroscopy is an established method to depth-selectively interrogate the structural properties of biological tissue. We employ this method in vivo in the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model to monitor the morphological changes that occur in the field of a tumor during early carcinogenesis. The results demonstrate a statistically significant change in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function for AOM-treated rats versus saline-treated controls. Since refractive index is linearly proportional to mass density, these refractive-index changes can be directly linked to alterations in the spatial distribution patterns of macromolecular density. Furthermore, we found that alterations in the shape of the refractive-index correlation function shape were an indicator of both present and future risk of tumor development. These results suggest that noninvasive measurement of the shape of the refractive-index correlation function could be a promising marker of early cancer development. PMID:22559696

  6. Calculation of the ecological risk index in the José Antonio Alzate Dam, State of Mexico, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Galván, Edgar; Barceló-Quintal, Icela; Solís-Correa, Hugo E; Bussy, Anne Laure; Avila-Pérez, Pedro; Delgadillo, Sergio Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Due to the problem of contamination in the Jose Antonio Alzate dam, located in the State of Mexico, Mexico, the partition coefficient, the contamination degree, and the ecological risk index of nine metals were calculated in order to establish the water quality in different areas of the Alzate dam. The sampling sites were selected according to the river flow into the dam, via three sampling programs, the physical-chemical parameters were measured in situ, and the samples were collected to measure metals in the dissolved phase and also as suspended particulate matter. Thomann's model was used to calculate the partition coefficient. Håkanson's methodology was used to determine the degree of contamination and the ecological risk index. Finally, the water quality criteria for the dissolved metals were calculated. The results for suspended particulate matter suggest a moderate risk of metal contamination in the dam. Copper and lead in dissolved form exceeded the values of water quality criteria.

  7. Could "a body shape index" and "waist to height ratio" predict insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Cheraghi, Leila; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether a body shape index (ABSI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) could predict insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to healthy women. In a population-based study a cohort of 754 reproductive-aged women including 704 eumenorrheic non-hirsute subjects and 50 PCOS women selected according to the national institutes of health's (NIH) criteria. The ability of ABSI and WHtR for the prediction of IR was estimated by the homeostasis model and metabolic syndrome according to the joint interim statement criteria. Age and BMI adjusted prevalence of IR and MetS in PCOS women vs. healthy controls were 34% vs. 26%, P=0.041 and 15% vs. 14%, P=0.917, respectively. Mean (SD) of ABSI in PCOS women and healthy women were 0.76 (0.05) and 0.76 (0.053), respectively (P=0.363). The area under curve (CI 95%) of WHtR for predicting IR and MetS among PCOS women vs. healthy women were 0.751 (0.60-0.89) vs. 0.69 (0.65-0.73) and 0.902 (0.81-0.98) vs. 0.802 (0.76-0.83), respectively. As such, the area under curve (CI 95%) of ABSI for ROC curve analysis for predicting IR and MetS among PCOS women vs. healthy women were 0.482 (0.31-0.64) vs. 0.537 (0.49-0.58) and 0.538 (0.35-0.72) vs. 0.584 (0.60-0.69), respectively. These findings suggested that WHtR but not ABSI were a good predictor of IR and MetS among PCOS and healthy women. WHtR may be proposed as a screening tool for IR and MetS risk assessment among PCOS women as a sensitive, inexpensive, noninvasive, simple to assess and easy to calculate measurement tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calculation of the electrode shape for suppression of the standing wave effect in large area rectangular capacitively coupled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonnens, L.

    2005-03-15

    The electromagnetic standing wave becomes one of the main sources of plasma nonuniformity in large area capacitively coupled rf reactors. In cylindrical reactors with a central rf connection or one-dimensional linear reactors with rf connections at both extremities, Gaussian shaped electrodes can be used to suppress this standing wave. In this work, we present a two-dimensional quasiplanar circuit model and a numerical method for calculation of the electrode shape that can suppress the standing wave effect in large area rectangular reactors. It is shown that the calculated shapes are not Gaussian, and are not only a function of the reactor dimensions and excitation frequency, but are also strongly influenced by the position and number of rf connections, as will also be the case for a cylindrical reactor with a noncentral rf connection. However, when a shape has been determined for a given reactor geometry and rf excitation frequency, then it is shown that it remains independent of the plasma provided that the electromagnetic skin depth in the plasma remains large enough such that skin effects remain negligible.

  9. A New Internal Energy Calculation for the HELP Code and Its Implications to Conical Shaped Charge Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    quantity) plus its fluctuation ( primed quantity). Componentwise, we have "u a u + u’ and v = v v’ The associated specific kinetic energy is 2 , 2...via eq. (5). The accuracy of the internal energy calculation is of prime importance, since the pressure, temperature and strength properties of the...This stagnation point divides the collapsed liner into the slug and jet. It is the jet which pierces the armor and is of prime concern to the shaped

  10. Cost Increases Related to the Producer Price Index for Titanium Mill Shapes on DOD Multiyear Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-29

    global market dynamics and the impact of technology changes on material needs, and assess the impact of supply and demand for materials and overall...aerospace demand , as titanium and composites took an increasing share of the commercial aerospace materials market . Recent, publicly disclosed major...transparent to its users, thus causing DOD contracts using the index to be affected by extreme market volatility. We also determined that DOD had

  11. Microcomputer software for calculating an elk habitat effectiveness index on Blue Mountain winter ranges.

    Treesearch

    Mark Hitchcock; Alan. Ager

    1992-01-01

    National Forests in the Pacific Northwest Region have incorporated elk habitat standards into Forest plans to ensure that elk habitat objectives are met on multiple use land allocations. Many Forests have employed versions of the habitat effectiveness index (HEI) as a standard method to evaluate habitat. Field application of the HEI model unfortunately is a formidable...

  12. Diet History Questionnaire II: Calculating the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 Using Diet*Calc Output

    Cancer.gov

    The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) is the latest iteration of the HEI. The HEI is a measure of diet quality, independent of quantity that can be used to assess compliance with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and monitor changes in dietary patterns.

  13. The quality of the reported sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials indexed in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y

    2017-05-01

    There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Δg: The new aromaticity index based on g-factor calculation applied for polycyclic benzene rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucun, Fatih; Tokatlı, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings was evaluated by the calculation of g-factor for a hydrogen placed perpendicularly at geometrical center of related ring plane at a distance of 1.2 Å. The results have compared with the other commonly used aromatic indices, such as HOMA, NICSs, PDI, FLU, MCI, CTED and, generally been found to be in agreement with them. So, it was proposed that the calculation of the average g-factor as Δg could be applied to study the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings without any restriction in the number of benzene rings as a new magnetic-based aromaticity index.

  15. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Taizo; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-10-01

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.

  16. Calculation of the shape of a two-dimensional supersonic nozzle in closed form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunsolo, Dante

    1953-01-01

    The idea is advanced of making a supersonic nozzle by producing one, two, or three successive turns of the whole flow; with the result that the wall contour can be calculated exactly by means of the Prandtl-Meyer "Lost Solution."

  17. Refractive index sensing characteristics of D-shape double core photonic crystal fiber based on surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Shi-tao; Guo, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    A refractive index (RI) sensor and its sensing characteristics based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of D-shape double core photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF) are researched theoretically in this letter. The basic sensor principle is the SPR light intensity modulation of polished D-shape DC-PCF. The influence of the polished angle and depth on the DC-PCF SPR characteristics is discussed extensively by using the finite element method (FEM). The effects of the coated metal type and its layer thickness on the resonant intensity are also analyzed. The relationship between the analyte RI and resonant wavelength is numerically simulated. The theoretical results show that the sensor's RI sensitivity exhibits about 2000 nm/RIU with the structure parameters of 60° polished angle, 58.5μm polished depth and 70nm thickness of the silver layer. Furthermore, if the single wavelength laser is chosen, the detection of the two core light intensity difference will improve the ability of resistance to environmental interference. The simple sensor structure and high sensitivity can make this technology for online refractive index measurement in widespread areas.

  18. Calculation of beam paths in optical systems containing inhomogeneous isotropic media with cylindrical distribution of the refractive index

    SciTech Connect

    Grammatin, A.P.; Degen, A.B.; Katranova, N.A.

    1995-06-01

    A system of differential equations convenient for numerical computer integrating is proposed to calculate beam paths, elementary astigmatic beams, and the optical path in isotropic media with cylindrical distribution of the refractive index. A method for selecting the step of this integration is proposed. This technique is implemented in the program package for computers of the VAX series meant for the computer-aided design of optical systems. 4 refs.

  19. Calculation of the Ki67 index in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a comparative analysis of four counting methodologies.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Bagci, Pelin; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Saka, Burcu; Erbarut Seven, Ipek; Dursun, Nevra; Balci, Serdar; Gucer, Hasan; Jang, Kee-Taek; Tajiri, Takuma; Basturk, Olca; Kong, So Yeon; Goodman, Michael; Akkas, Gizem; Adsay, Volkan

    2015-05-01

    Ki67 index is now an essential part of classification of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, its adaptation into daily practice has been fraught with challenges related to counting methodology. In this study, three reviewers used four counting methodologies to calculate Ki67 index in 68 well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: (1) 'eye-ball' estimation, which has been advocated as reliable and is widely used; (2) automated counting by image analyzer; (3) manual eye-counting (eye under a microscope without a grid); and (4) manual count of camera-captured/printed image. Pearson's correlation (R) was used to measure pair-wise correlation among three reviewers using all four methodologies. Average level of agreement was calculated using mean of R values. The results showed that: (1) 'eye-balling' was least expensive and fastest (average time <1 min) but had poor reliability and reproducibility. (2) Automated count was the most expensive and least practical with major impact on turnaround time (limited by machine and personnel accessibility), and, more importantly, had inaccuracies in overcounting unwanted material. (3) Manual eye count had no additional cost, averaged 6 min, but proved impractical and poorly reproducible. (4) Camera-captured/printed image was most reliable, had highest reproducibility, but took longer than 'eye-balling'. In conclusion, based on its comparatively low cost/benefit ratio and reproducibility, camera-captured/printed image appears to be the most practical for calculating Ki67 index. Although automated counting is generally advertised as the gold standard for index calculation, in this study it was not as accurate or cost-effective as camera-captured/printed image and was highly operator-dependent. 'Eye-balling' produces highly inaccurate and unreliable results, and is not recommended for routine use.

  20. Deformed Shape Calculation of a Full-Scale Wing Using Fiber Optic Strain Data from a Ground Loads Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance

    2011-01-01

    A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included

  1. Method for calculating directivity index of a directional microphone in a hearing aid on a manikin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittberner, Andrew; Bentler, Ruth

    2005-09-01

    A method for computing a directivity index (DI) on a manikin for directional microphones in hearing aids is proposed and investigated. Test devices included first- and second-order directional microphones in hearing aids. Signal presentation involved a single noise source rotated completely around the directional microphone, in free field and on a manikin, at a defined radius. The area covered was equivalent to the approximate surface area of a sphere. It was anticipated that an equal angular resolution of 10 deg (elevation and azimuth) would effectively estimate the DI of first-, second-, and higher-order directional microphone systems located in a hearing aid on a manikin. A total of 450 spatially varied presentation points was analyzed, each weighted in reference to direction of arrival on the directional microphone. The absolute difference between the Directivity Index derived from the modified method proposed in this investigation and the conventionally derived Directivity Index on a manikin were as large as 3.8 dB in the higher frequencies, depending on the device under test. The magnitude of these differences was dependent on microphone location. In other words, the further the microphone was placed into the ear of the manikin, the larger the absolute difference.

  2. The U-shaped association of body mass index with mortality: Influence of the traits height, intelligence, and education.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Osler, Merete; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Zimmermann, Esther; Christensen, Gunhild Tidemann; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2016-10-01

    The U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may depend on other traits with permanent health effects. Whether the association between BMI and mortality depends on levels of health-related traits known to be inversely associated with mortality throughout adult life such as height, intelligence, and education was investigated. The study was based on a cohort of young men with data on weight, height, intelligence test score, and education from the Danish Conscription Database. In total, 346,500 men born 1939 to 1959 were followed until December 2013. The association between BMI and mortality was analyzed using Cox-regression models including interactions between BMI and height, intelligence, and education, respectively. BMI and mortality showed the U-shaped association from the start of the follow-up period, and it persisted through the subsequent 56 years. As expected, the mortality was inversely associated with height, intelligence, and education, but the U shape of the association between BMI and mortality was unaffected by the levels of these traits except at higher BMI values, where the slopes were steeper for men with higher levels of height, intelligence, and education. High and low BMI was associated with higher mortality throughout life regardless of the levels of height, intelligence, and education. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Approximate method for calculating convective heat flux on the surface of bodies of simple geometric shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenov, V. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper formulated engineering and physical mathematical model for aerothermodynamics hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) in laminar and turbulent boundary layers (model designed for an approximate estimate of the convective heat flow in the range of speeds M = 6-28, and height H = 20-80 km). 2D versions of calculations of convective heat flows for bodies of simple geometric forms (individual elements of the design HFV) are presented.

  4. Calculations of Light Scattering Measurements Predicting Sensitivity of Depolarization to Shape Changes of Spores and Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    either spores or bacteria. 44 LITERATURE CITED 1. Grund, C.J; Brilliant, N.; Bjork, C.; Craig, T. Eyesafe, Multi-function Coherent Doppler Lidar for...an aerosol containing biological particles. This is of interest both for lidar backscatter and for point measurements where samples of the aerosol are... laser light. Each of the added spheres was tangent to the center sphere but did not overlap it. The scattering calculated for the cluster of seven

  5. Supra-spinal circuits shape inhibitory postural adjustments anticipating voluntary index-finger flexion.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Cavallari, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    We previously observed that index finger flexion, with the prone hand, is preceded by an inhibitory postural adjustment (iAPA) in the Biceps Brachii (BB) electromyogram (EMG). The aim of this work is to locate the iAPA origin by testing the changes in spinal and cortico-spinal excitability during its development. Subjects were asked to flex their index finger, at will after an acoustic signal, while surface EMGs from Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (prime mover) and from BB (postural muscle) were recorded. In each experiment, tendon (T) reflexes in the resting BB and motor-evoked potentials elicited by magnetic cortical stimulation (CMEPs) in the resting, or in the slightly contracted BB, were collected both during the iAPA development and before the go signal. When BB was fully relaxed, T-reflexes falling in the iAPA temporal window were un-modulated, while CMEPs were significantly inhibited; this inhibition occurred, on average, 37 ms before the iAPA onset indicating that iAPA sets up and develops at supraspinal level. Changes in CMEPs' excitability clearly anticipated the iAPA onset (about 50 ms) also when cortico-spinal excitability was probed in the active BB, thus indicating that this effect is likely due to a de-recruitment of spinal motoneurones. Thus, (1) iAPA is associated with voluntary movement even when postural muscles are at rest, (2) during iAPA spinal motoneurones are more likely disfacilitated than inhibited, and (3) the iAPA timing is regulated similarly to prime mover activation. All together these results suggest that iAPAs is fully sustained by inhibitory circuits located in the supra-spinal centres.

  6. Calculation of Molecular Shape Resonances Using Grid Based Exterior Complex Scaling and N2-Term Separable Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeln, Brant; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2015-05-01

    A novel approach employing Exterior Complex Scaling (ECS) and discrete grid methods is used to calculate molecular resonance energies and widths for the 2Πg shape resonance state of N2-and 2Πu shape resonance of CO2-.These calculations are performed using a Finite Element Discrete Variable Representation (FE-DVR) in prolate spheroidal coordinates with an atomic center placed at each of the foci of the coordinate system, thereby preserving the cusp condition at those sites. A separable approximation to the interaction potential is made from the matrices of the nuclear attraction, direct and exchange operators generated by an existing quantum chemistry structure code in a Gaussian basis. These potentials are then represented on our ECS FE-DVR grid allowing the calculation of complex-valued resonance energies. The method is demonstrated here in the static-exchange approximation. Work supported by NSFGRF DGE1148897, USDOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division.

  7. Physical-chemical properties studying of molecular structures via topological index calculating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Farahani, Mohammad Reza; Yu, Xiao; Gao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    It's revealed from the earlier researches that many physical-chemical properties depend heavily on the structure of corresponding moleculars. This fact provides us an approach to measure the physical-chemical characteristics of substances and materials. In our article, we report the eccentricity related indices of certain important molecular structures from mathematical standpoint. The eccentricity version indices of nanostar dendrimers are determined and the reverse eccentric connectivity index for V-phenylenic nanotorus is discussed. The conclusions we obtained mainly use the trick of distance computation and mathematical derivation, and the results can be applied in physics engineering.

  8. Evoked potentials as an index of shaping of avoidance behavior mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adrianov, O S; Popova, N S

    1982-12-01

    We proceeded from Adrianov's concept considering the spatial and temporal changes in the brain system macroensembles to be stipulated by the dynamics of different influences from the external and internal media of the organism. It retraces the sequence of shaping of central-peripheral relations in securing an avoidance reaction. We judged the involvement of certain brain formations in the central architecture, of the reaction by localization and parameters of evoked potentials (EP) collating these with the behavior of the animal. Certain accordance has been found between the structural composition of the central integration and the leading component of the system. At the beginning, the role of the leading system component is carried out by a complex of afferent influences arising from pain stimulation. Later on, defensive motivation becomes the leading system component and organizes the new intercentral relationships. With correct responses increasing, the degree of motivational excitation reduces and the role of the afferent influences from the apparatus of motor reaction augments, that is, the afferentation which becomes the leading one. In animals with different auditory analyser parts ablated the neocortical zone of the analyser is involved in the behavioral organization at all stages but by extralemniscal paths.

  9. Dose coverage calculation using a statistical shape model—applied to cervical cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilly, David; van de Schoot, Agustinus J. A. J.; Grusell, Erik; Bel, Arjan; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2017-05-01

    A comprehensive methodology for treatment simulation and evaluation of dose coverage probabilities is presented where a population based statistical shape model (SSM) provide samples of fraction specific patient geometry deformations. The learning data consists of vector fields from deformable image registration of repeated imaging giving intra-patient deformations which are mapped to an average patient serving as a common frame of reference. The SSM is created by extracting the most dominating eigenmodes through principal component analysis of the deformations from all patients. The sampling of a deformation is thus reduced to sampling weights for enough of the most dominating eigenmodes that describe the deformations. For the cervical cancer patient datasets in this work, we found seven eigenmodes to be sufficient to capture 90% of the variance in the deformations of the, and only three eigenmodes for stability in the simulated dose coverage probabilities. The normality assumption of the eigenmode weights was tested and found relevant for the 20 most dominating eigenmodes except for the first. Individualization of the SSM is demonstrated to be improved using two deformation samples from a new patient. The probabilistic evaluation provided additional information about the trade-offs compared to the conventional single dataset treatment planning.

  10. Dose coverage calculation using a statistical shape model-applied to cervical cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tilly, David; van de Schoot, Agustinus J A J; Grusell, Erik; Bel, Arjan; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2017-05-21

    A comprehensive methodology for treatment simulation and evaluation of dose coverage probabilities is presented where a population based statistical shape model (SSM) provide samples of fraction specific patient geometry deformations. The learning data consists of vector fields from deformable image registration of repeated imaging giving intra-patient deformations which are mapped to an average patient serving as a common frame of reference. The SSM is created by extracting the most dominating eigenmodes through principal component analysis of the deformations from all patients. The sampling of a deformation is thus reduced to sampling weights for enough of the most dominating eigenmodes that describe the deformations. For the cervical cancer patient datasets in this work, we found seven eigenmodes to be sufficient to capture 90% of the variance in the deformations of the, and only three eigenmodes for stability in the simulated dose coverage probabilities. The normality assumption of the eigenmode weights was tested and found relevant for the 20 most dominating eigenmodes except for the first. Individualization of the SSM is demonstrated to be improved using two deformation samples from a new patient. The probabilistic evaluation provided additional information about the trade-offs compared to the conventional single dataset treatment planning.

  11. A simple method of calculating power-law velocity profile exponents from experimental data. [for boundary layer shape factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the effects of compressibility and heat transfer on laminar and turbulent shape factors H have been developed. Solving the turbulent equation for the power law velocity profile exponent N has resulted in a simple technique by which the N values of experimental turbulent profiles can be calculated directly from the integral parameters. Thus the data plotting, curve fitting, and slope measuring, which is the normal technique of obtaining experimental N values, is eliminated. The N values obtained by this method should be within the accuracy with which they could be measured.

  12. Hazard index calculation for 31 May 1984 microburst at Erie, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kropfli, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two x-band Doppler radars, operated by NOAA, were used to collect high resolution data within a small, benign looking microburst during the PHOENIX II boundary layer experiment. The lowest 2.5 km of the microbursts was observed throughout its development and dissipation over a 15 minute period. These observations presented an excellent opportunity to compute a quantitative threat to a hypothetical aircraft whose flight track would carry it through the microburst. The hazard index is based on the kinetic energy loss to the aircraft that would be produced by the microburst; it is a function of the vertical air motion, horizontal spatial derivatives of the wind field, and the assumed aircraft air speed and direction. Indices were computed and plotted for all 8 volume scans and peak values were observed to be sufficiently high to present a significant hazard to an aircraft.

  13. Error correction of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Brightness Temperature calculated from the AVHRR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Zahidur

    This thesis investigates Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Brightness Temperature (BT) stability in the NOAA/NESDIS Global Vegetation Index (GVI) data during 1982-2003. This data was collected from five NOAA series satellites. We have proposed to apply Empirical distribution function (EDF) to improve the stability of the NDVI and BT data derived from the AVHRR sensor on NOAA polar orbiting satellite. The instability of data results from orbit degradation as well as the circuit drifts over the life or a satellite. Degradation of NDVI and BT over time and shifts of NDVI and BT between the satellites was estimated China data set, for it includes a wide variety or different ecosystems represented globally. It was found that data for the years 1988, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 2000 are not stable enough compared to other years because of satellite orbit drift, AVHRR sensor degradation, and also Mt Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1992. We assume data from NOAA-7(1982, 1983), NOAA-9 (1985, 1986), NOAA-11(1989, 1990), NOAA-14(1996, 1997), and NOAA-16 (2001, 2002) to be standard because theses satellite's equator crossing time falls between 1330 and 1500. Data from this particular period of the day maximized the value of coefficients. The crux of the proposed correction procedure consists of dividing standard year's data sets into two subsets. The subset 1(standard data correction sets) is used for correcting unstable years and then corrected data for this years compared with the standard data in the subset 2 (standard data validation sets). In this dissertation, we apply EDF to correct this deficiency of data for the affected years. We normalize or correct data by the method of empirical distribution functions compared with the standard. Using these normalized values, we estimate new NDVI and BT time series which provides NDVI and BT data for these years that match in subset 2 that is used for data validation.

  14. A new methodology to calculate the environmental protection index (Ep). A case study applied to a company producing composite materials.

    PubMed

    Siracusa, G; La Rosa, A D; Sterlini, S E

    2004-12-01

    Environmental indicators can be used as a first stage in progress towards comprehensive environmental impact measures [J. Environ. Manage 65/3 (2002) 285]. In this article, we develop a 'pollutant interaction matrix method' that allows calculation of a global environmental protection index (Ep) in order to verify the eco-compatibility of an industrial activity. Two methods are proposed for the Ep index evaluation (which represents the numerical measure of the environmental sustainability): the Direct Method (Epd) and the Weighted Method (Epw). Both methods need to define, in the whole industrial process, homogeneous sectors (defined as construction sites where activities of the same type are carried out). Furthermore, for each activity a set of parameters (t, duration of pollution effect, P, quantity of pollutant produced,G, hazard of the pollutant) are required to evaluate the relative pollution index Y. All indices calculations were carried out using a set of matrices. The correct use of Ep evaluation provides an improvement in the total environmental performance of companies because it points out possible critical operations in each homogeneous sector which require solutions. The methodology is applied to evaluate the environmental pollution risk of a company that produces polymer materials and to improve their environmental performance. The results obtained show that the whole productive process has a low environmental impact factor. Nevertheless the applied methodology puts in evidence some processes that generate local pollution in specific areas of the factory and which could be dangerous for the workers' health.

  15. The effect of vertical velocity probability distribution shape on cloud activation of aerosols: off-line calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonttila, J.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Räisänen, P.; Kokkola, H.; Järvinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    Off-line calculations of cloud activation of aerosols using a probability density function (PDF) for vertical velocity (w) are performed. The focus is on the variation of the shape of the PDF using two functional formulations: the Normal distribution PDF and the Pearson type IV PDF. The Normal distribution provides a familiar example, as it has been widely used to approximate vertical velocity distributions in numerous applications, including climate models. Pearson type IV distribution provides an alternative that, to our knowledge, has not been employed before to describe the vertical velocity PDF. The advantage of the Pearson distribution is its versatility in representing skewed and more peaked distribution shapes compared to the Normal distribution, though this is obtained at the expense of increased mathematical complexity. The experiments are performed using a box model, in which the environmental conditions, including the aerosol size distribution (bi-modal) and chemical composition (ammonium-sulphate particles) are prescribed as constants. Measured size distributions comprising clean and polluted cases are used. Cloud activation of aerosols is calculated by integrating over the positive side of the PDF of w, which yields the mean number of activated particles (Nact). The mean, variance, and skewness of the PDFs along with the type of the PDF itself are altered in order to explore the effect of the PDF shape on the activation process. All experiments are repeated for three well-documented activation parameterizations: Lin & Leaitch, Abdul-Razzak & Ghan and Fountoukis & Nenes. The results show that for symmetric distributions of w (skewness = 0) there is a maximum difference of 10-15 % in Nact between the cases with w given by the Normal distribution, and the more peaked Pearson distribution. The largest differences are seen for the most polluted cases. Nact in clean cases will saturate rather quickly with respect to the maximum supersaturation and, hence

  16. Rapid and Accurate Calculation of a Speed Dependent Spectral Line Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverstock, D. Reed; Weaver, Kendra Letchworth; Benner, D. Chris

    2014-06-01

    Use of the Voigt profile with the Lorentz width allowed to vary with the speed of collision has been hampered by the lack of fast accurate algorithms. Such an algorithm has been written assuming a quadratic dependence of the Lorentz width upon the speed of collision that is accurate to one part in 10 000 and is generally only a factor of four or so slower than the equivalent Voigt calculation with the Letchworth and Benner algorithm. The only exception to the accuracy is far from line center near the Doppler limit when the speed dependent parameter is quite large. At this point the spectral line has fallen by at least 17 orders of magnitude from the line center and is generally insignificant. Gauss-Hermite quadrature of third to seventeenth order, Taylor series expansion about precomputed points and spline interpolation are used in the computation of both the real and imaginary parts for various regions. Kendra L. Letchworth and D. Chris Benner, JQSRT 107 (2007) 173-192. This work was funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and National Science Foundation.

  17. Comparison of experimental and calculated peak shapes for three cylindrical geometry FAIMS prototypes of differing electrode diameters.

    PubMed

    Guevremont, Roger; Purves, Randy

    2005-03-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) separates ions at atmospheric pressure and room temperature based on the difference of the mobility of ions in strong electric fields and weak electric fields. This field-dependent mobility of an ion is reflected in the compensation voltage (CV) at which the ion is transmitted through FAIMS, at a given asymmetric waveform dispersion voltage (DV). Experimental CV, relative peak ion intensity, and peak width data were compared for three FAIMS prototypes with concentric cylindrical electrodes having inner/outer electrode radii of: (1) 0.4/0.6 cm, (2) 0.8/1.0 cm, and (3) 1.2/1.4 cm. The annular analyzer space was 0.2 cm wide in each case. A finite-difference numerical computation method is described for evaluation of peak shapes and widths in a CV spectrum collected using cylindrical geometry FAIMS devices. Simulation of the radial distribution of the ion density in the FAIMS analyzer is based upon calculation of diffusion, electric fields, and the electric fields introduced by coulombic ion-ion repulsion. Excellent agreement between experimental and calculated peak shapes were obtained for electrodes of wide diameter and for ions transmitted at low CV.

  18. A time domain two-particle approximation to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism line shapes of molecular aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kai; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) method has recently emerged as an effective approach to simulate linear and nonlinear spectroscopic signals of molecular aggregates in the intermediate coupling regime. However, its application to large systems is still limited when there are a large number of molecules in the molecular aggregate. In this work, we propose a time domain two-particle approximation (TPA) in combination with the HEOM method to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism line shapes of molecular aggregates. The new method is shown to reduce the number of auxiliary density operators (ADOs) significantly for large systems, and a further truncation of the two-bath-set excited terms based on geometric considerations can lead to a linear increase of the number of ADOs with the system size. The validity of the HEOM-TPA method is first tested on one-dimensional model systems. The new method is then applied to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism line shapes of the Photosystem I core complex, as well as the population evolution of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  19. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

    SciTech Connect

    Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud

    2014-10-21

    We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

  20. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and electronic properties of low-index surfaces of NbAl3 intermetallic with first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Bin

    2017-10-01

    The structural, electronic and surface properties of low-index surfaces of tetragonal NbAl3 have been studied with first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft pseudo-potential method based on density functional theory. The atomic relaxations, surface energies and work functions are reported. The calculated atomic relaxations and surface energies suggest that the (111) surface is the most stable stoichiometric surface. Furthermore, the Al-terminated (110) surface is thermodynamically stable than other surfaces in both Al-rich and Nb-rich conditions.

  2. Ameliorating calculation of ionospheric amplitude scintillation index from under-sampled phase measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Yue, Jiguang; Su, Yongqing; Zhan, Xingqun

    2016-11-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data have been used in ionospheric irregularity and scintillation research for decades. However, routine GNSS data lacks raw amplitude data. To deal with the absence of the raw amplitude data, phase data can be used to estimate amplitude scintillation index S4 by phase screen model. The accuracy of the estimation depends on the phase screens constructed from sufficiently sampled phase data. Nevertheless, routine GNSS phase data and equivalent total electron content (TEC) data are all under-sampled. In order to exploit 1-Hz TEC data for accurate S4 estimations, a multiple phase screen compensation method is developed in this paper to compensate for the deficiencies in sampling rates. The multiple screen configuration technique involved in the compensation method determines whether the estimated S4 from the compensation results approximates to the measured S4 . As for the quasi-measured screens from the TEC data, both the line screen in one-dimension (1-D) and the square screen in two-dimension (2-D) have fine S4 estimations by means of the compensation method. Furthermore, power law phase screen simulations are introduced into the validation of the compensation method. The performance of artificially decimated power law screens in terms of S4 estimations is improved by the compensation method as well. In view of the TEC data involved in this paper, the compensation method identifies and fills a gap in the utilization of the under-sampled second-level phase data for estimating S4 , and thus enables routine GNSS phase measurement to trace the ionospheric irregularities at a small or intermediate scale. The multiple screen configuration, meanwhile, renders the compensation method appropriate to weak or moderate scintillations.

