Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Bachenheimer, Aaron; Conley, Abigail Holland; Grays, Shaefny
Grounded in narrative inquiry, this study explored the ways in which graduate and undergraduate students representing different worldview identities come together in dyads to share stories that reflect their existential and spiritual development. The study revealed two contrasting types of exchange: (1) deep, personal exchanges that involved a…
The paper investigates Polish punk and hip hop (rap) song lyrics broken down into frequency lists. In an analysis inspired by MacLaury's view of categorization, the construals of punk and hip hop worldviews are shown to vary in the distance of the observer from the world, the width of the viewing frame, as well as the granularity and density of…
Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul
To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…
Banks, A P; Millward, L J
Shared mental models theory normally takes the individual as its unit of analysis. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for studying shared mental models in which the model is considered to be distributed amongst the team. From this framework a cognitive process is predicted which describes how shared mental models are run. A team reasoning task requiring planning was used to illustrate this framework and test predictions derived from it. Two aspects of sharing mental models were studied; the degree of overlap between team members' mental models and the organization of the division of the model between team members. Experimental results showed that the cognitive processes used were distributed amongst the team and support was found for most, but not all, aspects of the proposed process of running a shared mental model. The organization of sharing was found to influence this process.
Johnson, Tristan E.; O'Connor, Debra L.
Teams are an essential part of successful performance in learning and work environments. Analysis-constructed shared mental model (ACSMM) methodology is a set of techniques where individual mental models are elicited and sharedness is determined not by the individuals who provided their mental models but by an analytical procedure. This method…
Dong, Yanping; Gui, Shichun; MacWhinney, Brian
This paper proposes a shared, distributed, asymmetrical model for the bilingual mental lexicon. To test the sharing of conceptual relations across translation equivalents, Experiment 1 used the classical priming paradigm with specific methodological innovations, trying to satisfy various constraints that had not been addressed in previous studies.…
Research within terror management theory (TMT) has shown that when mortality is made salient, people subsequently engage in worldview defense: an increase in derogation of an individual who does not share their worldview along with an increase in veneration of an individual who does. Research has also shown that high levels of self-esteem (either…
Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…
Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M.; Verfaellie, Mieke
Accumulating evidence suggests that mental simulation of the future and past relies on common processes supported by the hippocampus. However, it is currently unknown whether the hippocampus also supports the ability to share these mental simulations with others. Recently, it has been proposed that language and language-related structures in the brain are particularly important for communicating information not tied to the immediate environment, and indeed specifically evolved so that humans could share their mental time travels into the future and the past with others. The current study investigated whether processes supported by the hippocampus are necessary for effectively communicating the contents of one's mental simulations by examining the discourse of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe damage. In Experiment 1 we tested whether patients can produce integrated discourse about future and past events by measuring lower-level discourse cohesion and higher-level discourse coherence. Striking reductions in both measures were observed in amnesic patients’ narratives about novel future events and experienced past events. To investigate whether these deficits simply reflected concurrent reductions in narrative content, in Experiment 2 we examined the status of discourse integration in patients’ verbal narratives about pictures, which contained an equivalent amount of narrative content as controls’. Discourse cohesion and coherence deficits were also present when patients generated narratives based on pictures, and these deficits did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the hippocampus. Together, these results reveal a pervasive linguistic integration deficit in amnesia that is not limited to discourse about the past or the future and is not simply secondary to reductions in narrative content. More broadly, this study demonstrates that the hippocampus supports the integration of individual narrative elements into coherent and cohesive
Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M; Verfaellie, Mieke
Accumulating evidence suggests that mental simulation of the future and past relies on common processes supported by the hippocampus. However, it is currently unknown whether the hippocampus also supports the ability to share these mental simulations with others. Recently, it has been proposed that language and language-related structures in the brain are particularly important for communicating information not tied to the immediate environment, and indeed specifically evolved so that humans could share their mental time travels into the future and the past with others. The current study investigated whether processes supported by the hippocampus are necessary for effectively communicating the contents of one's mental simulations by examining the discourse of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe damage. In Experiment 1 we tested whether patients can produce integrated discourse about future and past events by measuring lower-level discourse cohesion and higher-level discourse coherence. Striking reductions in both measures were observed in amnesic patients' narratives about novel future events and experienced past events. To investigate whether these deficits simply reflected concurrent reductions in narrative content, in Experiment 2 we examined the status of discourse integration in patients' verbal narratives about pictures, which contained an equivalent amount of narrative content as controls'. Discourse cohesion and coherence deficits were also present when patients generated narratives based on pictures, and these deficits did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the hippocampus. Together, these results reveal a pervasive linguistic integration deficit in amnesia that is not limited to discourse about the past or the future and is not simply secondary to reductions in narrative content. More broadly, this study demonstrates that the hippocampus supports the integration of individual narrative elements into coherent and cohesive discourse
Gauch, Hugh G., Jr.
Whether science can reach conclusions with substantial worldview import, such as whether supernatural beings exist or the universe is purposeful, is a significant but unsettled aspect of science. For instance, various scientists, philosophers, and educators have explored the implications of science for a theistic worldview, with opinions spanning…
Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah
This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…
Smith, James K. A.
This article presents Smith's response to Elmer John Thiessen's review of his book "Desiring the Kingdom." Before attending to specific concerns, the author first begins with an affirmation that he shares with Thiessen: He, too, found "worldview thinking" to be revolutionary. He said he is a whole-hearted worldview convert, as it were. Smith…
Gauch, Hugh G.
Whether science can reach conclusions with substantial worldview import, such as whether supernatural beings exist or the universe is purposeful, is a significant but unsettled aspect of science. For instance, various scientists, philosophers, and educators have explored the implications of science for a theistic worldview, with opinions spanning the spectrum from positive to neutral to negative. To delineate a mainstream perspective on science, seven key characterizations or “pillars” of science are adopted from position papers from the world’s largest scientific organization, the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Based on those pillars and an examination of scientific method, I argue that the presuppositions and reasoning of science can and should be worldview independent, but empirical and public evidence from the sciences and humanities can support conclusions that are worldview distinctive. I also critique several problematic perspectives: asserting that science can say nothing about worldviews and the opposite extreme of insisting that science decisively supports one particular worldview; weakening science so severely that it lacks truth claims; and burdening science with unnecessary presuppositions. Worldview-distinctive conclusions based on empirical evidence are suitable for individual convictions and public discussions, but not for institutional endorsements and scientific literacy requirements.
Is there a place for Indigenous Knowledge in the science curriculum for a Zulu community in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa? This article argues "yes," based on a participative research and development project that discovered relevant science learning in a Zulu community. Among community concerns for relevant factual and performative knowledge, we found that culture and worldview are critical to community identity, to visioning educational outcomes, and to learning in school science. Cultural practices may contribute to pedagogy and curriculum; curriculum, in turn, may affirm cultural practices. Further, worldview needs to be understood as an aspect of knowledge creation. By understanding key aspects of an African worldview, science educators can contribute to both meaningful science education and community well-being. By fostering culture and worldview, a rural community can make a unique contribution to science education.
Crickard, Elizabeth L; O'Brien, Megan S; Rapp, Charles A; Holmes, Cheryl L
Medical shared decision making has demonstrated success in increasing collaboration between clients and practitioners for various health decisions. As the importance of a shared decision making approach becomes increasingly valued in the adult mental health arena, transfer of these ideals to youth and families of youth in the mental health system is a logical next step. A review of the literature and preliminary, formative feedback from families and staff at a Midwestern urban community mental health center guided the development of a framework for youth shared decision making. The framework includes three functional areas (1) setting the stage for youth shared decision making, (2) facilitating youth shared decision making, and (3) supporting youth shared decision making. While still in the formative stages, the value of a specific framework for a youth model in support of moving from a client-practitioner value system to a systematic, intentional process is evident.
Schauer, Carole; Everett, Anita; del Vecchio, Paolo; Anderson, Leigh
Active consumer participation is critical in contemporary mental health care and treatment planning and has been a staple of the field of psychiatric rehabilitation for the last three decades. Providing the opportunity for consumers to chose interventions that fit personal preferences and recovery increase the likelihood that these interventions will enhance personal meaning, satisfaction and quality of life (Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance Use Conditions, 2006). Similarly, self-determination and shared decision-making are critical components of recovery. As stated in the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health Final Report, recovery from mental illnesses should be the expectation in mental health care with services and treatments that are consumer and family-driven. Mental health care should be planned and delivered to ensure that consumers and families with children with mental health problems receive real and meaningful choices about treatment options and providers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the value and use of shared decision-making in health and mental health care, briefly examine the advantages and disadvantages of shared decision making and propose next steps in advancing use of shared decision-making in mental health care.
Ososky, Scott; Schuster, David; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen; Shumaker, Randall; Lebiere, Christian; Kurup, Unmesh; Oh, Jean; Stentz, Anthony
Current ground robots are largely employed via tele-operation and provide their operators with useful tools to extend reach, improve sensing, and avoid dangers. To move from robots that are useful as tools to truly synergistic human-robot teaming, however, will require not only greater technical capabilities among robots, but also a better understanding of the ways in which the principles of teamwork can be applied from exclusively human teams to mixed teams of humans and robots. In this respect, a core characteristic that enables successful human teams to coordinate shared tasks is their ability to create, maintain, and act on a shared understanding of the world and the roles of the team and its members in it. The team performance literature clearly points towards two important cornerstones for shared understanding of team members: mental models and situation awareness. These constructs have been investigated as products of teams as well; amongst teams, they are shared mental models and shared situation awareness. Consequently, we are studying how these two constructs can be measured and instantiated in human-robot teams. In this paper, we report results from three related efforts that are investigating process and performance outcomes for human robot teams. Our investigations include: (a) how human mental models of tasks and teams change whether a teammate is human, a service animal, or an advanced automated system; (b) how computer modeling can lead to mental models being instantiated and used in robots; (c) how we can simulate the interactions between human and future robotic teammates on the basis of changes in shared mental models and situation assessment.
Katzenbach & Smith 1999). Ensuring _0 I that team members explicitly Taskwork SMM focus on teamwork at the onset of team activity, as suggested in Figure 1... Katzenbach , J.R. & Smith, D.K. (1999). The discipline of teams. Harvard Business Review, 71, 111-120. Klimoski, R. & Mohammed, S. (1994). Team mental
Christian worldview thinking has become an increasingly prominent framework for thinking about education since its uptake by a new and rapidly growing constituency of Evangelicals. On the surface this popular surge vindicates the methodology yet the literature demonstrates a concerning lack of engagement with apparently debilitating critiques…
The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…
Kim, Hyunsong; Kim, Dongsik
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination support (tool support and tutor support) on the development of shared mental models (SMMs) and coordinated action in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Eighteen students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, including the tool condition, the…
The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…
Ariff, Nik Shahman Nik Ahmad; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Eris, Ozgur
In this paper, we present an exploratory protocol study on the use of different communication channels during design sketching. We focus on how individual designers share their mental models with other designers in a group, and analyse their use of graphical, textual, and verbal communications during concept generation. Our findings suggest that…
Van Overwalle, Frank; Vandekerckhove, Marie
Recent social neuroscientific evidence indicates that implicit and explicit inferences on the mind of another person (i.e., intentions, attributions or traits), are subserved by a shared mentalizing network. Under both implicit and explicit instructions, ERP studies reveal that early inferences occur at about the same time, and fMRI studies demonstrate an overlap in core mentalizing areas, including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results suggest a rapid shared implicit intuition followed by a slower explicit verification processes (as revealed by additional brain activation during explicit vs. implicit inferences). These data provide support for a default-adjustment dual-process framework of social mentalizing. PMID:24062663
Fishman, Yonatan I.
Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper…
Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes
With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.
Matthias, Marianne S.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P.
Understanding consumer initiation of shared decision making (SDM) is critical to improving SDM in mental health consultations, particularly because providers do not always invite consumer participation in treatment decisions. This study examined the association between consumer initiation of nine elements of SDM as measured by the SDM scale, and measures of consumer illness self-management and the consumer-provider relationship. In 63 mental health visits, three SDM elements were associated with self-management or relationship factors: discussion of consumer goals, treatment alternatives, and pros and cons of a decision. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26427999
Matthias, Marianne S; Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P
Understanding consumer initiation of shared decision making (SDM) is critical to improving SDM in mental health consultations, particularly because providers do not always invite consumer participation in treatment decisions. This study examined the association between consumer initiation of nine elements of SDM as measured by the SDM scale, and measures of consumer illness self-management and the consumer-provider relationship. In 63 mental health visits, three SDM elements were associated with self-management or relationship factors: discussion of consumer goals, treatment alternatives, and pros and cons of a decision. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed.
Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John
Recent research on human-centered teamwork highly demands the design of cognitive agents that can model and exploit human partners' cognitive load to enhance team performance. In this paper, we focus on teams composed of human-agent pairs and develop a system called Shared Mental Models for all--SMMall. SMMall implements a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based cognitive load model for an agent to predict its human partner's instantaneous cognitive load status. It also implements a user interface (UI) concept called shared belief map, which offers a synergic representation of team members' information space and allows them to share beliefs. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the HMM-based load models. The results indicate that the HMM-based load models are effective in helping team members develop a shared mental model (SMM), and the benefit of load-based information sharing becomes more significant as communication capacity increases. It also suggests that multiparty communication plays an important role in forming/evolving team SMMs, and when a group of agents can be partitioned into subteams, splitting messages by their load status can be more effective for developing subteam SMMs.