  3. Assessing the validity of station location assumptions made in the calculation of the geomagnetic disturbance index, Dst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the assumptions made in the calculation of the Dst index with regard to longitude sampling, hemisphere bias, and latitude correction are explored. The insights gained from this study will allow operational users to better understand the local implications of the Dst index and will lead to future index formulations that are more physically motivated. We recompute the index using 12 longitudinally spaced low-latitude stations, including the traditional 4 (in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan, and Hermanus), and compare it to the standard United States Geological Survey definitive Dst. We look at the hemisphere balance by comparing stations at equal geomagnetic latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We further separate the 12-station time series into two hemispheric indices and find that there are measurable differences in the traditional Dst formulation due to the undersampling of the Southern Hemisphere in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. To analyze the effect of latitude correction, we plot latitudinal variation in a disturbance observed during the year 2005 using two separate longitudinal observatory chains. We separate these by activity level and find that while the traditional cosine form fits the latitudinal distributions well for low levels of activity, at higher levels of disturbance the cosine form does not fit the observed variation. This suggests that the traditional latitude scaling is insufficient during active times. The effect of the Northern Hemisphere bias and the inadequate latitude scaling is such that the standard correction underestimates the true disturbance by 10–30 nT for storms of main phase magnitude deviation greater than 150 nT in the traditional Dst index.

  4. The Clamp-Like Index: a novel and highly sensitive insulin sensitivity index to calculate hyperinsulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates from oral glucose tolerance tests in nondiabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Anderwald, Christian; Anderwald-Stadler, Marietta; Promintzer, Miriam; Prager, Gerhard; Mandl, Martina; Nowotny, Peter; Bischof, Martin G; Wolzt, Michael; Ludvik, Bernhard; Kästenbauer, Thomas; Pacini, Giovanni; Luger, Anton; Krebs, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Insulin resistance, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of the metabolic syndrome, can not only predict type 2 diabetes development but also cardiovascular disease. Thus, precise insulin resistance measurement in individuals at risk for metabolic diseases would support clinical risk stratification. However, the gold standard for measuring insulin resistance, the hyperinsulinemic clamp test, is too labor intensive to be performed in large clinical studies/settings. Using plasma glucose and C-peptide concentrations from oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), we developed the novel "clamp-like index" (CLIX) for insulin sensitivity calculation and compared CLIX to clamp glucose infusion rates (GIR) (100-120 min). We evaluated CLIX in 89 nondiabetic subjects (58 female and 31 male, aged 45 +/- 1 years, BMI 27.5 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2)) who underwent frequently sampled 3-h 75-g OGTTs and 2-h hyperinsulinemic-isoglycemic clamp (40 mU/min per m(2)) tests. CLIX, calculated as serum creatinine (x0.85 if male)/(mean AUC(glucose) x mean AUC(C-peptide)) x 6,600, was highly correlated (r = 0.670, P < 10(-12)) with and comparable to clamp GIRs(100-120 min). In subgroup analyses, GIRs(100-120 min) were lower (P < 0.005) in type 2 diabetic offspring (6.2 +/- 0.7 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1)) than in sex-, age-, and BMI-matched subjects without a family history of type 2 diabetes (8.6 +/- 0.5 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1)), which was also reflected by CLIX (insulin-resistant offspring 6.4 +/- 0.6 vs. those without a family history of type 2 diabetes 9.0 +/- 0.5; P < 0.002). When compared with normal-weight subjects (GIR 8.8 +/- 0.4 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1); CLIX 9.0 +/- 0.5), both GIRs(100-120 min) and CLIX of obese (5.2 +/- 0.9 mg x min (-1) x kg(-1); 5.7 +/- 0.9) and morbidly obese (2.4 +/- 0.4 mg x min (-1) x kg(-1); 3.3 +/- 0.5) humans were lower (each P < 0.02). CLIX, a novel index obtained from plasma OGTT glucose and C-peptide levels and serum creatinine, without inclusion of anthropometrical

  5. Calculation of the index of microcirculatory resistance without coronary wedge pressure measurement in the presence of epicardial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Andy S; Layland, Jamie; Fearon, William F; Ho, Michael; Shah, Maulik G; Daniels, David; Whitbourn, Robert; Macisaac, Andrew; Kritharides, Leonard; Wilson, Andrew; Ng, Martin K

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate a novel method to calculate the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in the presence of significant epicardial stenosis without the need for balloon dilation to measure the coronary wedge pressure (P(w)). The IMR provides a quantitative measure of coronary microvasculature status. However, in the presence of significant epicardial stenosis, IMR calculation requires incorporation of the coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR(cor)), which requires balloon dilation within the coronary artery for P(w) measurement. A method to calculate IMR by estimating FFR(cor) from myocardial FFR (FFR(myo)), which does not require P(w) measurement, was developed from a derivation cohort of 50 patients from a single institution. This method to calculate IMR was then validated in a cohort of 72 patients from 2 other different institutions. Physiology measurements were obtained with a pressure-temperature sensor wire before coronary intervention in both cohorts. From the derivation cohort, a strong linear relationship was found between FFR(cor) and FFR(myo) (FFR(cor) = 1.34 × FFR(myo) - 0.32, r(2) = 0.87, p < 0.001) by regression analysis. With this equation to estimate FFR(cor) in the validation cohort, there was no significant difference between IMR calculated from estimated FFR(cor) and measured FFR(cor) (21.2 ± 12.9 U vs. 20.4 ± 13.6 U, p = 0.161). There was good correlation (r = 0.93, p < 0.001) and agreement by Bland-Altman analysis between calculated and measured IMR. The FFR(cor), and, by extension, microcirculatory resistance can be derived without the need for P(w). This method enables assessment of coronary microcirculatory status before or without balloon inflation, in the presence of epicardial stenosis. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IOS and ECS line coupling calculation for the CO-He system - Influence on the vibration-rotation band shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.

    1987-01-01

    Line coupling coefficients resulting from rotational excitation of CO perturbed by He are computed within the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA) and within the energy corrected sudden approximation (ECSA). The influence of this line coupling on the 1-0 CO-He vibration-rotation band shape is then computed for the case of weakly overlapping lines in the 292-78 K temperature range. The IOS and ECS results differ only at 78 K by a weak amount at high frequencies. Comparison with an additive superposition of Lorentzian lines shows strong modifications in the troughs between the lines. These calculated modifications are in excellent quantitative agreement with recent experimental data for all the temperatures considered. The applicability of previous approaches to CO-He system, based on either the strong collision model or exponential energy gap law, is also discussed.

  7. IOS and ECS line coupling calculation for the CO-He system - Influence on the vibration-rotation band shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.

    1987-01-01

    Line coupling coefficients resulting from rotational excitation of CO perturbed by He are computed within the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA) and within the energy corrected sudden approximation (ECSA). The influence of this line coupling on the 1-0 CO-He vibration-rotation band shape is then computed for the case of weakly overlapping lines in the 292-78 K temperature range. The IOS and ECS results differ only at 78 K by a weak amount at high frequencies. Comparison with an additive superposition of Lorentzian lines shows strong modifications in the troughs between the lines. These calculated modifications are in excellent quantitative agreement with recent experimental data for all the temperatures considered. The applicability of previous approaches to CO-He system, based on either the strong collision model or exponential energy gap law, is also discussed.

  8. A Drought Monitoring Tool for Customized Calculation of a Standardized Precipitation Index Value in the Navajo Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, C.; Ly, V.; Gao, M.; Surunis, A.; Turnbull-Appell, S.; Sodergren, C.; Brooks, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Navajo Nation, located in the southwestern United States, has been increasingly impacted by severe drought events and regional changes in climate. These events are coupled with a lack of domestic water infrastructure and economic resources, leaving approximately one-third of the population without access to potable water in their homes. Current methods of monitoring climate and drought are dependent on national-scale monthly drought maps calculated by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC). These maps do not provide the spatial resolution needed to examine differences in drought severity across the vast Nation. To better understand and monitor drought regime changes in the Navajo Nation, this project comprises of two main components: 1) a geodatabase of historical climate information necessary to calculate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values and 2) a tool that calculates SPI values for a user-selected area within the study site. The tool and geodatabase use TRMM and GPM observed precipitation data, and Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) modeled historical precipitation data. These products allow resource managers in the Navajo Nation to utilize current and future NASA Earth observation data for increased decision-making capacity regarding future climate change impact on water resources.

  9. Detection of venous needle dislodgement during haemodialysis using fractional order shape index ratio and fuzzy colour relation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ling; Kan, Chung-Dann; Wu, Ming-Jui; Mai, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Venous needle dislodgement (VND) is a life-threatening complication during haemodialysis (HD) treatment. When VND occurs, it only takes a few minutes for blood loss in an adult patient. According to the ANNA (American Nephrology Nurses’ Association) VND survey reports, VND is a concerning issue for the nephrology nurses/staff and patients. To ensure HD care and an effective treatment environment, this Letter proposes a combination of fractional order shape index ratio (SIR) and fuzzy colour relation analysis (CRA) to detect VND. If the venous needle drops out, clinical examinations show that both heart pulses and pressure wave variations have a low correlation at the venous anatomic site. Therefore, fractional order SIR is used to quantify the differences in transverse vibration pressures (TVPs) between the normal condition and meter reading. Linear regression shows that the fractional order SIR has a high correlation with the TVP variation. Fuzzy CRA is designed in a simple and visual message manner to identify the risk levels. A worst-case study demonstrated that the proposed model can be used for VND detection in clinical applications. PMID:26713159

  10. Shape Up Somerville: Change in Parent Body Mass Indexes During a Child-Targeted, Community-Based Environmental Change Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison J.; Sherry, Bettylou; Economos, Christina D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the body mass index (BMI; weight in pounds/[height in inches]2 × 703) of parents whose children participated in Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based participatory research study that altered household, school, and community environments to prevent and reduce childhood obesity. Methods. SUS was a nonrandomized controlled trial with 30 participating elementary schools in 3 Massachusetts communities that occurred from 2002 to 2005. It included first-, second-, and third-grade children. We used an inverse probability weighting estimator adjusted for clustering effects to isolate the influence of SUS on parent (n = 478) BMI. The model’s dependent variable was the change in pre- and postintervention parent BMI. Results. SUS was significantly associated with decreases in parent BMIs. SUS decreased treatment parents’ BMIs by 0.411 points (95% confidence interval = −0.725, −0.097) relative to control parents. Conclusions. The benefits of a community-based environmental change childhood obesity intervention can spill over to parents, resulting in decreased parental BMI. Further research is warranted to examine the effects of this type of intervention on parental health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:25521882

  11. The glucose ketone index calculator: a simple tool to monitor therapeutic efficacy for metabolic management of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Meidenbauer, Joshua J; Mukherjee, Purna; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic therapy using ketogenic diets (KD) is emerging as an alternative or complementary approach to the current standard of care for brain cancer management. This therapeutic strategy targets the aerobic fermentation of glucose (Warburg effect), which is the common metabolic malady of most cancers including brain tumors. The KD targets tumor energy metabolism by lowering blood glucose and elevating blood ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate). Brain tumor cells, unlike normal brain cells, cannot use ketone bodies effectively for energy when glucose becomes limiting. Although plasma levels of glucose and ketone bodies have been used separately to predict the therapeutic success of metabolic therapy, daily glucose levels can fluctuate widely in brain cancer patients. This can create difficulty in linking changes in blood glucose and ketones to efficacy of metabolic therapy. A program was developed (Glucose Ketone Index Calculator, GKIC) that tracks the ratio of blood glucose to ketones as a single value. We have termed this ratio the Glucose Ketone Index (GKI). The GKIC was used to compute the GKI for data published on blood glucose and ketone levels in humans and mice with brain tumors. The results showed a clear relationship between the GKI and therapeutic efficacy using ketogenic diets and calorie restriction. The GKIC is a simple tool that can help monitor the efficacy of metabolic therapy in preclinical animal models and in clinical trials for malignant brain cancer and possibly other cancers that express aerobic fermentation.

  12. Electronic structure and magneto-optical Kerr effect spectra of ferromagnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga alloys: Experiment and density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uba, S.; Bonda, A.; Uba, L.; Bekenov, L. V.; Antonov, V. N.; Ernst, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this joint experimental and ab initio study, we focused on the influence of the chemical composition and martensite phase transition on the electronic, magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical properties of the ferromagnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga alloys. The polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectra for the polycrystalline sample of the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy of Ni60Mn13Ga27 composition were measured by means of the polarization modulation method over the photon energy range 0.8 ≤h ν ≤5.8 eV in magnetic field up to 1.5 T. The optical properties (refractive index n and extinction coefficient k ) were measured directly by spectroscopic ellipsometry using the rotating analyzer method. To complement experiments, extensive first-principles calculations were made with two different first-principles approaches combining the advantages of a multiple scattering Green function method and a spin-polarized fully relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method. The electronic, magnetic, and MO properties of Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys were investigated for the cubic austenitic and modulated 7M-like incommensurate martensitic phases in the stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric compositions. The optical and MOKE properties of Ni-Mn-Ga systems are very sensitive to the deviation from the stoichiometry. It was shown that the ab initio calculations reproduce well experimental spectra and allow us to explain the microscopic origin of the Ni2MnGa optical and magneto-optical response in terms of interband transitions. The band-by-band decomposition of the Ni2MnGa MOKE spectra is presented and the interband transitions responsible for the prominent structures in the spectra are identified.

  13. Efficient calculation of current densities in the human body induced by arbitrarily shaped, low-frequency magnetic field sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchanski, Andreas; Clemens, Markus; De Gersem, Herbert; Weiland, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we extend the scalar-potential finite-difference (SPFD) approach in order to consider arbitrarily shaped time-harmonic field sources. The SPFD approach is commonly used to compute the currents induced by an externally applied magnetic field in regions with weak, heterogeneous conductivities such as, e.g., the human body. We present the extended scalar-potential finite-difference (Ex-SPFD) approach as a two step algorithm. In the first step, the excitation is computed by solving the magnetoquasistatic curl-curl equation on a coarse grid that is well adapted for the field sources. In the second step, the magnetic vector potential is prolongated onto a finer grid and a divergence correction inside the conductor is applied. Using the Maxwell-grid-equations (MGEs) of the finite integration technique, a geometric discretization scheme for Maxwell's equations, this new approach has been implemented in a parallel environment in order to account for the memory-demanding high-resolution anatomy models used for the calculation of induced currents inside the human body. We demonstrate the validity and the improved numerical performance of the new approach for a test case. Finally, an application example of a human exposed to a realistic electromagnetic field source is presented.

  14. The quantum dynamics of interfacial hydrogen: Path integral maximum entropy calculation of adsorbate vibrational line shapes for the H/Ni(111) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongsup; Doll, J. D.; Gubernatis, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Vibrational line shapes for a hydrogen atom on an embedded atom model (EAM) of the Ni(111) surface are extracted from path integral Monte Carlo data. Maximum entropy methods are utilized to stabilize this inversion. Our results indicate that anharmonic effects are significant, particularly for vibrational motion parallel to the surface. Unlike their normal mode analogs, calculated quantum line shapes for the EAM potential predict the correct ordering of vibrational features corresponding to parallel and perpendicular adsorbate motion.

  15. Effects of two calculated plasma sufentanil concentrations on the hemodynamic and bispectral index responses to Mayfield head holder application.

    PubMed

    Hans, P; Brichant, J F; Dewandre, P Y; Born, J D; Lamy, M

    1999-04-01

    The effects of two calculated plasma sufentanil (SUF) concentrations on the hemodynamic and bispectral index (BIS) responses to Mayfield head holder (MH) application were studied in 20 patients scheduled for intracranial surgery. Premedication consisted of hydroxyzine, alprazolam, and atropine given orally 1 hour before surgery. Anesthesia was provided with propofol (PPF) and SUF using a target-controlled infusion device. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to calculated plasma concentrations: 3 microg/mL(-1) of PPF and 0.5 ng/mL(-1) of SUF in group I (GI) and 3 microg/mL(-1) of PPF and 1 ng/mL(-1) of SUF in group II (GII). The MH was fixed 33.0+/-6.6 minutes (mean +/- SD) after induction. Systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) as well as heart rate (HR) and BIS were recorded 1 minute before pinning (baseline) as well as 1 minute (P1), 2 minutes (P2), and 3 minutes (P3) after pinning. Multivariate repeat-measured analyses of variance were applied to the baseline-subtracted measurements of hemodynamic and BIS values. Groups were compared using the Student's t test, and P < .05 was considered to be statistically significant. Patients' characteristics, baseline hemodynamic values, and BIS values were similar in both groups. A significant overall time effect was observed for all variables, but no significant overall SUF effect was detected. Increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, and HR did not differ significantly between groups. The increase in hemodynamic variables did not exceed 20% of baseline value in either group. In contrast, at P1, the increase in BIS over the baseline value was significantly higher in GI (15.0+/-7.9) than in GII (6.7+/-6.5). In conclusion, MH application was associated with a significant, although not clinically relevant, increase in hemodynamic variables whatever the calculated plasma SUF concentration (0.5 or 1.0 ng/mL(-1)). In contrast, the increase in BIS observed at pinning was significantly

  16. The rapid shallow breathing index as a predictor of successful mechanical ventilation weaning: clinical utility when calculated from ventilator data

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Leonardo Cordeiro; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The use of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is recommended in ICUs, where it is used as a predictor of mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning success. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the RSBI calculated by the traditional method (described in 1991) with that of the RSBI calculated directly from MV parameters. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study involving patients who had been on MV for more than 24 h and were candidates for weaning. The RSBI was obtained by the same examiner using the two different methods (employing a spirometer and the parameters from the ventilator display) at random. In comparing the values obtained with the two methods, we used the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson's linear correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The performance of the methods was compared by evaluation of the areas under the ROC curves. RESULTS: Of the 109 selected patients (60 males; mean age, 62 ± 20 years), 65 were successfully weaned, and 36 died. There were statistically significant differences between the two methods for respiratory rate, tidal volume, and RSBI (p < 0.001 for all). However, when the two methods were compared, the concordance and the intra-observer variation coefficient were 0.94 (0.92-0.96) and 11.16%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was similar for both methods (0.81 ± 0.04 vs. 0.82 ± 0.04; p = 0.935), which is relevant in the context of this study. CONCLUSIONS: The satisfactory performance of the RSBI as a predictor of weaning success, regardless of the method employed, demonstrates the utility of the method using the mechanical ventilator. PMID:26785962

  17. Calculating Preference Weights for the Labor and Delivery Index: A Discrete Choice Experiment on Women's Birth Experiences.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Fania R; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Rijnders, Marlies E; Freeman, Liv M; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; de Miranda, Esteriek; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate preference weights for the Labor and Delivery Index (LADY-X) to make it suitable as a utility measure for perinatal care studies. In an online discrete choice experiment, 18 pairs of hypothetical scenarios were presented to respondents, from which they had to choose a preferred option. The scenarios describe the birth experience in terms of the seven LADY-X attributes. A D-efficient discrete choice experiment design with priors based on a small sample (N = 110) was applied. Two samples were gathered, women who had recently given birth and subjects from the general population. Both samples were analyzed separately using a panel mixed logit (MMNL) model. Using the panel mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) model results and accounting for preference heterogeneity, we calculated the average preference weights for LADY-X attribute levels. These were transformed to represent a utility score between 0 and 1, with 0 representing the worst and 1 representing the best birth experience. In total, 1097 women who had recently given birth and 367 subjects from the general population participated. Greater value was placed on differences between bottom and middle attribute levels than on differences between middle and top levels. The attributes that resulted in larger utility increases than the other attributes were "feeling of safety" in the sample of women who had recently given birth and "feeling of safety" and "availability of professionals" in the general population sample. By using the derived preference weights, LADY-X has the potential to be used as a utility measure for perinatal (cost-) effectiveness studies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. State-to-state rotational phase coherence effect on the vibration-rotation band shape - An accurate quantum calculation for CO-He

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate coupled state calculations of line coupling are performed for infrared lines of carbon monoxide perturbed by helium. Such calculations lead to both real and imaginary line couplings. For the first time, the effect of this imaginary line couplings, connected with state-to-state rotational phase coherences, on infrared band shape, is analyzed. An extension of detailed balance principle to the complex plane is suggested from the present computed off-diagonal cross sections. This allows us to understand the physical mechanism underlying the weak effect of phase coherences on CO-He infrared band shape.

  19. Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines. A Handbook for the Calculation of Emission Indexes and Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    corresponded to intervals of stable engine operation, as specified by the operators of the engine. Each laboratory reported emission indexes for the read ...period. The test established 50 read periods for gaseous emissions. Tabl, 5-1 gives the emission indexes at idle, high idle, approach, cruise and...emission indexes from a T58-GE-8F engine Test Cell - 12 Location - Naval Air Rework Facility, North Island IDLE Date Time Reading Prior Emission index

  20. A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model

    DOE PAGES

    Moller, Peter; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we propose a method to calculate the two-dimensional (2D) fission-fragment yield Y(Z,N) versus both proton and neutron number, with inclusion of odd-even staggering effects in both variables. The approach is to use the Brownian shape-motion on a macroscopic-microscopic potential-energy surface which, for a particular compound system is calculated versus four shape variables: elongation (quadrupole moment Q2), neck d, left nascent fragment spheroidal deformation ϵf1, right nascent fragment deformation ϵf2 and two asymmetry variables, namely proton and neutron numbers in each of the two fragments. The extension of previous models 1) introduces a method to calculate this generalizedmore » potential-energy function and 2) allows the correlated transfer of nucleon pairs in one step, in addition to sequential transfer. In the previous version the potential energy was calculated as a function of Z and N of the compound system and its shape, including the asymmetry of the shape. We outline here how to generalize the model from the “compound-system” model to a model where the emerging fragment proton and neutron numbers also enter, over and above the compound system composition.« less

  1. A method to calculate fission-fragment yields Y(Z,N) versus proton and neutron number in the Brownian shape-motion model

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Ichikawa, Takatoshi

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we propose a method to calculate the two-dimensional (2D) fission-fragment yield Y(Z,N) versus both proton and neutron number, with inclusion of odd-even staggering effects in both variables. The approach is to use the Brownian shape-motion on a macroscopic-microscopic potential-energy surface which, for a particular compound system is calculated versus four shape variables: elongation (quadrupole moment Q2), neck d, left nascent fragment spheroidal deformation ϵf1, right nascent fragment deformation ϵf2 and two asymmetry variables, namely proton and neutron numbers in each of the two fragments. The extension of previous models 1) introduces a method to calculate this generalized potential-energy function and 2) allows the correlated transfer of nucleon pairs in one step, in addition to sequential transfer. In the previous version the potential energy was calculated as a function of Z and N of the compound system and its shape, including the asymmetry of the shape. We outline here how to generalize the model from the “compound-system” model to a model where the emerging fragment proton and neutron numbers also enter, over and above the compound system composition.

  2. Absorption Band Shapes of a Push-Pull Dye Approaching the Cyanine Limit: A Challenging Case for First Principle Calculations.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Amedeo; Borrelli, Raffaele; Landi, Alessandro; Velardo, Amalia; Peluso, Andrea

    2016-07-21

    The absorption band shapes of a solvent tunable donor-acceptor dye have been theoretically investigated by using Kubo's generating function approach, with minimum energy geometries and normal coordinates computed at the DFT level of theory. The adopted computational procedure allows us to include in the computation of Franck-Condon factors the whole set of normal modes, without any limitation on excitation quanta, allowing for an almost quantitative reproduction of the absorption band shape when the equilibrium geometries of the ground and the excited states are well predicted by electronic computations. Noteworthy, the functionals that yield more accurate band shapes also provide good prediction of the moment variations upon excitation; because the latter quantities are rarely available, theoretical simulation of band shapes could be a powerful tool for choosing the most appropriate computational method for predictive purposes.

  3. Calculated Effects of Body Shape on the Bow-Shock Overpressures in the Far Field of Bodies in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Donald L.

    1960-01-01

    A theory for the supersonic flow about bodies in uniform flight in a homogeneous medium is reviewed and an integral which expresses the effect of body shape upon the flow parameters in the far field is reduced to a form which may be readily evaluated for arbitrary body shapes. This expression is then used to investigate the effect of nose angle, fineness ratio, and location of maximum body cross section upon the far-field pressure jump across the bow-shock of slender bodies. Curves are presented showing the variation of the shock strength with each of these parameters. It is found that, for a wide variety of shapes having equal fineness ratios, the integral has nearly a constant value.

  4. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a

  5. Graded index profiles and loss-induced single-mode characteristics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with petal-shape holey structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, An-Jin; Qu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Bin; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Xing, Ming-Xin; Zheng, Wan-Hua

    2011-02-01

    The 850-nm oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with petal-shape holey structures are presented. An area-weighted average refractive index model is given to analyse their effective index profiles, and the graded index distribution in the holey region is demonstrated. The index step between the optical aperture and the holey region is obtained which is related merely to the etching depth. Four types of holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with different parameters are fabricated as well as the conventional oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. Compared with the conventional oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser without etched holes, the holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser possesses an improved beam quality due to its graded index distribution, but has a lower output power, higher threshold current and lower slope efficiency. With the hole number increased, the holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser can realize the single-mode operation throughout the entire current range, and reduces the beam divergence further. The loss mechanism is used to explain the single-mode characteristic, and the reduced beam divergence is attributed to the shallow etching. High coupling efficiency of 86% to a multi-mode fibre is achieved for the single-mode device in the experiment.

  6. Shape indexes for semi-automated detection of windbreaks in thematic tree cover maps from the central United States

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Todd A. Kellerman

    2017-01-01

    Windbreaks are an important ecological resource across the large expanse of agricultural land in the central United States and are often planted in straight-line or L-shaped configurations to serve specific functions. As high-resolution (i.e., <5 m) land cover datasets become more available for these areas, semi-or fully-automated methods for distinguishing...

  7. Modeling high-order plasmon resonances of a U-shaped nanowire used to build a negative-index metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fortuno, Francisco J.; Garcia-Meca, Carlos; Ortuno, Ruben; Marti, Javier; Martinez, Alejandro

    2009-02-15

    We apply the concept of slow surface-plasmon polariton standing-wave resonances to model the plasmon resonances which exist on split-ring resonators (U-shaped nanowires) forming the unit cell of a metamaterial at infrared frequencies. We compare the expected resonances predicted by the model with full electrodynamic three-dimensional simulations of the U-shaped nanowires for varying geometrical parameters and find a reasonably good agreement. We also consider how far-field dipolar coupling between unit-cells and near-field coupling between the U-shaped nanowire's arms should be taken into account. In addition, we study how the different resonances give rise to negative constitutive parameters for the metamaterial and adjust the geometrical parameters so that the second and third order slow-SPP standing-wave resonances of the U-shaped nanowires result in a double-negative behavior at far-infrared wavelengths without the need of further wires or particles. Finally, we study the effects of stacking N layers of such metamaterial, where each resonant mode splits into N normal mode resonances, showing different electric or magnetic responses. This simple stacked structure maintains the left-handed behavior, exhibiting backward wave propagation.

  8. Fully automated lobe-based airway taper index calculation in a low dose MDCT CF study over 4 time-points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Konietzke, Philip; Heussel, Claus P.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hollemann, David; Savage, Dasha; Galbán, Craig J.; Robinson, Terry E.

    2017-02-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) results in severe bronchiectasis in nearly all cases. Bronchiectasis is a disease where parts of the airways are permanently dilated. The development and the progression of bronchiectasis is not evenly distributed over the entire lungs - rather, individual functional units are affected differently. We developed a fully automated method for the precise calculation of lobe-based airway taper indices. To calculate taper indices, some preparatory algorithms are needed. The airway tree is segmented, skeletonized and transformed to a rooted acyclic graph. This graph is used to label the airways. Then a modified version of the previously validated integral based method (IBM) for airway geometry determination is utilized. The rooted graph, the airway lumen and wall information are then used to calculate the airway taper indices. Using a computer-generated phantom simulating 10 cross sections of airways we present results showing a high accuracy of the modified IBM. The new taper index calculation method was applied to 144 volumetric inspiratory low-dose MDCT scans. The scans were acquired from 36 children with mild CF at 4 time-points (baseline, 3 month, 1 year, 2 years). We found a moderate correlation with the visual lobar Brody bronchiectasis scores by three raters (r2 = 0.36, p < .0001). The taper index has the potential to be a precise imaging biomarker but further improvements are needed. In combination with other imaging biomarkers, taper index calculation can be an important tool for monitoring the progression and the individual treatment of patients with bronchiectasis.

  9. Development of fragility curves by incorporating new spectral shape indicators and a weighted damage index: case study of steel braced frames in the city of Mashhad, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Hamid; Ghafory-Ashtiany, Mohsen; Azarbakht, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    In this study, strong ground motion record (SGMR) selection based on Eta ( η) as a spectral shape indicator has been investigated as applied to steel braced frame structures. A probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis for the definition of the target Epsilon ( ɛ) and the target Eta ( η) values at different hazard levels is presented, taking into account appropriately selected SGMR's. Fragility curves are developed for different limit states corresponding to three representative models of typical steel braced frames having significant irregularities in plan, by means of a weighted damage index. The results show that spectral shape indicators have an important effect on the predicted median structural capacities, and also that the parameter η is a more robust predictor of damage than searching for records with appropriate ɛ values.

  10. A Variational Method for Calculating the Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of a Cantilevered Open Cylindrical Shell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    A + f( (n xNxx Nx)6u + (nxNx 9 Nee)Sv )ds (19) s w1 where n are defined as the direction cosines between the normal and the y direction. To integrate...of a specific shell shape. Thus far, Eq (27) applies to all cylindrical shells with the only assumption being the thickness, h, is small as com - pared...results. For instance, after solving Eq (32) for its eight roots, one of them must be established as X1. While this choice is com - pletely arbitrary at

  11. [Calculation of the Pearl Index of Lady-Comp, Baby-Comp and Pearly cycle computers used as a contraceptive method].

    PubMed

    Binkiewicz, Przemysław; Michaluk, Krzysztof; Demiańczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-11-01

    Lady-Comp, Baby-Comp and Pearly cycle computers are medical devices that use sophisticated statistical gathering methods, as well as a comprehensive database, to precisely determine fertile and infertile phases of a menstrual cycle on the basis of everyday basal body temperature measurements. They have been produced and distributed worldwide by Valley Electronics GmbH (Eschenlohe, Bavaria, Germany) for over 25 years. The aim of the study was to calculate the Pearl Index of cycle computers in order to determine their contraceptive effectiveness. 510 Polish women, randomly chosen from the database of the distributor, who had been using the device for over one year or during 13 menstrual cycles, received the questionnaire. The Pearl Index was calculated as a quotient of the number of unplanned pregnancies and the total number of cycles during which cycle computers were used and the obtained value was then multiplied by 1300. Statistical methods were applied to analyze data from the questionnaires and to calculate the Pearl Index. Unplanned pregnancy odds ratio for women using additionally condoms during the fertile phase of the cycle was also calculated. 139 properly filled questionnaires were the source of data about 3332 cycles. After the initial analysis, 290 cycles were declined because the respondents had not complied with the computer indications and 1021 cycles were declined because the respondents had been using other contraceptive methods at the same time--no unplanned pregnancy was noted in that group. In the investigated group of 2040 cycles of correct cycle computers use, one unplanned pregnancy was observed. Calculated Pearl Index for this group amounted to 0.64; it means, that less than 7 out of 1000 users of cycle computer as a contraceptive method may become pregnant within one year The odds of pregnancy in women using a cycle computer and condoms on fertile days amounted to 1.035%; it means that 1 out of 100 users of the combined methods may become

  12. Inverse relationship between "a body shape index" (ABSI) and fat-free mass in women and men: Insights into mechanisms of sarcopenic obesity.

    PubMed

    Biolo, Gianni; Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Breglia, Andrea; Chiuc, Massimiliano; Baglio, Valeria; Vinci, Pierandrea; Toigo, Gabriele; Lucchin, Lucio; Jurdana, Mihaela; Pražnikar, Zala J; Petelin, Ana; Mazzucco, Sara; Situlin, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenic obesity may be defined by a high fat to fat-free mass (FM/FFM) ratio. Skeletal muscle may be negatively influenced by the pro-inflammatory milieu associated with visceral fat, while the loading effect induced by a heavier body mass index (BMI) may enhance muscle anabolism. Recently, a new anthropometric measure based on waist circumference (A Body Shape Index, ABSI) was developed. In this study we have assessed the predictive power of ABSI on the FFM index (FFMI), a surrogate marker of lean mass. Standard anthropometric parameters and ABSI as well as body composition data (fat and fat-free mass determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis) were assessed in 111 female and 89 male overweight/obese subjects, with no clinically significant co-morbidities. Groups with higher- or lower-ABSI were identified according to median values of this index. In women and men, ABSI did not correlate with BMI, while multiple linear regression indicated that BMI (β-coefficients: 0.62 and 0.77, respectively) and ABSI (β-coefficients: -0.26 and -0.22, respectively) independently predicted FFMI (multiple R: 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, P < 0.001). Men and women with lower-ABSI exhibited significantly greater FFMI than the higher-ABSI groups for comparable values of BMI. In men, ABSI was correlated positively with C-reactive protein (CRP) (R = 0.30; P < 0.05) and negatively with the reciprocal of insulin (R = 0.28; P < 0.05), an index of insulin sensitivity. FM/FFM ratio significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with CRP (R = 0.31) in women only. ABSI, a recently introduced marker of abdominal adiposity, may contribute to define the risk of sarcopenia in overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. LORES: Low resolution shape program for the calculation of small angle scattering profiles for biological macromolecules in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Deyhim, A.; Krueger, S.; Gregurick, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    A program for determining the low resolution shape of biological macromolecules, based on the optimization of a small angle neutron scattering profile to experimental data, is presented. This program, termed LORES, relies on a Monte Carlo optimization procedure and will allow for multiple scattering length densities of complex structures. It is therefore more versatile than utilizing a form factor approach to produce low resolution structural models. LORES is easy to compile and use, and allows for structural modeling of biological samples in real time. To illustrate the effectiveness and versatility of the program, we present four specific biological examples, Apoferritin (shell model), Ribonuclease S (ellipsoidal model), a 10-mer dsDNA (duplex helix) and a construct of a 10-mer DNA/PNA duplex helix (heterogeneous structure). These examples are taken from protein and nucleic acid SANS studies, of both large and small scale structures. We find, in general, that our program will accurately reproduce the geometric shape of a given macromolecule, when compared with the known crystallographic structures. We also present results to illustrate the lower limit of the experimental resolution which the LORES program is capable of modeling. Program summaryTitle of program:LORES Catalogue identifier: ADVC Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer:SGI Origin200, SGI Octane, SGI Linux, Intel Pentium PC Operating systems:UNIX64 6.5 and LINUX 2.4.7 Programming language used:C Memory required to execute with typical data:8 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2270 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:13 302 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MATH library

  14. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, S.; Trautmann, T.; Wendisch, M.

    2011-05-01

    Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006), dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10 %. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA) the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal) forcing by 55/5 % at the TOA over ocean/land and 15 % at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20 %. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported. They strongly enhance the absorbing properties and forward scattering in the solar and increase predominantly, e.g., the total TOA forcing of the dust over land.

  15. From computed microtomography images to resistivity index calculations of heterogeneous carbonates using a dual-porosity pore-network approach: influence of percolation on the electrical transport properties.

    PubMed

    Bauer, D; Youssef, S; Han, M; Bekri, S; Rosenberg, E; Fleury, M; Vizika, O

    2011-07-01

    Standard reservoir evaluations are based on Archie's law relating the average water saturation to the average electrical resistivity by R(ind) = S(w)(-2). However, especially in the case of complex heterogeneous carbonates, deviation from Archie's law is observed and generally attributed to factors affecting the percolation or disconnectedness of the different phases (wetting films, microporosity, macropores) assuring electrical conductance. Pore-network models (PNM's) in combination with high-resolution computed microtomography (μ-CT) constitute a very effective tool to investigate the influence of the geometry and topology of the porous media on the spatial distribution of the conductive phase, and therefore on the shape of the resistivity index curve. An extended version of the classical PNM applicable to dual-porosity systems is presented. It combines the classical pore-network modeling applied on the macroporous space with the macroscopic properties of the microporous phase, supposing that the two pore systems act in parallel. Three-dimensional images provide information on the connectedness of the microporous phase, which is then included in the simulations. Electrical behavior of sandstone and two carbonates presenting distinct resistivity index curves were simulated and compared to measurements. Both Archie and "non-Archie" behavior were correctly reproduced, and the curve shape was explained considering percolation of the different phases.

  16. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Favilli, Silvia; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1-17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s (')), early diastole (e (')), and late diastole (a (')) was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e (') was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s (') (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e (') (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e (') (β = -0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a (') (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s ('), suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations.

  17. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B.; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s'), early diastole (e'), and late diastole (a') was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e' (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e' (β = −0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations. PMID:26759729

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination and Calculation of Its Pollution Index for Uglješnica River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milivojević, Jelena; Krstić, Dragana; Šmit, Biljana; Djekić, Vera

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the water pollution in terms of total content of heavy metals by parameter called Heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The water samples were collected from four different locations along the course of the river during spring and the autumn seasons. The concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The data were used to evaluate HPI of the river water. The mean value of HPI was 67.487 for the spring season, and 80.676 for the autumn season. The average for both seasons and all sampling sites is 74.082. The maximum value of 112.722 found at one sampling site is above the critical index limit of 100. Also, from the values of mean HPI for each sampling site could be concluded that the pollution load at sampling site-4 is the most significant (HPI 89.575).

  19. Demonstration and Verification of a Broad Spectrum Anomalous Dispersion Effects Tool for Index of Refraction and Optical Turbulence Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    mixes the cream in your coffee and the clouds in the sky, is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations… (Bradshaw, 1996).” The highly complex...water vapor and moist air in the atmospheric window at 10μm”, showing refractivity versus wavelength with absorption lines for eight molecules taken...Mathar, R. J. (2004). Calculated refractivity of water vapor and moist air in the atmospheric window at 10 micrometers. Applied Optics, 43(4), 928

  20. Influence of bending on power distribution in step-index plastic optical fibers and the calculation of bending loss.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, M S; Nikezić, D

    2006-09-10

    A means of calculating optical power distribution in bent multimode optical fibers is proposed. It employs the power-flow equation approximated by the Fokker-Planck equation that is solved by the explicit finite-difference method. Conceptually important steps of this procedure include (i) dividing the full length of the bent optical fiber into a finite number of short, straight segments; (ii) solving the power equation for each segment sequentially to find its output distribution; and (iii) expressing that output distribution in rotated coordinates of the subsequent segment along the curved fiber to determine the input distribution for that subsequent segment and thus enable the calculation of the power flow and output distribution for it. The segment length and bend-induced perturbation of output angles are determined by geometric optics. The resulting power distributions are given at different cross sections along the curved fiber axis. They vary with the radius of fiber curvature and launch conditions. Results are compared to those for straight fiber. Bending loss is calculated as well.

  1. Calculation of the resonance escape factor of magnesium spectral line shapes in the case of a MgCl{sub 2}--water plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hannachi, R.; Cressault, Y.; Teulet, Ph.; Gleizes, A.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Taieeb, G.

    2007-09-19

    The resonance escape factors for the lines emitted by a neutral magnesium atom MgI at 285.2127 nm (3 {sup 1}S-3 {sup 1}P) and of ionic magnesium MgII at 279.5528 nm (3 {sup 2}S-3 {sup 2}P) are calculated assuming a Voigt profile and in the case of MgCl{sub 2}-water plasma. The dependence of the escape factor on the optical thickness {tau}{sub 0} from the line center which itself depends on the two main spectral line shape broadening mechanisms (pressure and Doppler effects) are considered. The variation of the resonance escape factors with the temperature and the MgCl{sub 2} molar proportion are also investigated. This calculation is useful for the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the quantitative analysis of elemental composition.

  2. Butterfly-shaped and dromion-like optical waves in a tapered graded-index waveguide with variable group-velocity dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Harleen; Pal, Ritu; Raju, Thokala Soloman; Kumar, C. N.

    2016-11-01

    Butterfly-shaped and dromion-like optical waves in a tapered graded-index waveguide (GRIN) are reported for the first time. The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes wave propagation in GRIN with variable group-velocity dispersion (GVD), nonlinearity, PT symmetric optical potentials, is investigated and analytical solutions for this dynamical system are obtained. The physical effects affecting these waves are explicated in detail. The stability of dromion-like structures is analyzed when the GVD parameter is perturbed. We have observed oscillation structure exhibiting strong interference due to this applied perturbation. For a particular value of the modulation of the GVD parameter, the oscillation structure is transformed into two dromion-like structures. It indicates that the dromion-like structure is unstable, and the coherence intensity is affected by the modified perturbation parameter. We further demonstrate the phenomenon of unbreakable PT symmetry of these novel nonlinear waves for three explicit examples.

  3. Comparative study of multimode CYTOP graded index and single-mode silica fibre Bragg grating array for the mode shape capturing of a free-free metal beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodosiou, A.; Polis, M.; Lacraz, A.; Kalli, K.; Komodromos, M.; Stassis, A.

    2016-04-01

    The work described in this paper involved two different material fibre Bragg grating (FBG) arrays, investigating their performance as quasi-distributed sensors by capturing the vibrating response of a free-free metal beam close to its resonance frequencies. A six meter length of low-loss, gradient-index, multimode CYTOP fibre and of SMF-28 were used for the inscription of multiple FBG sensors using a femtosecond laser inscription method. The FBG arrays were multiplexed in the wavelength domain using a high-speed commercial demodulator, from which we recovered wavelengthand time-dependent displacement information. We compared the vibration response of the two arrays and using a novel computation algorithm we extract the first mode shape of the free-free metal beam that was exited at its first resonance frequency using a vibrating force.

  4. Calculation of aerosol optical properties under different assumptions on mixing state, refractive index, density and hygroscopicity: uncertainties and importance of representation of aerosol mixing state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curci, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The calculation of aerosol optical properties from aerosol mass is a process subject to uncertainty related to necessary assumptions on the treatment of the chemical species mixing state, density, refractive index, and hygroscopic growth. We used the FlexAOD post-processing tool to calculate the optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g)) from chemistry-transport model aerosol profiles, using a wide range of assumptions on aerosol chemical and physical properties. We calculated that the most important factor of uncertainty is the assumption about the mixing state, for which we estimate an uncertainty of 30-35% on the simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The choice of the core composition in the core-shell representation is of minor importance for calculation of AOD, while it is critical for the SSA. Other factors of uncertainty tested here have a maximum average impact of 10% each on calculated AOD, and an impact of a few percent on SSA and g. We then tested simple parameterizations of the aerosol mixing state, expressed as a function of the aerosol aging, and verified that they may be helpful in reducing the uncertainty when comparing simulations with AERONET retrievals.

  5. Associations between body mass index across adult life and hip shapes at age 60 to 64: Evidence from the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Muthuri, Stella G; Saunders, Fiona R; Hardy, Rebecca J; Pavlova, Anastasia V; Martin, Kathryn R; Gregory, Jennifer S; Barr, Rebecca J; Adams, Judith E; Kuh, Diana; Aspden, Richard M; Cooper, Rachel

    2017-08-24

    To examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) across adulthood with hip shapes at age 60-64years. Up to 1633 men and women from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development with repeat measures of BMI across adulthood and posterior-anterior dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density images of the proximal femur recorded at age 60-64 were included in analyses. Statistical shape modelling was applied to quantify independent variations in hip mode (HM), of which the first 6 were examined in relation to: i) BMI at each age of assessment; ii) BMI gain during different phases of adulthood; iii) age first overweight. Higher BMI at all ages (i.e. 15 to 60-64) and greater gains in BMI were associated with higher HM2 scores in both sexes (with positive HM2 values representing a shorter femoral neck and a wider and flatter femoral head). Similarly, younger age first overweight was associated with higher HM2 scores but only in men once current BMI was accounted for. In men, higher BMI at all ages was also associated with lower HM4 scores (with negative HM4 values representing a flatter femoral head, a wider neck and smaller neck shaft angle) but no associations with BMI gain or prolonged exposure to high BMI were found. Less consistent evidence of associations was found between BMI and the other four HMs. These results suggest that BMI across adulthood may be associated with specific variations in hip shapes in early old age. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of Doppler and stethoscope methods of determining systolic blood pressures: considerations for calculating an ankle-brachial index.

    PubMed

    Chesbro, Steven B; Asongwed, Elmira T; Brown, Jamesha; John, Emmanuel B

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the interrater and intrarater reliability of systolic blood pressures using a stethoscope and Doppler to determine an ankle-brachial index (ABI), and (2) to determine the correlation between the 2 methods. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States, and nearly half of those with this disease are asymptomatic. Early detection and prompt treatment of PAD will improve health outcomes. It is important that clinicians perform tests that determine the presence of PAD. Two individual raters trained in ABI procedure measured the systolic blood pressures of 20 individuals' upper and lower extremities. Standard ABI measurement protocols were observed. Raters individually recorded the systolic blood pressures of each extremity using a stethoscope and a Doppler, for a total of 640 independent measures. Interrater reliability of Doppler measurements to determine SBP at the ankle was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.93-0.99) compared to moderate to strong reliability using a stethoscope (ICC, 0.64-0.87). Agreement between the 2 devices to determine SBP was moderate to very weak (ICC, 0.13-0.61). Comparisons of the use of Doppler and stethoscope to determine ABI showed weak to very weak intrarater correlation (ICC, 0.17-0.35). Linear regression analysis of the 2 methods to determine ABI showed positive but weak to very weak correlations (r2 = .013, P = .184). A Doppler ultrasound is recommended over a stethoscope for accuracy in systolic pressure readings for ABI measurements.

  7. Intra-tissue Refractive Index Shaping (IRIS) of the cornea and lens using a low-pulse-energy femtosecond laser oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Knox, Wayne H.; Bühren, Jens; Nagy, Lana J.; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the optical effect of high-repetition-rate, low energy femtosecond laser pulses on lightly-fixed corneas and lenses. Methods Eight corneas and eight lenses were extracted post-mortem from normal, adult cats. They were lightly fixed and stored in a solution that minimized swelling and opacification. An 800nm Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator with a 27fs pulse duration and 93MHz repetition rate was used to inscribe gratings consisting of 20-40 lines, each 1μm wide, 100μm long and 5μm apart, 100μm below the tissue surface. Refractive index changes in the micromachined regions were calculated immediately and after one month of storage by measuring the intensity distribution of diffracted light when the gratings were irradiated with a 632.8nm He-Ne laser. Results Periodic gratings were created into the stromal layer of the corneas and the cortex of the lenses by adjusting the laser pulse energy until visible plasma luminescence and bubbles were no longer generated. The gratings had low scattering loss and could only be visualized using phase microscopy. Refractive index changes measured 0.005±0.001 to 0.01±0.001 in corneal tissue and 0.015±0.001 to 0.021±0.001 in the lenses. The gratings and refractive index changes were preserved after storing the micromachined corneas and lenses for one month. Conclusions These pilot experiments demonstrate a novel application of low-pulse-energy, MHz femtosecond lasers in modifying the refractive index of transparent ocular tissues without apparent tissue destruction. Although it remains to be verified in living tissues, the stability of this effect suggests that the observed modifications are due to long-term molecular and/or structural changes. PMID:18641284

  8. The influence of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 on the thickness, shape, and equivalent refractive index of the human crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Nanouk G M; Dubbelman, Michiel; Kostense, Piet J; Ringens, Peter J; Polak, Bettine C P

    2008-10-01

    To study the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) types 1 and 2 on the thickness, radius of curvature, equivalent refractive index, and power of the lens. Observational cross-sectional study. One hundred fourteen patients with DM type 1, 112 patients with DM type 2, and 75 control subjects. Lens thickness and the anterior and posterior radius of the lens were measured by means of corrected Scheimpflug imaging. Ocular refraction was determined with Hartmann-Shack aberrometry. The equivalent refractive index and the power of the lens were calculated from these parameters. Several systemic parameters (e.g., duration of DM, glycated hemoglobin, and type of medication) and ocular comorbidity (e.g., level of diabetic retinopathy) were recorded. The thickness, anterior and posterior radii, equivalent refractive index, and power of the lens. The lenses of the patients with DM type 1 were significantly thicker and more convex, compared with those of the control group (P<0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the equivalent refractive index of their lenses compared with the control group. No difference in lens parameters was found between the patients with DM type 2 and the control group. In the DM type 1 group, the duration of DM was an important determinant of lens biometry; the independent effects of the duration of DM per year on lens thickness, anterior radius, posterior radius, and equivalent refractive index were respectively 95%, 88%, 207%, and 45% of the effect of age per year. Lens power and ocular refraction were not affected by DM types 1 or 2. The results of the present study show that DM type 1 has a major impact on lens biometry. Furthermore, the difference in effect of DM types 1 and 2 on lens biometry may indicate a fundamental difference in pathogenesis. The decrease in equivalent refractive index of the lens seemed to compensate for the profound increase in lens convexity in patients with DM type 1, resulting in no significant change in

  9. A low-pass differentiation filter based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating augmentation index.

    PubMed

    He, Zijun; Zhang, Yongliang; Ma, Zuchang; Hu, Fusong; Sun, Yining

    2014-06-01

    The key point to calculate augmentation index (AIx) related to cardiovascular diseases is the precise identification of the shoulder point. The commonly used method for extracting the shoulder point is to calculate the fourth derivative of the pulse waveform by numerical differentiation. However, this method has a poor anti-noise capability and is computationally intensive. The aims of this study were to develop a new method based on the 2nd-order B-spline wavelet for calculating AIx, and to compare it with numerical differentiation and Savitzky-Golay digital differentiator (SGDD). All the three methods were applied to pulse waveforms derived from 60 healthy subjects. There was a significantly high correlation between the proposed method and numerical differentiation (r=0.998 for carotid pulses, and r=0.997 for radial pulses), as well as between the proposed method and the SGDD (r=0.995 for carotid pulses, and r=0.993 for radial pulses). In addition, the anti-noise capability of the proposed method was evaluated by adding simulated noise (>10Hz) on pulse waveforms. The results showed that the proposed method was advantageous in noise tolerance than the other two methods. These findings indicate that the proposed method can quickly and accurately calculate AIx with a good anti-noise capability.

  10. Peak clustering in two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection based on theoretical calculation of two-dimensional peak shapes: the 2DAid approach.

    PubMed

    van Stee, Leo L P; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2011-10-28

    A method is presented to facilitate the non-target analysis of data obtained in temperature-programmed comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS). One main difficulty of GC×GC data analysis is that each peak is usually modulated several times and therefore appears as a series of peaks (or peaklets) in the one-dimensionally recorded data. The proposed method, 2DAid, uses basic chromatographic laws to calculate the theoretical shape of a 2D peak (a cluster of peaklets originating from the same analyte) in order to define the area in which the peaklets of each individual compound can be expected to show up. Based on analyte-identity information obtained by means of mass spectral library searching, the individual peaklets are then combined into a single 2D peak. The method is applied, amongst others, to a complex mixture containing 362 analytes. It is demonstrated that the 2D peak shapes can be accurately predicted and that clustering and further processing can reduce the final peak list to a manageable size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental studies, line-shape analysis and semi-empirical calculations of broadening coefficients for CH335Cl-CO2 submillimeter transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudaryonok, A. S.; Lavrentieva, N. N.; Buldyreva, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Rohart, F.

    2014-09-01

    Rotational transitions in CH335Cl mixed with CO2 are recorded at 296 K and total pressures up to 0.6 Torr in the frequency interval 186-901 GHz (1.6-0.3 mm) for J=6→7, 10→11, 17→18, 22→23, 31→32, 33→34 and K=0-6, using the frequency-modulation spectrometer of the Laboratory PhLAM (Lille, France). These line-shapes are analyzed with the commonly used Voigt profile as well as with more refined Speed-Dependent Voigt and Galatry models accounting for the line narrowing induced, respectively, by the speed-dependence of the relaxation parameters and by velocity-changing collisions. Due to the high line intensities, the fitting procedure involves the full implementation of the Bee-Lambert law instead of its traditional linear approximation. The experimentally deduced J- and K-dependences of the pressure-broadening coefficients are further used to obtain the model parameters of a semi-empirical approach allowing massive calculations of line-shape parameters for enlarged ranges of rotational quantum numbers requested by spectroscopic databases.

  12. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) < arms and trunk (∼1.8-2.3) < legs (∼2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) < BMC (∼2.1-2.4). Small sex and population differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Scaling of Adult Regional Body Mass and Body Composition as a Whole to Height: Relevance to Body Shape and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Schuna, John M.; Peterson, Courtney M.; Thomas, Diana M.; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht2), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht2? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index. Methods Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass (head [MH], trunk, arms, legs) and whole-body composition (fat, lean soft tissue [LST], and bone mineral content [BMC]) in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=17,126) and Korean NHANES (n=8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Results Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four race/ethnic groups: regional mass powers, head (~0.8-1) < arms and trunk (~1.8-2.3) < legs (~2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (~2.0-2.3) < BMC (~2.1-2.4). Small sex and race/ethnic differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and race/ethnic groups as Ht~2, tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., Mh/Mb ∝ Ht−~1) and composition. Conclusions Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as defined by stature, a finding that has important implications in multiple areas of biological research. PMID:25381999

  14. The use of a potential lightning index in multi-microphysical cloud-resolving simulations of a V-shape convective system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagasio, Martina; Parodi, Antonio; Procopio, Renato; Rachidi, Farhad; Fiori, Elisabetta

    2017-04-01

    Lightning activity is a characteristic phenomenon of severe weather as confirmed by many studies on different weather regimes that reveal strong interplay between lightning phenomena and extreme rainfall process in thunderstorms. The improvement of the so-called total (i.e. cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) lightning observation systems in the last decades has allowed to investigate the relationship between the lightning flash rate and the kinematic and microphysical properties of severe hydro-meteorological events characterized by strong convection. V-shape back-building Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) occurring over short periods of time have hit several times the Liguria region located in north-western Italy in the period between October 2010 and November 2014, generating flash-flood events responsible for hundreds of fatalities and millions of euros of damage. All these events showed an area of intense precipitation sweeping an arc of a few degrees around the warm conveyor belt originating about 50-60 km from the Liguria coastline. A second main ingredient was the presence of a convergence line, which supported the development and the maintenance of the aforementioned back-building process. Other common features were the persistence of such geometric configuration for many hours and the associated strong lightning activity. A methodological approach for the evaluation of these types of extreme rainfall and lightning convective events is presented for a back-building MCS event occurred in Genoa in 2014. A microphysics driven ensemble of WRF simulations at cloud-permitting grid spacing (1 km) with different microphysics parameterizations is used and compared to the available observational radar and lightning data. To pursue this aim, the performance of the Lightning Potential Index (LPI) as a measure of the potential for charge generation and separation that leads to lightning occurrence in clouds, is computed and analyzed to gain further physical insight in

  15. Calculation of effective conductivity of 2D and 3D composite materials with anisotropic constituents and different inclusion shapes in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Muñoz, José Luis; Bravo-Castillero, Julián

    2008-08-01

    The study of the effective properties of composite materials with anisotropic constituents and different inclusion shapes has motivated the development of the Mathematica 6.0 package "CompositeMaterials". This package can be used to calculate the effective anisotropic conductivity tensor of two-phase composites. Any fiber cross section, even percolating ones, can be studied in the 2D composites. "Rectangular Prism" and "Ellipsoidal" inclusion shapes with arbitrary orientations can be investigated in the 3D composites. This package combines the Asymptotic Homogenization Method and the Finite Element Method in order to obtain the effective conductivity tensor. The commands and options of the package are illustrated with two sample applications for two- and three-dimensional composites. Program summaryProgram title:CompositeMaterials Catalogue identifier:AEAU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:132 183 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 334 908 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Mathematica 6.0 Computer:Any that can run Mathematica 6.0 and where the open-source free C-programs Triangle ( http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ quake/triangle.html) and TetGen ( http://tetgen.berlios.de/) can be compiled and executed. Tested in Intel Pentium computers. Operating system:Any that can run Mathematica 6.0 and where the open-source free C-programs Triangle ( http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ quake/triangle.html) and TetGen ( http://tetgen.berlios.de/) can be compiled and executed. Tested in Windows XP. RAM:Small two-dimensional calculations require less than 100 MB. Large three-dimensional calculations require 500 MB or more. Classification:7.9 External routines:One Mathematica Add-on and

  16. Airborne Coarse Mode Aerosol Measurements with the CAS-DPOL Instrument: Effects of Particle Shape and Refractive Index and Implications for Radiative Transfer Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. N.; Weinzierl, B.; Gasteiger, J.; Spanu, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Gross, S.

    2015-12-01

    Each year huge amounts of mineral dust are mobilized in deserts and arid regions of the world and transported over large distances forming thick elevated aerosol layers with a substantial fraction of coarse mode particles. Optical properties of mineral dust, including the absorptive refractive index of some components, cause a significant effect on the atmospheric radiative energy balance from optical to infrared wavelengths. The aerosol characteristics, in particular its coarse mode size distribution, are modified during long-range transport by aging and deposition processes. This also affects the aerosol optical properties and therefore the effect on the atmospheric radiative energy budget. In-situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties are essential to characterize those effects in order to be implemented in global climate models in parametrized form. However, in-situ measurements of airborne coarse mode aerosols such as mineral dust and volcanic ash are challenging and the measurements are usually affected by substantial uncertainties. In this work we use airborne measurements of mineral dust from our optical light-scattering spectrometer CAS-DPOL during SALTRACE 2013 to discuss the analysis of such data. We cover the effects of varying refractive index and particle shapes and develop recommendations for the configuration of the CAS-DPOL for aerosol studies. We also present an inversion method to derive coarse mode size distributions from light-scattering probes for mixtures of non-spherical, absorbing aerosols. The size distributions retrieved from the in-situ measurements are then validated using an independent analysis with a combination of sun-photometer and lidar data. We apply these methods to investigate the Saharan mineral dust particle size distributions measured on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and discuss the influence of aerosol aging on the atmospheric radiative energy budget. With this example we also assess how the uncertainties

  17. Calculation of the absorbed dose distribution due to irregularly shaped photon beams using pencil beam kernels derived from basic beam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchi, Pascal; Woudstra, Evert

    1996-04-01

    In radiotherapy, accurately calculated dose distributions of irregularly shaped photon beams are needed. In this paper, an algorithm is presented which enables the calculation of dose distributions due to irregular fields using pencil beam kernels derived from simple basic beam data usually measured on treatment units, i.e. central axis depth - dose curves and profiles. The only extra data that are needed, and are not currently measured, is the phantom scatter factor curve at the reference depth. The algorithm has been developed as an extension to a previously developed algorithm for rectangular fields which is based on the Milan - Bentley storage model. In the case of an irregular field, the depth dose and the boundary function are computed by convolution of a field intensity function with pencil beam kernels. The depth dose is computed by using a `scatter' kernel, which is derived from the stored depth - dose curves and from the phantom scatter factor curve. The boundary function is computed by using a `boundary' kernel, which is derived from the boundary profile of a number of large square fields. Because of the simplicity of the data used and the underlying concepts, which for instance do not separate the head scatter from the primary beam, this algorithm presents some shortcomings. On the other hand, this simplicity is also of great advantage and the inaccuracy is acceptable for most clinical situations.

  18. Crystallographic, magnetic, and electronic structures of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni2XGa (X=Mn,Fe,Co) from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Raulot, J. M.; Zhang, Y. D.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic, magnetic and electronic structures of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni2XGa (X=Mn, Fe, and Co), are systematically investigated by means of the first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the VIENNA AB INITIO SOFTWARE PACKAGE. The lattice parameters of both austenitic and martensitic phases in Ni2MnGa have been calculated. The formation energies of the cubic phase of Ni2XGa are estimated, and show a destabilization tendency if Mn atom is substituted by Fe or Co. From Ni2MnGa to Ni2CoGa, the down spin total density of states (DOS) at Fermi level is gradually increasing, whereas that of the up spin part remains almost unchanged. This is the main origin of the difference of the magnetic moment in these alloys. The partial DOS is dominated by the Ni and Mn 3d states in the bonding region below EF. There are two bond types existing in Ni2XGa: one is between neighboring Ni atoms in Ni2MnGa; the other is between Ni and X atoms in Ni2FeGa and Ni2CoGa alloys.

  19. Crystallographic, magnetic, and electronic structures of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni{sub 2}XGa (X=Mn,Fe,Co) from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.; Raulot, J. M.; Zhang, Y. D.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallographic, magnetic and electronic structures of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni{sub 2}XGa (X=Mn, Fe, and Co), are systematically investigated by means of the first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the VIENNA AB INITIO SOFTWARE PACKAGE. The lattice parameters of both austenitic and martensitic phases in Ni{sub 2}MnGa have been calculated. The formation energies of the cubic phase of Ni{sub 2}XGa are estimated, and show a destabilization tendency if Mn atom is substituted by Fe or Co. From Ni{sub 2}MnGa to Ni{sub 2}CoGa, the down spin total density of states (DOS) at Fermi level is gradually increasing, whereas that of the up spin part remains almost unchanged. This is the main origin of the difference of the magnetic moment in these alloys. The partial DOS is dominated by the Ni and Mn 3d states in the bonding region below E{sub F}. There are two bond types existing in Ni{sub 2}XGa: one is between neighboring Ni atoms in Ni{sub 2}MnGa; the other is between Ni and X atoms in Ni{sub 2}FeGa and Ni{sub 2}CoGa alloys.

  20. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education ... for the Public » Educational Campaigns & Programs » Aim for a Healthy Weight » Healthy Weight Tools » BMI ...