Vesper, Cordula; Abramova, Ekaterina; Bütepage, Judith; Ciardo, Francesca; Crossey, Benjamin; Effenberg, Alfred; Hristova, Dayana; Karlinsky, April; McEllin, Luke; Nijssen, Sari R. R.; Schmitz, Laura; Wahn, Basil
In joint action, multiple people coordinate their actions to perform a task together. This often requires precise temporal and spatial coordination. How do co-actors achieve this? How do they coordinate their actions toward a shared task goal? Here, we provide an overview of the mental representations involved in joint action, discuss how co-actors share sensorimotor information and what general mechanisms support coordination with others. By deliberately extending the review to aspects such as the cultural context in which a joint action takes place, we pay tribute to the complex and variable nature of this social phenomenon. PMID:28101077
Background While integrated primary healthcare for the management of depression has been well researched, appropriate models of primary care for people with severe and persistent psychotic disorders are poorly understood. In 2010 the NSW (Australia) Health Department commissioned a review of the evidence on "shared care" models of ambulatory mental health services. This focussed on critical factors in the implementation of these models in clinical practice, with a view to providing policy direction. The review excluded evidence about dementia, substance use and personality disorders. Methods A rapid review involving a search for systematic reviews on The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). This was followed by a search for papers published since these systematic reviews on Medline and supplemented by limited iterative searching from reference lists. Results Shared care trials report improved mental and physical health outcomes in some clinical settings with improved social function, self management skills, service acceptability and reduced hospitalisation. Other benefits include improved access to specialist care, better engagement with and acceptability of mental health services. Limited economic evaluation shows significant set up costs, reduced patient costs and service savings often realised by other providers. Nevertheless these findings are not evident across all clinical groups. Gains require substantial cross-organisational commitment, carefully designed and consistently delivered interventions, with attention to staff selection, training and supervision. Effective models incorporated linkages across various service levels, clinical monitoring within agreed treatment protocols, improved continuity and comprehensiveness of services. Conclusions "Shared Care" models of mental health service delivery require attention to multiple levels (from organisational to individual clinicians), and complex
Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M
Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not.
Pedersen, Paula J.
This paper shares the results of research assessing the outcomes of teaching towards an ethnorelative worldview through psychology study abroad. Action research assessing the efficacy of intercultural pedagogy integrating psychology and the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity using the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) was…
Stacey, Gemma; Felton, Anne; Morgan, Alastair; Stickley, Theo; Willis, Martin; Diamond, Bob; Houghton, Philip; Johnson, Beverley; Dumenya, John
Shared decision-making (SDM) is a high priority in healthcare policy and is complementary to the recovery philosophy in mental health care. This agenda has been operationalised within the Values-Based Practice (VBP) framework, which offers a theoretical and practical model to promote democratic interprofessional approaches to decision-making. However, these are limited by a lack of recognition of the implications of power implicit within the mental health system. This study considers issues of power within the context of decision-making and examines to what extent decisions about patients' care on acute in-patient wards are perceived to be shared. Focus groups were conducted with 46 mental health professionals, service users, and carers. The data were analysed using the framework of critical narrative analysis (CNA). The findings of the study suggested each group constructed different identity positions, which placed them as inside or outside of the decision-making process. This reflected their view of themselves as best placed to influence a decision on behalf of the service user. In conclusion, the discourse of VBP and SDM needs to take account of how differentials of power and the positioning of speakers affect the context in which decisions take place.
Chong, Wei Wen; Aslani, Parisa; Chen, Timothy F
Shared decision-making and interprofessional collaboration are important approaches to achieving consumer-centered care. The concept of shared decision-making has been expanded recently to include the interprofessional healthcare team. This study explored healthcare providers' perceptions of barriers and facilitators to both shared decision-making and interprofessional collaboration in mental healthcare. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers, including medical practitioners (psychiatrists, general practitioners), pharmacists, nurses, occupational therapists, psychologists and social workers. Healthcare providers identified several factors as barriers to, and facilitators of shared decision-making that could be categorized into three major themes: factors associated with mental health consumers, factors associated with healthcare providers and factors associated with healthcare service delivery. Consumers' lack of competence to participate was frequently perceived by mental health specialty providers to be a primary barrier to shared decision-making, while information provision on illness and treatment to consumers was cited by healthcare providers from all professions to be an important facilitator of shared decision-making. Whilst healthcare providers perceived interprofessional collaboration to be influenced by healthcare provider, environmental and systemic factors, emphasis of the factors differed among healthcare providers. To facilitate interprofessional collaboration, mental health specialty providers emphasized the importance of improving mental health expertise among general practitioners and community pharmacists, whereas general health providers were of the opinion that information sharing between providers and healthcare settings was the key. The findings of this study suggest that changes may be necessary at several levels (i.e. consumer, provider and environment) to implement effective shared decision-making and
Felton, Anne; Holliday, Laura; Ritchie, Dawn; Langmack, Gill; Conquer, Alistair
Learning through the use of simulation is perceived as an innovative means to help manage some of the contemporary challenges for pre-registration nurse education. Mental health and child nurses need to have the knowledge and skills to effectively address the holistic needs of service users. This article reports on a pilot simulated learning experience that was designed with key stakeholders for pre-registration child and mental health nursing students. This involved young actors playing the role of someone who had self-harmed to help students develop their skills for working with young people who experience emotional distress. Focus groups and a questionnaire were used to evaluate the pilot. Students valued the practical approach that simulation entailed and identified the benefits of the shared learning experience across the different fields of practice of nursing. However, some students reported anxiety performing in front of peers and indicated they would perform differently in practice. The pilot identified simulation as a potentially useful approach to help child and mental health student nurses develop skills for caring for young people. However, there is a need for caution in the claims to be made regarding the impact of simulation to address gaps in nursing skills.
Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Maier, Rose; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill
Background Comorbidity among childhood mental health symptoms is common in clinical and community samples and should be accounted for when investigating etiology. We therefore aimed to uncover latent classes of mental health symptoms in middle childhood in a community sample, and to determine the latent genetic and environmental influences on those classes. Methods The sample comprised representative cohorts of twins. A questionnaire-based assessment of mental health symptoms was used in latent class analyses. Data on 3223 twins (1578 boys and 1645 girls) with a mean age of 7.5 years were analyzed. The sample was predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasian (92.1%). Results Latent class models delineated groups of children according to symptom profiles–not necessarily clinical groups but groups representing the general population, most with scores in the normative range. The best-fitting models suggested 9 classes for both girls and boys. Eight of the classes were very similar across sexes; these classes ranged from a “Low Symptom” class to a “Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing” class. In addition, a “Moderately Anxious” class was identified for girls but not boys, and a “Severely Impulsive & Inattentive” class was identified for boys but not girls. Sex-combined analyses implicated moderate genetic influences for all classes. Shared environmental influences were moderate for the “Low Symptom” and “Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing” classes, and small to zero for other classes. Conclusions We conclude that symptom classes are largely similar across sexes in middle childhood. Heritability was moderate for all classes, but shared environment played a greater role for classes in which no one type of symptom predominated. PMID:25077799
Irzik, Gürol; Nola, Robert
Worldviews are not only about whether God exists or whether the world has a purpose. They can contain a lot more, or they can differ in excluding the existence of God and/or a purpose for the world. In this article we define worldviews as answering a variety of worldview questions, which we list. Once this is recognized, it becomes clear that scientific worldviews are also a species of worldviews that should not be dismissed categorically. We then distinguish between the project of constructing a scientific worldview and asking whether science itself has any worldview content. We argue that science, even when it is characterized quite minimally, does have worldview content. This has some important implications for science education, which we draw.
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Jurin, Richard R.; Hutchinson, Suzanne
College students (n=292), after completing an American environmental history course, selfselected, defined and defended their ecological worldview in an ecological autobiography essay that used historic content about different philosophies concerning the environment and natural resource use. The whole sample divided into groups along a spectrum of…
Irzik, Gurol; Nola, Robert
Worldviews are not only about whether God exists or whether the world has a purpose. They can contain a lot more, or they can differ in excluding the existence of God and/or a purpose for the world. In this article we define worldviews as answering a variety of worldview questions, which we list. Once this is recognized, it becomes clear that…
Vigil, Gloria J; Clements, Paul T
The act of homicide may influence the worldviews of children and adolescents. Problematic beliefs of uncertainty, inadequacy, perceiving the world as dangerous, self-denial, and lack of control can contribute to complicated grief in children and adolescents, and can potentially disrupt their normal psychosocial growth and development. Mental health professionals' understanding of grief after the homicide of a family member enhances their ability to intervene with and support young people struggling to cope with and adapt to a sudden loss.
Fishman, Yonatan I.
Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper argues that these assumptions are questionable and that indeed science can test supernatural claims. While scientific evidence may ultimately support a naturalistic worldview, science does not presuppose Naturalism as an a priori commitment, and supernatural claims are amenable to scientific evaluation. This conclusion challenges the rationale behind a recent judicial ruling in the United States concerning the teaching of “Intelligent Design” in public schools as an alternative to evolution and the official statements of two major scientific institutions that exert a substantial influence on science educational policies in the United States. Given that science does have implications concerning the probable truth of supernatural worldviews, claims should not be excluded a priori from science education simply because they might be characterized as supernatural, paranormal, or religious. Rather, claims should be excluded from science education when the evidence does not support them, regardless of whether they are designated as ‘natural’ or ‘supernatural’.
Langer, David A; Jensen-Doss, Amanda
The shared decision-making (SDM) model is one in which providers and consumers of health care come together as collaborators in determining the course of care. The model is especially relevant to youth mental health care, when planning a treatment frequently entails coordinating both youth and parent perspectives, preferences, and goals. The present article first provides the historical context of the SDM model and the rationale for increasing our field's use of SDM when planning psychosocial treatments for youth and families. Having established the potential utility of SDM, the article then discusses how to apply the SDM model to treatment planning for youth psychotherapy, proposing a set of steps consistent with the model and considerations when conducting SDM with youth and families.
Razzouk, Rim; Johnson, Tristan E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of case studies on learning outcomes, attitudes toward instructions, and team shared mental models (SMM) in a team-based learning environment in an undergraduate educational psychology course. Approximately 105 students who participated in this study were randomly assigned to either a case-study…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…
Lee, Miyoung; Johnson, Tristan E.
This study investigates how shared mental models (SMMs) change over time in teams of students in a manufacturing engineering course. A complex ill-structured project was given to each team. The objective of the team project was to analyze, test, and propose ways to improve their given manufactured product. Shared mental models were measured in…
Matthews, Michael R.
This special issue of Science & Education deals with the theme of ‘Science, Worldviews and Education’. The theme is of particular importance at the present time as many national and provincial education authorities are requiring that students learn about the Nature of Science (NOS) as well as learning science content knowledge and process skills. NOS topics are being written into national and provincial curricula. Such NOS matters give rise to questions about science and worldviews: What is a worldview? Does science have a worldview? Are there specific ontological, epistemological and ethical prerequisites for the conduct of science? Does science lack a worldview but nevertheless have implications for worldviews? How can scientific worldviews be reconciled with seemingly discordant religious and cultural worldviews? In addition to this major curricular impetus for refining understanding of science and worldviews, there are also pressing cultural and social forces that give prominence to questions about science, worldviews and education. There is something of an avalanche of popular literature on the subject that teachers and students are variously engaged by. Additionally the modernisation and science-based industrialisation of huge non-Western populations whose traditional religions and beliefs are different from those that have been associated with orthodox science, make very pressing the questions of whether, and how, science is committed to particular worldviews. Hugh Gauch Jr. provides a long and extensive lead essay in the volume, and 12 philosophers, educators, scientists and theologians having read his paper, then engage with the theme. Hopefully the special issue will contribute to a more informed understanding of the relationship between science, worldviews and education, and provide assistance to teachers who are routinely engaged with the subject.
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant
This study examined the perceptions of campus climate among students of diverse worldviews. Results from this study suggest that climate perceptions and experiences were more negative among worldview majority students (e.g., Protestants, Catholics) than among worldview minority students (e.g., Muslims, Jews) and nonreligious students. Theoretical…
Gauch, Hugh G., Jr.
This article responds to the other 10 papers in this thematic issue on science and worldviews and it clarifies some of the points in my lead article. The Bayesian framework provides helpful structure for worldview inquiries by recognizing and integrating both public and personal evidence. Drawing upon the other 10 papers, six kinds of potential…
Valk, John; Tosun, Aybiçe
Exploring one's worldview requires a journey into one's heart, soul and mind (Knowing Self). But Knowing Self requires Knowing Others, imperative in a global world. To what extent do schools prepare students for participation in that global world, especially when it comes to awareness of its worldview diversity, and no less its religious…
Schultz, Katherine G.; Swezey, James A.
Several Christian school associations and many Christian schools identify developing a Biblical worldview in their students as an essential component of their organizational mission, yet few report on their level of success. This study investigates the concept of worldview from an Evangelical Christian perspective. The first step in investigating…
Green, Chrystin; Wallace, C. S.; Brissenden, G.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)
As a part of a larger project to study introductory astronomy students’ worldviews and beliefs about the role of science in society, we examined students’ responses to a subset of questions designed to probe students’ worldviews and how they change after taking a general education, introductory astronomy course (Astro 101). Specifically, we looked at about 400 students’ choices for the top ten scientific discoveries in the past 150 years. We collected students’ rankings twice: Once at the start of their Astro 101 class and once at the end. We created a rubric that we used to categorize the responses and we established the inter-rater reliability of the rubric. Our results show that students preferentially answered with topics related to technology and health and medicine. The data also show that there was an increase, pre- to post-instruction, in the number of responses in the technology and health and medicine categories. We also saw a decrease in the number of responses in the science category. These results imply that an aspect of the course specifically implemented to broaden student’s views on science in relation to society was successful. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0847170, for the California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G.; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F.