  1. The Significance of Body Mass Index in Calculating the Cut-Off Points for Low Muscle Mass in the Elderly: Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, Lechoslaw B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Cut-off points (COPs) for appendicular lean mass (ALM) index, essential to define low muscle mass (LMM) in the elderly, have never been officially defined for Poland. The aim of the study was to establish them. Additionally, the significance of body mass index (BMI) for correctly defining the COPs in a young, healthy reference group was assessed. Methods. The study was composed of reference group (n = 1113) and the elderly group (n = 200). In all subjects, body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis, and ALM index was calculated. Next, COPs (kg/m2) were set up for the whole reference group and for particular subgroups with different BMIs separately. They were used to diagnose sarcopenia in the elderly. Results. COP for all young females was 5.37 (COP-F), while it was equal to 5.52 (COP-F2) when only those with a recommended BMI (18.50–24.99 kg/m2) were taken into consideration. For males, it was 7.32 and 7.29, respectively. Only 7% of elderly females had LMM based on COP-F and 15% had LMM based on COP-F2 (P < 0.05); for males, the percentages were 18% and 16%, respectively. Conclusions. COPs for LMM for Poland are 5.52 kg/m2 (females) and 7.29 kg/m2 (males). The reference group BMI is an important factor in establishing COPs for low muscle mass. PMID:25506592

  2. Revision to the humidity correction equation in the calculation formulae of the air refractive index based on a phase step interferometer with three frequency-stabilized lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qianghua; Zhang, Mengce; Liu, Shuaijie; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Lv, Weiwei

    2016-12-01

    At present the formulae proposed by G Boensch and E Potulski in 1998 (Boensch and Potulski 1998 Metrologia 35 133-9) are mostly used to calculate the air refractive index. However, the humidity correction equation in the formulae is derived by using the light source of a Cd lamp whose light frequency stability is poor and at a narrow temperature range, around 20 °C. So it is no longer suitable in present optical precision measurements. To solve this problem, we propose a refractive index measurement system based on phase step interferometer with three frequency stabilized lasers (532 nm, 633 nm, 780 nm), corrected coefficients of the humidity are measured and a corresponding revised humidity correction equation is acquired. Meanwhile, the application temperature range is extended from 14.6 °C to 25.0 °C. The experiment comparison results at the temperature of 22.2-23.2 °C show the accuracy by the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski.

  3. Cellular method for evaluation of noxiousness of inorganic pollutants in industrial wastes: calculation of a safety index for monitoring sludge discharge.

    PubMed

    Delmas, F; Villaescusa, I; Woo, N Y; Soleilhavoup, J P; Murat, J C

    2000-03-01

    This article deals with a biological test of safety applicable to industrial wastes. The test is based on the measurement of the growth rate of cultured human cells exposed to waste samples with different dilutions. As a first approach, 15 chemicals in which discharge concentrations are submitted to sanitary regulations were tested one by one. For Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Ag, Co, Mg, sulfates, and fluorides, it was possible to detect concentrations that are below the allowed limit. For Hg, Al, As(V), Cr(III), Fe, and Pb, the concentrations that affect cell growth are higher than the allowed limit. Tests were also performed using actual samples (liquid effluent from a laundry and sludge from waste-water treatment plants). Results indicate that, in contrast to chemical analyses, the current biological test has the advantage of providing an indication of global toxicity, integrating all substances and factors that can be harmful to life processes. From the sludge data and the observed threshold of concentration that does not affect cell growth, a numeric safety index has been calculated which indicates the amount of sludge that could be dispersed, as a fertilizer, per hectare of agricultural soil. Such an index could be conveniently used for designing sewage sludge disposal strategies. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Does body mass index outperform body weight as a surrogate parameter in the calculation of size-specific dose estimates in adult body CT?

    PubMed Central

    Lanzman, Rotem S; Heusch, Philipp; Aissa, Joel; Schleich, Christoph; Thomas, Christoph; Sawicki, Lino M; Antoch, Gerald; Kröpil, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body weight as a surrogate parameter for the calculation of size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) in thoracoabdominal CT. Methods: 401 CT examinations in 235 patients (196 chest, 205 abdomen; 95 females, 140 males; age 62.5 ± 15.0 years) were analysed in regard to weight, height and BMI (kg m−2). Effective diameter (Deff, cm) was assessed on axial CT images. The correlation between BMI, weight and Deff was calculated. SSDEs were calculated based on Deff, weight and BMI and lookup tables were developed. Results: Overall height, weight, BMI and Deff were 172.5 ± 9.9 cm, 79.5 ± 19.1 kg, 26.6 ± 5.6 kg m−2 and 30.1 ± 4.3 cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between Deff and BMI as well as weight (r = 0.85 and r = 0.84; p < 0.05, respectively). Correlation was significantly better for BMI in abdominal CT (r = 0.89 vs r = 0.84; p < 0.05), whereas it was better for weight in chest CT (r = 0.87 vs r = 0.81; p < 0.05). Surrogated SSDEs did not differ significantly from the reference standard with a median absolute relative difference of 4.2% per patient (interquartile range 25–75: 3.1–7.89, range 0–25.3%). Conclusion: BMI and weight exhibit a significant correlation with Deff in adult patients and can be used as surrogates in the calculation of SSDEs. Using the herein-developed lookup charts, SSDEs can be calculated based on patients' weight and BMI. Advances in knowledge: In abdominal CT, BMI has a superior correlation with effective diameter compared with weight, whereas weight is superior in chest CT. Patients' BMI and weight can be used as surrogates in the calculation of SSDEs. PMID:26693878

  5. Predictive Power of a Body Shape Index for Development of Diabetes, Hypertension, and Dyslipidemia in Japanese Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Sato, Yasunori; Nagashima, Kengo; Takahashi, Sho; Hata, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Recently, a body shape index (ABSI) was reported to predict all-cause mortality independently of body mass index (BMI) in Americans. This study aimed to evaluate whether ABSI is applicable to Japanese adults as a predictor for development of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Subjects/Methods We evaluated the predictive power of ABSI in a retrospective cohort study using annual health examination data from Chiba City Hall in Japan, for the period 2008 to 2012. Subjects included 37,581 without diabetes, 23,090 without hypertension, and 20,776 without dyslipidemia at baseline who were monitored for disease incidence for 4 years. We examined the associations of standardized ABSI, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline with disease incidence by logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, we conducted a case-matched study using the propensity score matching method. Results Elevated BMI, WC, and ABSI increased the risks of diabetes and dyslipidemia [BMI-diabetes: odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.20−1.32; BMI-dyslipidemia: OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.12−1.19; WC-diabetes: OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.18−1.31; WC-dyslipidemia: OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.11−1.19; ABSI-diabetes: OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01−1.11; ABSI-dyslipidemia: OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01−1.07]. Elevated BMI and WC, but not higher ABSI, also increased the risk of hypertension [BMI: OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.27−1.37; WC: OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.18−1.26; ABSI: OR = 1.00, 95%CI = 0.97−1.02]. Areas under the curve (AUCs) in regression models with ABSI were significantly smaller than in models with BMI or WC for all three diseases. In case-matched subgroups, the power of ABSI was weaker than that of BMI and WC for predicting the incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Conclusions Compared with BMI or WC, ABSI was not a better predictor of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in Japanese adults. PMID:26030122

  6. Temperature dependences of self- and N2-broadened line-shape parameters in the ν3 and ν5 bands of 12CH3D: Measurements and calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, A.; Malathy Devi, V.; Sutradhar, P.; Sinyakova, T.; Buldyreva, J.; Sung, K.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a spectroscopic line shape study of self- and nitrogen-broadened 12CH3D transitions in the ν3 and ν5 bands in the Triad region. We combined five pure gas spectra with eighteen spectra of lean mixtures of 12CH3D and nitrogen, all recorded with a Bruker IFS-125 HR Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra have been analyzed simultaneously using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique. N2-broadened line parameters for 184 transitions in the ν3 band and 205 transitions in the ν5 band were measured. In addition, line positions and line intensities were measured for 168 transitions in the ν3 band and 214 transitions in the ν5 band. We have observed 10 instances of weak line mixing corresponding to K″=3 A1 or A2 transitions. Comparisons were made for the N2-broadening coefficients and associated temperature exponents with corresponding values calculated using a semi-classical Robert Bonamy type formalism that involved an inter-molecular potential with terms corresponding to short- and long-range interactions, and exact classical molecular trajectories. The theoretical N2-broadened coefficients are overestimated for high J values, but are in good agreement with the experimental values for small and middle range J values.

  7. Index interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.

    1993-01-01

    The Index Interferometer is a novel instrument being developed by Northeast Photosciences. The instrument is a breakthrough in the high-accuracy measurement of the index of refraction, the dispersion, and the index profile of materials. The instrument accurately measures the index of refraction of materials to one or two more significant figures than previous instruments. Material slices polished moderately flat are sufficient, without any requirement for special or complicated material shapes, such as prisms. The index profile at any chosen wavelength can be measured using a simple color filter. No special laser sources or carefully collimated parallel beams are required. The index profile over an entire sample can be directly obtained at any desired wavelength. This instrument is remarkable in that it greatly increases the accuracy of measurement, eliminates the need for high-quality, extremely narrow sources and for fabrication of special-geometry samples, and adds additional features, such as index profile measurements. The technique compares the fringe pattern from the top surface with that from a reference mirror to determine the thickness. Then, with the aid of a filtered white light source, the interference pattern from the back surface is compared with that from the front to yield the optical thickness of the sample. The combination of the two measurements gives the index. The back surface fringe pattern itself gives the index profile.

  8. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  9. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  10. Correlation between Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) allows the calculation of percent work productivity loss in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Küster, Denise

    2015-07-01

    Data on indirect costs are vital for cost-effectiveness studies from a societal perspective. In contrast to quality of life, information on productivity loss is rarely collected in psoriasis trials. We aimed to identify a model to deduce indirect costs (presenteeism and absenteeism) of psoriasis from the Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI) of affected patients to facilitate health economic evaluations for psoriasis. We undertook a cross-sectional mapping study including 201 patients with physician-diagnosed psoriasis and investigated the relationship between quality of life (DLQI) and productivity loss (Work Limitations Questionnaire, WLQ--using the "output demands" subscale) using linear bootstrap regression analysis to set up an equation model allowing the calculation of percent work productivity loss per DLQI unit increase. DLQI and WLQ scores were significantly correlated (r = 0.47; p < 0.0001) The final equation model suggests a 0.545 and 0.560% decrease in productivity due to presenteeism and absenteeism per DLQI unit increase, with y-intercepts at 1.654 and 0.536, respectively. In the absence of data on indirect cost, work productivity loss due to psoriasis can be estimated from DLQI scores using the equations, Y = 0.545 × DLQI score + 1.654 for presenteeism (%) and Y = 0.560 × DLQI score + 0.536 for absenteeism (%).

  11. Comparison of rat and dog models of vasodilatation and lipolysis for the calculation of a therapeutic index for GPR109A agonists.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Jane, Ester; Gerckens, Lynn S; Luell, Silvi; Parlapiano, Allison S; Wolff, Michael; Colletti, Steven L; Tata, James R; Taggart, Andrew K P; Waters, M Gerard; Richman, Jeremy G; McCann, Margaret E; Forrest, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    GPR109A is the receptor mediating both the antilipolytic and vasodilatory effects of nicotinic acid. In order to develop agonists for GPR109A with improved therapeutic indices we have sought to optimize animal models that evaluate both nicotinic acid-mediated inhibition of lipolysis and stimulation of vasodilatation. The rat and the dog have previously been used to study the antilipolytic effects of nicotinic acid, but no optimal vasodilatation model exits in either species. We have developed a vasodilatation model in the rat that measures changes in ear perfusion using laser Doppler flowmetry. In the dog, we have developed a model of vasodilatation measuring changes in red color values in the ear, using a spectrocolorimeter. Effects of GPR109A agonists on lipolysis were measured in both species after oral dosing of compounds, and measuring plasma levels of free fatty acids. In both rat and dog, GPR109A agonists induce dose- and time-dependent vasodilatation, similar to that observed in humans. Vasodilatation is inhibited in both species with cyclooxygenase inhibitors or a specific DP1 receptor antagonist, indicating that, as in man, nicotinic acid-induced vasodilatation in rats and dogs is mainly mediated by the release of PGD(2). Our results show that both rat and dog are useful models for the characterization of GPR109A agonists. A therapeutic index for GPR109A agonists can be calculated in either species.

  12. Humidity coefficient correction in the calculation equations of air refractive index by He-Ne laser based on phase step interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianghua; Liu, Jinghai; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2015-02-10

    The refractive index of air (RIA) is an important parameter in precision measurement. The revisions to Edlen's equations by Boensch and Potulski [Metrologia 35, 133 (1998)] are mostly used to calculate the RIA at present. Since the humidity correction coefficients in the formulas were performed with four wavelengths of a Cd(114) lamp (644.0, 508.7, 480.1, and 467.9 nm) and at the temperature range of 19.6°C-20.1°C, the application is restricted when an He-Ne laser is used as the light source, which is mostly applied in optical precision measurement, and the environmental temperature is far away from 20°C as well. To solve this problem, a measurement system based on phase step interferometry for measuring the effect of the humidity to the RIA is presented, and a corresponding humidity correction equation is derived. The analysis and comparison results show that the uncertainty of the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski's. It is more suitable in present precision measurements by He-Ne laser, and the application temperature range extends to 14.6°C-24.0°C as well.

  13. Efficient and automatic calculation of optical band shapes and resonance Raman spectra for larger molecules within the independent mode displaced harmonic oscillator model.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Taras; Neese, Frank

    2012-12-21

    In this work, an improved method for the efficient automatic simulation of optical band shapes and resonance Raman (rR) intensities within the "independent mode displaced harmonic oscillator" is described. Despite the relative simplicity of this model, it is able to account for the intensity distribution in absorption (ABS), fluorescence, and rR spectra corresponding to strongly dipole allowed electronic transitions with high accuracy. In order to include temperature-induced effects, we propose a simple extension of the time dependent wavepacket formalism developed by Heller which enables one to derive analytical expressions for the intensities of hot bands in ABS and rR spectra from the dependence of the wavepacket evolution on its initial coordinate. We have also greatly optimized the computational procedures for numerical integration of complicated oscillating integrals. This is important for efficient simulations of higher-order rR spectra and excitation profiles, as well as for the fitting of experimental spectra of large molecules. In particular, the multimode damping mechanism is taken into account for efficient reduction of the upper time limit in the numerical integration. Excited state energy gradient as well as excited state geometry optimization calculations are employed in order to determine excited state dimensionless normal coordinate displacements. The gradient techniques are highly cost-effective provided that analytical excited state derivatives with respect to nuclear displacements are available. Through comparison with experimental spectra of some representative molecules, we illustrate that the gradient techniques can even outperform the geometry optimization method if the harmonic approximation becomes inadequate.

  14. Retinoblastoma external beam photon irradiation with a special ‘D’-shaped collimator: a comparison between measurements, Monte Carlo simulation and a treatment planning system calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brualla, L.; Mayorga, P. A.; Flühs, A.; Lallena, A. M.; Sempau, J.; Sauerwein, W.

    2012-11-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common eye tumour in childhood. According to the available long-term data, the best outcome regarding tumour control and visual function has been reached by external beam radiotherapy. The benefits of the treatment are, however, jeopardized by a high incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignancies and the fact that irradiated bones grow asymmetrically. In order to better exploit the advantages of external beam radiotherapy, it is necessary to improve current techniques by reducing the irradiated volume and minimizing the dose to the facial bones. To this end, dose measurements and simulated data in a water phantom are essential. A Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV is used in conjunction with a dedicated collimator for the retinoblastoma treatment. This collimator conforms a ‘D’-shaped off-axis field whose irradiated area can be either 5.2 or 3.1 cm2. Depth dose distributions and lateral profiles were experimentally measured. Experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations’ run with the penelope code and with calculations performed with the analytical anisotropic algorithm implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system using the gamma test. penelope simulations agree reasonably well with the experimental data with discrepancies in the dose profiles less than 3 mm of distance to agreement and 3% of dose. Discrepancies between the results found with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data reach 3 mm and 6%. Although the discrepancies between the results obtained with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data are notable, it is possible to consider this algorithm for routine treatment planning of retinoblastoma patients, provided the limitations of the algorithm are known and taken into account by the medical physicist and the clinician. Monte Carlo simulation is essential for knowing these limitations. Monte Carlo simulation is required for optimizing the

  15. The HumanIndexMod and New Calculations Demonstrating Heat Stress Effects All Aspects of Human Life Through Industry, Agriculture, and Daily Life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2014-12-01

    We show the new climatic tool, HumanIndexMod (HIM), for quantitatively assessing key climatic variables that are critical for decision making. The HIM calculates 9 different heat stress and 4 moist thermodynamic quantities using meteorological inputs of T, P, and Q. These heat stress metrics are commonly used throughout the world. We show new methods for integrating and standardizing practices for applying these metrics with the latest Earth system models. We implemented the HIM into CLM4.5, a component of CESM, maintained by NCAR. These heat stress metrics cover philosophical approaches of comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to the Urban, Canopy, Bare Ground, and Lake modules, to differentiate distinct regimes within each grid cell. The module calculates the instantaneous moisture-temperature covariance at every model time step and in every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity. The HIM uses the most accurate and computationally efficient moist thermodynamic algorithms available. Additionally, we show ways that the HIM may be effectively integrated into climate modeling and observations. The module is flexible. The user may decide which metrics to call, and there is an offline version of the HIM that is available to be used with weather and climate datasets. Examples include using high temporal resolution CMIP5 archive data, local weather station data, and weather and forecasting models. To provide comprehensive standards for applying the HIM to climate data, we executed a CLM4.5 simulation using the RCP8.5 boundary conditions. Preliminary results show moist thermodynamic and heat stress quantities have smaller variability in the extremes as compared to extremes in T (both at the 95th percentile). Additionally, the magnitude of the moist thermodynamic changes over land is similar to sea surface temperature changes. The metric changes from the early part of the 21st century as compared to the

  16. Engineered SOI slot waveguide ring resonator V-shape resonance combs for refraction index sensing up to 1300nm/RIU (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Serna, Samuel; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2016-05-01

    breakthrough of the performance of slot ring resonator sensing ability. Different from the normal sensing regime by monitoring one specific resonance (λres) peak shift, the proposed approach stems from the sensitivity of the RR critical coupling. The critical coupling peak is auto-selected out by matching the following condition: the ring resonator's round trip attenuation coefficient a(λ) being equal to the coupler self-coupling coefficient k(λ), thus resulting in the deepest extinction ratio (ER) among the spectrum RR comb. The obtained sensing comb, based on a V-shape spectrum envelop, is engineered by controlling a(λ) and k(λ) with opposite monotonicities. Both a(λ)and k(λ) are tuned to have a large dispersion along the wavelength, which means that |a(λ)-k(λ)| keeps rapidly increasing as λres is far away from λc, eliminating the resonance ER quickly down to 0. Experimentally, slot waveguide ring resonators with a radius of 50µm have been fabricated on a standard silicon platform with a Si thickness of 220nm, loaded by racetrack couplers with a straight coupling length of 20µm. Sensing experiments have been carried out by changing the top cladding material from a series of Cargille optical liquids with refraction index values ranging from 1.3 to 1.5. The Q factors of critical coupling resonances was monitored from 2,000 to 6,000, and measured wavelength shifts of this peak are from 1.41µm to 1.56µm. The maximum sensitivity of 1300nm/RIU is observed in the cladding index range 1.30-1.35. To conclude, a new sensing regime by tracking the critical coupling resonance λc of slot waveguide ring resonators is demonstrated. The reported sensitivity is up 1300nm/RIU around the water RI of 1.33, and the monitored sensing FOM is about 2300, which is very close to the FOM values achieved from nanobeam cavities. This work can thus contribute to future integrated optical sensing schemes based on slot RRs.

  17. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: New method to control the shape of spectral characteristics of Bragg gratings in electrooptical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamrai, A. V.; Kozlov, A. S.; Il'ichev, I. V.; Petrov, Mikhail P.

    2005-08-01

    A new method is proposed to control the shape of spectral characteristics of Bragg gratings, which is based on the introduction of electrically controlled shifts of the average refractive index. The shape of the spectral characteristics of Bragg gratings with a complex step structure of the spatial distribution of the average refractive index is calculated. The operative electric control of their shape in a channel optical LiNbO3 crystal waveguide is experimentally demonstrated.

  18. Manipulating femtosecond pulse shape using liquid crystals infiltrated one-dimensional graded index photonic crystal waveguides composed of coupled-cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission of a 10-femtosecond pulse through an ordinary and graded index coupled-cavity waveguide, using finite-difference time-domain and transfer matrix method. The ordinary structure is composed of dielectric/liquid crystal layers in which four defect layers are placed symmetrically. Next, we introduce a graded structure based on the ordinary system in which dielectric refractive index slightly increases with a constant step value from the beginning to the end of the structure while liquid crystal layers are maintained unchanged. Simulation results reveal that by applying an external static electric field and controlling liquid crystal refractive index in graded structure, it is possible to transmit an ultrashort pulse with negligible distortion and attenuation.

  19. Refractive Index Determination of Transparent Polymers: Experimental Setup for Multi-Wavelength Determination and Calculation at Specific Frequencies Using Group Contribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlutowski, Jay; Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Fries, David; Langebrake, Larry

    2006-01-01

    An experiment which enables students to determine the index of refraction at various wavelengths is demonstrated by using two polymers examples, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). This experiment would be suitable for a course in organic chemistry or any course discussing the optical properties of polymeric…

  20. Refractive Index Determination of Transparent Polymers: Experimental Setup for Multi-Wavelength Determination and Calculation at Specific Frequencies Using Group Contribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlutowski, Jay; Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Fries, David; Langebrake, Larry

    2006-01-01

    An experiment which enables students to determine the index of refraction at various wavelengths is demonstrated by using two polymers examples, poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). This experiment would be suitable for a course in organic chemistry or any course discussing the optical properties of polymeric…

  1. Hydrodynamic behavior and electrochemical impedance of the Hanging Meniscus Rotating Disk (HMRD) electrode. I - Meniscus shape under rotation. II - I-BIEM calculations of frequency dispersion and minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahan, Boris D.

    1991-01-01

    The shape equations for an HMRD in static and rotating configurations are developed and solved numerically. A rationale for the applicability of the standard Levich equations to the rotating case is given. The region of stability of the HMRD is examined, and the observed small negative intercept for a Levich plot is explained. The iterative boundary integral equation method is applied to the problem of frequency dispersion at an HMRD electrode. It is shown that a range of disk sizes and heights can be chosen to give almost uniform primary and secondary current distribution and minimal frequency disperison.

  2. First-principles calculations of luminescence spectrum line shapes for defects in semiconductors: the example of GaN and ZnO.

    PubMed

    Alkauskas, Audrius; Lyons, John L; Steiauf, Daniel; Van de Walle, Chris G

    2012-12-28

    We present a theoretical study of the broadening of defect luminescence bands due to vibronic coupling. Numerical proof is provided for the commonly used assumption that a multidimensional vibrational problem can be mapped onto an effective one-dimensional configuration coordinate diagram. Our approach is implemented based on density functional theory with a hybrid functional, resulting in luminescence line shapes for important defects in GaN and ZnO that show unprecedented agreement with experiment. We find clear trends concerning effective parameters that characterize luminescence bands of donor- and acceptor-type defects, thus facilitating their identification.

  3. A U-shaped Association between Body Mass Index and Psychological Distress on the Multiphasic Personality Inventory: Retrospective Cross-sectional Analysis of 19-year-old Men in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jung Jun; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Shin Kyoung; Roh, Sungwon; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-06-01

    Objective personality tests, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), might be more sensitive to reflect subclinical personality and be more state-dependent in an individual's lifetime, so they are good scales to predict the psychological distress regarding certain states. The aim of this study was to identify the specific pattern between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress using the objective personality test. For this study, we investigated BMI and the Korean Military Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MPI). A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 19-yr-old examinees who were admitted to the Military Manpower Administration in Korea from February 2007 to January 2010. Of 1,088,107 examinees, we enrolled 771,408 subjects who were psychologically apparent healthy possible-military-service groups. Afterwards, we reviewed and analyzed directly measured BMI and MPI results. In terms of the validity scales, the faking-good subscale showed an inverted U-shaped association, and faking-bad and infrequency subscales showed a U-shaped association with BMI groups. In terms of the neurosis scales, all clinical subscales (anxiety, depression, somatization, and personality disorder) also showed a U-shaped association with BMI groups. For the psychopath scales, the schizophrenia subscale showed a U-shaped association, and the paranoia subscale showed a near-positive correlation with BMI. In conclusion, a specific U-shaped pattern was observed between BMI and the MPI in 19-yr-old men in Korea. Underweight and obesity are related to psychological distress, so supportive advice and education are needed to them.

  4. Local Solid Shape

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution. PMID:27648217

  5. The Density Matrix of H20 - N2 In the Coordinate Representation: A Monte Carlo Calculation of the Far-Wing Line Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    The far-wing line shape theory within the binary collision and quasistatic framework has been developed using the coordinate representation. Within this formalism, the main computational task is the evaluation of multidimensional integrals whose variables are the orientational angles needed to specify the initial and final positions of the system during transition processes. Using standard methods, one is able to evaluate the 7-dimensional integrations required for linear molecular systems, or the 7-dimensional integrations for more complicated asymmetric-top (or symmetric-top) molecular systems whose interaction potential contains cyclic coordinates. In order to obviate this latter restriction on the form of the interaction potential, a Monte Carlo method is used to evaluate the 9-dimensional integrations required for systems consisting of one asymmetric-top (or symmetric-top) and one linear molecule, such as H20-N2. Combined with techniques developed previously to deal with sophisticated potential models, one is able to implement realistic potentials for these systems and derive accurate, converged results for the far-wing line shapes and the corresponding absorption coefficients. Conversely, comparison of the far-wing absorption with experimental data can serve as a sensitive diagnostic tool in order to obtain detailed information on the short-range anisotropic dependence of interaction potentials.

  6. I can't stop looking at them: interactive effects of body mass index and weight dissatisfaction on attention towards body shape photographs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Li, Xiaojing; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Yang; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Although attentional biases toward body-related information contribute to the etiology and maintenance of body dissatisfaction (BD) and eating disorders (EDs), attentional disengagement in women with BD and EDs is not clear. The present study investigated the association between weight dissatisfaction and attentional disengagement from body-related pictures and the possible moderating effect of body mass index (BMI) on this relation. Two hundred and four undergraduate women engaged in an experiment using a pictorial spatial cueing paradigm including fat/thin bodies and neutral household photos. Partial correlations and simple slopes regression analyses were conducted with attentional disengagement index scores of each category of cues. Findings suggested that independent of BMI, weight dissatisfaction was directly associated with attentional disengagement from both fat and thin pictures. In addition, among women with low and medium BMIs, the more they were dissatisfied with their bodyweight, the more difficulty they had disengaging their attention from fat body pictures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring electrical conductivity anomalies across the martensite transition in Fe{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} ferromagnetic shape memory alloys: Experiments and ab-initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Arabi-Hashemi, A.; Mayr, S. G.

    2015-03-02

    Conductivity in Fe{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} is characterized by an anomalous increase when traversing the face–centered–cubic (fcc) austenite to face–centered–tetragonal (fct) martensite transition, contrary to most other conventional and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Experiments on molecular– beam–epitaxy–grown single crystals indicate a resistivity change of ≈20% during the transformation on top of a quadratic temperature dependence reaching up to room temperature. The physical foundations of residual resistivity changes along the full Bain path are addressed by a Kubo– Greenwood approach within the framework of density functional theory. To do so, a concept to reliably extract the DC conductivities is proposed that yields reproducible results consistent with experiments. Finding that conductivity peaks in the fct phase, we identify a large density of states paired with high velocities at the Fermi level in the majority spin sub–bands in presence of minimum s–d electron scattering as underlying physical origin.

  8. Aerodynamic Heating Computations for Projectiles. Volume 2. Swept Wing Calculations Using the Planar Version of the ABRES Shape Change Code (PLNRASCC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Mt n o ro " g < - OD-O)C 0N v : _grI40N40 O I0 eeg gr, Wn *, c.M b-C N Z ý VN dN N C4 C4 C4 e"Ř!02AWVý 00 0 P- 1( or . . . . . . . . . i...the ABRES Shape Change Code (ASCC)," Acurex Report TM -80-31/AS, July 1980. 3. M. J. Abbett, "Finite Difference Solution of the Subsonic/Supersonic...Development Command US Army AMCCOM Technical Support Activity ATTN: DRSMC- TDC (D) ATTN: DELSD-L DRSMC-TSS (D) Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703 DRSMC-LCA-F (D) Mr. 0

  9. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Nappi, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Storto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new "toxicity index" (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V20 in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Martensitic transformation and phase stability of In-doped Ni-Mn-Sn shape memory alloys from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H. B.; Yang, C. P. Wang, R. L.; Luo, X.; Marchenkov, V. V.

    2014-05-28

    The effect of the alloying element Indium (In) on the martensitic transition, magnetic properties, and phase stabilities of Ni{sub 8}Mn{sub 6}Sn{sub 2−x}In{sub x} shape memory alloys has been investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The energy difference between the austenitic and martensitic phases was found to increase with increasing In content, which implies an enhancement of the martensitic phase transition temperature (T{sub M}). Moreover, the formation energy results indicate that In-doping increases the relative stability of Ni{sub 8}Mn{sub 6}Sn{sub 2−x}In{sub x} both in austenite and martensite. This results from a reduction in density of states near the Fermi level regions caused by Ni-3d–In-5p hybridization when Sn is replaced by In. The equilibrium equation of state results show that the alloys Ni{sub 8}Mn{sub 6}Sn{sub 2−x}In{sub x} exhibit an energetically degenerated effect for an In content of x = ∼1.5. This implies the coexistence of antiparallel and parallel configurations in the austenite.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy energy of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Ni2X(X=Fe, Co)Ga by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wangqiang; Ma, Xingqiao; Liu, Zhuhong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Long-Qing

    2017-07-01

    First-principles calculations were employed to explore magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of Ni2X(X=Fe, Co)Ga alloys. The MAE of Ni2FeGa is found to show a concave behavior as a function of tetragonal distortion and easy-axis of magnetization in martensitic phase is along long axis, which have been interpreted by the shift of Fe dxy+dyz peak in minority spin channel near Fermi level. The substitution of Ni by Co in Ni2FeGa alloys rotates magnetic easy axis from long axis to short axis in non-modulated phase while substitution of Fe by Co did not, which is in agreement with experiment. Magnetic anisotropy constant and magnetic stress have been estimated with calculated MAE of martensite phases. By comparing first-principles estimated values of magnetic and twinning stresses, we confirmed the condition, whether large magnetic field-induced strains in FSMAs could be obtained or not. This information can provide theoretical guidance in searching new types of FSMAs with large magnetic field induced strain.

  12. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non–small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Nappi, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Storto, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  13. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  14. Defect formation energy and magnetic structure of shape memory alloys Ni-X-Ga (X=Mn, Fe, Co) by first principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Raulot, J. M.; Zhang, Y. D.; Esling, C.; Zhao, X.; Zuo, L.

    2010-09-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic structures of the Ni2XGa (X=Mn, Fe, Co), are systematically investigated by means of the first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the VIENNA AB INITIO SOFTWARE PACKAGE. The formation energies of several kinds of defects (atomic exchange, antisite, vacancy) are estimated. The Ga atoms stabilize the cubic structure, and the effect of X atoms on the structural stability is opposite. For most cases of the site occupation, the excess atoms of the rich component directly occupy the site(s) of the deficient one(s), except for Ga-rich Ni-deficient type. The magnitude of the variation in Ni moments is much larger than that of Mn in defective Ni2XGa. The value of Ni magnetic moment sensitively depends on the distance between Ni and X. Excess Mn could be ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, depending on the distance between the neighboring Mn atoms.

  15. Determination of the vibrational contribution to the entropy change at the martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Sn metamagnetic shape memory alloys: a combined approach of time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Recarte, V; Zbiri, M; Jiménez-Ruiz, M; Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I

    2016-05-25

    The different contributions to the entropy change linked to the austenite-martensitic transition in a Ni-Mn-Sn metamagnetic shape memory alloy have been determined by combining different experimental techniques. The vibrational contribution has been inferred from the vibrational density of states of both the martensitic and austenite phases. This has been accomplished by combining time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements and ab initio calculations. Further, the electronic part of the entropy change has also been calculated. Since the martensitic transformation takes place between two paramagnetic phases, the magnetic contribution can be neglected and the entropy change can be reduced to the sum of two terms: vibrational and electronic. The obtained value of the vibrational contribution ([Formula: see text]) nearly provides the total entropy change measured by calorimetry ([Formula: see text]), the difference being the electronic contribution within the experimental error.

  16. A study of dynamic finite size scaling behavior of the scaling functions—calculation of dynamic critical index of Wolff algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüç, Semra; Dilaver, Mehmet; Aydın, Meral; Gündüç, Yiğit

    2005-02-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic scaling behavior of two scaling functions and we have shown that scaling functions obey the dynamic finite size scaling rules. Dynamic finite size scaling of scaling functions opens possibilities for a wide range of applications. As an application we have calculated the dynamic critical exponent (z) of Wolff's cluster algorithm for 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional Ising models. Configurations with vanishing initial magnetization are chosen in order to avoid complications due to initial magnetization. The observed dynamic finite size scaling behavior during early stages of the Monte Carlo simulation yields z for Wolff's cluster algorithm for 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional Ising models with vanishing values which are consistent with the values obtained from the autocorrelations. Especially, the vanishing dynamic critical exponent we obtained for d=3 implies that the Wolff algorithm is more efficient in eliminating critical slowing down in Monte Carlo simulations than previously reported.

  17. Parallel screening of drug-like natural compounds using Caco-2 cell permeability QSAR model with applicability domain, lipophilic ligand efficiency index and shape property: A case study of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rikin D.; Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Patel, Chirag N.; Shankar, Shetty Shilpa; Pandya, Himanshu A.; Solanki, Hitesh A.

    2017-10-01

    The traditional drug design strategy centrally focuses on optimizing binding affinity with the receptor target and evaluates pharmacokinetic properties at a later stage which causes high rate of attrition in clinical trials. Alternatively, parallel screening allows evaluation of these properties and affinity simultaneously. In a case study to identify leads from natural compounds with experimental HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition, we integrated various computational approaches including Caco-2 cell permeability QSAR model with applicability domain (AD) to recognize drug-like natural compounds, molecular docking to study HIV-1 RT interactions and shape similarity analysis with known crystal inhibitors having characteristic butterfly-like model. Further, the lipophilic properties of the compounds refined from the process with best scores were examined using lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) index. Seven natural compound hits viz. baicalien, (+)-calanolide A, mniopetal F, fagaronine chloride, 3,5,8-trihydroxy-4-quinolone methyl ether derivative, nitidine chloride and palmatine, were prioritized based on LLE score which demonstrated Caco-2 well absorption labeling, encompassment in AD structural coverage, better receptor affinity, shape adaptation and permissible AlogP value. We showed that this integrative approach is successful in lead exploration of natural compounds targeted against HIV-1 RT enzyme.

  18. Understanding the effect of ultrathin AuPd alloy shells of irregularly shaped Au@AuPd nanoparticles with high-index facets on enhanced performance of ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cuixia; Feng, Cong; Miao, Tingting; Song, Yahui; Wang, Dayang; Xia, Haibing

    2015-12-21

    In this study, irregularly shaped, concave cuboidal Au@AuPd nanoparticles (ISCC-Au@AuPd NPs) with high-index facets were synthesized via Pd overgrowth on pre-formed ISCC-Au NPs with a concentration of Pd precursors as low as 2%. The AuPd alloy nature of the resulting shells was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammogram analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Among the irregularly shaped NPs obtained, the ISCC-Au97.5@Au0.5Pd2.0 NPs display the largest electrochemically active surface area (up to 92.11 m(2) g(-1)), as their closed-packed agglomeration was prevented, and the best long-term stability with respect to ethanol oxidation (0.50 M) in alkaline media (0.30 KOH) by efficiently removing intermediates. Their mass- and ECSA-normalized current densities (4.15 A mgPd(-1) and 4.51 mA cm(-2)) are about 20.7 times and 6.9 times higher than those of commercial Pd/C catalysts (0.20 A mgPd(-1) and 0.65 mA cm(-2)), respectively.

  19. Total Testosterone and Calculated Estimates for Free and Bioavailable Testosterone: Influence of Age and Body Mass Index and Establishment of Sex-Specific Reference Ranges.

    PubMed

    Deutschbein, T; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of sex steroids is required to evaluate gonadal function, but normative data are lacking (especially for estimates of physiologically active testosterone). Using modern immunoassays, this study established sex-specific reference ranges (2.5% and 97.5% percentiles) for total testosterone (TOT), bioactive testosterone Vermeulen (BTV), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone Sartorius (FTS), free testosterone Vermeulen (FTV), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). In the comparative study, subjects were grouped by age (18-30; 31-50; >50 years), BMI (<25; 25-30; >30 kg/m(2)), and sex. Study participants were selected in such a way that each group comprised 12 subjects (e.g., 12 males between 18 and 30 years with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), and so on), resulting in a total of 216 controls (108 males, 108 females; age: 40.3 ± 1.0; BMI: 27.8 ± 0.4). Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed (covariates: age, BMI, sex), and sex-specific reference ranges were applied to 50 males (age: 46.1 ± 2.3; BMI: 27.4 ± 0.7) with suspected hypogonadism. Regression analysis identified the strongest predictor of each parameter apart from sex, resulting in age-specific (males: FAI, SHBG, BTV, FTV; females: TOT, FTS, SHBG), BMI-specific (males: TOT, FTS; females: FAI, BTV, FTV) and overall cutoffs for both sexes. In male patients, overall agreement between the results derived from the estimates (i.e., BTV, FTS, FTV) was high (with discordant results in only 4%). In summary, if both the endocrine workup and the clinical presentation were taken into account, the newly established reference ranges allowed reliable identification of hypogonadal males. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Shape characteristics of biological spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Daniel V.; Limsui, Diane; Joseph, Richard I.; Baldwin, Kevin C.; Boggs, Nathan T.; Carr, Alison K.; Carter, Christopher C.; Han, Timothy S.; Thomas, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    Calculation of scattering properties of biological materials has classically been addressed using numerical calculations based on T-matrix theory. These calculations use bulk optical properties, particle size distribution, and a limited selection of shape descriptors to calculate the resulting aerosol properties. However, the most applicable shape available in T-matrix codes, the spheroid, is not the best descriptor of most biological materials. Based on imagery of the spores of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis, capsule and egg shapes are mathematically described and programmed into the Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation (ADDA). Spectrally dependent cross sections and depolarization ratios are calculated and a comparison made to spheroidal shapes of equivalent sizes.

  1. Linking surface energy balance calculations and Temperature Index models of surface melt: Revision of the Positive Degree-Day (PDD) methodology for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, L. M.; Marshall, S. J.; Lecavalier, B.; Milne, G. A.; Huybrechts, P.; Simpson, M. J. R.; Bayou, N.

    2012-04-01

    Positive Degree-Day (PDD) methodology (Braithwaite and Olesen, 1989; Reeh, 1991) is widely used in conjunction with observationally-derived Degree-Day Factors (DDFs) for snow and ice in order to simulate ice-sheet wide ablation rates using mean monthly temperature as the only input. Monthly PDD totals are calculated using the assumption that the monthly temperature distribution follows a Gaussian relationship with a spatially and temporally invariable standard deviation (σm), typically in the range of 4-5oC. DDFs for snow and ice used in ice sheet modelling are usually fixed at ~3 and 8 mm w.e. oC-1 day-1 respectively, but field observations show that these can vary by at least a factor of two depending on the albedo characteristics of the glacier surface (Hock, 2003). At odds with the assumption of constant σm, it has been shown that temperature variability is reduced at temperatures close to or above the melting point, due to thermal (latent heat) buffering and the maximum temperature of 0oC for a melting snow/ice surface (e.g., Marshall and Sharp, 2009). Analysis of hourly temperature data from 22 GC-Net stations (Steffen and Box, 2001) spanning the period 1995-2010 shows that observed σm follows a quadratic relationship with observed average monthly temperature. Comparisons of calculated and observed monthly PDD totals from GC-Net locations show that current assumptions of σm = 4-5oC can overestimate monthly PDD totals by 25% on average, compared to ~3% for the new methodology using a spatially varying σm. In the absence of extensive field measurements, 'theoretical' daily melt rates are calculated at several GC-Net locations using available field data to estimate the components of the daily surface energy budget (Net radiation, sensible and latent heat and subsurface energy flux). Subsequently, 'theoretical' DDFs are evaluated as a function of surface albedo. Our results suggest that future studies should consider DDFs for snow and ice of 3-7 mm w.e. oC-1

  2. Soil climate and decomposer activity in Sub-Saharan Africa estimated from standard weather station data: a simple climate index for soil carbon balance calculations.

    PubMed

    Andrén, Olof; Kihara, Job; Bationo, André; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Kätterer, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Soil biological activity was calculated on a daily basis, using standard meteorological data from African weather stations, a simple soil water model, and commonly used assumptions regarding the relations between temperature, soil water content, and biological activity. The activity factor r(e_clim) is calculated from daily soil moisture and temperature, thereby taking the daily interaction between temperature and moisture into account. Annual mean r(e_clim) was normalized to 1 in Central Sweden (clay loam soil, no crop), where the original calibration took place. Since soils vary in water storage capacity and plant cover will affect transpiration, we used this soil under no crop for all sites, thereby only including climate differences. The Swedish r(e_clim) value, 1, corresponds to ca. 50% annual mass loss of, e.g., cereal straw incorporated into the topsoil. African mean annual r(e_clim) values varied between 1.1 at a hot and dry site (Faya, Chad) and 4.7 at a warm and moist site (Brazzaville, Congo). Sites in Kenya ranged between r(e_clim) = 2.1 at high altitude (Matanya) and 4.1 in western Kenya (Ahero). This means that 4.1 times the Swedish C input to soil is necessary to maintain Swedish soil carbon levels in Ahero, if soil type and management are equal. Diagrams showing daily r(e_clim) dynamics are presented for all sites, and differences in within-year dynamics are discussed. A model experiment indicated that a Swedish soil in balance with respect to soil carbon would lose 41% of its soil carbon during 30 y, if moved to Ahero, Kenya. If the soil was in balance in Ahero with respect to soil carbon, and then moved to Sweden, soil carbon mass would increase by 64% in 30 y. The validity of the methodology and results is discussed, and r(e_clim) is compared with other climate indices. A simple method to produce a rough estimate of r(e_clim) is suggested.

  3. Flooding Enzymes: Quantifying the Contributions of Interstitial Water and Cavity Shape to Ligand Binding Using Extended Linear Response Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate racemase (GR) is a cofactor independent amino acid racemase that has recently garnered increasing attention as an antimicrobial drug target. There are numerous high resolution crystal structures of GR, yet these are invariably bound to either d-glutamate or very weakly bound oxygen-based salts. Recent in silico screens have identified a number of new competitive inhibitor scaffolds, which are not based on d-Glu, but exploit many of the same hydrogen bond donor positions. In silico studies on 1-H-benzimidazole-2-sulfonic acid (BISA) show that the sulfonic acid points to the back of the GR active site, in the most buried region, analogous to the C2-carboxylate binding position in the GR-d-glutamate complex. Furthermore, BISA has been shown to be the strongest nonamino acid competitive inhibitor. Previously published computational studies have suggested that a portion of this binding strength is derived from complexation with a more closed active site, relative to weaker ligands, and in which the internal water network is more isolated from the bulk solvent. In order to validate key contacts between the buried sulfonate moiety of BISA and moieties in the back of the enzyme active site, as well as to probe the energetic importance of the potentially large number of interstitial waters contacted by the BISA scaffold, we have designed several mutants of Asn75. GR-N75A removes a key hydrogen bond donor to the sulfonate of BISA, but also serves to introduce an additional interstitial water, due to the newly created space of the mutation. GR- N75L should also show the loss of a hydrogen bond donor to the sulfonate of BISA, but does not (a priori) seem to permit an additional interstitial water contact. In order to investigate the dynamics, structure, and energies of this water-mediated complexation, we have employed the extended linear response (ELR) approach for the calculation of binding free energies to GR, using the YASARA2 knowledge based force field on a set

  4. Evaluating mandibular cortical index quantitatively.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Fusun; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to assess whether Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity analysis can discriminate patients having different mandibular cortical shape. Panoramic radiographs of 52 patients were evaluated for mandibular cortical index. Weighted Kappa between the observations were varying between 0.718-0.805. These radiographs were scanned and converted to binary images. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity were calculated from the regions where best represents the cortical morphology. It was found that there were statistically significant difference between the Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 1 and Cl 2 (Fractal Dimension P:0.000; Lacunarity P:0.003); and Cl 1 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:0.008; Lacunarity P:0.001); but there was no statistically significant difference between Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 2 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:1.000; Lacunarity P:0.758). FD and L can differentiate Cl 1 mandibular cortical shape from both Cl 2 and Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape but cannot differentiate Cl 2 from Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape on panoramic radiographs.

  5. Evaluating Mandibular Cortical Index Quantitatively

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Fusun; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to assess whether Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity analysis can discriminate patients having different mandibular cortical shape. Methods Panoramic radiographs of 52 patients were evaluated for mandibular cortical index. Weighted Kappa between the observations were varying between 0.718–0.805. These radiographs were scanned and converted to binary images. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity were calculated from the regions where best represents the cortical morphology. Results It was found that there were statistically significant difference between the Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 1 and Cl 2 (Fractal Dimension P:0.000; Lacunarity P:0.003); and Cl 1 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:0.008; Lacunarity P:0.001); but there was no statistically significant difference between Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 2 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:1.000; Lacunarity P:0.758). Conclusions FD and L can differentiate Cl 1 mandibular cortical shape from both Cl 2 and Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape but cannot differentiate Cl 2 from Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape on panoramic radiographs. PMID:19212535

  6. On the effective refractive index of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahmad-Rohen, Alexander; Contreras-Tello, Humberto; Morales-Luna, Gesuri; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index {n}{eff} of blood as functions of wavelength from 400 to 800 nm; we employed van de Hulst’s theory, together with the anomalous diffraction approximation, for the calculation. We modelled blood as a mixture of plasma and erythrocytes. Our results indicate that erythrocyte orientation has a strong effect on {n}{eff}, making blood an optically anisotropic medium except when the erythrocytes are randomly oriented. In the case in which their symmetry axis is perpendicular to the wave vector, {n}{eff} equals the refractive index of plasma at certain wavelengths. Furthermore, the erythrocytes’ shape affects their contribution to {n}{eff} in an important way, implying that studies on the effective refractive index of blood should avoid approximating them as spheres or spheroids. Finally, the effective refractive index of blood predicted by van de Hulst’s theory is different from what would be obtained by averaging the refractive indices of its constituents weighted by volume; such a volume-weighted average is appropriate only for haemolysed blood. We then measured the real part of the refractive index of various blood solutions using two different experimental setups. One of the most important results of our expriment is that {n}{eff} is measurable to a good degree of precision even for undiluted blood, although not all measuring apparatuses are appropriate. The experimental data is self-consistent and in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  7. Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, K. M.; Thrush, E.; Airola, M.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D. M.; Boggs, N. T.; Thomas, M. E.; Carter, C. C.

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of biological agents can make it difficult to identify the important factors impacting scattering characteristics among variables such as size, shape, internal structure and biochemical composition, particle aggregation, and sample additives. This difficulty is exacerbated by the environmentally interactive nature of biological organisms. In particular, bacterial spores equilibrate with environmental humidity by absorption/desorption of water which can affect both the complex refractive index and the size/shape distributions of particles - two factors upon which scattering characteristics depend critically. Therefore accurate analysis of experimental data for determination of refractive index must take account of particle water content. First, spectral transmission measurements to determine visible refractive index done on suspensions of bacterial spores must account for water (or other solvent) uptake. Second, realistic calculations of aerosol scattering cross sections should consider effects of atmospheric humidity on particle water content, size and shape. In this work we demonstrate a method for determining refractive index of bacterial spores bacillus atropheus (BG), bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAs) which accounts for these effects. Visible index is found from transmission measurements on aqueous and DMSO suspensions of particles, using an anomalous diffraction approximation. A simplified version of the anomalous diffraction theory is used to eliminate the need for knowledge of particle size. Results using this approach indicate the technique can be useful in determining the visible refractive index of particles when size and shape distributions are not well known but fall within the region of validity of anomalous dispersion theory.

  8. Equilibrium Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Dario; Petazzi, Lorenzo

    2006-08-01

    We present a satellite path planning technique able to make identical spacecraft aquire a given configuration. The technique exploits a behaviour-based approach to achieve an autonomous and distributed control over the relative geometry making use of limited sensorial information. A desired velocity is defined for each satellite as a sum of different contributions coming from generic high level behaviours: forcing the final desired configuration the behaviours are further defined by an inverse dynamic calculation dubbed Equilibrium Shaping. We show how considering only three different kind of behaviours it is possible to acquire a number of interesting formations and we set down the theoretical framework to find the entire set. We find that allowing a limited amount of communication the technique may be used also to form complex lattice structures. Several control feedbacks able to track the desired velocities are introduced and discussed. Our results suggest that sliding mode control is particularly appropriate in connection with the developed technique.

  9. General shape optimization capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  10. A pure H2O isolated line-shape model based on classical molecular dynamics simulations of velocity changes and semi-classical calculations of speed-dependent collisional parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Tran, H.; Gamache, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the Voigt profile does not well describe the (measured) shapes of isolated lines. This is due to the neglect of the intermolecular collision-induced velocity changes and of the speed dependence of the collisional parameters. In this paper, we present a new line profile model for pure H2O which takes both of these effects into account. The speed dependence of the collisional parameters has been calculated by a semi-classical method. The velocity changes have been modeled by using the Keilson-Storer collision kernel with two characteristic parameters. The latter have been deduced from classical molecular dynamics simulations which also indicate that, for pure H2O, the correlation between velocity-changing and state-changing collisions is not negligible, a result confirmed by the analysis of measured spectra. A partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer model has thus been adopted to describe the line-shape. Comparisons between simulated spectra and measurements for four self-broadened lines in the near-infrared at various pressures show excellent agreements.

  11. A pure H2O isolated line-shape model based on classical molecular dynamics simulations of velocity changes and semi-classical calculations of speed-dependent collisional parameters.

    PubMed

    Ngo, N H; Tran, H; Gamache, R R

    2012-04-21

    It is well known that the Voigt profile does not well describe the (measured) shapes of isolated lines. This is due to the neglect of the intermolecular collision-induced velocity changes and of the speed dependence of the collisional parameters. In this paper, we present a new line profile model for pure H(2)O which takes both of these effects into account. The speed dependence of the collisional parameters has been calculated by a semi-classical method. The velocity changes have been modeled by using the Keilson-Storer collision kernel with two characteristic parameters. The latter have been deduced from classical molecular dynamics simulations which also indicate that, for pure H(2)O, the correlation between velocity-changing and state-changing collisions is not negligible, a result confirmed by the analysis of measured spectra. A partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer model has thus been adopted to describe the line-shape. Comparisons between simulated spectra and measurements for four self-broadened lines in the near-infrared at various pressures show excellent agreements.

  12. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P < 0·001), PDAI (P < 0·001), PGA (P < 0·001) and DLQI (P = 0·03) scores. This study suggests cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Arbitrary shape surface Fresnel diffraction.

    PubMed

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-04-09

    Fresnel diffraction calculation on an arbitrary shape surface is proposed. This method is capable of calculating Fresnel diffraction from a source surface with an arbitrary shape to a planar destination surface. Although such calculation can be readily calculated by the direct integral of a diffraction calculation, the calculation cost is proportional to O(N²) in one dimensional or O(N⁴) in two dimensional cases, where N is the number of sampling points. However, the calculation cost of the proposed method is O(N log N) in one dimensional or O(N² log N) in two dimensional cases using non-uniform fast Fourier transform.

  14. Computer Calculation of Fire Danger

    Treesearch

    William A. Main

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program that calculates National Fire Danger Rating Indexes. fuel moisture, buildup index, and drying factor are also available. The program is written in FORTRAN and is usable on even the smallest compiler.

  15. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  16. The shapes of nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    Gerry Brown initiated some early studies on the coexistence of different nuclear shapes. The subject has continued to be of interest and is crucial for understanding nuclear fission. We now have a very good picture of the potential energy surface with respect to shape degrees of freedom in heavy nuclei, but the dynamics remain problematic. In contrast, the early studies on light nuclei were quite successful in describing the mixing between shapes. Perhaps a new approach in the spirit of the old calculations could better elucidate the character of the fission dynamics and explain phenomena that current theory does not model well.

  17. Understanding the effect of ultrathin AuPd alloy shells of irregularly shaped Au@AuPd nanoparticles with high-index facets on enhanced performance of ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Cuixia; Feng, Cong; Miao, Tingting; Song, Yahui; Wang, Dayang; Xia, Haibing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, irregularly shaped, concave cuboidal Au@AuPd nanoparticles (ISCC-Au@AuPd NPs) with high-index facets were synthesized via Pd overgrowth on pre-formed ISCC-Au NPs with a concentration of Pd precursors as low as 2%. The AuPd alloy nature of the resulting shells was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammogram analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Among the irregularly shaped NPs obtained, the ISCC-Au97.5@Au0.5Pd2.0 NPs display the largest electrochemically active surface area (up to 92.11 m2 g-1), as their closed-packed agglomeration was prevented, and the best long-term stability with respect to ethanol oxidation (0.50 M) in alkaline media (0.30 KOH) by efficiently removing intermediates. Their mass- and ECSA-normalized current densities (4.15 A mgPd-1 and 4.51 mA cm-2) are about 20.7 times and 6.9 times higher than those of commercial Pd/C catalysts (0.20 A mgPd-1 and 0.65 mA cm-2), respectively.In this study, irregularly shaped, concave cuboidal Au@AuPd nanoparticles (ISCC-Au@AuPd NPs) with high-index facets were synthesized via Pd overgrowth on pre-formed ISCC-Au NPs with a concentration of Pd precursors as low as 2%. The AuPd alloy nature of the resulting shells was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammogram analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Among the irregularly shaped NPs obtained, the ISCC-Au97.5@Au0.5Pd2.0 NPs display the largest electrochemically active surface area (up to 92.11 m2 g-1), as their closed-packed agglomeration was prevented, and the best long-term stability with respect to ethanol oxidation (0.50 M) in alkaline media (0.30 KOH) by efficiently removing intermediates. Their mass- and ECSA-normalized current densities (4.15 A mgPd-1 and 4.51 mA cm-2) are about 20.7 times and 6.9 times higher than those of commercial Pd/C catalysts (0.20 A mgPd-1 and 0.65 mA cm-2), respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: High magnification TEM

  18. Measuring shape complexity of breast lesions on ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Su; Chen, Yazhu; Li, Wenying; Chen, Yaqing

    2008-03-01

    The shapes of malignant breast tumors are more complex than the benign lesions due to their nature of infiltration into surrounding tissues. We investigated the efficacy of shape features and presented a method using polygon shape complexity to improve the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions on ultrasound. First, 63 lesions (32 benign and 31 malignant) were segmented by K-way normalized cut with the priori rules on the ultrasound images. Then, the shape measures were computed from the automatically extracted lesion contours. A polygon shape complexity measure (SCM) was introduced to characterize the complexity of breast lesion contour, which was calculated from the polygonal model of lesion contour. Three new statistical parameters were derived from the local integral invariant signatures to quantify the local property of the lesion contour. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried on to evaluate the performance of each individual shape feature. SCM outperformed the other shape measures, the area under ROC curve (AUC) of SCM was 0.91, and the sensitivity of SCM could reach 0.97 with the specificity 0.66. The measures of shape feature and margin feature were combined in a linear discriminant classifier. The resubstitution and leave-one-out AUC of the linear discriminant classifier were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively. The distinguishing ability of SCM showed that it could be a useful index for the clinical diagnosis and computer-aided diagnosis to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  19. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  20. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  1. Computing Teichmüller shape space.

    PubMed

    Jin, Miao; Zeng, Wei; Luo, Feng; Gu, Xianfeng

    2009-01-01

    Shape indexing, classification, and retrieval are fundamental problems in computer graphics. This work introduces a novel method for surface indexing and classification based on Teichmuller theory. The Teichmuller space for surfaces with the same topology is a finite dimensional manifold, where each point represents a conformal equivalence class, a curve represents a deformation process from one class to the other. We apply Teichmuller space coordinates as shape descriptors, which are succinct, discriminating and intrinsic; invariant under the rigid motions and scalings, insensitive to resolutions. Furthermore, the method has solid theoretic foundation, and the computation of Teichmuller coordinates is practical, stable and efficient. This work focuses on the surfaces with negative Euler numbers, which have a unique conformal Riemannian metric with -1 Gaussian curvature. The coordinates which we will compute are the lengths of a special set of geodesics under this special metric. The metric can be obtained by the curvature flow algorithm, the geodesics can be calculated using algebraic topological method. We tested our method extensively for indexing and comparison of about one hundred of surfaces with various topologies, geometries and resolutions. The experimental results show the efficacy and efficiency of the length coordinate of the Teichmuller space.

  2. Calculation of protein form birefringence using the finite element method.

    PubMed Central

    Pantic-Tanner, Z; Eden, D

    1999-01-01

    An approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is employed to calculate the optical properties of macromolecules, specifically form birefringence. Macromolecules are treated as arbitrarily shaped particles suspended in a solvent of refraction index n1. The form birefringence of the solution is calculated as the difference in its refractive index when all the particles of refractive index n2 are either parallel to or normal to the direction of the polarization of light. Since the particles of interest are small compared to the wavelength of light, a quasi-static approximation for the refractive index is used, i.e., that it is equal to the square root of the dielectric constant of the suspension. The average dielectric constant of the mixture is calculated using the finite element method. This approach has been tested for ellipsoidal particles and a good agreement with theoretical results has been obtained. Also, numerical results for the motor domains of ncd and kinesin, small arbitrarily shaped proteins with known x-ray structures, show reasonable agreement with the experimental data obtained from transient electric birefringence experiments. PMID:10354422

  3. Damage Identification Dependence on Number of Vibration Modes Using Mode Shape Curvature Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeliukstis, R.; Rucevskis, S.; Wesolowski, M.; Chate, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a damage identification algorithm for multiple damage sites based on mode shape curvature square method of vibration mode shapes in aluminium beam is reported. The required mode shape curvature of a healthy structure was obtained via interpolation of mode shape curvature of a damaged structure with Fourier series functions of different orders. Algorithm employed calculations of standardized damage index distributions over beam coordinate. Finite element simulations of proposed methodology involving various artificial noise levels and reduction of mode shape input data points were validated on the damage identification results of experimentally measured mode shapes which were measured using scanning laser vibrometer. Results show that the algorithm is capable of capturing the areas of damage. The term called damage estimate reliability was introduced in terms of likelihood of the chosen approximation function to capture the location of damage.

  4. Gradient Index Lens Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-25

    over six to nine readings at two to three input polarizations each. The first set of index values is calculated assuming ei = 450 These values are...TECHNICAL REPORT RG-CR-84-2 Sli GRADIENT INDEX LENS RESEARCH Prepared by: Duncan T. Moore The Institute of Optics University of Rochester Rochester...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Miten Data Fntered) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NU14MU R GOVT ACCESSION No. 3

  5. Role of obesity and abdominal shape morphometric features to predict postoperative complications and quality of lymph node dissection of gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    HasbahcecI, M; MehdI, E; Malya, F U; Kunduz, E; MemmI, N; YIgman, S; Akcakaya, A

    2017-09-12

    Obesity and abdominal shape morphometric features have been thought to be independent risk factors for surgical outcomes after gastrectomy.A total of 113 patients undergoing surgery for primary gastric adenocarcinoma from June 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively included. Body mass index, visceral fatty area, anterior-posterior abdominal and transverse diameters and depth ratio at levels of the umbilicus, the gastroesophageal junction and the root of the celiac artery were measured or calculated. Patients were grouped according to body mass index (<25.0 kg/m2or ≥25.0 kg/m2) or median value of these parameters. Surgical outcomes including postoperative complications, total and metastatic lymph node numbers and their ratio were compared.There was a significant association between body mass index and abdominal shape indexes. Body mass index and abdominal shape indexes showed no statistical significance on development of complications. But, lymph node numbers and their ratio were negatively affected by depth ratio at the root of the celiac artery.Our findings showed that gastrectomy with curative intent can be performed safely in patients with higher body mass index and abdominal shape indexes. Therefore, there is no need to perform any change in surgical strategy according to these measurements and calculations.

  6. Nuclear shape isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, P.; Sierk, A. J.; Bengtsson, R.; Sagawa, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    2012-03-01

    We calculate potential-energy surfaces as functions of spheroidal (ɛ2), hexadecapole (ɛ4), and axial-asymmetry (γ) shape coordinates for 7206 nuclei from A=31 to A=290. We tabulate the deformations and energies of all minima deeper than 0.2 MeV and of the saddles between all pairs of minima. The tabulation is terminated at N=160. Our study is based on the FRLDM macroscopic-microscopic model defined in ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES [P. Möller, J.R. Nix, W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 59 (1995) 185]. We also present potential-energy contour plots versus ɛ2 and γ for 1224 even-even nuclei in the region studied. We can identify nuclei for which a necessary condition for shape isomers occurs, namely multiple minima in the calculated potential-energy surface. We find that the vast majority of nuclear shape isomers occur in the A=80 region, the A=100 region, and in a more extended region centered around 208Pb. A calculated region of shape isomers that has so far not been extensively explored is the region of neutron-deficient actinides "north-east" of 208Pb.