In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is…
Paquette-Warren, Jann; Vingilis, Evelyn; Greenslade, Jaimi; Newnam, Sharon
Abstract Objective To develop an in-depth understanding of a shared care model from primary mental health and nutrition care practitioners with a focus on program goals, strengths, challenges and target population benefits. Design Qualitative method of focus groups. Setting/Participants The study involved fifty-three practitioners from the Hamilton Health Service Organization Mental Health and Nutrition Program located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Method Six focus groups were conducted to obtain the perspective of practitioners belonging to various disciplines or health care teams. A qualitative approach using both an editing and template organization styles was taken followed by a basic content analysis. Main findings Themes revealed accessibility, interdisciplinary care, and complex care as the main goals of the program. Major program strengths included flexibility, communication/collaboration, educational opportunities, access to patient information, continuity of care, and maintenance of practitioner and patient satisfaction. Shared care was described as highly dependent on communication style, skill and expertise, availability, and attitudes toward shared care. Time constraint with respect to collaboration was noted as the main challenge. Conclusion Despite some challenges and variability among practices, the program was perceived as providing better patient care by the most appropriate practitioner in an accessible and comfortable setting. PMID:17041680
Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G; Jacobsen, Wade C; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren
Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. We used data from a cohort of 2,264 children born in large US cities in 1998-2000 to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (a combination of social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We found that children who grew up in neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than similar children from neighborhoods with low collective efficacy. The magnitude of this neighborhood effect is comparable to the protective effects of depression prevention programs aimed at general or at-risk adolescent populations. Our findings did not vary by family or neighborhood income, which indicates that neighborhood collective efficacy supports adolescent mental health across diverse populations and urban settings. We recommend a greater emphasis on neighborhood environments in individual mental health risk assessments and greater investment in community-based initiatives that strengthen neighborhood social cohesion and control.
While team mental models have been shown to be effective in facilitating team operations in ordinary transactive organizations, their impact on loosely coupled yet value-laden organizations is relatively under studied. Using qualitative inquiry methodology, this study investigates the three referential frameworks (i.e., theoretical knowledge,…
Lukens, Jonathan M.; Solomon, Phyllis; Sorenson, Susan B.
Objective: The goal of this study was to test the degree to which client clinical characteristics and environmental context and social workers' practice values and experience influenced support for client's autonomy and willingness to engage in shared decision making (SDM), and whether willingness to engage in SDM was mediated by support for…
... Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits'' notice published in the January 3, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 148). II... in the ``Background'' section of the January 3, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 148) notice, the... (75 FR 21314). The final FY 2011 DSH allotments being published in this notice are approximately...
Brown, Patrick R; Calnan, Michael W
Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing their development across relatively low-trust service contexts and their impact upon knowledge-sharing and caregiving. Drawing upon data from in-depth interviews with service users, healthcare professionals, service managers and other stakeholders across three mental healthcare (psychosis) teams in southern England, we identify micro-mechanisms that explain how (dis)trust within one intra-organisational relationship impacts upon other relationships. Experiences and inferences of vulnerability, knowledge, uncertainty, interests and time, among actors who are both trustees and trusters across different relationships, are pertinent to such analyses. This more micro-level understanding facilitates detailed conceptualisations of trust chains as meso-level tendencies that contribute to wider vicious or virtuous cycles of organisational (dis)trust. We explore how knowledge-sharing and caregiving are vitally interwoven within these chains of trust or distrust, enhancing and/or inhibiting the instrumental and communicative aspects of quality healthcare as a result.
Gauch, Hugh G.
This article responds to the other 10 papers in this thematic issue on science and worldviews and it clarifies some of the points in my lead article. The Bayesian framework provides helpful structure for worldview inquiries by recognizing and integrating both public and personal evidence. Drawing upon the other 10 papers, six kinds of potential evidence or considerations are identified: the problem of evil, evolution, miracles and prayer, the Anthropic Principle, religious experience, and natural theology. The thesis is defended that considerations informing worldview convictions include public evidence from the sciences and the humanities and personal evidence from individual experience. Additional topics addressed briefly include scientific realism, the tentativeness of scientific knowledge, science’s presuppositions, the relationship between natural science and natural theology, the nature of religious faith, and the importance of philosophy in science education. Seven questions are posed for which further leadership from the AAAS and NAS would benefit the scientific community.
Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover,…
Contemporary connotations of "teacher" don't do justice to Jesus' educating activity. "Worldview" understood as a comprehensive social environment helps us to perceive the scale of Jesus' struggle in his society and also Christian teachers' struggle in their settings. Jesus is Israel's teacher in a deeper way than we hear by…
Skordoulis, C. D.
This paper is about the relationship between Marxism, Science and Worldviews. In Section I, the paper gives a descriptive definition of the scientific viewpoint based on a materialist ontology, a realist epistemology, and the recognition that science is a social activity. The paper shows in Section II that there are currents in contemporary…
This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of…
Vaisey, Stephen; Lizardo, Omar
Most sociological research assumes that social network composition shapes individual beliefs. Network theory and research has not adequately considered that internalized cultural worldviews might affect network composition. Drawing on a synthetic, dual-process theory of culture and two waves of nationally-representative panel data, this article…
Bogart, T; Solomon, P
Although practice guidelines for the treatment of persons with severe mental illness recommend involving family members in all phases of the treatment process, in many states unclear confidentiality statutes and regulations may present a barrier. This paper describes approaches used by a few locales to clarify confidentiality procedures for releasing information to families. It presents a model of steps that regional systems or local agencies may take to manage this barrier to provider-family collaboration. Policy guidelines must clearly state that release of information to family members requires client consent. A specific form for release of information to families indicating the types of information that may be released is then developed. Verbal release of information and a one-year time limit on release are recommended. The form, which should comply with state statutes and regulations, can then be integrated into routine clinical practice. Providers should be trained to discuss and explore issues about the release of information with both consumers and family members.
Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Bernstein, Benjamin; Melloni, Lucia
Perception of number and space are tightly intertwined. It has been proposed that this is due to ‘cortical recycling’, where numerosity processing takes over circuits originally processing space. Do such ‘recycled’ circuits retain their original functionality? Here, we investigate interactions between numerosity and motion direction, two functions that both localize to parietal cortex. We describe a new phenomenon in which visual motion direction adapts nonsymbolic numerosity perception, giving rise to a repulsive aftereffect: motion to the left adapts small numbers, leading to overestimation of numerosity, while motion to the right adapts large numbers, resulting in underestimation. The reference frame of this effect is spatiotopic. Together with the tuning properties of the effect this suggests that motion direction-numerosity cross-adaptation may occur in a homolog of area LIP. ‘Cortical recycling’ thus expands but does not obliterate the functions originally performed by the recycled circuit, allowing for shared computations across domains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10806.001 PMID:26771249
Hansson, Lena; Lindahl, Britt
The article builds upon a study where students' relations to science are related to their worldviews and the kind of worldviews they associate with science. The aim of the study is to deepen our knowledge of how worldview and students' ways to handle conflicts between their own worldview and the worldview they associate with science, can add to…
Guilmatre, Audrey; Dubourg, Christèle; Mosca, Anne-Laure; Legallic, Solenn; Goldenberg, Alice; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Layet, Valérie; Rosier, Antoine; Briault, Sylvain; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Odent, Sylvie; Le Vacon, Gael; Joly-Helas, Géraldine; David, Véronique; Bendavid, Claude; Pinoit, Jean-Michel; Henry, Céline; Impallomeni, Caterina; Germano, Eva; Tortorella, Gaetano; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Barthelemy, Catherine; Andres, Christian; Faivre, Laurence; Frébourg, Thierry; Saugier Veber, Pascale; Campion, Dominique
Context Comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the etiology of mental retardation (MR), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Objective The goal of the present paper was (i) to provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent/overlapping CNVs in three different groups of patients as compared with healthy controls and (ii) to assess whether each CNV is present in more than one clinical category. Design, setting and population We have investigated 28 candidate loci previously identified by array-CGH studies for gene dosage alteration in 247 subjects with MR, 260 with ASD, 236 with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 236 healthy controls. Main outcome measures Collective and individual frequency of the analyzed CNVs in patients as compared with controls. Results Recurrent or overlapping CNVs were found in patients at 40% of the selected loci. We show that the collective frequency of CNVs at these loci is significantly increased in autistic patients, patients with schizophrenia and patients with MR as compared with controls (p= 0.005, p< 0.001 and p= 0.001 respectively, Fisher exact test). Individual significance (p= 0.02) was reached for association between autism and a 350 kb deletion located in 22q11 and spanning the PRODH gene. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that weakly to moderately recurrent CNVs, either transmitted or occurring de novo, are causing or contributory factors for these diseases. Second, we show that most of these CNVs, which contain genes involved in neurotransmission or synapse formation and maintenance, are present in the 3 pathological conditions, supporting the existence of shared biological pathways between these neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:19736351
This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of thinking responsible for both the canon’s credibility and its power to guide speculative activity. With these preliminaries in place, the remainder of the paper addresses the issue of tolerance to “alternative perspectives”. The analyses in this part focus on the extent to which mature scientific thought embodies open-mindedness, with pluralism and competition between perspectives as central themes. I argue for four related claims, concerning scientific literacy, the impact of the canon on rational speculation, the limits of scientific pluralism, and the popular idea that recent forms of “scientific (natural) theology” have rational merit and can help worldview-making in our age, respectively: (C1) Which theories and narratives (or parts of them) belong in the scientific canon, and whether they are worldview independent, are matters contingent upon the state of knowledge—not something one can convincingly determine on metascientific or transcendental insight. (C2) The current scientific canon and its associated methodology provide research with strong directionality, often against popular currents. (C3) Current science does marginalize some views dear to many people. (C4) Although natural theology “officially” purports to embody scientific methodology, all it presently has on offer are poorly thought out ventures embodying (at best) only relaxed versions of that methodology; if so, the relationship between current projects in natural theology and science cannot (without begging the question) be reasonably described as one of “partial overlap”, “mutual modification”, or “ongoing complementarity”.
Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Young, Alexander S; Vona, Pamela; Zima, Bonnie
Shared decision making (SDM) interventions aim to improve client autonomy, information sharing, and collaborative decision making, yet implementation of these interventions has been variably perceived. Using interviews and focus groups with clients and clinicians from mental health clinics, we explored experiences with and perceptions about decision support strategies aimed to promote SDM around psychotropic medication treatment. Using thematic analysis, we identified themes regarding beliefs about participant involvement, information management, and participants' broader understanding of their epistemic expertise. Clients and clinicians highly valued client-centered priorities such as autonomy and empowerment when making decisions. However, two frequently discussed themes revealed complex beliefs about what that involvement should look like in practice: (a) the role of communication and information exchange and (b) the value and stability of clinician and client epistemic expertise. Complex beliefs regarding these two themes suggested a dynamic and reflexive approach to information management. Situating these findings within the Theory of Motivated Information Management, we discuss implications for conceptualizing SDM in mental health services and adapt Siminoff and Step's Communication Model of Shared Decision Making (CMSDM) to propose a Communication-centered Epistemic Model of Shared Decision Making (CEM-SDM).
Ewbank, Ann Dutton; Moreillon, Judi
A worldview is composed of beliefs, values, and perceptions. It creates a lens through which individuals, organizations, and institutions analyze and evaluate their experiences and the world around them. As the authors think beyond their individual perceptions, they wonder about the worldview of their profession. They have wondered aloud (on more…
American college students' worldviews affect what they value, the way they behave and potentially how they learn. The study described in this article finds that today's students are divided not dichotomously, between religious and secular, but rather among three distinct worldviews: religious, secular, and spiritual. The author asserts that…
Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover, in virtue of reflecting a suitable variety of worldviews and value outlooks, perhaps including some religious ones, science is better able to further its aim. An extended argument is made that, although the materialist worldview has de facto been widely associated with the development of modern science, the scope of scientific inquiry is improperly limited when constraints, derived from materialism, are generally placed upon admissible scientific theories. Some implications for science education are sketched in the conclusion.
Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby
For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people.
Skordoulis, C. D.
This paper is about the relationship between Marxism, Science and Worldviews. In Section I, the paper gives a descriptive definition of the scientific viewpoint based on a materialist ontology, a realist epistemology, and the recognition that science is a social activity. The paper shows in Section II that there are currents in contemporary Marxism which relate favourably to science. In Section III, the paper examines Marx's encounter with Natural Philosophy and Materialism by analysing the influence of Epicurus on Marx. Section IV examines Marx's positive attitude towards natural science. Section V discusses the relation between science and ideology and proposes a scheme to defend the thesis that science establishes a conceptual autonomy from the forms of social consciousness existing in the social formation. Finally Section VI examines the historical infusion of Marxism into the Western scientific community in the 1930s, and the positions adopted by Marxists when they have considered science education.
Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Denovan, Andrew; Parton, Megan
This paper assessed whether belief in conspiracy theories was associated with a particularly cognitive style (worldview). The sample comprised 223 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling and included undergraduates, postgraduates, university employees, and alumni. Respondents completed measures assessing a range of cognitive-perceptual factors (schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hallucination proneness) and conspiratorial beliefs (general attitudes toward conspiracist thinking and endorsement of individual conspiracies). Positive symptoms of schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual factor, correlated positively with conspiracist beliefs. The best predictor of belief in conspiracies was delusional ideation. Consistent with the notion of a coherent conspiratorial mindset, scores across conspiracy measures correlated strongly. Whilst findings supported the view that belief in conspiracies, within the sub-clinical population, was associated with a delusional thinking style, cognitive-perceptual factors in combination accounted for only 32% of the variance.
Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Denovan, Andrew; Parton, Megan
This paper assessed whether belief in conspiracy theories was associated with a particularly cognitive style (worldview). The sample comprised 223 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling and included undergraduates, postgraduates, university employees, and alumni. Respondents completed measures assessing a range of cognitive-perceptual factors (schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hallucination proneness) and conspiratorial beliefs (general attitudes toward conspiracist thinking and endorsement of individual conspiracies). Positive symptoms of schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual factor, correlated positively with conspiracist beliefs. The best predictor of belief in conspiracies was delusional ideation. Consistent with the notion of a coherent conspiratorial mindset, scores across conspiracy measures correlated strongly. Whilst findings supported the view that belief in conspiracies, within the sub-clinical population, was associated with a delusional thinking style, cognitive-perceptual factors in combination accounted for only 32% of the variance. PMID:25762969
Background Mental health service providers across Australia, including Western Australia (WA), have begun to offer individualised funds, shared management, person-centred and self-directed (SPS) services. No research exists on the impact of SPS services on the lived experiences of these particular consumers. This study explored the impact of a SPS service offered for the first time in WA to consumers with mental illness. Methods Data on sixteen consumers’ lived experiences were analysed using an abbreviated grounded theory approach. These data had been developed by the consumers, Guides (staff) and an independent evaluator, and most of it had been collected in the past prior to the commencement of the study. Results Three over-arching categories, and related subcategories, emerged indicating that 1) access to individualised funds enabled practical and psychological benefits to consumers; 2) consistent contact in shared management and person-centred relationships enhanced the provision of timely and meaningful staff support to consumers; and 3) high quality shared management and person-centred relationships with staff and the opportunity to self-direct enabled consumers’ change and growth. Conclusions SPS services enhanced consumers’ lived experiences and enabled staff to provide and consumers to experience timely access to recovery resources, consistent contact, responsive and high quality support, and self-direction of services. In this, consumers changed, grew and achieved desired recovery experiences. The overall impact of the SPS service seemed to be founded on the goodness of fit between person characteristics of staff and consumers, which enabled rich support that provided for corrective emotional experiences. This enabled consumers to build meaningful and hopeful lives where they started to live with, and beyond, their mental illness. PMID:24944564
Explores students' worldviews as revealed by their ideas about the causality of earthquakes after experiencing the natural disaster. Finds that students accept scientific ideas and abandon their original worldviews, accept scientific ideas and retain their original worldviews, or retain their original worldviews and ignore the scientific…
Büyüksalih, G.; Baz, I.; Alkan, M.; Jacobsen, K.
For planning purposes 42 km coast line of the Black Sea, starting at the Bosporus going in West direction, with a width of approximately 5 km, was imaged by WorldView-2. Three stereo scenes have been oriented at first by 3D-affine transformation and later by bias corrected RPC solution. The result is nearly the same, but it is limited by identification of the control points in the images. Nevertheless after blunder elimination by data snooping root mean square discrepancies below 1 pixel have been reached. The root mean square discrepancy at control point height reached 0.5 m up to 1.3 m with a base to height relation between 1:1.26 and 1:1.80. Digital Surface models (DSM) with 4 m spacing have been generated by least squares matching with region growing, supported by image pyramids. A higher percentage of the mountainous area is covered by forest, requiring the approximation based on image pyramids. In the forest area the approximation just by region growing leads to larger gaps in the DSM. Caused by the good image quality of WorldView-2 the correlation coefficients reached by least squares matching are high and even in most forest areas a satisfying density of accepted points was reached. Two stereo models have an overlapping area of 1.6 km times 6.7 km allowing an accuracy evaluation. Small, but nevertheless significant differences in scene orientation have been eliminated by least squares shift of both overlapping height models to each other. The root mean square differences of both independent DSM are 1.06m or as a function of terrain inclination 0.74 m + 0.55 m tangent (slope). The terrain inclination in the average is 7° with 12% exceeding 17°. The frequency distribution of height discrepancies is not far away from normal distribution, but as usual, larger discrepancies are more often available as corresponding to normal distribution. This also can be seen by the normalized medium absolute deviation (NMAS) related to 68% probability level of 0.83m
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...
Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS
Much of astronomy education research focuses on improving students’ conceptual understandings of key astronomy topics. But are we missing something important if we restrict our efforts to conceptual change? In this talk, we argue that we also need to shape our instruction such that it affects students’ worldviews. By worldview, we mean a set of (often implicit and often non-rational) beliefs, presuppositions, and assumptions about reality that affect our emotions, thoughts, and behaviors, and determine what constitutes valid and important knowledge about the world. Prior science education research has shown that a students’ worldview plays a fundamental role in his or her acceptance or rejection of science. We believe that our instruction must be informed by the interplay between students’ worldviews and the worldview of science if we want our students to become advocates for science. By advocates for science, we mean they feel motivated and obliged to communicate science to those around them, and they recognize the importance of science for their society, especially as evidenced by the amount of funding they are willing to support for scientific research. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Murata, Takuya; Abukawa, Harutsugi; Satomi, Takafumi; Chikazu, Daichi
This report demonstrates a successful new procedure for reconstructing the inferior alveolar nerve by transplanting the great auricular nerve (GAN) between the mental nerve and the remaining submandibular ganglion to achieve nerve sharing of the lingual nerve. A 59-year-old woman with discomfort in the left mandibular retromolar region and ipsilateral neck was referred to our hospital by a local dentist. Physical examination showed mild swelling and redness at the left mandibular retromolar region. The histologic diagnosis showed central mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. With the patient under general anesthesia, segmental resection of the mandible followed by level 1 selective neck dissection was performed. The resected mandible was reconstructed with a titanium plate. The submandibular incision was extended to the lower edge of the tragus for harvesting of the GAN. The GAN was grafted, and an epineural neurorrhaphy was carried out with the mental nerve, as well as the submandibular ganglion, under a microscope. After the operation, submental sensation was evaluated with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure esthesiometer. The Semmes-Weinstein pressure esthesiometer test showed a loss of perception at the third week after surgery. Within 12 months, nerve sensation was substantially improved and the patient was free from discomfort.
Allen, Nancy J.; Crawley, Frank E.
Compares the worldview of Native American students of the traditional Kickapoo Band with the worldview encountered in the science classroom. Investigates by conducting periodic observation in two classrooms over an 18-month period of time. Contains 41 references. (DDR)
Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.
Roberts, Wendy P.
According to the National Science Education Standards (1996), science educators are challenged with the goal of educating future citizens and policy makers to make informed decisions concerning socio-scientific issues. Previous science education research has not explored the influence of science teachers' personal worldviews and values in achieving this educational goal. The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary science teachers' worldviews and values as they relate to nature and environmental education in their science classrooms. The participants' descriptions of their environmental personae and their perception of its influence in their classrooms were also examined. The participants represented a purposeful sample of twelve certified secondary school science teachers who teach in a suburban Atlanta, Georgia school. The study employed an interpretive, qualitative methodology using a constant comparative, inductive analysis design to develop grounded theory. Each participant's worldview, values, and environmental personae regarding the natural world and the environment were explored using William Cobern's (2000) Nature Card Sort instrument, responses to five environmental scenarios and individual interviews that addressed each participant's interpretation of the effect that personal worldviews and values have in their science classrooms. The participants' worldviews and values were disproportionately reflective of both science and society with far more weight given to the contextual values of society rather than the constitutive values of science. Most of these teachers had strong spiritual worldviews of nature; however, these views were of a Puritanical nature rather than Aboriginal. The participants felt conflicted about the appropriate course of action in many environmental issues. Contrary to other studies conducted in this field, there were few philosophical differences between teachers in the different disciplines of science, with the exception
Although many nursing education programs are searching for ways to incorporate spirituality into the curriculum, how this should be done remains a point of debate. A number of models and teaching strategies have been posed in the literature. This article explores how definitions of spirituality can inform the integration of this important concept into the curriculum. Three key themes from definitions of spirituality in the literature are discussed: worldviews, intrapersonal connectedness, and interpersonal connectedness. Strategies are presented for facilitating discussions around worldviews and for fostering a climate that promotes intra- and interpersonal connectedness for students and faculty.
Yang, Haiwen; Harlow, Steven; Maddux, Cleborne; Smaby, Marlowe
This study compared worldviews of Chinese international students who have been in the United States for 1 year or less, Chinese international students who have been in the United States for 4 years or more, and European American students. Worldview was assessed with the Scale to Assess Worldview (F. A. Ibrahim & H. Kahn, 1987). Results…
Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Townsend, Tiffany G.
This study examines underlying mechanisms in the relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms. Participants were 112 African American young adults. An Africentric worldview buffered the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms…
A female patient in her sixties with schizophrenia had secretly disposed of all her medication and was not cooperating with hospital staff for about four months. During one of our consultations she mentioned that she wanted to be out of hospital by a certain date. That date happened to be her grandchild's birthday. It was at this point that she shared her goals with us, and voluntarily started having treatment. She was able to return home three months later, just in time to celebrate her grandchild's birthday with her family. A male patient in his sixties was able to leave the seclusion room after 10 years. The first doctor in charge and other hospital staff had firmly believed that releasing him from the seclusion room wasn't a possibility. However the patient decided he wanted to be discharged and was interested in finding out how to go about it. The moment he realized it was possible, his outlook changed immensely. He gradually started to open up and communicate better with his new doctor in charge, and was able to work towards his newly found goals. Staff members were also surprised when he was able to leave the seclusion room. They realized this patient was another person like them who had dreams and goals, and stopped stereotyping patients who seemed to be 'difficult to handle'. I have always experienced the power of goal sharing at clinical scenes, and have noticed its importance for patients making a start on the road to recovery. In order to discuss goals and the way to go about achieving them, I use a simple drawing of a mountain. I call this mountain 'A Personal Goal Map'. I like to think of myself (the doctor) as the mountain guide, and my patient as the mountain climber. The three key philosophies are acknowledging individuality, diversity and freedom. These are important when we think about where we are now, where we are going, and where we want to be. Firstly at the start point, we need to define the patient's problem and discuss ideas and goals
Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Davies, G; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C M; Ritchie, S J; Marioni, R E; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Cullen, B; Malik, R; Worrall, B B; Sudlow, C L M; Wardlaw, J M; Gallacher, J; Pell, J; McIntosh, A M; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J
Causes of the well-documented association between low levels of cognitive functioning and many adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes, poorer physical health and earlier death remain unknown. We used linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring to test for shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disorders and physical health. Using information provided by many published genome-wide association study consortia, we created polygenic profile scores for 24 vascular–metabolic, neuropsychiatric, physiological–anthropometric and cognitive traits in the participants of UK Biobank, a very large population-based sample (N=112 151). Pleiotropy between cognitive and health traits was quantified by deriving genetic correlations using summary genome-wide association study statistics and to the method of linkage disequilibrium score regression. Substantial and significant genetic correlations were observed between cognitive test scores in the UK Biobank sample and many of the mental and physical health-related traits and disorders assessed here. In addition, highly significant associations were observed between the cognitive test scores in the UK Biobank sample and many polygenic profile scores, including coronary artery disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, autism, major depressive disorder, body mass index, intracranial volume, infant head circumference and childhood cognitive ability. Where disease diagnosis was available for UK Biobank participants, we were able to show that these results were not confounded by those who had the relevant disease. These findings indicate that a substantial level of pleiotropy exists between cognitive abilities and many human mental and physical health disorders and traits and that it can be used to predict phenotypic variance across samples. PMID:26809841
Butler, Joy I.; Storey, Brian; Robson, Claire
Although Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) has gained ground, pedagogical models are sustainable only when situated in a comprehensive worldview and consistent epistemology. After considering the five values orientations offered by Jewett, Bain, and Ennis, the authors conclude that ecological integration offers a useful starting point in…
A recent article, "Rethinking Individualism and Collectivism: Evaluation of Theoretical Assumptions and Meta-Analyses" (D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, & M. Kemmelmeier, 2002), revealed that 170 studies have been conducted on the worldview dimensions of individualism and collectivism. This article reviews the results of the authors'…
Matthews, Michael R.
This paper elaborates on the life and publications of Joseph Priestley, the eighteenth-century polymath. The paper outlines his particular place in the European Enlightenment; it stresses the importance of philosophy and worldview in his scientific work on pneumatic chemistry, the composition of air, and his discovery of the process of…
Provides overview of Thanksgiving Address of Haudenosaunee, which defines and expresses Native American worldview. Summarizes three epic narratives: Creation Story, which explains forces of good and evil on earth; Great Law of Peace, which provides system of government; and Code of Handsome Lake, which outlines way to continue old ways and adapt…
McDowell Marinchak, Christina L.; DeIuliis, David
In this essay, we conceptualize first-year learning communities as worldviews that, during the first year and residually in subsequent years, allow students to recognize and engage difference and acknowledge and articulate their biases. Students who take part in a learning community have an opportunity to develop the biases and presuppositions of…
Lipe, Daniel J.
In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today.…
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Senzon, Simon A.
Objective The philosophy of chiropractic can be framed as an attempt to correct the problems inherited from the Western Enlightenment. Its origins can be found in the long tradition of Western philosophy. The purpose of this article is to describe in a broad context chiropractic’s roots in premodernity and establish the structural and hermeneutical differences between chiropractic’s original philosophical ideas and those of premodern philosophers. Discussion The worldview or cultural mindset the philosophy arose from must be situated in the context of its time, the birth of the unique postmodern worldview, aperspectival consciousness, and the modern sense of self. This is accomplished by exploring several metatheories about the development of the self through history, with an emphasis on the premodern roots to the chiropractic terms; Universal Intelligence and Innate Intelligence. By contextualizing the philosophy of chiropractic in terms of a structural genealogy of the self and of ideas, a new approach to philosophy in chiropractic emerges. Conclusion Without accounting for chiropractic’s origins as a reflection of the unique time, place, and culture, in terms of the evolution of worldviews through history, any approach to construct or reconstruct a philosophy of chiropractic will potentially miss the seminal feature of chiropractic’s emergence. PMID:22693478
Robins, Cynthia S.; Ware, Norma C.; dosReis, Susan; Willging, Cathleen E.; Chung, Joyce Y.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto
Increasingly, contemporary mental health services research projects aim to combine qualitative and quantitative components. Yet researchers often lack theoretical and practical guidance for undertaking such studies. In September 2006 the authors convened under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health at a working conference, “Mixed Methods in Community-Based Mental Health Services Research.” This meeting provided the opportunity for participants to share their experiences in conducting mixed-methods research, to critically consider problems they had encountered and their solutions, and to develop guiding principles for others conducting similar research. The authors' discussions, which are described in this article, emphasize that the problems encountered by mixed-methods research teams are rarely simple misunderstandings but often reflect epistemological differences that are overlooked in the study planning phases. Failure to acknowledge these different worldviews may result in significant tensions between members of the study team, use of qualitative methods that are insufficient or inappropriate for a particular research question, or serious conflicts when team members belatedly discover they are interpreting key concepts—or each other's research techniques—differently. The authors conclude that ongoing communication is the organizing principle for robust and effective mixed-methods research. Among the recommendations for preventing problems are collaboration between quantitative and qualitative researchers during the study design phase; open acknowledgement of the philosophical approaches brought to the study by various team members; and because not all challenges can be anticipated, a shared willingness to negotiate emerging problems. PMID:18586988
Genetic mapping of habitual substance use, obesity-related traits, responses to mental and physical stress, and heart rate and blood pressure measurements reveals shared genes that are overrepresented in the neural synapse.
Nikpay, Majid; Šeda, Ondrej; Tremblay, Johanne; Petrovich, Milan; Gaudet, Daniel; Kotchen, Theodore A; Cowley, Allen W; Hamet, Pavel
Links between substance use habits, obesity, stress and the related cardiovascular outcomes can be, in part, because of loci with pleiotropic effects. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed genome-wide mapping in 119 multigenerational families from a population in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region with a known founder effect using 58,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 437 microsatellite markers to identify genetic components of the following factors: habitual alcohol, tobacco and coffee use; response to mental and physical stress; obesity-related traits; and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measures. Habitual alcohol and/or tobacco users had attenuated HR responses to mental stress compared with non-users, whereas hypertensive individuals had stronger HR and systolic BP responses to mental stress and a higher obesity index than normotensives. Genetic mappings uncovered numerous shared genes among substance use, stress response, obesity and hemodynamic traits, including CAMK4, CNTN4, DLG2, FHIT, GRID2, ITPR2, NOVA1 and PRKCE, forming network of interacting proteins, sharing synaptic function and display higher and patterned expression profiles in brain-related tissues; moreover, pathway analysis of shared genes pointed to long-term potentiation. Subgroup genetic mappings uncovered additional shared synaptic genes, including CAMK4, CNTN5 and DNM3 (hypertension-specific); CNTN4, DNM3, FHIT and ITPR1 (sex-specific), having protein interactions with genes driven from general analysis. In summary, consistent with the observed phenotypic correlations, we found substantial overlap among genomic determinants of these traits in synapse, which supports the notion that the neural synapse may be a shared interface behind substance use, stress, obesity, HR, BP as well as the observed sex- and hypertension-specific genetic differences.
Connolly, R.; Yu, K.; McConville, D.; Sickler, J.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.; Gardiner, N.; Hamilton, H.
Informal science Institutions (ISI) are in the unique position to convene and support community dialogues surrounding local ecological impacts of global change. The Worldviews Network-a collaboration between museums, scientists, and community-based organizations-is developing and testing innovative approaches for promoting and encouraging ecological literacy with the American public. In this session, we will share strategies for sparking and sustaining dialogue and action in local communities through high-impact visual presentations and real-world examples of successful projects that are increasing the healthy functioning of regional and global ecosystems. Educating the public about interconnected global change issues can be a daunting task. ISIs can help communities by facilitating dialogues about realistic and regionally relevant approaches for systemically addressing global challenges. Managing the complexity of these challenges requires going far beyond the standard prescriptions for behavior change; it requires inspiring participants with positive examples of system-wide solutions as well as actively involving the audience in scientifically informed design processes. This session will demonstrate how you can implement and sustain these community dialogues, using real-world examples from our partners' national events. We present visualization story templates and a model for facilitating dialogues that can be adapted at your institution. Based on video and written assessment feedback from visitors of our first Worldviews events, we will present initial evaluation findings about the impact that these strategies are having on our audiences and ISI partners. These findings show that engaging the public and NGO partners in sustainability and design dialogues is a powerful way to maintain the relevance of ISIs within their communities.
Hermann, Ronald S.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors impacting students' ability to develop understanding of evolutionary theory. A novel approach to worldview theory was employed according to which individuals are seen as having one worldview that is comprised of many perspectives. One's worldview is comprised of numerous worldview assumptions, some of which coalesce to form worldview perspectives. Some assumptions are consistent with a scientific perspective while others are more consistent with a religious perspective. Scientific and religious perspectives were quantified based on participants' agreement with assumptions associated with each perspective. Participants completed a 103-item questionnaire addressing several variables: understanding of evolution, understanding of photosynthesis (non-confounding variable), strength of worldview perspectives and exposure to factors influencing the development of worldview perspectives. Increased exposure to factors influencing the development of a strong scientific worldview perspective was hypothesized to cause an increased understanding of evolution. The dependent variable understanding was measured by scores on two Likert-type measures. A causal-comparative study was conducted with 13 high school biology teachers and 67 high school biology students. To determine causation t-tests compared the mean scores on the variables measured. Extreme-group methods were used and data was analyzed for statistical differences between mean scores. Strong scientific worldview perspectives (t=1.003, p=3.19) and exposure to scientific factors (t=2.373, p=.02) were associated with a higher understanding of evolution. Strong religious worldview perspectives (t=-1.991, p=.05) and exposure to religious factors (t=-1.059, p=.31) were associated with a lower understanding of evolution. The results suggest that scientific worldview perspectives play an important role in increasing understanding of evolution; however, religious worldview
Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.
Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our
In this study the differences in ecumenical worldview development are examined by race for 3,300 college students from 135 institutions. Results indicate that all students exhibited significant growth through college in ecumenical worldview, and students of color (Black, Asian, and Latino students) exhibited significantly higher levels of…
Forsyth, Benjamin Robert
This study evaluates the psychological reality of two sets of epistemic beliefs, or epistemic "worldviews", called "mechanism" and "organicism." One author who described these two worldviews, Stephen Pepper, hypothesised that they appear to possess domain-general characteristics. Although Pepper's ideas have had a…
Mittwede, Steven K.
Although much done in the name of discipleship and theological education pronounces lofty goals, such as movement from orthodoxy to orthopraxy, in many cases mere doctrinal assent is assumed to reflect deep change. An analysis of discipleship, worldview theory, and certain cognitive approaches to education suggests that worldview-level…
Coll, Jose E.; Draves, Patrick R.
This study examined the relationship between worldview, demographic characteristics, and optimism among university students. A sample of 163 university students from two schools completed a self-report survey that included demographic variables, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI, Koltko-Rivera, 1998), and the Revised Life Orientation Test…
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Mayhew, Matthew J.
Using data collected via the Campus Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey (CRSCS), we examined how dimensions of the campus spiritual climate shape student satisfaction. The findings reveal that structural worldview diversity, space for support and spiritual expression, and provocative experiences with worldview diversity positively relate to…
Booker, Lucille M.
Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Bowman, Nicholas A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interfaith engagement and self-authored worldview commitment among 13,776 students enrolled at one of 52 institutions. Results indicated an association between formal and informal interfaith engagement and that this relationship was conditioned upon self-identified worldview.…
Reiss, Michael J.
This article begins by examining whether "science" and "religion" can better be seen as distinct or related worldviews, focusing particularly on scientific and religious understandings of biodiversity. I then explore how people can see the natural world, depending on their worldview, by looking at two contrasting treatments of penguin behaviour,…
Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang
This study explored environmental worldviews of selected undergraduate students in Taiwan and located the associations of these worldviews with science. The "environment" is represented as nature or the natural world, as opposed to the social and spiritual world. The participants were undergraduate students (14 science and 15 nonscience…
Blow, Adrian J.; Davis, Sean D.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.
In this essay, we respond to Simon's article (2012). We discuss our view that therapy works best when therapists can match therapeutic interventions to the worldview of clients. We see this matching to client worldview as rooted in research evidence, and we suggest that therapists can practice authentically and effectively using more than one…
Matthews, Michael R.
A common feature of contemporary science education curricula is the expectation that as well as learning science content, students will learn something about science—its nature, its history, how it differs from non-scientific endeavours, and its interactions with culture and society. These curricular pronouncements provide an ‘open cheque’ for the inclusion of history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes, and for their utilisation in classrooms. Unfortunately this open cheque is too often not cashed. This paper will discuss an important aspect of the contribution of science to culture, namely its role in the development of worldviews in society. A case study of the adjustments to a central Roman Catholic doctrine occasioned by the metaphysics of Atomism which was embraced at the Scientific Revolution will be presented. Options for the reconciliation of seemingly conflicting scientific and religious worldviews are laid out, and it is claimed that as far as liberal education is concerned, the important thing is to have students first recognise what are the options, and then carefully examine them to come to their own conclusions about reconciliation or otherwise.
It is well established that political ideology has a strong influence on public opinion about climate change. According to one survey (Leiserowitz et al 2011), the percentage of Democrats accepting that climate change is happening is over double the percentage of Tea Partiers. There is also evidence of ideologically driven belief polarization, where two people receiving the same evidence update their beliefs in opposite direction. Presenting scientific evidence can result in a backfire effect where conservatives become more sceptical of climate change. It is possible to model (and hence better understand) the backfire effect using Bayesian Networks which simulate belief updating using Bayes Law. In this model, trust in science is the driving force behind polarization and worldview is the knob that controls trust. One consequence of this model is that attempts to increase trust in science are expected to be largely ineffective for conservatives. It suggests that a potentially constructive approach is to reduce the biasing influence of worldview by affirming conservative values while presenting climate messages. Experimental data comparing the effectiveness of various interventions are presented and discussed in the context of the Bayesian Network model.
Hayes, Joseph; Schimel, Jeff; Williams, Todd J
According to terror management theory, the annihilation of people who threaten one's worldview should serve the function of defending that worldview. The present research assessed this hypothesis. A sample of Christian participants read either a worldview-threatening news article reporting on the Muslimization of Nazareth or a nonthreatening article about the aurora borealis. Half of the participants in the worldview-threat condition were informed at the end of the article that a number of Muslims had died in a plane crash on their way to Nazareth. Although reading the threatening news article increased death-thought accessibility and worldview defense relative to reading the neutral article, these increases were not observed among participants who learned that a number of Muslims were dead. Implications for understanding protracted intergroup conflict are discussed.
The modern cosmology that emerged from observational astronomy in 16th century Europe meant a radical break-away from earlier conceptions of the world. While all ancient and nonwestern worldviews usually describe a multidimensional reality in which diverse environmental, economic, sociopolitical and ideological factors intersect, modern cosmologies espouse the vision of a radically different universe which is completely dehumanized, ethically indifferent and universally valid. Despite these differences cosmology and worldview tend to be used interchangeably to depict ancient and nonwestern worldviews.Any correspondences which can be found between different parts of ancient and/or nonwestern worldviews and modern cosmologies tend to transfer modern conceptions to the premodern world. Ignoring ancient cultural contexts, we risk imposing modern cosmological concepts on past worldview categories. While we have to describe ancient astronomies in our own terms, our ultimate goal is to understand them on their own terms.
Stolk, Vincent; Gasenbeek, Bert; Veugelers, Wiel
Secularisation is often mentioned as an explanation for changes in worldview education in modern history. Worldview education has become less preoccupied with preaching religious truths and more with developing children's personal worldviews. However, how secularisation exactly explains these changes is not clear. To get a clearer picture, we…
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
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Brown, Patricia MacDonald
Approaches to supplication, such as faith and single-minded devotion to an ultimate value or deity, are proposed to constitute the human interface between the manifest and the unmanifest. A reciprocal, resonant interchange between the unmanifest and human summoning of the holy can bring the sacred to expression in cultural forms and personal experience. Addressing the boundaries between the human and the divine, this paper presents a cross-cultural model for spiritual supplication. This model utilizes the anthropological term ritual frame and provides an integrative worldview with which to examine the dynamics of sacred contact and invocation. This suggests that supplication is the universal and fundamental human orientation to invoke the reception of profound healings, as well as spiritual blessings, cross-cultural understandings and innumerable gifts of creativity.
Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail
To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754
Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbauh, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail
To inform the development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N = 44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical distrust and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest that diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African-American community to improve health outcomes.
Matthews, Michael R.
This paper elaborates on the life and publications of Joseph Priestley, the eighteenth-century polymath. The paper outlines his particular place in the European Enlightenment; it stresses the importance of philosophy and worldview in his scientific work on pneumatic chemistry, the composition of air, and his discovery of the process of photosynthesis (or the ‘restoration of air’ as it was called at the time); finally the paper indicates ways in which Priestley’s work on photosynthesis can be utilised in the school classroom to advance the understanding of scientific subject matter, to promote an understanding of the nature of scientific procedure and methodology, and finally to evaluate some basic tenets of the European Enlightenment that Priestley so passionately advocated.
Profound shifts have occurred over the last three centuries in which human actions have become the main driver to global environmental change. In this new epoch, the Anthropocene, human-driven changes such as climate and land use change, are pushing the Earth system well outside of its normal operating range causing severe and abrupt environmental change. Changes in land use management and land cover are intricately linked to the carbon cycle, but our knowledge on its spatially and temporally explicit impact on carbon dynamics across different scales is still poorly understood. To elucidate on the magnitude of change in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to human-induced stressors different philosophical worldviews may be considered including (i) empiricism - direct measurements of properties and processes at micro, site-specific or field scales; (ii) metaphysics and ontology - conceptual models to assess soil change (e.g., STEP-AWBH); (iii) epistemology - indirect approaches (e.g., meta-analysis or spectral informed prediction models); (iv) reductionism - e.g., carbon flux measurements; (iv) determinism - mechanistic simulation models and biogeochemical investigations (e.g., Century or DNDC); (v) holism - national or global soil databases and aggregate maps; or (vi) integral - fusing individual, social, economic, cultural and empirical perspectives. The strengths and limitations of each of these philosophical approaches are demonstrated using case examples from Florida and U.S.A. The sensitivity to assess SOC change and uncertainty, backcasting and forecasting ability, scaling potential across space and time domains, and limitations and constraints of different worldviews are discussed.
Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.