  7. Two-dimensional refractive index and birefringence profiles of a graded index bent optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Shams El-Din, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    A theory to recover refractive index profile of the bent graded index (GRIN) optical fibre, in core region, is proposed. This theory is applied to the bent GRIN optical fibre when it is located orthogonal in the light path of the object arm in digital holographic phase shifting interferometer; like Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In the experiment, the fibre is bent with two different bending radii and fixed on a microscope slide keeping it immersed in matching liquid. The produced phase shifted holograms, with the presence of the fibre, are recorded using an attached CCD camera. Two different processes controlling the index profile shape of the bent GRIN optical fibre are assumed. In the first process, a linear index variation is evolved from stresses in the direction of the bent radius. In the second one, there is a release of these stresses near the fibre surface, which depends on the fibre's radius. This will affect the outer free surface of the cladding. Based on these assumptions, we are able to construct the index profile in two dimensions normal to the optical axis. We propose two functions to describe the refractive index profiles in cladding and the core regions of the bent GRIN optical fibre. The recorded phase shifted holograms are combined, reconstructed and analyzed to get the phase map of the bent GRIN optical fibre. Comparing the extracted optical phase differences with the calculated ones, a good agreement between them is found. This means that the used two dimensional proposed functions, which are describing cladding and the core indices profiles, are the most proper in this situation. Thus, we are able to determine a realistic induced birefringence profile inside the fibre which is generated by a bending operation, not only in the cladding but also in graded index core region as well.

  8. Effect of temperature on the shape of spatial quasi-periodic oscillations of the refractive index of alkali atoms in an optically dense medium with a closed excitation contour of Δ type

    SciTech Connect

    Barantsev, K A; Litvinov, A N

    2014-10-31

    A theory of a closed excitation contour (Δ system) of a three-level atom in an optically dense medium is constructed with allowance for temperature. The spatial quasi-periodic oscillations of the refractive index in the system under study are shown to damp with increasing temperature. The range of temperatures at which these oscillations are most pronounced is found. (quantum optics)

  9. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  10. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  11. Calculator Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Casey; And Others

    This valuable collection of materials was developed to incorporate the calculator as an instructional aid in ninth- and tenth-grade general and basic mathematics classes. The materials are also appropriate for grades 7 and 8. After an introductory section which teaches the use of the calculator, four games and activities are described. For these…

  12. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  13. Size- and shape-dependent plasmonic properties of aluminum nanoparticles for nanosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, Jyoti; Soni, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of aluminum nanospheres, nanorods, and nanodisks was studied using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. From the simulation results, optimal dimensions of nanospheres, nanodisks, and nanorods for refractive index sensitivity (RIS), line shape broadening (FWHM), and figure-of-merit (FOM) are calculated for aluminum-based plasmonic nanosensors. Our calculated results show that aluminum is an efficient plasmonic material for refractive index sensing from deep-UV to near infrared wavelengths. The RIS of aluminum nanospheres of optimal size is greater than gold and silver nanospheres. Further, RIS or FOM can be optimized in different spectral region by varying shape and dimensions. The optimization reveals higher FOM for nanospheres in the deep-UV region and for nanorods and nanodisks in the broad visible-NIR region.

  14. Fresnel-Gaussian shape invariant for optical ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Cywiak, Moisés; Morales, A; Flores, J Mauricio; Servín, Manuel

    2009-06-22

    We propose a technique for ray tracing, based in the propagation of a Gaussian shape invariant under the Fresnel diffraction integral. The technique uses two driving independent terms to direct the ray and is based on the fact that at any arbitrary distance, the center of the propagated Gaussian beam corresponds to the geometrical projection of the center of the incident beam. We present computer simulations as examples of the use of the technique consisting in the calculation of rays through lenses and optical media where the index of refraction varies as a function of position.

  15. Reconstruction of low-index graphite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The low-index graphite surfaces (10 1 -0), (10 1 -1), (11 2 -0) and (11 2 - 1) have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) including van-der-Waals (vdW) corrections. Different from the (0001) surface which has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, there is no comprehensive study on the (10 1 -0)- (10 1 -1)-, (11 2 -0)- and (11 2 - 1)-surfaces available, although they are of relevance for Li insertion processes, e.g. in Li-ion batteries. In this study the structure and stability of all non-(0001) low-index surfaces were calculated with RPBE-D3 and converged slab models. In all cases reconstruction involving bond formation between unsaturated carbon atoms of two neighboring graphene sheets reduces the surface energy dramatically. Two possible reconstruction patterns have been considered. The first possibility leads to formation of oblong nanotubes. Alternatively, the graphene sheets form bonds to different neighboring sheets at the upper and lower sides and sinusoidal structures are formed. Both structure types have similar stabilities. Based on the calculated surface energies the Gibbs-Wulff theorem was applied to construct the macroscopic shape of graphite single crystals.

  16. MEMS Calculator

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  17. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron environment produced by the White Sands missile range fast burst reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Flanders, T.M.; Sparks, M.H. )

    1989-11-01

    The Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the leakage neutron spectrum of the White Sands missile range fast burst reactor. The leakage spectrum is used as the source spectrum for further calculations, which are directly compared to experimental data. The calculated spectrum differs somewhat from the experimentally measured shape, particularly in the 3- to 6- MeV region. The calculated spectra have a higher spectral index (fluence{gt}10 keV/fluence{gt}3 MeV) than the experimentally determined spectra. Generally, the two methods of determining the spectra appear to be in reasonable agreement.

  18. Edge energies and shapes of nanoprecipitates.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present a model to explain the size-dependent shapes of lead nano-precipitates in aluminum. Size-dependent shape transitions, frequently observed at nanolength scales, are commonly attributed to edge energy effects. This report resolves an ambiguity in the definition and calculation of edge energies and presents an atomistic calculation of edge energies for free clusters. We also present a theory for size-dependent shapes of Pb nanoprecipitates in Al, introducing the concept of ''magic-shapes'' defined as precipitate shapes having near zero elastic strains when inserted into similarly shaped voids in the Al matrix. An algorithm for constructing a complete set of magic-shapes is presented. The experimental observations are explained by elastic strain energies and interfacial energies; edge energies play a negligible role. We replicate the experimental observations by selecting precipitates having magic-shapes and interfacial energies less than a cutoff value.

  19. Assessment of erythrocyte shape by flow cytometry techniques

    PubMed Central

    Piagnerelli, M; Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Brohee, D; Vereerstraeten, A; Piro, P; Vincent, J‐L; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) rheology is altered in different diseases, including acute conditions such as patients in intensive care units (ICU) with sepsis or with an inflammatory reaction due to postoperative states or intracerebral haemorrhage, or chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus or terminal renal failure. Several techniques are available to assess alterations in RBC rheology, especially deformability, but they are too cumbersome to be used on a large number of cells. Objective To develop a new, rapid flow cytometry technique for easy assessment of RBC shape in patients. Methods In flow cytometry, healthy human RBC shape shows a bimodal distribution related to the biconcave form. On this histogram, the second Pearson coefficient of dissymmetry (PCD) representing the asymmetry of this histogram and the spherical index (M2:M1) were calculated, both representing the spherical shape. This technique was used in healthy volunteers (n = 17) and in diseases characterised by abnormalities in RBC rheology, including terminal renal failure requiring haemodialysis (n = 28), diabetes mellitus (n = 18), sepsis (n = 19) and acute inflammatory states (postoperative, intracerebral haemorrhage, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy or severe drug intoxication; n = 21). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the factors influencing RBC shape. Results Measurement of RBC shape was highly reproducible. A good correlation was observed between the PCD and the spherical index, except in the critically ill patients without sepsis. RBCs were more spherical in patients with terminal renal failure (PCD −0.56 (0.14), p<0.05), diabetes mellitus (PCD −0.59 (0.23), p<0.05), sepsis (PCD −0.58 (0.22), p<0.05) or an acute inflammatory state (PCD −0.65 (0.29), p<0.05) than in healthy volunteers (PCD −0.89 (0.12)). The spherical index was also increased in all populations compared with healthy volunteers (terminal renal failure 2

  20. Shape Invariance in Deformation Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasinariu, Constantin

    2013-03-01

    Shape invariance is a powerful solvability condition, that allows for complete knowledge of the energy spectrum, and eigenfunctions of a system. After a short introduction into the deformation quantization formalism, this work explores the implications of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance techniques to the phase space formalism. We show that shape invariance induces a new set of relations between the Wigner functions of the system, that allows for their direct calculation, once we know one of them. The simple harmonic oscillator and the Morse potential are presented as examples. I would like to acknowledge a sabbatical leave and grant from Columbia College Chicago that made this work possible.

  1. A Simple Method to Determine the Refractive Index of Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Se-yuen

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for determining the refractive index. Discusses the experiment procedure and mathematical expression for calculating the index. Provides two geometrical diagrams and a graph for determining the index with a typical data. (YP)

  2. Observing shape in spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2015-04-01

    The notion of reference frame is a central theoretical construct for interpreting the physical implications of spacetime diffeomorphism invariance in General Relativity. However, the alternative formulation of classical General Relativity known as Shape Dynamics suggest that a subset of spacetime diffeomorphisms—namely hypersurface deformations—are, in a precise sense, dual to spatial conformal (or Weyl) invariance. Moreover, holographic gauge/gravity dualities suggest that bulk spacetime diffeomorphism invariance can be replaced by the properties of boundary CFTs. How can these new frameworks be compatible with the traditional notion of reference frame so fundamental to our interpretation of General Relativity? In this paper, we address this question by investigating the classical case of maximally symmetric spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant. We find that it is possible to define a notion of Shape Observer that represents a conformal reference frame dual to the notion of inertial reference frame in spacetime and provide a precise dictionary relating the two notions. We explicitly calculate the Hamilton-Jacobi functional for a theory of reparametrization invariant shape configurations dual to a theory of free inertial observers in de Sitter. These Shape Observers are holographic in the sense that they are defined on the asymptotic conformal boundaries of spacetime but know about bulk physics, and show that the dual theory is conformally invariant at the classical level. This leads to a first principles derivation of an exact classical holographic correspondence that can easily be generalized to more complicated situations and may lead to insights regarding the interpretation of the conformal invariance manifest in Shape Dynamics.

  3. Firewood calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Curtis, A.B.; Darwin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Rotating cardboard discs are used to read off total tree or topwood firewood volume (tons or cords) that can be expected from trees of d.b.h. 6 to 24 inches and tree height 10 to 90 feet. One side of the calculator is used for broadleaved species with deliquescent crowns and the other side for braodleaves with excurrent crowns.

  4. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  5. Beyond the floor effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV): calculating IQ and Indexes of subjects presenting a floored pattern of results.

    PubMed

    Orsini, A; Pezzuti, L; Hulbert, S

    2015-05-01

    It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are limited insofar as they do not measure scores lower than 40. Following Hessl et al.'s results, the present authors propose a method for the computation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV)'s IQ and Indexes in intellectually disabled participants affected by a floored pattern of results. The Italian standardization sample (n = 2200) for the WISC-IV was used. The method presented in this study highlights the limits of the 'floor effect' of the WISC-IV in children with serious intellectual disability who present a profile with weighted scores of 1 in all the subtests despite some variability in the raw scores. Such method eliminates the floor effect of the scale and therefore makes it possible to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the WISC-IV's Indexes in these participants. The Authors reflect on clinical utility of this method and on the meaning of raw score of 0 on subtest. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Relationships between glide efficiency and swimmers' size and shape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Naemi, Roozbeh; Psycharakis, Stelios G; McCabe, Carla; Connaboy, Chris; Sanders, Ross H

    2012-08-01

    Glide efficiency, the ability of a body to minimize deceleration over the glide, can change with variations in the body's size and shape. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between glide efficiency and the size and shape characteristics of swimmers. Eight male and eight female swimmers performed a series of horizontal glides at a depth of 70 cm below the surface. Glide efficiency parameters were calculated for velocities ranging from 1.4 to 1.6 m/s for female swimmers (and at the Reynolds number of 3.5 million) and from 1.6 to 1.8 m/s for male swimmers (and at the Reynolds number of 4.5 million). Several morphological indices were calculated to account for the shape characteristics, with the use of a photogrammetric method. Relationships between the variables of interest were explored with correlations, while repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess within-group differences between different velocities for each gender group. Glide efficiency of swimmers increased when velocity decreased. Some morphological indices and postural angles showed a significant correlation with glide efficiency. The glide coefficient was significantly correlated to the chest to waist taper index for both gender groups. For the male group, the glide coefficient correlated significantly to the fineness ratio of upper body, the chest to hip cross-section. For the female group the glide coefficient had a significant correlation with the waist to hip taper index. The findings suggested that gliding efficiency was more dependent on shape characteristics and appropriate postural angles rather than being dependent on size characteristics.

  7. Shape Analysis with Hyperbolic Wasserstein Distance

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Shape space is an active research field in computer vision study. The shape distance defined in a shape space may provide a simple and refined index to represent a unique shape. Wasserstein distance defines a Riemannian metric for the Wasserstein space. It intrinsically measures the similarities between shapes and is robust to image noise. Thus it has the potential for the 3D shape indexing and classification research. While the algorithms for computing Wasserstein distance have been extensively studied, most of them only work for genus-0 surfaces. This paper proposes a novel framework to compute Wasserstein distance between general topological surfaces with hyperbolic metric. The computational algorithms are based on Ricci flow, hyperbolic harmonic map, and hyperbolic power Voronoi diagram and the method is general and robust. We apply our method to study human facial expression, longitudinal brain cortical morphometry with normal aging, and cortical shape classification in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Experimental results demonstrate that our method may be used as an effective shape index, which outperforms some other standard shape measures in our AD versus healthy control classification study.

  8. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  9. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  10. Exotic Nuclear Shapes:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, J.; Schunck, N.; Dubray, N.; Góźdź, A.

    After recalling some in principle known but seldom mentioned facts about variety of concepts/notions of the nuclear shapes, we briefly summarize the results of the recent microscopic calculations predicting the existence of the large-elongation (hyper-deformed) nuclear configurations — as well as another series of calculations predicting that some nuclei should exhibit high-rank symmetries: the tetrahedral and the octahedral ones. The latter are associated with 48- and 96- symmetry elements, respectively, of the nuclear mean-field Hamiltonian. Obviously the physics motivations behind the hyper-deformation and the high-rank symmetry studies are not the observations of the new geometrical forms as such; in our opinion these motivations are much deeper and are given in the text.

  11. Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  12. Linear shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  13. A genotype probability index for multiple alleles and haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Percy, A; Kinghorn, B P

    2005-12-01

    We use linear algebra to calculate an index of information content in genotype probabilities which has previously been calculated using trigonometry. The new method can be generalized allowing the index to be calculated for loci with more than two alleles. Applications of this index include its use in genotyping strategies, strategies to manage genetic disorders and in estimation of genotype effects.

  14. WBGT Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Charles H.

    2000-05-22

    This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.

  15. The measurement of the normal thorax using the Haller index methodology at multiple vertebral levels.

    PubMed

    Archer, James E; Gardner, Adrian; Berryman, Fiona; Pynsent, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The Haller index is a ratio of thoracic width and height, measured from an axial CT image and used to describe the internal dimensions of the thoracic cage. Although the Haller index for a normal thorax has been established (Haller et al. 1987; Daunt et al. 2004), this is only at one undefined vertebral level in the thorax. What is not clear is how the Haller index describes the thorax at every vertebral level in the absence of sternal deformity, or how this is affected by age. This paper documents the shape of the thorax using the Haller index calculated from the thoracic width and height at all vertebral levels of the thorax between 8 and 18 years of age. The Haller Index changes with vertebral level, with the largest ratio seen in the most cranial levels of the thorax. Increasing age alters the shape of the thorax, with the most cranial vertebral levels having a greater Haller index over the mid thorax, which does not change. A slight increase is seen in the more caudal vertebral levels. These data highlight that a 'one size fits all' rule for chest width and depth ratio at all ages and all thoracic levels is not appropriate. The normal range for width to height ratio should be based on a patient's age and vertebral level. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  16. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  17. Solar flare gamma-ray line shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werntz, C.; Kim, Y. E.; Lang, Frederick L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which is used to calculate ab initio the laboratory shapes and energy shifts of gamma-ray lines from (C-12)(p, gamma/4.438/)p-prime(C-12) and (O-16)(p, gamma/6.129/)p-prime(O-16) reactions and to calculate the expected shapes of these lines from solar flares. The sensitivity of observable solar flare gamma-ray line shapes to the directionality of the incident particles is investigated for several projectile angular distributions. Shapes of the carbon and oxygen lines are calculated assuming realistic proton energy spectra for particles in circular orbits at the mirror points of magnetic loops, for particle beams directed downward into the photosphere, and for isotropic particle distributions. Line shapes for flare sites near the center of the sun and on the limb are shown for both thin-target and thick-target interaction models.

  18. Solar flare gamma-ray line shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werntz, C.; Kim, Y. E.; Lang, Frederick L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which is used to calculate ab initio the laboratory shapes and energy shifts of gamma-ray lines from (C-12)(p, gamma/4.438/)p-prime(C-12) and (O-16)(p, gamma/6.129/)p-prime(O-16) reactions and to calculate the expected shapes of these lines from solar flares. The sensitivity of observable solar flare gamma-ray line shapes to the directionality of the incident particles is investigated for several projectile angular distributions. Shapes of the carbon and oxygen lines are calculated assuming realistic proton energy spectra for particles in circular orbits at the mirror points of magnetic loops, for particle beams directed downward into the photosphere, and for isotropic particle distributions. Line shapes for flare sites near the center of the sun and on the limb are shown for both thin-target and thick-target interaction models.

  19. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-04-20

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

  20. Determining a fluorophore's transition dipole moment from fluorescence lifetime measurements in solvents of varying refractive index.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Hua; Tregidgo, Carolyn; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-11-11

    The transition dipole moment of organic dyes PM546 and rhodamine 123 is calculated from fluorescence lifetime measurements in solutions of different refractive index. A model proposed by Toptygin et al (2002 J. Phys. Chem. B 106 3724-34) provides a relationship between the radiative rate constant and refractive index of the solvent, and allows the electronic transition dipole moments to be found: it is (7.1  ±  1.1) D for PM546 which matches that found in the literature, and (8.1  ±  0.1) D for rhodamine 123. Toptygin's model goes further in predicting the shape of the fluorescent dye and here we predict the shape of PM546 and rhodamine 123 to be ellipsoidal.

  1. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  2. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  3. Directional emission of stadium-shaped microlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lebental, M.; Lauret, J. S.; Zyss, J.; Schmit, C.; Bogomolny, E.

    2007-03-15

    The far-field emission of two-dimensional stadium-shaped dielectric cavities is investigated. Microlasers with such shape present a highly directional emission. We provide experimental evidence of the dependence of the emission directionality on the shape of the stadium, in good agreement with ray numerical simulations. We develop an analytical geometrical optics model which permits to account for the main observed features. Wave numerical calculations confirm the results.

  4. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  5. Development of cortical shape in the human brain from 6 to 24months of age via a novel measure of shape complexity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Lyu, Ilwoo; Fonov, Vladimir S; Vachet, Clement; Hazlett, Heather C; Smith, Rachel G; Piven, Joseph; Dager, Stephen R; Mckinstry, Robert C; Pruett, John R; Evans, Alan C; Collins, D Louis; Botteron, Kelly N; Schultz, Robert T; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin A

    2016-07-15

    The quantification of local surface morphology in the human cortex is important for examining population differences as well as developmental changes in neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. We propose a novel cortical shape measure, referred to as the 'shape complexity index' (SCI), that represents localized shape complexity as the difference between the observed distributions of local surface topology, as quantified by the shape index (SI) measure, to its best fitting simple topological model within a given neighborhood. We apply a relatively small, adaptive geodesic kernel to calculate the SCI. Due to the small size of the kernel, the proposed SCI measure captures fine differences of cortical shape. With this novel cortical feature, we aim to capture comparatively small local surface changes that capture a) the widening versus deepening of sulcal and gyral regions, as well as b) the emergence and development of secondary and tertiary sulci. Current cortical shape measures, such as the gyrification index (GI) or intrinsic curvature measures, investigate the cortical surface at a different scale and are less well suited to capture these particular cortical surface changes. In our experiments, the proposed SCI demonstrates higher complexity in the gyral/sulcal wall regions, lower complexity in wider gyral ridges and lowest complexity in wider sulcal fundus regions. In early postnatal brain development, our experiments show that SCI reveals a pattern of increased cortical shape complexity with age, as well as sexual dimorphisms in the insula, middle cingulate, parieto-occipital sulcal and Broca's regions. Overall, sex differences were greatest at 6months of age and were reduced at 24months, with the difference pattern switching from higher complexity in males at 6months to higher complexity in females at 24months. This is the first study of longitudinal, cortical complexity maturation and sex differences, in the early postnatal period from 6 to 24months

  6. Manipulation of lens-shaped objects in various materials to enhance photonic nanojet using MMP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Tahmineh

    2014-03-01

    Lens-shaped particles with different sizes for various refractive indices have been investigated under plane wave illumination by using 2D-MMP simulation. Distribution of the power in the vicinity of opposite boundary of the particle has resulted in a tightly focused photonic nanojet in specific conditions. The results show that the beam waists are smaller than the diffraction limit, and they propagate over several optical wavelengths without significant diffraction while the beam reaches a high intensity. In this paper, it is argued the manipulation of various dielectric lens shapes with respect to a highly confined power distribution in the producing nanojet has been parameterized according to the beam waist and divergence with regards to particular refractive index (glass, plastic and patinal), and appropriate structure shapes. Optimized dimensions of the nanojets for different physical properties are calculated.

  7. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  8. [ATD index in Perthes disease].

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Synder, Marek; Szymczak, Wiesław; Kowalewski, Maciej; Kozłowski, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Authors present an estimation of articulo-trochanteric-distance (ATD) and ATD index in patients with Perthes disease and if there is any correlation between ATD and ATD index and age at the onset, gender, type of treatment, Herring and Stulberg classification. The study population consisted of 242 patients (35 female and 207 male) who had reached skeletal maturity at last follow up. The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 7 years and 4 months. All patients were treated by containment methods (bed rest and traction in abduction, brace, Petri cast, varus osteotomy, Salter osteotomy and shelf operation). ATD was estimated according to the Edgren methods and ATD index was calculated as relation ATD on Perthes site to ATD in normal joint. The late results were classified according to the Stulberg classification. Statistical analysis did not revealed any correlation between the age at the onset, gender and ATD index and ATD during last follow up. Both parameters decreased with poor results according to the Stulberg classifications. ATD index and ATD were statistically significant less after surgical treatment than after non-operative treatment. The same relations were seen between patients with leg length discrepancy (LLD) and without LLD. Patients in Herring group A had statistically significant bigger both parameters than patients in group B, C and patients in Herring group B than C. Articulo-trochanteric-distance and ATD index decreased during follow up and ATD decreased also in normal joint. In our opinion ATD index is a more reliable radiological parameter than ATD. ATD index decreases with bigger necrosis of the femoral head and poor result according to the Stulberg classification. This parameter is an evidence of the dysfunction proximal femoral growth plate in patients with LLD. The most decreased ATD index was observed after surgical treatment. There was no correlation between the age at the onset, gender and ATD index at last follow up.

  9. Identification of facial shape by applying golden ratio to the facial measurements: an interracial study in malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2012-12-01

    The "golden ratio" is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher's opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities. This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face. We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races. The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects. As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long). Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  10. Identification of Facial Shape by Applying Golden Ratio to the Facial Measurements: An Interracial Study in Malaysian Population

    PubMed Central

    Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2012-01-01

    Background: The “golden ratio” is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher's opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities. Aims: This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face. Materials and Methods: We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races. Results: The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects. Conclusion: As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long). Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures. PMID:23272303

  11. Morphometric analysis of root shape.

    PubMed

    Grabov, A; Ashley, M K; Rigas, S; Hatzopoulos, P; Dolan, L; Vicente-Agullo, F

    2005-02-01

    Alterations in the root shape in plant mutants indicate defects in hormonal signalling, transport and cytoskeleton function. To quantify the root shape, we introduced novel parameters designated vertical growth index (VGI) and horizontal growth index (HGI). VGI was defined as a ratio between the root tip ordinate and the root length. HGI was the ratio between the root tip abscissa and the root length. To assess the applicability of VGI and HGI for quantification of root shape, we analysed root development in agravitropic Arabidopsis mutants. Statistical analysis indicated that VGI is a sensitive morphometric parameter enabling detection of weak gravitropic defects. VGI dynamics were qualitatively similar in auxin-transport mutants aux1, pin2 and trh1, but different in the auxin-signalling mutant axr2. Analysis of VGI and HGI of roots grown on tilted plates showed that the trh1 mutation affected downstream cellular responses rather than perception of the gravitropic stimulus. All these tests indicate that the VGI and HGI analysis is a versatile and sensitive method for the study of root morphology.

  12. From Shape to Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Hillel A.

    In order to make letter shape recognition an integral part of perception training, the use of the line in its two basic shapes is proposed. Letter shapes may seem exceedingly complex linear shapes to young minds. Thus instead of instruction in configuration, instruction involving transformational activities to manipulate and create the…

  13. Index of opportunity for natural selection among the Gowdas of Kodagahalli village, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Sohkhlet, Bhaboklang

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand how selection is operating in the Gowda population, the index of opportunity for selection was calculated and the present findings were compared with some related findings from other South Indian (SI) populations. Crow (1958) and the modified method by Johnston and Kensinger (1971) were used for the present purpose. The index of total selection intensity (I) was found to be moderate taking into consideration the range for many Indian populations. Considering certain differences in fertility and mortality heritable, it appears that natural selection play an important role in shaping the genetic constitution of the Gowda population. Analysis of data indicates that the index due to fertility seems to contribute more towards selection than mortality. This trend might be because of better living condition and health-care system among the Gowdas which have a positive impact on the lower contribution of mortality for the evolution mechanism of the Gowda population through natural selection.

  14. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  15. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  16. The h’-Index, Effectively Improving the h-Index Based on the Citation Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Background Although being a simple and effective index that has been widely used to evaluate academic output of scientists, the h-index suffers from drawbacks. One critical disadvantage is that only h-squared citations can be inferred from the h-index, which completely ignores excess and h-tail citations, leading to unfair and inaccurate evaluations in many cases. Methodology /Principal Findings To solve this problem, I propose the h’-index, in which h-squared, excess and h-tail citations are all considered. Based on the citation data of the 100 most prolific economists, comparing to h-index, the h’-index shows better correlation with indices of total-citation number and citations per publication, which, although relatively reliable and widely used, do not carry the information of the citation distribution. In contrast, the h’-index possesses the ability to discriminate the shapes of citation distributions, thus leading to more accurate evaluation. Conclusions /Significance The h’-index improves the h-index, as well as indices of total-citation number and citations per publication, by possessing the ability to discriminate shapes of citation distribution, thus making the h’-index a better single-number index for evaluating scientific output in a way that is fairer and more reasonable. PMID:23565174

  17. Loudness of shaped sonic booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    A loudness model is adopted to study the feasibility of designing and operating a supersonic transport to produce minimized sonic booms. The loudness contours in this technique extend to a lower frequency (1 Hz) and thus are appropriate for sonic booms that contain significant low frequency energy. Input to the loudness calculation procedure is the power spectral density of the pressure-time signature. Calculations of loudness, for both indoor and outdoor conditions, demonstrate that shaped sonic booms are potentially more acceptable than N-waves possessing the same peak overpressure.

  18. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  19. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation of the dimension of strange attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinetskii, G. G.; Potapov, A. B.

    1988-07-01

    Algorithms for calculating the dimension of strange attractors of dynamic systems are presented. Algorithms proposed for calculating the capacity, information dimension, and correlation index make it possible to reduce the amount of computations and the memory size. Calculations of the dimension of a Kantor set and a Feigenbaum attractor are considered as tests. Examples of calculations of the dimension of attractors of certain systems of ordinary differential equations are also considered.

  1. EJSCREEN Indexes--2015 Intranet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating EJ indexes, which can be used for highlighting places that may be candidates for further review, analysis, or outreach as the agency develops programs, policies and other activities. The tool provides both summary and detailed information at the Census block group level or a user-defined area for both demographic and environmental indicators. The summary information is in the form of EJ Indexes which combine demographic information with a single environmental indicator (such as proximity to traffic) that can help identify communities living in areas with greater potential for environmental and health impacts. The tool also provides additional detailed demographic and environmental information to supplement screening analyses. EJSCREEN displays this information in color-coded maps, bar charts, and standard reports. Users should keep in mind that screening tools are subject to substantial uncertainty in their demographic and environmental data, particularly when looking at small geographic areas, such as Census block groups. Data on the full range of environmental impacts and demographic factors in any given location are almost certainly not available directly through this tool, and its initial results should be supplemented with additional information and local knowledge before making any judgments about poten

  2. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  3. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  4. ON DETERMINING THE SHAPE OF MATTER DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zemp, Marcel; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2011-12-01

    A basic property of objects, such as galaxies and halos that form in cosmological structure formation simulations, is their shape. Here, we critically investigate shape determination methods that are commonly used in the literature. It is found that using an enclosed integration volume and weight factors r{sup -2} and r{sup -2}{sub ell} (elliptical radius) for the contribution of each particle or volume element in the shape tensor leads to biased axis ratios and smoothing of details when calculating the local shape as a function of distance from the center. To determine the local shape of matter distributions as a function of distance for well-resolved objects (typically more than O(10{sup 4}) particles), we advocate a method that (1) uses an ellipsoidal shell (homoeoid) as an integration volume without any weight factors in the shape tensor and (2) removes subhalos.

  5. Differentiation of hand posture to object shape in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Aviva L; Raghavan, Preeti; Kaminski, Terry; Hillstrom, Howard J; Gordon, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying hand-shaping in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) is the first step in understanding hand posture differentiation. To quantify this ability and determine how hand posture evolves during reach toward various object shapes in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP), 2 groups of children (10 typically developing, and 10 USCP, ages 6-13) were studied in a single-session cross-sectional study. Subjects grasped rectangular, concave, and convex objects with each hand. Metacarpal and proximal interphalangeal joint finger flexion and finger abduction angles were calculated. The extent to which hand posture reflects object shape was calculated using a "visuomotor efficiency (VME) index" (a score of 100 reflects perfect discrimination between objects). A mixed design ANOVA with repeated measures on time was used to compare the VME between groups. Children with USCP demonstrated a lower VME than controls in the affected hand, indicating less effective hand-shaping; p<.01. There was also a difference between groups in the evolution of VME throughout reach; p<.01. No difference in hand-shaping in the less affected hand in USCP was observed. Analysis of joint angles at contact and VME throughout reach demonstrated that children with USCP differentiated their hand posture to objects of different shapes, but demonstrated deficits in the timing and magnitude of hand-shaping isolated to the affected side. The present study suggests it may be important to consider the quality of hand activity using quantitative approaches such as VME analyses. Rehabilitation approaches that target these deficits to improve joint mobility and motor control are worth testing.

  6. Enhanced nonlinear optical effects in organic frustum-shaped microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamonov, Evgeniy A.; Novikov, Vladimir B.; Zhdanova, Karina D.; Mitetelo, Nikolai V.; Kolmychek, Irina A.; Venkatakrishnarao, Dasari; Narayana, Yemineni S. L. V.; Mohiddon, Mahamad A.; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai; Murzina, Tatyana V.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss photonic effects in arrays of frustum-shaped organic microstructures prepared from organic orange dye composed on a solid substrate by self-assembling technique. We demonstrate that such structures reveal strong amplification of second-order nonlinear optical response, including optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF), as compared to that of a continuous film. This is associated with a strong light localization in microstructures composed of high refractive index material. The TPF and SHG power dependencies show that the observed effects are governed by high second-order nonlinearity of the dye damped by a strong absorption. FDTD calculations confirm that the mechanism of the light localization inside organic frustums can be in the form of whispering gallery modes excitation.