The fundamental principle underlying the methods used to extract bathymetric information from remote-sensed imagery is that different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water body to different depths. In order to extract bathymetric values from multispectral satellite imagery we implemented the Jupp method (Jupp, 1988), in IDL language and integrated it in the ENVI menu structure. In this experiment we apply this method to two images of the Poetto beach in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) acquired from the new-generation WorldView-2 sensor. Launched in October 2009, the WorldView-2 sensor provides, among others, one (named Coastal) that was designed specifically for this kind of analysis; we chose to use the Coastal band in place of the Blue one when applying the model. The images (a stereoscopic pair) were acquired on June 17, 2011. The 5419 scene was pre-processed in order to separate the sea bottom classes. This class was then georeferenced to overlap on the 5318 scene. A traditional bathymetric survey was performed, up to 1,50 m, planned and carried out in order to calibrate the model. For each scene, 10 calibration areas were selected, and for each of them a digital model of the sea bottom was generated. Precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by analyzing the results extracted from the stereo-pairs and by examining the correlation between the surveyed depth values and the calculated ones, between the different models calculated from the same scene using different calibration areas, and between the models obtained from the two images.
Ray, Donald David, Jr.
This prospectus examines the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview philosophy. Chapter 1 presents the purpose of the research, which is to discover if there is a positive correlation in the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution and other aspects of worldview such as politics, economics, education, religion, and social issues. Also, the study will examine the frequency and comparative magnitude of the worldviews of homeschool, public school and Christian school students. Chapter 2 surveys precedents in the literature that are appropriate to the study. The significant literature to the study begins with the analysis of the relevant theological presuppositions pertaining to the topics of creation, evolution, and worldview. The analysis then moves to the literature on the relevant educational assumptions, which include theories, philosophies and practices related to high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with worldviews. Chapter 3 describes the methodological design for the study. Included in the chapter are the selection and profile of the sample, the selection and development of the instruments, namely the Creationist Worldview Test developed by Steve Deckard, and the PEERS Test---a worldview opinion survey developed by the Nehemiah Institute. Finally, the step-by-step protocol used in gathering the data completes the section. Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the data developed from the responses to the Creationist Worldview Test and the PEERS Test provided by the Nehemiah Institute and by the researcher. Profiles of each of the subgroups will be provided along with comparative analysis of the profiles. Concluding the chapter are summaries of profiles and comparative analysis. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the data describes the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview
Baird, Jeffrey Marshall
This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…
Edmondson, Donald; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.; Holub, Julie; Bartkowiak, Jennifer M.
The fundamental assertion of worldview-based models of posttraumatic stress disorder is that trauma symptoms result when traumatic experiences cannot be readily assimilated into previously held worldviews. In two studies, we test the anxiety buffer disruption hypothesis, which states that trauma symptoms result from the disruption of normal death anxiety-buffering functions of worldview. In Study 1, participants with trauma symptoms greater than the cutoff for PTSD evinced greater death-thought accessibility than those with sub-clinical or negligible symptoms after a reminder of death. In Study 2, participants with clinically significant trauma symptoms showed no evidence of worldview defense though death-thoughts were accessible. These results support the anxiety buffer disruption hypothesis, and suggest an entirely new approach to experimental PTSD research. PMID:24077677
Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin
If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’, there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people’s categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206
Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin
If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.
Biruski, Dinka Corkalo; Ajdukovic, Dean; Stanic, Ajana Löw
Background Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations. PMID:25279101
Coffee, R Lane; Tessier, Charles R; Woodruff, Elvin A; Broadie, Kendal
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), resulting solely from the loss of function of the human fragile X mental retardation 1 (hFMR1) gene, is the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism disorders, with syndromic defects also in non-neuronal tissues. In addition, the human genome encodes two closely related hFMR1 paralogs: hFXR1 and hFXR2. The Drosophila genome, by contrast, encodes a single dFMR1 gene with close sequence homology to all three human genes. Drosophila that lack the dFMR1 gene (dfmr1 null mutants) recapitulate FXS-associated molecular, cellular and behavioral phenotypes, suggesting that FMR1 function has been conserved, albeit with specific functions possibly sub-served by the expanded human gene family. To test evolutionary conservation, we used tissue-targeted transgenic expression of all three human genes in the Drosophila disease model to investigate function at (1) molecular, (2) neuronal and (3) non-neuronal levels. In neurons, dfmr1 null mutants exhibit elevated protein levels that alter the central brain and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synaptic architecture, including an increase in synapse area, branching and bouton numbers. Importantly, hFMR1 can, comparably to dFMR1, fully rescue both the molecular and cellular defects in neurons, whereas hFXR1 and hFXR2 provide absolutely no rescue. For non-neuronal requirements, we assayed male fecundity and testes function. dfmr1 null mutants are effectively sterile owing to disruption of the 9+2 microtubule organization in the sperm tail. Importantly, all three human genes fully and equally rescue mutant fecundity and spermatogenesis defects. These results indicate that FMR1 gene function is evolutionarily conserved in neural mechanisms and cannot be compensated by either FXR1 or FXR2, but that all three proteins can substitute for each other in non-neuronal requirements. We conclude that FMR1 has a neural-specific function that is distinct from its paralogs, and that the unique FMR1 function
Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo
Both climate change and anthropogenic pressure impacts are producing a declining in ecosystem natural resources. In this work, a vulnerable coastal ecosystem, Maspalomas Natural Reserve (Canary Islands, Spain), is analyzed. The development of advanced image processing techniques, applied to new satellites with very high resolution sensors (VHR), are essential to obtain accurate and systematic information about such natural areas. Thus, remote sensing offers a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management although some improvements are needed by the application of pansharpening techniques. A preliminary assessment was performed selecting classical and new algorithms that could achieve good performance with WorldView-2 imagery. Moreover, different quality indices were used in order to asses which pansharpening technique gives a better fused image. A total of 7 pansharpening algorithms were analyzed using 6 spectral and spatial quality indices. The quality assessment was implemented for the whole set of multispectral bands and for those bands covered by the wavelength range of the panchromatic image and outside of it. After an extensive evaluation, the most suitable algorithm was the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps technique which provided the best compromise between the spectral and spatial quality for the image. Finally, Quality Map Analysis was performed in order to study the fusion in each band at local level. As conclusion, novel analysis has been conducted covering the evaluation of fusion methods in shallow water areas. Hence, the excellent results provided by this study have been applied to the generation of challenging thematic maps of coastal and dunes protected areas.
Vaiopoulos, Aristides; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.
In the current study a Worldview-2 image was used for fusion quality assessment. The bundle image was collected on July 2014 over Araxos area in Western Peloponnese. Worldview-2 is the first satellite that collects at the same time a panchromatic (Pan) image and 8 band multispectral (MS) image. The Pan data have a spatial resolution of 0.46m while the MS data have a spatial resolution of 1.84m. In contrary to the respective Pan band of Ikonos and Quickbird that range between 0.45 and 0.90 micrometers the Worldview Pan band is narrower and ranges between 0.45 and 0.8 micrometers. The MS bands include four conventional visible and near-infrared bands common to multispectral satellites like Ikonos Quickbird, Geoeye Landsat-7 etc., and four new bands. Thus, it is quite interesting to investigate the assessment of commonly used fusion algorithms with Worldview-2 data. Twelve fusion techniques and more especially the Ehlers, Gram-Schmidt, Color Normalized, High Pass Filter, Hyperspherical Color Space, Local Mean Matching (LMM), Local Mean and Variance Matching (LMVM), Modified IHS (ModIHS), Pansharp, Pansharp2, PCA and Wavelet were used for the fusion of Worldview-2 panchromatic and multispectral data. The optical result, the statistical parameters and different quality indexes such as ERGAS, Q and entropy difference were examined and the results are presented. The quality control was evaluated both in spectral and spatial domain.
Reiss, Michael J.
This article begins by examining whether ‘science’ and ‘religion’ can better be seen as distinct or related worldviews, focusing particularly on scientific and religious understandings of biodiversity. I then explore how people can see the natural world, depending on their worldview, by looking at two contrasting treatments of penguin behaviour, namely that provided in the film March of the Penguins and in the children’s book And Tango Makes Three. I end by drawing some initial conclusions as to what might and what might not be included about religion in school science lessons. Science educators and teachers need to take account of religious worldviews if some students are better to understand the compass of scientific thinking and some of science’s key conclusions. It is perfectly possible for a science teacher to be respectful of the worldviews that students occupy, even if these are scientifically limited, while clearly and non-apologetically helping them to understand the scientific worldview on a particular issue.
Veltri, Giuseppe A; Suerdem, Ahmet K
This paper analyses the discursive construction of the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) issue in the Turkish political arena following the public debate on the pending legislation on biosecurity. The study proposes an operational approach to semiotic/actor network theory (Latour) applied to public representations of a new technology within the theoretical frameworks of social representation theory and cultural theory of risks. It aims to highlight how different worldviews produce different risk discourses of GMOs in Turkey. Using cluster analysis to inductively extract evaluative categories, we use these to identify themes by human coding. Lastly, we apply formal concept analysis to link themes to actors and their worldviews, establishing their semantic networks. Formal concept analysis revealed four discourse networks reflecting nationalist, Islamist, progressive (left) and neo-liberal worldviews. Finally, these structures will be grounded back in the articles for a richer interpretive analysis.
Wong, Min Minnie; Ward, Kevin; Boller, Ryan; Gunnoe, Taylor; Baynes, Kathleen; King, Benjamin
Constellations of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites orbit the earth to collect images and data about the planet in near real-time. Within hours of satellite overpass, you can discover where the latest wildfires, severe storms, volcanic eruptions, and dust and haze events are occurring using NASA's Worldview web application. By harnessing a repository of curated natural event metadata from NASA Earth Observatory's Natural Event Tracker (EONET), Worldview has moved natural event discovery to the forefront and allows users to select events-of-interest from a curated list, zooms to the area, and adds the most relevant imagery layers for that type of natural event. This poster will highlight NASA Worldviews new natural event feed functionality.
Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar
This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513
Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; McGann, J. M.; Ilavajhala, S.; Timmons, E.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Davies, D.
Complementing NASA's traditional method to data discovery via "metadata-first" searching, the Worldview web mapping client takes a "see it first" approach for visually discovering interesting satellite data. It uses the responsive Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) to provide an interactive interface for browsing 90+ products from Terra, Aqua, and Aura in full resolution and generally within three hours of observation. Launched at Fall 2011 AGU, Worldview's original domain was near-real time applications such as monitoring wildfires and flooding events. Since then, its scope and available imagery have expanded to include science applications and functionality such as the ability to download full-resolution image representations of the data and the original data granules. Worldview is also mobile-friendly and can be used on most tablet and smartphone devices.
A recently-launched high-resolution commercial satellite, DigitalGlobe’s WorldView-3, has 8 bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelength region, which may be capable of estimating canopy water content at 3.7-m spatial resolution. WorldView-3 also has 8 multispectral bands at 1.24-m resolution ...
Iselin, Darren; Meteyard, John D.
Although widespread consensus exists that the integration of Christian worldview, faith and learning lies at the heart of effective Christian education, such an aspiration has not always resulted in the embodiment of worldview principles within Christian educational contexts. In response to this dissonance, an alternative approach to integration…
That nature and the universe are ordered, uniform, and comprehensible is a starting point in science. However, such worldview presuppositions are often taken for granted, rather than explicitly mentioned, in science and in science class. This article takes a worldview perspective and reports from interviews (N = 26) with upper secondary students…
Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Bryant, Alyssa N.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the collegiate religious, spiritual, and ideological climate and worldview commitment. As part of this process, 1,071 students responded to the Collegiate Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey, an empirically validated and reliable measure designed to assess dimensions of a…
Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.
People are living and traveling to places all over the world. An exploration of how this movement influences learners' worldviews has implications for adult development, identity, and learning. The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological study conducted in the U.S. that examined how individuals' living or traveling…
Arguments about the relationship between science and religion often proceed by identifying a set of essential characteristics of scientific and religious worldviews and arguing on the basis of these characteristics for claims about a relationship of conflict or compatibility between them. Such a strategy is doomed to failure because science, to…
Song, Eun Jung
This research explored the relationship between alumni donors' worldview characteristics and their motivations for supporting and giving to their "alma mater." The sample consisted of the whole alumni donor population (N = 7000) at Biola University, La Mirada, California. The research was conducted using quantitative method, and…
In "Doing God in education", Trevor Cooling aims to defeat what might be called the "marginalising" view of the place of religion in education. I am sympathetic to this aim; but I think Cooling conflates two different arguments, predicated on two different concepts marked by the term "world-view", and that only one of the arguments is plausible.…
This doctoral project is a pilot study to assess the effectiveness of a church discipleship co-op designed to convey a biblical worldview to middle and high school students enrolled in charter homeschooling in Southern California. Research by the Nehemiah Institute indicated that 90% of Christian families in the United States send their children…
Wu, Zhuoting; Middleton, Barry R.; Hetzler, Robert; Vogel, John M.; Dye, Dennis G.
We used remotely sensed data from the Landsat-8 and WorldView-2 satellites to estimate vegetation burn severity of the Creek Fire on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, where wildfire occurrences affect the Tribe's crucial livestock and logging industries. Accurate pre- and post-fire canopy maps at high (0.5-meter) resolution were created from World- View-2 data to generate canopy loss maps, and multiple indices from pre- and post-fire Landsat-8 images were used to evaluate vegetation burn severity. Normalized difference vegetation index based vegetation burn severity map had the highest correlation coefficients with canopy loss map from WorldView-2. Two distinct approaches - canopy loss mapping from WorldView-2 and spectral index differencing from Landsat-8 - agreed well with the field-based burn severity estimates and are both effective for vegetation burn severity mapping. Canopy loss maps created with WorldView-2 imagery add to a short list of accurate vegetation burn severity mapping techniques that can help guide effective management of forest resources on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, and the broader fire-prone regions of the Southwest.
Edgell, Margaret S.