  7. Human action classification using procrustes shape theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sangkyoon; Park, Soonyoung; Lee, Myungeun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose new method that can classify a human action using Procrustes shape theory. First, we extract a pre-shape configuration vector of landmarks from each frame of an image sequence representing an arbitrary human action, and then we have derived the Procrustes fit vector for pre-shape configuration vector. Second, we extract a set of pre-shape vectors from tanning sample stored at database, and we compute a Procrustes mean shape vector for these preshape vectors. Third, we extract a sequence of the pre-shape vectors from input video, and we project this sequence of pre-shape vectors on the tangent space with respect to the pole taking as a sequence of mean shape vectors corresponding with a target video. And we calculate the Procrustes distance between two sequences of the projection pre-shape vectors on the tangent space and the mean shape vectors. Finally, we classify the input video into the human action class with minimum Procrustes distance. We assess a performance of the proposed method using one public dataset, namely Weizmann human action dataset. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method performs very good on this dataset.

  8. Accurate bulk density determination of irregularly shaped translucent and opaque aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, M. P.; Jones, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a volumetric method for accurate determination of bulk density of aerogels, calculated from extrapolated weight of the dry pure solid and volume estimates based on the Archimedes' principle of volume displacement, using packed 100 μm-sized monodispersed glass spheres as a "quasi-fluid" media. Hard particle packing theory is invoked to demonstrate the reproducibility of the apparent density of the quasi-fluid. Accuracy rivaling that of the refractive index method is demonstrated for both translucent and opaque aerogels with different absorptive properties, as well as for aerogels with regular and irregular shapes.

  9. Self-erecting shapes

    DOEpatents

    Reading, Matthew W.

    2017-07-04

    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  10. Shaped Recess Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  11. Gradient-index ophthalmic lens design and polymer material studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, David Joel

    Unifocal ophthalmic lenses are conventionally designed using homogeneous glass or plastic materials and aspheric surfaces. The desired power and aberration correction are provided by selection of surface shape and refractive index. This thesis studies the design of ophthalmic lenses utilizing gradient-index (GRIN) materials for both the optical power and aberration control. This is done using geometrical optical theory and ray-tracing simulations. Progressive addition lenses (PALS) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power used to treat presbyopia. The power variation is typically located in the lower half of the lens. Progressive addition lenses are currently made with aspheric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. These surfaces have at most, mirror symmetry about the vertical axis. The possible design of progressive addition lenses with GRIN materials has not been well studied. This thesis studies PALS and identifies how gradient-index materials can be used to provide both the power progression and aberration control. The optical theory for rotationally symmetric and asymmetric power additions is given. Analytical and numerical methods for calculating the index profile are used, and the results examined using ray-tracing simulations. The theory developed for ophthalmic lenses is applied to the design of GRIN axicon. This is the first GRIN axicon manufactured, and is fabricated using ion-exchanged GRIN glass. Experimental measurements of its performance are compared and found to match theoretical predictions. This demonstrates the generality of the theory developed: it may be applied to non-visual applications, and even to non-imaging applications. Realistic implementation of GRIN technology to ophthalmic application requires the fabrication of large scale refractive index gradients in polymer material systems. The methyl-methacrylate/styrene copolymer system is studied to develop an empirical model of its

  12. The Hue of Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  13. The Hue of Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  14. Rayleigh scattering and the internal coupling parameter for arbitrary particle shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, Justin B.; Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Sorensen, Christopher M.

    2017-03-01

    A general method for calculating the Rayleigh scattering by a particle of arbitrary shape is introduced. Although analytical solutions for Rayleigh scattering exist for spheres and ellipsoids, analytical solutions for more complicated shapes don't exist. We find that in general the Rayleigh differential cross section goes as k4V2| α (m) | 2 where k = 2 π / λ and λ is the wavelength, V is the volume of the particle and α (m) the average volume polarizability which is dependent on the shape and the complex index of refraction, m. We use existing computational techniques, the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and the T-matrix method, to calculate the differential scattering cross section divided by k4 and plot it vs V2 to determine | α (m) | 2. Furthermore, we show that this leads to a general description of the internal coupling parameter ρarbitrary‧ = 2 πk V/A | α (m) | where A is the average projected area of the particle in the direction of incident light. It is shown that this general method makes significant changes in the analysis of scattering by particles of any size and shape.

  15. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  16. Nucleic acid indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  17. Molecular basis for erythrocyte shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgsaeter, A.; Mikkelsen, A.

    1991-05-01

    The isolated plasma membrane of the human erythrocytes displays the same shape and shape transformations as the intact cells. It is therefore generally believed that the plasma membrane plays a dominant role in determining erythrocyte shape. The plasma membrane consists of a fluid lipid bilayer to the surface of which is attached a protein skeleton. The two halves of the lipid bilayer and the protein network (gel) are tighly coupled, but at the same time elastically deformable and can slide relative to one another in the plane of the cell membrane. The equilibrium shape of such a structure is determined by the combined mechano-chemical properties of the individual layers and equals the cell shape that for the given cell volume corresponds to the lowest total elastic free energy. The elastic free energy of the lipid bilayer is mainly associated with bending and change in surface area for each of the two lipid monolayer. For the protein membrane skeleton the elastic free energy mainly equals the sum of the local contributions due to shear deformation and surface change. When the mechano-chemical properties of each of the layers are known, calculation of the equilibrium shape is in principle just an exercise in standard continuum mechanics. The elastic properties of pure lipid monolayers have long been qualitatively fairly well known. The changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties resulting from the presence of integral membrane proteins have just recently become better understood. The detailed molecular basis for the elastic properties of the protein membrane skeleton remains unresolved despite many attempts to elucidate the problem. It is widely agreed that the elastic properties are largely accounted for by the highly elongated spectrin molecules, but whether the membrane skelton elasticity is mainly of entropic or entalphic origin is still unsettled.

  18. Environmental filtering drives the shape and breadth of the seed germination niche in coastal plant communities.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo; Pérez-Arcoiza, Adrián; Prieto, José Alberto; Díaz, Tomás E

    2017-05-01

    A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the seed germination niche was conducted in coastal plant communities of western Europe. Two hypotheses were tested, that (1) the germination niche shape (i.e. the preference for a set of germination cues as opposed to another) would differ between beaches and cliffs to prevent seedling emergence in the less favourable season (winter and summer, respectively); and (2) the germination niche breadth (i.e. the amplitude of germination cues) would be narrower in the seawards communities, where environmental filtering is stronger. Seeds of 30 specialist species of coastal plant communities were collected in natural populations of northern Spain. Their germination was measured in six laboratory treatments based on field temperatures. Germination niche shape was estimated as the best germination temperature. Germination niche breadth was calculated using Pielou's evenness index. Differences between plant communities in their germination niche shape and breadth were tested using phylogenetic generalized least squares regression (PGLS). Germination niche shape differed between communities, being warm-cued in beaches (best germination temperature = 20 °C) and cold-cued in cliffs (14 °C). Germination niche was narrowest in seawards beaches (Pielou's index = 0·89) and broadest in landwards beaches (0·99). Cliffs had an intermediate germination niche breadth (0·95). The relationship between niche and plant community had a positive phylogenetic signal for shape (Pagel's λ = 0·64) and a negative one for breadth (Pagel's λ = -1·71). Environmental filters shape the germination niche to prevent emergence in the season of highest threat for seedling establishment. The germination niche breadth is narrower in the communities with stronger environmental filters, but only in beaches. This study provides empirical support to a community-level generalization of the hypotheses about the environmental drivers of the germination

  19. From rectangle-shaped to square-shaped antennas based on graphene: T-shaped, Cross-shaped and Rectangle-shaped Structure Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Toro, Victor A.; Gabrielli, Lucas H.; Fragnito, Hugo; Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E.

    2014-03-01

    The absorbing cross section (ACS) for graphene-based terahertz antennas is calculated for different shapes. All structures are wide enough so that edge effects can be neglected. A general Kubo form considering only intraband transitions approximates the material conductivity for graphene, while its relative permittivity and permeability are kept at 1. Being valid in a frequency range between 0.5THz and 4THz, we use this model to find the frequency at which the maximum ACS is reached for each of the analyzed antenna shapes. In this exploration, we numerically study the performance of arbitrary rectangular, T- and cross-shaped antennas. These results can also be useful for the design of complex graphene-based metamaterials operating in the terahertz range.

  20. Development of groundwater quality index.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mohesn; Abessi, Ozeair; Sharifi, Farid; Meraji, Hamed

    2010-04-01

    Assessing the water quality status for special use is the main objective of any water quality monitoring studies. The water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical instrument used to transform large quantities of water quality data into a single number which represents the water quality level. In fact, developing WQI in an area is a fundamental process in the planning of land use and water resources management. In this study, a simple methodology based on multivariate analysis is developed to create a groundwater quality index (GWQI), with the aim of identifying places with best quality for drinking within the Qazvin province, west central of Iran. The methodology is based on the definition of GWQI using average value of eight cation and anion parameters for 163 wells during a 3-year period. The proportion of observed concentrations to the maximum allowable concentration is calculated as normalized value of each parameter in observing wells. Final indices for each well are calculated considering weight of each parameter. In order to assess the groundwater quality of study area, the derived indices are compared with those of well-known mineral waters. Using developed indices, groundwater iso-index map for study area and the map of areas of which the indices are near to mineral waters was drawn. In the case study, the GWQI map reveals that groundwater quality in two areas is extremely near to mineral water quality. Created index map provides a comprehensive picture of easily interpretable for regional decision makers for better planning and management.

  1. Determining a fluorophore’s transition dipole moment from fluorescence lifetime measurements in solvents of varying refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Pei-Hua; Tregidgo, Carolyn; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    The transition dipole moment of organic dyes PM546 and rhodamine 123 is calculated from fluorescence lifetime measurements in solutions of different refractive index. A model proposed by Toptygin et al (2002 J. Phys. Chem. B 106 3724-34) provides a relationship between the radiative rate constant and refractive index of the solvent, and allows the electronic transition dipole moments to be found: it is (7.1  ±  1.1) D for PM546 which matches that found in the literature, and (8.1  ±  0.1) D for rhodamine 123. Toptygin’s model goes further in predicting the shape of the fluorescent dye and here we predict the shape of PM546 and rhodamine 123 to be ellipsoidal.

  2. Automating Index Preparation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Automating Index Preparation* Pehong Chent Michael A. Harrison Computer Science Division University of CaliforniaI Berkeley, CA 94720 March 23, 1987...Abstract Index preparation is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper we indicate * how the indexing process can be automated in a way which...identified and analyzed. Specifically, we describe a framework for placing index commands in the document and a general purpose index processor which

  3. What the Index Medicus Indexes, and Why *

    PubMed Central

    Truelson, Stanley D.

    1966-01-01

    The main criterion for selecting journals for indexing in Index Medicus, and thereby largely in MEDLARS, is quality. Subject scope varies with the voiced needs of the biomedical community. The Index aims to cover the best journals in all relevant subject fields, but the percentage of journals on a subject indexed depends on the quality of each journal. Country and language coverage depends on quality, even in the case of the best journals of each, although American biases may affect such selection. While a number of guidelines exist for identifying quality journals, information necessary to apply them confidently is often difficult to obtain. The National Library of Medicine is advised by an Ad Hoc Panel on the Selection of Journals for Index Medicus, composed both of NLM officers and extramural members. Criticism has been voiced that too many titles are indexed, compared with titles actually used, but no meaningful statistics of use exist which can identify titles which should be excluded from indexing. Continuing suggestions from users regarding titles indexed would benefit everyone. PMID:5922258

  4. Analysis of Zipf's Law: An Index Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1987-01-01

    This analysis of Zipf's law uses an index for the sequence of observed values of the variables in a Zipf-type relationship. Three important properties relating rank, count, and frequency are identified, shapes of Zipf-type curves are described, and parameters of the Mandelbrot-Zipf law are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  5. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    1999-01-01

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  6. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J..

    1999-09-28

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  7. Mandibular shape and skeletal divergency.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; De Franco, D J

    1999-04-01

    Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 41 skeletal Class I girls aged 11 to 15 were divided according to MP-SN angle: lower than 28 degrees (hypodivergent, 10 girls), between 31 and 34 degrees (normodivergent, 18 girls), or larger than 37 degrees (hyperdivergent, 13 girls). The mandibular outlines were traced and digitized, and differences in shape were quantified using the elliptic Fourier series. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Shape differences were assessed by calculating a morphological distance (MD) between the size-independent mean mathematical reconstructions of the mandibular outlines of the three divergency classes. Mandibular shape was different in the three classes: large variations were found in hyperdivergent girls versus normodivergent girls (MD = 4.61), while smaller differences were observed in hypodivergent girls (MD versus normodivergent 2.91). Mean size-independent mandibular shapes were superimposed on an axis passing through the centres of gravity of the condyle and of the chin. Normodivergent and hyperdivergent mandibles differed mostly at gonion, the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, alveolar process, posterior border of the ramus, and along the mandibular plane. A significant size effect was also found, with smaller mandibles in the hyperdivergent girls.

  8. Reversible shape memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Sergei; Zhou, Jing; White, Sarah; Ashby, Valerie

    2012-02-01

    An ``Achilles' heel'' of shape memory materials is that shape transformations triggered by an external stimulus are usually irreversible. Here we present a new concept of reversible transitions between two well-defined shapes by controlling hierarchic crystallization of a dual-network elastomer. The reversibility was demonstrated for different types of shape transformations including rod bending, winding of a helical coil, and widening an aperture. The distinct feature of the reversible shape alterations is that both counter-shapes are infinitely stable at a temperature of exploitation. Shape reversibility is highly desirable property in many practical applications such as non-surgical removal of a previously inserted catheter and handfree wrapping up of an earlier unraveled solar sail on a space shuttle.

  9. A four-directional body shape measurement system and its application for pectus excavatum severity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert; Kocoń, Hanna; Bolewicki, Paweł; Górecki, Andrzej

    2010-02-01

    The paper presents an optical three-dimensional shape measurement system and an automatic method for assessment of pectus excavatum severity based on the measurement results. The measurement system consists of four directional modules utilizing structured light projection method (namely temporal phase shifting TPS and modified Gray code projection) to capture the shape of body surface of the patients. The measurement result is a three-dimensional point cloud representing the skin surface. The system setup is described and the typical measurement parameters are given. The automated data analysis path is explained. Its main stages are: point cloud segmentation, normalization of trunk orientation, cutting the model into slices, analysis of each slice shape, selecting the proper slice for the assessment of pectus excavatum of the patient and calculating its shape parameter. The analysis does not require any initial processing (e.g. surface fitting or mesh building) as it is conducted on raw 3-D point cloud data resulting from the measurement. A new shape parameter (I3ds) was developed that shows correlation with CT Haller Index widely used for assessment of pectus excavatum. Preliminary clinical results are presented.

  10. Improved Analytical Shaped Charge Code: BASC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Comparison between BASC Code and Experimental Results for Scaled , Heavily-Confined, Shaped-Charge (Reference 10). Jet and Collapse Velocities vs % of...hydrodynamic, computer codes that have been applied to shaped-charge problems. 1 , 2 Althou2h these codes are adaptable to vari- ous geometrical...calculation of jet tip or lead pellet behavior and confined charges. Extensive semi-empirical functions, regaring liner acceleration and confinement

  11. Effective heat strain index using pocket computer.

    PubMed

    Kamon, E; Ryan, C

    1981-08-01

    An effective heat strain index (EHSI) using a hand calculator with memory is suggested for on-site evaluation of prevailing hot ambient conditions. The inputs to the programmed calculator include dry-bulb, wet-bulb and globe temperatures, and estimates of metabolism and air movements. The index is based on a program for calculation of the total heat balance and on the efficiency of sweating. The display of information on the ambient conditions EHSI display is one of following: no strain; low strain; high strain; or time limits of exposure.

  12. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  13. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  14. Asymmetric shape transitions of epitaxial quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chaozhen; Spencer, Brian J.

    2016-06-01

    We construct a two-dimensional continuum model to describe the energetics of shape transitions in fully faceted epitaxial quantum dots (strained islands) via minimization of elastic energy and surface energy at fixed volume. The elastic energy of the island is based on a third-order approximation, enabling us to consider shape transitions between pyramids, domes, multifaceted domes and asymmetric intermediate states. The energetics of the shape transitions are determined by numerically calculating the facet lengths that minimize the energy of a given island type of prescribed island volume. By comparing the energy of different island types with the same volume and analysing the energy surface as a function of the island shape parameters, we determine the bifurcation diagram of equilibrium solutions and their stability, as well as the lowest barrier transition pathway for the island shape as a function of increasing volume. The main result is that the shape transition from pyramid to dome to multifaceted dome occurs through sequential nucleation of facets and involves asymmetric metastable transition shapes. We also explicitly determine the effect of corner energy (facet edge energy) on shape transitions and interpret the results in terms of the relative stability of asymmetric island shapes as observed in experiment.

  15. A Computational Model of Multidimensional Shape

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuwen; Shi, Yonggang; Dinov, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    We develop a computational model of shape that extends existing Riemannian models of curves to multidimensional objects of general topological type. We construct shape spaces equipped with geodesic metrics that measure how costly it is to interpolate two shapes through elastic deformations. The model employs a representation of shape based on the discrete exterior derivative of parametrizations over a finite simplicial complex. We develop algorithms to calculate geodesics and geodesic distances, as well as tools to quantify local shape similarities and contrasts, thus obtaining a formulation that accounts for regional differences and integrates them into a global measure of dissimilarity. The Riemannian shape spaces provide a common framework to treat numerous problems such as the statistical modeling of shapes, the comparison of shapes associated with different individuals or groups, and modeling and simulation of shape dynamics. We give multiple examples of geodesic interpolations and illustrations of the use of the models in brain mapping, particularly, the analysis of anatomical variation based on neuroimaging data. PMID:21057668

  16. A Computational Model of Multidimensional Shape.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuwen; Shi, Yonggang; Dinov, Ivo; Mio, Washington

    2010-08-01

    We develop a computational model of shape that extends existing Riemannian models of curves to multidimensional objects of general topological type. We construct shape spaces equipped with geodesic metrics that measure how costly it is to interpolate two shapes through elastic deformations. The model employs a representation of shape based on the discrete exterior derivative of parametrizations over a finite simplicial complex. We develop algorithms to calculate geodesics and geodesic distances, as well as tools to quantify local shape similarities and contrasts, thus obtaining a formulation that accounts for regional differences and integrates them into a global measure of dissimilarity. The Riemannian shape spaces provide a common framework to treat numerous problems such as the statistical modeling of shapes, the comparison of shapes associated with different individuals or groups, and modeling and simulation of shape dynamics. We give multiple examples of geodesic interpolations and illustrations of the use of the models in brain mapping, particularly, the analysis of anatomical variation based on neuroimaging data.

  17. Calculation of the radiative properties of photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Fournier, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A generic methodological chain for the predictive calculation of the light-scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms within the visible spectrum is presented here. This methodology has been developed in order to provide the radiative properties needed for the analysis of radiative transfer within photobioreactor processes, with a view to enable their optimization for large-scale sustainable production of chemicals for energy and chemistry. It gathers an electromagnetic model of light-particle interaction along with detailed and validated protocols for the determination of input parameters: morphological and structural characteristics of the studied microorganisms as well as their photosynthetic-pigment content. The microorganisms are described as homogeneous equivalent-particles whose shape and size distribution is characterized by image analysis. The imaginary part of their refractive index is obtained thanks to a new and quite extended database of the in vivo absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments (that is made available to the reader). The real part of the refractive index is then calculated by using the singly subtractive Kramers-Krönig approximation, for which the anchor point is determined with the Bruggeman mixing rule, based on the volume fraction of the microorganism internal-structures and their refractive indices (extracted from a database). Afterwards, the radiative properties are estimated using the Schiff approximation for spheroidal or cylindrical particles, as a first step toward the description of the complexity and diversity of the shapes encountered within the microbial world. Finally, these predictive results are confronted to experimental normal-hemispherical transmittance spectra for validation. This entire procedure is implemented for Rhodospirillum rubrum, Arthrospira platensis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, each representative of the main three kinds of photosynthetic microorganisms, i.e. respectively

  18. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  19. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  20. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  1. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  2. GMctdospp: Description and validation of a CT dose calculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Ralph Wulff, Jörg; Zink, Klemens

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop a Monte Carlo (MC)-based computed tomography (CT) dose estimation method with a graphical user interface with options to define almost arbitrary simulation scenarios, to make calculations sufficiently fast for comfortable handling, and to make the software free of charge for general availability to the scientific community. Methods: A framework called GMctdospp was developed to calculate phantom and patient doses with the MC method based on the EGSnrc system. A CT scanner was modeled for testing and was adapted to half-value layer, beam-shaping filter, z-profile, and tube-current modulation (TCM). To validate the implemented variance reduction techniques, depth-dose and cross-profile calculations of a static beam were compared against DOSXYZnrc/EGSnrc. Measurements for beam energies of 80 and 120 kVp at several positions of a CT dose-index (CTDI) standard phantom were compared against calculations of the created CT model. Finally, the efficiency of the adapted code was benchmarked against EGSnrc defaults. Results: The CT scanner could be modeled accurately. The developed TCM scheme was confirmed by the dose measurement. A comparison of calculations to DOSXYZnrc showed no systematic differences. Measurements in a CTDI phantom could be reproduced within 2% average, with a maximal difference of about 6%. Efficiency improvements of about six orders of magnitude were observed for larger organ structures of a chest-examination protocol in a voxelized phantom. In these cases, simulations took 25 s to achieve a statistical uncertainty of ∼0.5%. Conclusions: A fast dose-calculation system for phantoms and patients in a CT examination was developed, successfully validated, and benchmarked. Influences of scan protocols, protection method, and other issues can be easily examined with the developed framework.

  3. Occurrence of elevated shock index in acute patients and development of a proportional shock index metric.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas; Lassen, Annmarie; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2016-08-01

    Although shock index, as the ratio between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, is a well-recognized predictor for adverse outcomes, it is seldom integrated into clinical evaluation procedures as it requires on-the-fly evaluation of multiple terms. In this paper, we investigate the prevalence of elevated shock index in emergency department patients through an analysis of automatic heart rate and blood pressure readings from 809 admissions to an acute bedside ward at a large Danish hospital. The analysis is conducted by evaluating differences in terms of 30 day mortality. Our results indicate that elevated shock indexes are frequent in acute patients. This finding should spur a discussion on the utility of interventions relying on calculations of shock index based on spot measurements. As an alternative, we propose a novel proportional representation of shock index based on automated calculations of temporal shock index aspects.

  4. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices. PMID:27325441

  5. Fundamentals of negative refractive index optical trapping: forces and radiation pressures exerted by focused Gaussian beams using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E

    2010-11-04

    Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), this paper reveals, for the first time in the literature, the principal characteristics of the optical forces and radiation pressure cross-sections exerted on homogeneous, linear, isotropic and spherical hypothetical negative refractive index (NRI) particles under the influence of focused Gaussian beams in the Mie regime. Starting with ray optics considerations, the analysis is then extended through calculating the Mie coefficients and the beam-shape coefficients for incident focused Gaussian beams. Results reveal new and interesting trapping properties which are not observed for commonly positive refractive index particles and, in this way, new potential applications in biomedical optics can be devised.

  6. Dissecting Reactor Antineutrino Flux Calculations.

    PubMed

    Sonzogni, A A; McCutchan, E A; Hayes, A C

    2017-09-15

    Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from ^{235}U, ^{239}Pu, ^{241}Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In the present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the ^{238}U contribution as well as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method. We observe that including a shape correction of about +6%  MeV^{-1} in conversion calculations can better describe the Daya Bay spectrum. Because of a lack of experimental data, this correction cannot be ruled out, concluding that in order to confirm the existence of the reactor neutrino anomaly, or even quantify it, precisely measured electron spectra for about 50 relevant fission products are needed. With the advent of new rare ion facilities, the measurement of shape factors for these nuclides, for many of which precise beta intensity data from TAGS experiments already exist, would be highly desirable.

  7. Dissecting Reactor Antineutrino Flux Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Hayes, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In the present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the 238U contribution as well as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method. We observe that including a shape correction of about +6 % MeV-1 in conversion calculations can better describe the Daya Bay spectrum. Because of a lack of experimental data, this correction cannot be ruled out, concluding that in order to confirm the existence of the reactor neutrino anomaly, or even quantify it, precisely measured electron spectra for about 50 relevant fission products are needed. With the advent of new rare ion facilities, the measurement of shape factors for these nuclides, for many of which precise beta intensity data from TAGS experiments already exist, would be highly desirable.

  8. Dissecting Reactor Antineutrino Flux Calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Sonzogni, A. A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Hayes, A. C.

    2017-09-15

    Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from 235 U , 239 Pu , 241 Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In our present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the 238 U contribution as wellmore » as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method. Here, we observe that including a shape correction of about + 6 % MeV - 1 in conversion calculations can better describe the Daya Bay spectrum. Because of a lack of experimental data, this correction cannot be ruled out, concluding that in order to confirm the existence of the reactor neutrino anomaly, or even quantify it, precisely measured electron spectra for about 50 relevant fission products are needed. With the advent of new rare ion facilities, the measurement of shape factors for these nuclides, for many of which precise beta intensity data from TAGS experiments already exist, would be highly desirable.« less

  9. Measurement of spiculation index in 3D for solitary pulmonary nodules in volumetric lung CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Alam, Naved; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper a differential geometry based method is proposed for calculating surface speculation of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in 3D from lung CT images. Spiculation present in SPN is an important shape feature to assist radiologist for measurement of malignancy. Performance of Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) system depends on the accurate estimation of feature like spiculation. In the proposed method, the peak of the spicules is identified using the property of Gaussian and mean curvature calculated at each surface point on segmented SPN. Once the peak point for a particular SPN is identified, the nearest valley points for the corresponding peak point are determined. The area of cross-section of the best fitted plane passing through the valley points is the base of that spicule. The solid angle subtended by the base of spicule at peak point and the distance of peak point from nodule base are taken as the measures of spiculation. The speculation index (SI) for a particular SPN is the weighted combination of all the spicules present in that SPN. The proposed method is validated on 95 SPN from Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) public database. It has achieved 87.4% accuracy in calculating quantified spiculation index compared to the spiculation index provided by radiologists in IDRI database.

  10. Ultrashort laser pulse beam shaping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Ren, Yuhang; Lüpke, Gunter

    2003-02-01

    We calculated the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ultrashort laser pulse propagating through a diffractive beam-shaping system that converts a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile that was originally designed for continuous waves [Proc. SPIE 2863, 237(1996)]. The pulse front is found to be considerably curved for a 10-fs pulse, resulting in a temporal broadening of the pulse that increases with increasing radius. The spatial intensity distribution deviates significantly from a top-hat profile, whereas the fluence shows a homogeneous radial distribution.

  11. Shape Preserving Spline Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

  12. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  13. The shape of thought.

    PubMed

    Markson, Lori; Diesendruck, Gil; Bloom, Paul

    2008-03-01

    When children learn the name of a novel object, they tend to extend that name to other objects similar in shape - a phenomenon referred to as the shape bias. Does the shape bias stem from learned associations between names and categories of objects, or does it derive from more general properties of children's understanding of language and the world? We argue here for the second alternative, presenting evidence that the shape bias emerges early in development, is not limited to names, and is intimately related to how children make sense of categories.

  14. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, A. R.; Bodenreider, O.; Chang, H. F.; Humphrey, S. M.; Mork, J. G.; Nelson, S. J.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Wilbur, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future. PMID:11079836

  15. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

    PubMed

    Aronson, A R; Bodenreider, O; Chang, H F; Humphrey, S M; Mork, J G; Nelson, S J; Rindflesch, T C; Wilbur, W J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future.

  16. Gradient Index Lens Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    Finally, an assessment of the current technologies in gradient index has been made. This includes a series of recommendations w’iich will be...17 III. Ray Tracing in Anamorphic Gradient Index Media ......... 20 IV. Fabrication of Six Gradient Index Samples ............. 27 V. Technology ...for a basic understanding of what can and cannot be done with gradient index lenses, aside from any lack of technology for making a paricular gradient

  17. Depth of Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the question of the optimal depth of indexing in order to design an effective document retrieval system is presented. It is shown that some more fundamental questions about indexing and retrieval rather than indexing depth are central to the issue. (Author/MBR)

  18. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  19. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  20. Indexing for the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbo, Helen R.

    1994-01-01

    Humanists use a wide variety of textual, graphic, and aural materials in their research, each of which presents indexing challenges. Research into the nature of these materials and humanists' information-seeking behaviors indicate that indexing models from the sciences are not adequate. New controlled vocabulary and indexing frameworks are needed.…

  1. Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)

  2. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  3. Albumin reverses the echinocytic shape transformation of stored erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Sophie A; Schulzki, Thomas; Reinhart, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    The storage of red blood cells (RBCs) leads to storage lesions, which have a negative impact on the clinical outcome after transfusion. A hallmark of storage lesions is echinocytosis. Albumin may reverse this shape transformation, which was the topic of this study. Echinocytosis was generated by incubation of blood for 48 h at room temperature or in RBC units stored 48 days at 5°C. Human serum albumin was diluted in phosphate-buffered saline. RBCs were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of echinocytosis was quantified by calculating the morphological index. Incubation and storage of RBCs led to an echinocytic shape transformation, which was reversible upon incubation in albumin solutions. This process was time-, concentration- and hematocrit-dependent. Treating RBC units at the end of their shelf-life by adding 20% albumin or washing them in 0.2% albumin reversed all degrees of echinocytosis towards discocytosis. In conclusion, albumin has the capacity to reverse echinocytosis generated by RBC storage. This observation may improve the quality of RBC units stored for longer periods of time.

  4. Comparable change in stromal refractive index of cat and human corneas following blue-IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Kaitlin T.; Gearhart, Sara M.; Savage, Daniel E.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Knox, Wayne H.; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2017-05-01

    Blue intratissue refractive index shaping (blue-IRIS) is a method with potential to correct ocular refraction noninvasively in humans. To date, blue-IRIS has only ever been applied to cat corneas and hydrogels. To test the comparability of refractive index change achievable in cat and human tissues, we used blue-IRIS to write identical phase gratings in ex vivo feline and human corneas. Femtosecond pulses (400 nm) were focused ˜300 μm below the epithelial surface of excised cat and human corneas and scanned to write phase gratings with lines ˜1 μm wide, spaced 5 μm apart, using a scan speed of 5 mm/s. Additional cat corneas were used to test writing at 3 and 7 mm/s in order to document speed dependence of the refractive index change magnitude. The first-order diffraction efficiency was immediately measured and used to calculate the refractive index change attained. Our data show that blue-IRIS induces comparable refractive index changes in feline and human corneas, an essential requirement for further developing its use as a clinical vision correction technique.

  5. Superscattering pattern shaping for radially anisotropic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    We achieve efficient shaping of superscattering by radially anisotropic nanowires relying on resonant multipolar interferences. It is shown that the radial anisotropy of refractive index can be employed to resonantly overlap electric and magnetic multipoles of various orders, and as a result, effective superscattering with different engineered angular patterns can be obtained. We further demonstrate that such superscattering shaping relying on unusual radial anisotropy parameters can be directly realized with isotropic multilayered nanowires, which may shed new light on much fundamental research and various applications related to scattering particles.

  6. Using a Simple Parcel Model to Investigate the Haines Index

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Jenkins; Steven K. Krueger; Ruiyu Sun

    2003-01-01

    The Haines Index (Haines 1988) ia fire-weather index based on stability and moisture conditions of the lower atmosphere that rates the potential for large fire growth or extreme fire behavior. The Hained Index is calculated by adding a temperature term a to a moisture term b.

  7. 34 CFR 668.214 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... two cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.214 Section 668... § 668.214 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of...

  8. 34 CFR 668.195 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.195 Section 668... Rates § 668.195 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss...

  9. 34 CFR 668.195 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.195 Section 668... Rates § 668.195 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss...

  10. 76 FR 37828 - Update to Indian Index Zone Price Points

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... completed an analysis to examine the designated indices contained in each Index Zone from the standpoint of... for indices in all the Index Zones. As a result, ONRR determined that two indices, CenterPoint West in... publication date, ONRR will no longer use these indices in the Index Zone calculation. Additionally, we have...

  11. 34 CFR 668.195 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.195 Section 668... Rates § 668.195 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss...

  12. 34 CFR 668.214 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... two cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.214 Section 668... § 668.214 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of...

  13. 34 CFR 668.195 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.195 Section 668... Rates § 668.195 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss...

  14. 34 CFR 668.214 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... two cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.214 Section 668... § 668.214 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of...

  15. 34 CFR 668.214 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... two cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.214 Section 668... § 668.214 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of...

  16. 34 CFR 668.195 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in paragraph... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.195 Section 668... Rates § 668.195 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss...

  17. 34 CFR 668.214 - Participation rate index appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... two cohorts' fiscal years. (b) Calculating your participation rate index. (1) Except as provided in... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Participation rate index appeals. 668.214 Section 668... § 668.214 Participation rate index appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of...

  18. The Structure of Relationally Indexed Titles and Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, R. J.; Yates-Mercer, Penelope A.

    1980-01-01

    Reports a study that examined 10 collections of mainly scientific subject areas indexed using Farradane's system of relational indexing. It compared (1) the use of relations, (2) the use of concept types, (3) the cross sections (or shape) of abstracts, and (4) the properties of "nodes." Statistical tables and graphs are included.…

  19. Crystal Shape Bingo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    This document describes a game that provides students with practice in recognizing three dimensional crystal shapes and planar geometric shapes of crystal faces. It contains information on the objective of the game, game preparation, and rules for playing. Play cards are included (four to a page). (ASK)

  20. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  1. National Hospital Input Price Index

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Anderson, Gerard; Schendler, Carol Ellen

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 percent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  2. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  3. Analysis of WAIS-IV index score scatter using significant deviation from the mean index score.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L; Jianjun Zhu

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement the pairwise index score comparisons included in the WAIS-IV manuals, this article describes the use of the mean of the four index scores (the average index score) as a baseline for analyzing index score variability and as a method for identifying strengths and weaknesses within an individual's index score pattern. Davis's formula was used to calculate critical values for the identification of index scores with a statistically significant difference from the average index score. Subsequent analysis of the WAIS-IV normative sample indicates that variability in performance at the index score level is not uncommon in the general population. More than 70% of individuals in the normative sample have at least one index score that differs significantly from their mean index score. This variability in index score performance appears to have little relationship to age or gender, but it is strongly related to the full-scale IQ.

  4. Pulse shaping system

    DOEpatents

    Skeldon, M.D.; Letzring, S.A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses. 8 figs.

  5. Pulse shaping system

    DOEpatents

    Skeldon, Mark D.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses.

  6. Design of Gradient Index Optical Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druessel, Jeffrey J.

    Gradient index thin films provide greater flexibility for the design of optical coatings than the more conventional "layer" films. In addition, gradient index films have higher damage thresholds and better adhesion properties. In this dissertation I present an enhancement to the existing inverse Fourier transform gradient index design method, and develop a new optimal design method for gradient index films using a generalized Fourier series approach. The inverse Fourier transform method is modified to include use of the phase of the index profile as a variable in rugate filter design. Use of an optimal phase function in Fourier-based filter designs reduces the product of index contrast and thickness for desired reflectance spectra. The shape of the reflectance spectrum is recovered with greater fidelity by suppression of Gibbs oscillations and shifting of side-lobes into desired wavelength regions. A new method of gradient index thin film design using generalized Fourier series extends the domain of problems for which gradient index solutions can be found. The method is analogous to existing techniques for layer based coating design, but adds the flexibility of gradient index films. A subset of the coefficients of a generalized Fourier series representation of the gradient index of refraction profile are used as variables in a nonlinear constrained optimization formulation. The optimal values of the design coefficients are determined using a sequential quadratic programming algorithm. This method is particularly well suited for the design of coatings for laser applications, where only a few widely separated wavelength requirements exist. The generalized Fourier series method is extended to determine the minimum film thickness needed, as well as the index of refraction profile for the optimal film.

  7. Core number representations are shaped by language.

    PubMed

    Salillas, Elena; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Language and math have been predominantly related through exact calculation. In the present study we investigated a more fundamental link between language and math: whether the most basic quantity representation used for the contrast of numerosities could be shaped by language. We selected two groups of balanced, equally proficient Basque-Spanish bilinguals. Crucially, the two groups differed with respect to the language in which math had been learned at the point of earliest formal instruction in mathematics (Language of learning Math - LL(math)). They performed a simple comparison task between pairs of Arabic digits related through the decimal system or through the vigesimal system. The vigesimal system is retained in Basque for the naming of certain numerals, while for other numerals the decimal system is used, just as for all Spanish number words. Event-related potential (ERP) distance effects were taken as the dependent variable, indexing the activation of quantity. Results showed an N1-P2 distance effect during the comparison of digit pairs related through the base-10 system in both groups. Importantly, this N1-P2 effect appeared only for the group whose LL(math) was Basque when base-20 related digits were compared, even if both groups were perfectly fluent in Basque. Thus the early N1-P2 component appears to be sensitive to verbal components contained in quantity representation. Since the task did not contain any verbal input, the present data suggest that quantity representation may have verbal traces inherited from early learning. In turn, LL(math) should be the optimal medium for numerical communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Language in calculation: a core mechanism?

    PubMed

    Benn, Yael; Zheng, Ying; Wilkinson, Iain D; Siegal, Michael; Varley, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Although there is evidence that exact calculation recruits left hemisphere perisylvian language systems, recent work has shown that exact calculation can be retained despite severe damage to these networks. In this study, we sought to identify a "core" network for calculation and hence to determine the extent to which left hemisphere language areas are part of this network. We examined performance on addition and subtraction problems in two modalities: one using conventional two-digit problems that can be easily encoded into language; the other using novel shape representations. With regard to numerical problems, our results revealed increased left fronto-temporal activity in addition, and increased parietal activity in subtraction, potentially reflecting retrieval of linguistically encoded information during addition. The shape problems elicited activations of occipital, parietal and dorsal temporal regions, reflecting visual reasoning processes. A core activation common to both calculation types involved the superior parietal lobule bilaterally, right temporal sub-gyral area, and left lateralized activations in inferior parietal (BA 40), frontal (BA 6/8/32) and occipital (BA 18) regions. The large bilateral parietal activation could be attributed to visuo-spatial processing in calculation. The inferior parietal region, and particularly the left angular gyrus, was part of the core calculation network. However, given its activation in both shape and number tasks, its role is unlikely to reflect linguistic processing per se. A possibility is that it serves to integrate right hemisphere visuo-spatial and left hemisphere linguistic and executive processing in calculation.

  9. The glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Wolever, T M

    1990-01-01

    Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. Methods of processing, and other factors unrelated to the nutrient composition of foods may also have major effects on the glycemic response. The reason for differences in glycemic response appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the many factors influencing this. The glycemic index (GI) is a system of classification in which the glycemic responses of foods are indexed against a standard (white bread). This allows the results of different investigators to be pooled. GI values also depend upon a number of nonfood-related variables. The method of calculation of the glycemic response area is most important, but the method of blood sampling and length of time of studies also may have effects. Variability of glycemic responses arises from day-to-day variation in the same subject and variation between different subjects. There is less variability between the GI values of different subjects than there is within the same subject from day to day. Therefore, the mean GI values of foods are independent of the glucose tolerance status of the subjects being tested. Potentially clinically useful starchy foods producing relatively flat glycemic responses have been identified, including legumes, pasta, barley, bulgur, parboiled rice and whole grain breads such as pumpernickel. Specific incorporation of these foods into diets have been associated with reduced blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Low-GI foods may influence amino acid metabolism although the implications of these are unknown. In addition, low GI foods increase colonic fermentation. The physiologic and metabolic implications of this relate to increased bacterial urea utilization, and to the production and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the colon. The application of the GI to therapeutic diets should be in the context

  10. Body shape preferences: associations with rater body shape and sociosexuality.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael E; Pound, Nicholas; Dunn, James; Hopkins, Sian; Kang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters' body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes) and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low) VHI and attractive (low) WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low) WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for attractive opposite

  11. Geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens: analytical ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2012-05-01

    A new class of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens is introduced and analyzed. The interior iso-indicial contours mimic the external shape of the lens, which leads to an invariant geometry of the GRIN structure. The lens model employs a conventional surface representation using a coincoid of revolution with a higher-order aspheric term. This model has a unique feature, namely, it allows analytical paraxial ray tracing. The height and the angle of an arbitrary incident ray can be found inside the lens in a closed-form expression, which is used to calculate the main optical characteristics of the lens, including the optical power and third-order monochromatic aberration coefficients. Moreover, due to strong coupling of the external surface shape to the GRIN structure, the proposed GRIN lens is well suited for studying accommodation mechanism in the eye. To show the power of the model, several examples are given emphasizing the usefulness of the analytical solution. The presented geometry-invariant GRIN lens can be used for modeling and reconstructing the crystalline lens of the human eye and other types of eyes featuring a GRIN lens.

  12. Incidences from modifications of the computational methods of the psophic index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francois, J.

    1981-01-01

    In France, the level of annoyance in areas around airports is represented by the psyphic index N. Various modifications were proposed in the method of calculating this indexing order to improve the index as an annoyance indicator. The quality of the modified N index as a prognosis index for annoyance caused by aircraft noise is included.

  13. Wavefront shaping through emulated curved space in waveguide settings

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Chong; Bekenstein, Rivka; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Segev, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable progress in wavefront shaping, including shaping of beams in free space, of plasmonic wavepackets and of electronic wavefunctions. In all of these, the wavefront shaping was achieved by external means such as masks, gratings and reflection from metasurfaces. Here, we propose wavefront shaping by exploiting general relativity (GR) effects in waveguide settings. We demonstrate beam shaping within dielectric slab samples with predesigned refractive index varying so as to create curved space environment for light. We use this technique to construct very narrow non-diffracting beams and shape-invariant beams accelerating on arbitrary trajectories. Importantly, the beam transformations occur within a mere distance of 40 wavelengths, suggesting that GR can inspire any wavefront shaping in highly tight waveguide settings. In such settings, we demonstrate Einstein's Rings: a phenomenon dating back to 1936. PMID:26899285

  14. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kai Ling; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    To determine glycemic, insulinemic, and satiety indices of 3 types of kefir. This study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, 50 g of available carbohydrate from low-fat strawberry kefir or orange kefir was tested, and in phase 2, low-fat plain kefir containing 25 g of available carbohydrates was tested for glycemic index (GI), in both cases compared with an equivalent amount of glucose. In phase 3, 1000-kJ portions of all 3 types of kefirs were compared with white bread with the same energy content to determine the insulinemic index (II) and satiety index (SI) of all 3 kefirs. In all phases, a single-meal, randomized crossover design was performed in which the test meals were given to healthy adults, 5 men and 5 women. The total incremental plasma glucose area under the curve (iAUC) for strawberry, orange, and plain kefirs was significantly lower compared with the respective high-GI control food, which was glucose solution. However, the IIs and SIs of kefir did not differ significantly from the white bread. Kefir is a low- to moderate-GI food; however, its II was high. Although kefir had higher water content, the SI of kefir was not significantly different from white bread.

  15. Scattering from arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, David G.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, Capers R.

    1992-01-01

    The scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped microstrip patch antennas are examined. The electric field integral equation for a current element on a grounded dielectric slab is developed for a rectangular geometry based on Galerkin's technique with subdomain rooftop basis functions. A shape function is introduced that allows a rectangular grid approximation to the arbitrarily shaped patch. The incident field on the patch is expressed as a function of incidence angle theta(i), phi(i). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the unknown current modes on the patch, and the electromagnetic scattering is calculated for a given angle. Comparisons are made with other calculated results as well as with measurements.

  16. The Shape of a Baseball Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Milton P.

    1993-01-01

    Uses conic sections, trigonometric functions, and polar coordinates to solve the problem of determining the shape of a baseball outfield fence, given the distances along the foul lines and to straightaway center field. Graphing programs and calculators are utilized to plot different solutions. (MDH)

  17. Delving Deeper: Transforming Shapes Physically and Analytically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathouz, Margaret; Novak, Christopher; Clifford, John

    2013-01-01

    Constructing formulas "from scratch" for calculating geometric measurements of shapes--for example, the area of a triangle--involves reasoning deductively and drawing connections between different methods (Usnick, Lamphere, and Bright 1992). Visual and manipulative models also play a role in helping students understand the underlying…

  18. Delving Deeper: Transforming Shapes Physically and Analytically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathouz, Margaret; Novak, Christopher; Clifford, John

    2013-01-01

    Constructing formulas "from scratch" for calculating geometric measurements of shapes--for example, the area of a triangle--involves reasoning deductively and drawing connections between different methods (Usnick, Lamphere, and Bright 1992). Visual and manipulative models also play a role in helping students understand the underlying…

  19. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-06

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future.

  20. [Evaluation of circulatory state using pulse oximeter: 2. PI (perfusion index) x PVI (pleth variability index)].

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Toru; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2009-07-01

    Pulse oximeter expressed by SpO2 is used for monitoring respiratory state during operation and in ICU. Perfusion index (PI) and pleth variability index (PVI) as new indexes are calculated from pulse oximeter (Masimo SET Radical-7, Masimo Corp., USA, 1998) waveforms. And these indices were used as parameters to evaluate the circulatory state. For PI calculation, the pulsatile infrared signal is indexed against the nonpulsatile infrared signal and expressed as a percentage. It might thus be of future value in assessment of perioperative changes in peripheral perfusion. PVI is a measure of a dynamic change in PI that occurs during complete respiratory cycle. It might be thought that PVI, an index automatically derived from the pulse oximeter waveform analysis, had potentially clinical applications for noninvasive hypovolemia detection and fluid responsiveness monitoring.

  1. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  2. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  3. Shaped Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatartchenko, Vitali A.

    Crystals of specified shape and size (shaped crystals) with controlled crystal growth (SCG) defect and impurity structure have to be grown for the successful development of modern engineering. Since the 1950s many hundreds of papers and patents concerned with shaped growth have been published. In this chapter, we do not try to enumerate the successful applications of shaped growth to different materials but rather to carry out a fundamental physical and mathematical analysis of shaping as well as the peculiarities of shaped crystal structures. Four main techniques, based on which the lateral surface can be shaped without contact with the container walls, are analyzed: the Czochralski technique (CZT), the Verneuil technique (VT), the floating zone technique (FZT), and technique of pulling from shaper (TPS). Modifications of these techniques are analyzed as well. In all these techniques the shape of the melt meniscus is controlled by surface tension forces, i.e., capillary forces, and here they are classified as capillary shaping techniques (CST). We look for conditions under which the crystal growth process in each CST is dynamically stable. Only in this case are all perturbations attenuated and a crystal of constant cross section shaping technique (CST) grown without any special regulation. The dynamic stability theory of the crystal growth process for all CST is developed on the basis of Lyapunov's dynamic stability theory. Lyapunov's equations for the crystal growth processes follow from fundamental laws. The results of the theory allow the choice of stable regimes for crystal growth by all CST as well as special designs of shapers in TPS. SCG experiments by CZT, VT, and FZT are discussed but the main consideration is given to TPS. Shapers not only allow crystal of very complicated cross section to be grown but provide a special distribution of impurities. A history of TPS is provided later in the chapter, because it can only be described after explanation of the

  4. The Shapes of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2013-12-01

    I have used many ploys to start a course in introductory physics, but one of the more interesting ones was to spend 20 minutes describing some of the curves and shapes that we would encounter in our year together. The students saw parabolas, catenaries, hyperbolas, cycloids, circles, ellipses, and helices, and were shown examples, either live or on slides, of these shapes. The world of physics is three-dimensional, and students need to see what curves and trajectories span it. Once they see these shapes in nature, they look at the world around them in fresh ways.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  6. Interjet Energy Flow/Event Shape Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Carola F.; Kúcs, Tibor; Sterman, George

    We identify a class of perturbatively computable measures of interjet energy flow, which can be associated with well-defined color flow at short distances. As an illustration, we calculate correlations between event shapes and the flow of energy, Qω, into an interjet angular region, ω, in high-energy two-jet e+e--annihilation events. Laplace transforms with respect to the event shapes suppress states with radiation at intermediate energy scales, so that we may compute systematically logarithms of interjet energy flow. This method provides a set of predictions on energy radiated between jets, as a function of event shape and of the choice of the region ω in which the energy is measured. Non-global logarithms appear as corrections. We apply our method to a continuous class of event shapes.

  7. Interband optical transitions in ellipsoidal shaped nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereselidze, Tamaz; Tchelidze, Tamar; Devdariani, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The optical properties of crystalline semiconductor nanoparticles with ellipsoidal shape are investigated and discussed as a function of the shape-anisotropy parameter. The optical transition-matrix elements are calculated in the dipole approximation using perturbation theory and with a direct diagonalization of the appropriate Hamiltonian. The matrix elements involving the ground and first excited states are monotonic functions of the shape-anisotropy parameter, whereas matrix elements involving the highly excited states have zeros and extrema that are reflected in the behaviour of the corresponding transition probabilities. Moreover, some matrix elements involving the excited states have discontinuity. We demonstrate that, nanoparticles with ellipsoidal shape can be grown with the infrared as well as ultraviolet features.

  8. The vegetative index number and crop identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashburn, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A vegetative index number of numerical value was calculated from the digital values of the LANDSAT system to provide some measure of green growing vegetation. The usefulness of the green numbers for schemes in crop identification and acreage estimation is investigated and the Ashburn vegetation index (AVI) is compared with the Kauth-Thomas vegetation index (KVI) for crop identification schemes. Results of wheat acreage estimation using LACIE Procedure 1 and the AVI for eight sample segments are given. Tables show comparisons between the AVI and the KVI as well as visual results of the AVI.

  9. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    PubMed

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  10. New Concepts in Indexing *

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Russell

    1965-01-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting. PMID:14306025

  11. Shape dependent electronic properties of wurzite GaN nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar, Avaneesh Sharma, Varun; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.

    2016-05-06

    In the present work, energetic stability and electronic behavior of triangular and square shaped wurzite GaN NW oriented along [1100] and [11 2 0] direction has been investigated by employing ab-initio DFT calculation. Structural analysis suggests that triangular shaped NW undergoes strong surface reconstruction compared to square shaped NW. However, binding energy reveals that square shaped NW is energetically more feasible than triangular NW. Further, from electronic band structure we observe that both structures are metallic with higher metallicity for triangular shaped NW.

  12. The use of new index for surface roughness of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konda, Asako; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kajiwara, Koji; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Propose of a new Vegetation Index is purposes. Ordinal vegetation Index can show intensity of vegetation on the ground. It can not show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Proposed vegetation index utilizes BRF property. It is generated from data from 2 orbit of satellite and be able to show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Principles of this index is coming from field observation using RC helicopter. Each vegetation canopy has different texture and roughness. New index, named BSI (Bi-directional reflectance Structure Index) shows difference of vegetation canopy. It is calculated by using the data of NOAA/AVHRR, ADEOS OCTS. ADEOS-II GLI can derive BSI.

  13. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  14. Total Gaussian curvature, drop shapes and the range of applicability of drop shape techniques.

    PubMed

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2014-02-01

    Drop shape techniques are used extensively for surface tension measurement. It is well-documented that, as the drop/bubble shape becomes close to spherical, the performance of all drop shape techniques deteriorates. There have been efforts quantifying the range of applicability of drop techniques by studying the deviation of Laplacian drops from the spherical shape. A shape parameter was introduced in the literature and was modified several times to accommodate different drop constellations. However, new problems arise every time a new configuration is considered. Therefore, there is a need for a universal shape parameter applicable to pendant drops, sessile drops, liquid bridges as well as captive bubbles. In this work, the use of the total Gaussian curvature in a unified approach for the shape parameter is introduced for that purpose. The total Gaussian curvature is a dimensionless quantity that is commonly used in differential geometry and surface thermodynamics, and can be easily calculated for different Laplacian drop shapes. The new definition of the shape parameter using the total Gaussian curvature is applied here to both pendant and constrained sessile drops as an illustration. The analysis showed that the new definition is superior and reflects experimental results better than previous definitions, especially at extreme values of the Bond number. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Indexing consistency in MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, M E; Reid, C A

    1983-01-01

    The quality of indexing of periodicals in a bibliographic data base cannot be measured directly, as there is no one "correct" way to index an item. However, consistency can be used to measure the reliability of indexing. To measure consistency in MEDLINE, 760 twice-indexed articles from 42 periodical issues were identified in the data base, and their indexing compared. Consistency, expressed as a percentage, was measured using Hooper's equation. Overall, checktags had the highest consistency. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and subheadings were applied more consistently to central concepts than to peripheral points. When subheadings were added to a main heading, consistency was lowered. "Floating" subheadings were more consistent than were attached subheadings. Indexing consistency was not affected by journal indexing priority, language, or length of the article. Terms from MeSH Tree Structure categories A, B, and D appeared more often than expected in the high-consistency articles; whereas terms from categories E, F, H, and N appeared more often than expected in the low-consistency articles. MEDLINE, with its excellent controlled vocabulary, exemplary quality control, and highly trained indexers, probably represents the state of the art in manually indexed data bases. PMID:6344946

  16. The dimensions of indexing.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

    2003-01-01

    Indexing of documents is an important strategy intended to make the literature more readily available to the user. Here we describe several dimensions of indexing that are important if indexing is to be optimal. These dimensions are coverage, predictability, and transparency. MeSH terms and text words are compared in MEDLINE in regard to these dimensions. Part of our analysis consists in applying AdaBoost with decisions trees as the weak learners to estimate how reliably index terms are being assigned and how complex the criteria are by which they are being assigned. Our conclusions are that MeSH terms are more predictable and more transparent than text words.

  17. Shaping Crystals using Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Mackiewicz, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    Electrophoresis is size and shape independent as stressed by Morrison in his seminal paper. Here we present an original approach to reshape colloidal crystals using an electric field as a carving tool.

  18. Handle-shaped Prominence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-17

    NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope aboard ESA’s SOHO spacecraft took this image of a huge, handle-shaped prominence in 1999. Prominences are huge clouds of relatively cool dense plasma suspended in the Sun hot, thin corona.

  19. Laser shaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Helidonis, Emmanuel S.; Kavvalos, George; Christodoulou, P. N.; Naoumidi, I.; Velegrakis, G.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shechter, A.

    1994-09-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has been used for the first time to change the cartilage's shape. After the laser irradiation the cartilage has the tendency to retain its new form. Different types of laser modified cartilage structures were studied. The inferred physical mechanism for cartilage shaping using the stresses relaxation process is presented. The clinical significance of the results for corrective laser surgery is discussed.

  20. Silicon Carbide Shapes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Free-standing silicon carbide shapes are produced by passing a properly diluted stream of a reactant gas, for example methyltrichlorosilane, into a...reaction chamber housing a thin walled, hollow graphite body heated to 1300-1500C. After the graphite body is sufficiently coated with silicon carbide , the...graphite body is fired, converting the graphite to gaseous CO2 and CO and leaving a silicon carbide shaped article remaining.

  1. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  2. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  3. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  4. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  5. ITER Shape Controller and Transport Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T A; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Portone, A

    2007-05-31

    We currently use the CORSICA integrated modeling code for scenario studies for both the DIII-D and ITER experiments. In these simulations, free- or fixed-boundary equilibria are simultaneously converged with thermal evolution determined from transport models providing temperature and current density profiles. Using a combination of fixed boundary evolution followed by free-boundary calculation to determine the separatrix and coil currents. In the free-boundary calculation, we use the state-space controller representation with transport simulations to provide feedback modeling of shape, vertical stability and profile control. In addition to a tightly coupled calculation with simulator and controller imbedded inside CORSICA, we also use a remote procedure call interface to couple the CORSICA non-linear plasma simulations to the controller environments developed within the Mathworks Matlab/Simulink environment. We present transport simulations using full shape and vertical stability control with evolution of the temperature profiles to provide simulations of the ITER controller and plasma response.

  6. Thermodynamic Stability of Low- and High-Index Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 Surface Terminations

    SciTech Connect

    Warburton, Robert E.; Iddir, Hakim; Curtiss, Larry A.; Greeley, Jeffrey

    2016-05-04

    Density functional theory calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA+U) to determine stable terminations of both low- and high-index spinel LiMn2O4 (LMO) surfaces. A grand canonical thermodynamic approach is employed, permitting a direct comparison of offstoichiometric surfaces with previously reported stoichiometric surface terminations at various environmental conditions. Within this formalism, we have identified trends in the structure of the low-index surfaces as a function of the Li and O chemical potentials. The results suggest that, under a range of chemical potentials for which bulk LMO is stable, Li/O and Li-rich (111) surface terminations are favored, neither of which adopts an inverse spinel structure in the subsurface region. This thermodynamic analysis is extended to identify stable structures for certain high-index surfaces, including (311), (331), (511), and (531), which constitute simple models for steps or defects that may be present on real LMO particles. The low- and high-index results are combined to determine the relative stability of each surface facet under a range of environmental conditions. The relative surface energies are further employed to predict LMO particle shapes through a Wulff construction approach, which suggests that LMO particles will adopt either an octahedron or a truncated octahedron shape at conditions in which LMO is thermodynamically stable. These results are in agreement with the experimental observations of LMO particle shapes.

  7. New method for calculating shell correction

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, P.; Kruppa, A. T.; Vertse, T.

    2010-06-15

    A new method is presented for the calculation of the shell correction with the inclusion of the continuum part of the spectrum. The smoothing function used has a finite energy range in contrast to the Gaussian shape of the Strutinski method. The new method is especially useful for light nuclei where the generalized Strutinski procedure cannot be applied.

  8. Dual-band plasmonic resonator based on Jerusalem cross-shaped nanoapertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Arif E.; Kaya, Sabri; Mertiri, Alket; Aslan, Ekin; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice; Turkmen, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we both experimentally and numerically introduce a dual-resonant metamaterial based on subwavelength Jerusalem cross-shaped apertures. We numerically investigate the physical origin of the dual-resonant behavior, originating from the constituting aperture elements, through finite difference time domain calculations. Our numerical calculations show that at the dual-resonances, the aperture system supports large and easily accessible local electromagnetic fields. In order to experimentally realize the aperture system, we utilize a high-precision and lift-off free fabrication method based on electron-beam lithography. We also introduce a fine-tuning mechanism for controlling the dual-resonant spectral response through geometrical device parameters. Finally, we show the aperture system's highly advantageous far- and near-field characteristics through numerical calculations on refractive index sensitivity. The quantitative analyses on the availability of the local fields supported by the aperture system are employed to explain the grounds behind the sensitivity of each spectral feature within the dual-resonant behavior. Possessing dual-resonances with large and accessible electromagnetic fields, Jerusalem cross-shaped apertures can be highly advantageous for wide range of applications demanding multiple spectral features with strong nearfield characteristics.

  9. Stationary shapes of deformable particles moving at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2016-11-01

    We introduce an iterative solution scheme in order to calculate stationary shapes of deformable elastic capsules which are steadily moving through a viscous fluid at low Reynolds numbers. The iterative solution scheme couples hydrodynamic boundary integral methods and elastic shape equations to find the stationary axisymmetric shape and the velocity of an elastic capsule moving in a viscous fluid governed by the Stokes equation. We use this approach to systematically study dynamical shape transitions of capsules with Hookean stretching and bending energies and spherical resting shape sedimenting under the influence of gravity or centrifugal forces. We find three types of possible axisymmetric stationary shapes for sedimenting capsules with fixed volume: a pseudospherical state, a pear-shaped state, and buckled shapes. Capsule shapes are controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the Föppl-von-Kármán number characterizing the elastic properties and a Bond number characterizing the driving force. For increasing gravitational force the spherical shape transforms into a pear shape. For very large bending rigidity (very small Föppl-von-Kármán number) this transition is discontinuous with shape hysteresis. The corresponding transition line terminates, however, in a critical point, such that the discontinuous transition is not present at typical Föppl-von-Kármán numbers of synthetic capsules. In an additional bifurcation, buckled shapes occur upon increasing the gravitational force.

  10. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  11. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  12. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  13. Indexing for Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Ernest J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a functional indexing system that is tailored to the thinking involved in the process of invention. Classification by function is discussed; matrix representation is explained; a controlled vocabulary of verbs, objects, and modifiers is described; and the relation to other indexing systems is examined. (13 references)…

  14. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  15. Indexing Editorial Cartoons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple-Sokol, Angie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

  16. Linked Phrase Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted system for the production of printed indexes based on networks of concept relations expressed in natural-language-like form. The LIPHIS is designed to handle more complex networks of concept relations, and so produce better indexing of highly detailed subjects. (Author/CWM)

  17. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  18. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  19. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and…

  20. Smart beam shape control using shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maari, Sami Mikhail

    The thermoelastic martensitic transformation of Nitinol was utilized to control the shape of a metal beam. Nitinol strips were bonded at an inclination angle on the surface of a beam to produce both bending and torsion. The Nitinol strips were thermally trained to provide the shape memory effect upon heating above the austenite start temperature. A set of differential equations describing beam equilibrium conditions during the heating of the Nitinol strips to a temperature in the martensite-austenite domain were developed. This set of equations was solved numerically using a finite difference method. The solution provided the beam strain distribution as a function of Nitinol temperature and the spatial coordinate along the beam neutral axis. The beam neutral axis slope and twist were then calculated form the strain distribution of the beam. The displacement and twist for beams with multiple strips were computed by superimposing the solutions for individual Nitinol strips. The predictions of the mathematical model were used to generate the solution for several benchmark problems of a cantilevered beam with different arrangements and volume fractions of Nitinol strips. The results were compared with those for the comparable experimental configuration.