A localized ethnography of African Christian students revealed consistently robust Christian faith across all respondents, the core elements of which were rooted in an explicit Afrocentric worldview. These findings support multicultural critiques of classic student spiritual development theory, and point toward further research from a…
Arguments about the relationship between science and religion often proceed by identifying a set of essential characteristics of scientific and religious worldviews and arguing on the basis of these characteristics for claims about a relationship of conflict or compatibility between them. Such a strategy is doomed to failure because science, to some extent, and religion, to a much larger extent, are cultural phenomena that are too diverse in their expressions to be characterized in terms of a unified worldview. In this paper I follow a different strategy. Having offered a loose characterization of the nature of science, I pose five questions about specific areas where religious and scientific worldviews may conflict—questions about the nature of faith, the belief in a God or Gods, the authority of sacred texts, the relationship between scientific and religious conceptions of the mind/soul, and the relationship between scientific and religious understandings of moral behavior. My review of these questions will show that they cannot be answered unequivocally because there is no agreement amongst religious believers as to the meaning of important religious concepts. Thus, whether scientific and religious worldviews conflict depends essentially upon whose science and whose religion one is considering. In closing, I consider the implications of this conundrum for science education.
Bringman Baxter, Katie
Pluralism and engagement with diverse religious, secular, and spiritual worldviews can contribute significantly to college student growth and civic engagement. But these concepts can be difficult to measure in the framework of student learning. This article describes a process and product undertaken by Elon University, Interfaith Youth Core, and…
Barnes, L. Philip
This article considers whether non-religious worldviews ought to be included in the curriculum content of religious education (RE). While the immediate context is that of the campaigns of the Religious Education Council for England and Wales (REC) and the British Humanist Association (BHA) to extend the content of RE to include non-religious…
Khalili, Masoud; Jodai, Hojat
This paper intends to evaluate the WorldView series textbooks of English learning, which are being taught at an Iranian military university foreign language center. No textbook evaluation had been conducted by the university administration prior to the introduction of the textbooks to the language program. Theorists in the field of ELT textbook…
Miedema, Siebren; Bertram-Troost, Gerdien
In this paper the authors briefly present what their theoretical reflections and empirical research has yielded in respect to citizenship education and religious education. The theoretical as well as political and practical questions of the relationship of global citizenship and worldview education are scrutinized. The main focus is on the issue…
van der Kooij, Jacomijn C.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Miedema, Siebren
This article researches whether approaches to moral education aim to influence the development of the personal worldview of students. An example of a Dutch moral education programme is presented and the findings are used to analyse various approaches to moral education. Our analysis demonstrates that every approach aims to influence the personal…
Tomsen, Jennifer L.; Disinger, John F.
Describes a method for assessing the effects of an undergraduate environmental history course on student environmental worldviews, the foundation of which is triangulation of method. A grounded survey instrument was used to supply quantitative and qualitative data which were supplemented by data from open-ended interviews. The method was effective…
Van Meter, Kenneth G.
This micro-ethnographic study is an exploration of the relative degree of importance of the several components of a worldview as articulated by a purposive sample of fourteen upper division students currently enrolled in advance placement classes in ACSI and WASC accredited Christian high schools in Northern California. The research design uses an…
Liu, William M.
This paper outlines a theory for understanding social class in men's lives, and argues that poverty and depression are a function of social class and internalized classism. It begins by defining poverty, then explains the Social Class Worldview Model, which is a subjective social class model, and the Modern Classism Theory, which allows clinicians…
Rideout, Bruce E.
The purpose of this research was to explore student endorsement of an environmental worldview during the college years through a sampling of freshmen and seniors. Nine independent samples of freshman and senior class undergraduates (N = 779) were surveyed over a five year period in a small, independent liberal arts college. The survey instrument…
Chan, Yip-Cheung; Wong, Ngai-Ying
Beliefs about mathematics education and their influences on teaching practices have been widely investigated in recent decades. There have been numerous empirical studies on the influences of religions on teachers' and students' beliefs about subjects such as sciences and language. However, the influences of worldviews in general and…
Candra, E. D.; Hartono; Wicaksono, P.
Mangrove forests have a role as an absorbent and a carbon sink to a reduction CO2 in the atmosphere. Based on the previous studies found that mangrove forests have the ability to sequestering carbon through photosynthesis and carbon burial of sediment effectively. The value and distribution of carbon stock are important to understand through remote sensing technology. In this study, will estimate the carbon stock using WorldView-2 imagery with and without distinction mangrove species. Worldview-2 is a high resolution image with 2 meters spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Worldview-2 potential to estimate carbon stock in detail. Vegetation indices such as DVI (Difference Vegetation Index), EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), and MRE-SR (Modified Red Edge-Simple Ratio) and field data were modeled to determine the best vegetation indices to estimate carbon stocks. Carbon stock estimated by allometric equation approach specific to each species of mangrove. Worldview-2 imagery to map mangrove species with an accuracy of 80.95%. Total carbon stock estimation results in the study area of 35.349,87 tons of dominant species Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata and Sonneratia alba.
Poulter, Saila; Riitaoja, Anna-Leena; Kuusisto, Arniika
This article examines educational, political and philosophical perspectives on the concepts of worldview and religion in the context of multicultural education. Using a postcolonial and post-structural approach combined with theories that analyse the politics of secularism, we attempt to pinpoint key perspectives in the recognition of worldviews…
Selcuk, Mualla; Valk, John
Turkish religious education's focus on religion from a social science and prescriptive Islamic perspective faces challenges today. This article presents a new model and approach that assists students in exploring their beliefs and values, those of others, and their Islamic heritage from an interdisciplinary worldview perspective. (Contains 2…
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Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519
Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay
Terror management theory asserts that attaining self-esteem by adhering to the standards of meaning-providing worldviews helps manage death concerns. Research has shown that mortality salience (MS) increases worldview defense, however, there are conflicting results concerning how trait self-esteem moderates this effect. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that MS increases worldview defense for high, but not low, trait self-esteem individuals. These studies raised the question as to whether those with low trait self-esteem engage in efforts to find meaning in response to MS. Study 3 showed that MS increased the search for meaning for low, but not high, trait self-esteem individuals.
Barazzetti, L.; Roncoroni, F.; Brumana, R.; Previtali, M.
The use of rational functions has become a standard for very high-resolution satellite imagery (VHRSI). On the other hand, the overall geolocalization accuracy via direct georeferencing from on board navigation components is much worse than image ground sampling distance (predicted < 3.5 m CE90 for WorldView-3, whereas GSD = 0.31 m for panchromatic images at nadir). This paper presents the georeferencing accuracy results obtained from a single WorldView-3 image processed with a bias compensated RPC camera model. Orientation results for an image collected over Milan are illustrated and discussed for both direct and indirect georeferencing strategies as well as different bias correction parameters estimated from a set of ground control points. Results highlight that the use of a correction based on two shift parameters is optimal for the considered dataset.
Ogunniyi, Meshach B.; Jegede, Olugbenro J.; Ogawa, Masakata; Yandila, Cephas D.; Oladele, Femi K.
The focus of this study was to identify the nature of worldview presuppositions held by a group of science teachers from five non-western cultures. The results show that the subjects, irrespective of their cultural backgrounds, hold identical worldview presuppositions. It is not clear at this exploratory stage to what extent the subjects' alternative viewpoints influenced their scientific outlook or their science teaching. However, an analysis of the subjects' viewpoints suggests either poor conceptualizations of the nature of science or a form of collateral thinking, whereby an individual accepts or uses both mechanistic and anthropomorphic explanations depending on the context in question and without exhibiting any sign of cognitive dissonance. The implications of such a scenario for the teaching-learning process are highlighted.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 September 1994;
Black, Helen K.; Santanello, Holly R.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore family reaction to the death of the elderly husband and father in the family. Methods: We qualitatively interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and 2 adult biological children) approximately 6–15 months after the death. In private, one-on-one in-depth interviews, we discussed how the death affected each family member as an individual and how each member perceived that the death altered the family as a unit. Results: An individual's worldview, embedded in the smaller culture of the family and the larger culture of society, offers a template for appropriate grief reactions. Discussion: Our article builds on the constructs of worldview, grief for the husband and father, and narrative at the juncture of self-evaluation, as family members reflected on where they stood in their own journey through life. PMID:22241808
Meyer, D. J.
The NASA Worldview client and undelrying Global Image Browse Service (GIBS) are powerful tools for visualizing dynamic global processes in a clear and understandable manner. Currently viewable data layers, such as sea surface temperature, cloud and aersol parameters, snow cover and sea ice, and fires can be observed over time to gain a better understanding of the interrleationship between land, ocean and atmospheric processes, and how these relationships evolve over time. This presentation demonstrates the use of these tools to visualize (for example) relationships between fire and air quality over North America, the evolution of the recent El Nino, and changes in sea ice extent, using Worldview directly, and GIBS through both open source and commercial applications. The presentation also discusses visualizations that will be possible with anticipated new data layers.
Vass, Alyssa; Mitchell, Alice; Dhurrkay, Yurranydjil
This article delineates specific issues relating to health literacy for Indigenous Australians. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors' work with Yolnu people (of north-east Arnhem Land) and using one model for health literacy described in the international literature, various components of health literacy are explored, including fundamental literacy, scientific literacy, community literacy and cultural literacy. By matching these components to the characteristics of Yolnu people, the authors argue that language and worldview form an integral part of health education methodology when working with Indigenous people whose first language is not English and who do not have a biomedical worldview in their history. Only through acknowledging and actively engaging with these characteristics of Indigenous people can all aspects of health literacy be addressed and health empowerment be attained.
Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence
Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers.
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A.; Flack, John M.; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
Objective According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. Method A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. Results The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Conclusions Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. PMID:27018728
Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Diti, Israt Jahan; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil
Coastal saltmarsh and their constituent components and processes are of an interest scientifically due to their ecological function and services. However, heterogeneity and seasonal dynamic of the coastal wetland system makes it challenging to map saltmarshes with remotely sensed data. This study selected four important saltmarsh species Pragmitis australis, Sporobolus virginicus, Ficiona nodosa and Schoeloplectus sp. as well as a Mangrove and Pine tree species, Avecinia and Casuarina sp respectively. High Spatial Resolution Worldview-2 data and Coarse Spatial resolution Landsat 8 imagery were selected in this study. Among the selected vegetation types some patches ware fragmented and close to the spatial resolution of Worldview-2 data while and some patch were larger than the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 8 data. This study aims to test the effectiveness of different classifier for the imagery with various spatial and spectral resolutions. Three different classification algorithm, Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were tested and compared with their mapping accuracy of the results derived from both satellite imagery. For Worldview-2 data SVM was giving the higher overall accuracy (92.12%, kappa =0.90) followed by ANN (90.82%, Kappa 0.89) and MLC (90.55%, kappa = 0.88). For Landsat 8 data, MLC (82.04%) showed the highest classification accuracy comparing to SVM (77.31%) and ANN (75.23%). The producer accuracy of the classification results were also presented in the paper.
Koedkurang, Kanjana; Cao, Xiaoguang
Coastal bathymetry data are great important environmental resources and disaster management. Today, there are many technologies used to explore the bathymetry, depending on the purpose of surveying. But almost technologies can be time consuming, complicated, and quite expensive. Remote sensing by satellite imagery is one of technology used to estimate the coastal bathymetry in term of accuracy, quality and up to datedness, timely availability and cost effectiveness. Especially the Coastal Blue Band of WorldView-2 for bathymetric measurements will improve both in depth and accuracy. From investigated the relation between surface reflectance and coastal bathymetry of the eight bands of WorldView-2 that band 1,2,3 and 4 are good reflection and when the depth are increase, the digital number (DN) will decrease. The objective of this research is to developing the classification of the coastal bathymetry estimation from satellite imagery. By utilized WorldView-2 satellite images along with regressive function and improving the accuracy result by comparing with in-situ truth depth to assess a coastal bathymetry.
Hu, F.; Gao, X. M.; Li, G. Y.; Li, M.
This paper validates the potentials of Worldview-3 satellite images in large scale topographic mapping, by choosing Worldview-3 along-track stereo-images of Yi Mountain area in Shandong province China for DEM extraction and accuracy evaluation. Firstly, eighteen accurate and evenly-distributed GPS points are collected in field and used as GCPs/check points, the image points of which are accurately measured, and also tie points are extracted from image matching; then, the RFM-based block adjustment to compensate the systematic error in image orientation is carried out and the geo-positioning accuracy is calculated and analysed; next, for the two stereo-pairs of the block, DSMs are separately constructed and mosaicked as an entirety, and also the corresponding DEM is subsequently generated; finally, compared with the selected check points from high-precision airborne LiDAR point cloud covering the same test area, the accuracy of the generated DEM with 2-meter grid spacing is evaluated by the maximum (max.), minimum (min.), mean and standard deviation (std.) values of elevation biases. It is demonstrated that, for Worldview-3 stereo-images used in our research, the planimetric accuracy without GCPs is about 2.16 m (mean error) and 0.55 (std. error), which is superior to the nominal value, while the vertical accuracy is about -1.61 m (mean error) and 0.49 m (std. error); with a small amount of GCPs located in the center and four corners of the test area, the systematic error can be well compensated. The std. value of elevation biases between the generated DEM and the 7256 LiDAR check points are about 0.62 m. If considering the potential uncertainties in the image point measurement, stereo matching and also elevation editing, the accuracy of generating DEM from Worldview-3 stereo-images should be more desirable. Judging from the results, Worldview-3 has the potential for 1:5000 or even larger scale mapping application.
Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.
Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and
Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.
Salinization is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring worldwide, with its effects being observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Traditionally, soil salinity is assessed by laboratory determination of the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), rendering large scale studies labor and cost intensive. This study evaluates the feasibility of surface soil salinity estimation, monitoring, and mapping based on images acquired by the WorldView-2 and Landsat 8 multispectral sensors after calibration with a limited number of soil samples. A range of satellite image processing techniques are applied, starting with geometric, radiometric and atmospheric preprocessing corrections. More than 10 spectral salinity indices (algebric equations between visible and infrared band) including three newly introduced salinity indices, as well as vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, etc.) are implemented to detect surface salt deposition and vegetation health. Spectral unmixing is used to monitor salinity employing sophisticated classification approaches. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to a WorldView-2 images in order to determine the initial axes used for the orthogonal transformation, followed by a subsequent 3D rotation of the PCA axes. The linear coefficients of the transformation are retrieved and adjusted to detect salinity in all the range of WorldView-2 image. Furthermore, Landsat 8 images are used to establish and compare the diachronic vegetation regime and plant health in both brackish irrigation and salinity-free olive groves areas. The proposed methods are tested in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, a coastal semi-arid region in south-central Crete. Long term agricultural over-exploitation in the area and little irrigation alternatives have led to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization. EO products are calibrated using soil samples collected from bare soil plots at 0-5 cm depth and representing a
Owens, M. A.
Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and
Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109
Anderson, Neal T.; Marchisio, Giovanni B.
Over the last decade DigitalGlobe (DG) has built and launched a series of remote sensing satellites with steadily increasing capabilities: QuickBird, WorldView-1 (WV-1), and WorldView-2 (WV-2). Today, this constellation acquires over 2.5 million km2 of imagery on a daily basis. This paper presents the configuration and performance capabilities of each of these satellites, with emphasis on the unique spatial and spectral capabilities of WV-2. WV-2 employs high-precision star tracker and inertial measurement units to achieve a geolocation accuracy of 5 m Circular Error, 90% confidence (CE90). The native resolution of WV-2 is 0.5 m GSD in the panchromatic band and 2 m GSD in 8 multispectral bands. Four of the multispectral bands match those of the Landsat series of satellites; four new bands enable novel and expanded applications. We are rapidly establishing and refreshing a global database of very high resolution (VHR) 8-band multispectral imagery. Control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) on both WV-1 and WV-2 improve collection capacity and provide the agility to capture multi-angle sequences in rapid succession. These capabilities result in a rich combination of image features that can be exploited to develop enhanced monitoring solutions. Algorithms for interpretation and analysis can leverage: 1) broader and more continuous spectral coverage at 2 m resolution; 2) textural and morphological information from the 0.5 m panchromatic band; 3) ancillary information from stereo and multi-angle collects, including high precision digital elevation models; 4) frequent revisits and time-series collects; and 5) the global reference image archives. We introduce the topic of creative fusion of image attributes, as this provides a unifying theme for many of the papers in this WV-2 Special Session.
Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
Hobi, Martina L.; Ginzler, Christian
Digital surface models (DSMs) are widely used in forest science to model the forest canopy. Stereo pairs of very high resolution satellite and digital aerial images are relatively new and their absolute accuracy for DSM generation is largely unknown. For an assessment of these input data two DSMs based on a WorldView-2 stereo pair and a ADS80 DSM were generated with photogrammetric instruments. Rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) are defining the orientation of the WorldView-2 satellite images, which can be enhanced with ground control points (GCPs). Thus two WorldView-2 DSMs were distinguished: a WorldView-2 RPCs-only DSM and a WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs DSM. The accuracy of the three DSMs was estimated with GPS measurements, manual stereo-measurements, and airborne laser scanning data (ALS). With GCP-enhanced RPCs the WorldView-2 image orientation could be optimised to a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.56 m in planimetry and 0.32 m in height. This improvement in orientation allowed for a vertical median error of −0.24 m for the WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs DSM in flat terrain. Overall, the DSM based on ADS80 images showed the highest accuracy of the three models with a median error of 0.08 m over bare ground. As the accuracy of a DSM varies with land cover three classes were distinguished: herb and grass, forests, and artificial areas. The study suggested the ADS80 DSM to best model actual surface height in all three land cover classes, with median errors <1.1 m. The WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs model achieved good accuracy, too, with median errors of −0.43 m for the herb and grass vegetation and −0.26 m for artificial areas. Forested areas emerged as the most difficult land cover type for height modelling; still, with median errors of −1.85 m for the WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs model and −1.12 m for the ADS80 model, the input data sets evaluated here are quite promising for forest canopy modelling. PMID:22778645
Elsharkawy, A.; Elhabiby, M.; El-Sheimy, N.
The new advances of having eight bands satellite mission similar to WorldView-2, WV-2, give the chance to address and solve some of the traditional problems related to the low spatial and/or spectral resolution; such as the lack of details for certain features or the inability of the conventional classifiers to detect some land-cover types because of missing efficient spectrum information and analysis techniques. High-resolution imagery is particularly well suited to urban applications. High spectral and spatial resolution of WorldView-2 data introduces challenges in detailed mapping of urban features. Classification of Water, Shadows, Red roofs and concrete buildings spectrally exhibit significant confusion either from the high similarity in the spectral response (e.g. water and Shadows) or the similarity in material type (e.g. red roofs and concrete buildings). This research study assesses the enhancement of the classification accuracy and efficiency for a data set of WorldView-2 satellite imagery using the full 8-bands through integrating the output of classification process using three band ratios with another step involves an object-based technique for extracting shadows, water, vegetation, building, Bare soil and asphalt roads. Second generation curvelet transform will be used in the second step, specifically to detect buildings' boundaries, which will aid the new algorithm of band ratios classification through efficient separation of the buildings. The combined technique is tested, and the preliminary results show a great potential of the new bands in the WV-2 imagery in the separation between confusing classes such as water and shadows, and the testing is extended to the separation between bare soils and asphalt roads. The Integrated band ratio-curvelet transform edge detection techniques increased the percentage of building detection by more than 30%.
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus
Background Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a “hoax.” Methodology/Principal findings We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Conclusions Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators. PMID:24098391
McLaren, David; Thompson, David R.; Davies, Ashley G.; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Chien, Steve
We explore the use of machine learning, computer vision, and pattern recognition techniques to automatically identify volcanic ash plumes and plume shadows, in WorldView-2 imagery. Using information of the relative position of the sun and spacecraft and terrain information in the form of a digital elevation map, classification, the height of the ash plume can also be inferred. We present the results from applying this approach to six scenes acquired on two separate days in April and May of 2010 of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland. These results show rough agreement with ash plume height estimates from visual and radar based measurements.
Martsolf, D S; Mickley, J R
Although nursing has recognized spirituality as an important aspect of holistic patient care, exactly what spirituality means has remained rather amorphous. The purpose of this article is to present aspects of spirituality found in modern nurse theorists' ideas. These aspects are presented both in relation to reciprocal interaction or simultaneous action world-views and in relation to the extent of focus on the concept within the model or theory. This discussion will provide the researcher and practitioner with additional theoretical understanding on which to ground investigations and base practice.
Tarantino, Eufemia; Novelli, Antonio; Laterza, Maurizio; Gioia, Andrea
This work analyzes the potentiality of WorldView-2 satellite data for retrieving the Leaf Area Index (LAI) area located in Apulia, the most Eastern region of Italy, overlooking the Adriatic and Ionian seas. Lacking contemporary in-situ measurements, the semi-empiric method of Clevers (1989) (CLAIR model) was chosen as a feasible image-based LAI retrieval method, which is based on an inverse exponential relationship between the LAI and the WDVI (Weighted Difference Vegetation Index) with relation to different land covers. Results were examined in homogeneous land cover classes and compared with values obtained in recent literature.
Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John
In this study, we extended the Dual Process Model of Ideology and Prejudice by incorporating the Five-Factor Model of Personality (N = 924). Disagreeable people tended to view the social world as competitive, which in turn predicted heightened motivations for group-based dominance and superiority (Social Dominance Orientation or SDO), whereas people low in Openness to Experience and high in Conscientiousness directly expressed heightened security-cohesion motivations (Right-Wing Authoritarianism or RWA). Other personality dimensions were weakly associated with RWA, and these effects were mediated by dangerous worldview. Multiple distinct aspects of personality predict SDO and RWA both directly and indirectly through worldviews, but we found little evidence for the possibility that personality alters the extent to which worldviews (once formed) predict SDO and RWA.
Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Riggers-Piehl, Tiffani A.; Garvey, Jason C.; Lo, Marc A.; Mayhew, Matthew J.
This study examined the extent to which LGBT students were oriented toward pluralism and self-authored worldview commitment, as well as the conditional effects of campus climate and interfaith engagement on pluralism and worldview commitment by sexual orientation and gender identity. Drawing on data from 13,776 student respondents to the Campus…
Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.
Townsend, Sarah S. M.; Major, Brenda; Sawyer, Pamela J.; Mendes, Wendy Berry
The current research used validated cardiovascular measures to examine threat reactions among members of stigmatized groups when interacting with members of nonstigmatized groups who were, or were not, prejudiced against their group. We hypothesized that people's beliefs about the fairness of the status system would moderate their experience of threat during intergroup interactions. We predicted that for members of stigmatized groups who believe the status system is fair, interacting with a prejudiced relative to an unprejudiced partner would disconfirm their worldview and result in greater threat. In contrast, we predicted that for members of stigmatized groups who believe the system is unfair, interacting with a prejudiced relative to an unprejudiced partner would confirm their worldview and result in less threat. We examined these predictions among Latinas interacting with a White female confederate (Study 1) and White females interacting with a White male confederate (Study 2). As predicted, people's beliefs about the fairness of the status system moderated their experiences of threat during intergroup interactions, indicated both by cardiovascular responses and nonverbal behavior. The specific pattern of the moderation differed across the two studies. PMID:21114352
Van Riper, Carena J; Kyle, Gerard T
Two related approaches to valuing nature have been advanced in past research including the study of ecosystem services and psychological investigations of the factors that shape behavior. Stronger integration of the insights that emerge from these two lines of enquiry can more effectively sustain ecosystems, economies, and human well-being. Drawing on survey data collected from outdoor recreationists on Santa Cruz Island within Channel Islands National Park, U.S., our study blends these two research approaches to examine a range of tangible and intangible values of ecosystem services provided to stakeholders with differing biocentric and anthropocentric worldviews. We used Public Participation Geographic Information System methods to collect survey data and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services mapping application to spatially analyze a range of values assigned to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the park. Our results showed that preferences for the provision of biological diversity, recreation, and scientific-based values of ecosystem services varied across a spatial gradient. We also observed differences that emerged from a comparison between survey subgroups defined by their worldviews. The implications emanating from this investigation aim to support environmental management decision-making in the context of protected areas.
Sertel, Elif; Yay, Irmak
Accurate identification of spatial distribution and characteristics of vineyard parcels is an important task for the effective management of vineyard areas, precision viticulture, and farmer registries. This study aimed to develop rule sets to be used in object-based classification of Worldview-2 satellite images to accurately delineate the boundaries of vineyards having different plantation styles. Multilevel segmentation was applied to Worldview-2 images to create different sizes of image objects representing different land cover categories with respect to scale parameter. Texture analysis and several new spectral indices were applied to objects at different segmentation levels to accurately classify land cover classes of forest, cultivated areas, harvested areas, impervious, bareland, and vineyards. A specific attention was given to vineyard class to identify vine areas at the parcel level considering their different plantation styles. The results illustrated that the combined usage of a newly developed decision tree and image segmentation during the object-based classification process could provide highly accurate results for the identification of vineyard parcels. Linearly planted vineyards could be classified with 100% producer's accuracy due to their regular textural characteristics, whereas regular gridwise and irregular gridwise (distributed) vineyard parcels could be classified with 94.87% producer's accuracy in this research.
Koc-San, D.; Sonmez, N. K.
Greenhouse detection using remote sensing technologies is an important research area for yield estimation, sustainable development, urban and rural planning and management. An approach was developed in this study for the detection and delineation of greenhouse areas from high resolution satellite imagery. Initially, the candidate greenhouse patches were detected using supervised classification techniques. For this purpose, Maximum Likelihood (ML), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classification techniques were applied and compared. Then, sieve filter and morphological operations were performed for improving the classification results. Finally, the obtained candidate plastic and glass greenhouse areas were delineated using boundary tracing and Douglas Peucker line simplification algorithms. The proposed approach was implemented in the Kumluca district of Antalya, Turkey utilizing pan-sharpened WorldView-2 satellite imageries. Kumluca is the prominent district of Antalya with greenhouse cultivation and includes both plastic and glass greenhouses intensively. When the greenhouse classification results were analysed, it can be stated that the SVM classification provides most accurate results and RF classification follows this. The SVM classification overall accuracy was obtained as 90.28%. When the greenhouse boundary delineation results were considered, the plastic greenhouses were delineated with 92.11% accuracy, while glass greenhouses were delineated with 80.67% accuracy. The obtained results indicate that, generally plastic and glass greenhouses can be detected and delineated successfully from WorldView-2 satellite imagery.
Hernes, Maya I; Metzger, Marc J
Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and perceptions of the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve (GSABR). Over three weeks, forty participants from three communities of the GSABR responded to a semi-structured mixed-methods survey. The survey revealed that residents of the GSABR greatly value wildlife and beauty of nature, and that the majority of the respondents showed concern for the environment from an ecocentric worldview. Results also revealed that the most influential tested socio-demographic characteristic affecting people's relationship to their environment is their professional affiliation. Tourism and recreation were seen as major benefits of the recent biosphere designation. Results did highlight contrasting benefits from the designation for different stakeholder groups, which could potentially lead to tensions and should be considered in the reserve management. Given the community's supportive world views and perceptions, greater participation in the biosphere's management in likely to be welcomed and should be used to avoid or mediate any conflicts. The mixed-method survey developed for this study, proved successful in eliciting these themes in the GSABR. We recommend other biosphere reserves replicate this research, to gain better understanding of local communities and increase their support and participation in reserve management.
Maimaitiyiming, M.; Bozzolo, A.; Wulamu, A.; Wilkins, J. L.
Precision farming requires high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data to detect plant physiological changes. The higher spatial resolution is particularly as important as the spectral resolution for crop monitoring. It is important to develop data integration techniques between field or airborne hyperspectral data with spaceborne broad band multispectral images for plant productivity monitoring. To investigate varying rootstock and irrigation interactions, different irrigation treatments are implemented in a vineyard experimental site either i) unirrigated ii) full replacement of evapotranspiration (ET) iii) irrigated at 50 % of the potential ET. In summer 2014, we collected leaf and canopy spectra of the vineyard using field spectroscopy along with other plant physiological and nutritional variables. In this contribution, we integrate the field spectra and the spectral wavelengths of WorldView-2 to develop a predictive model for plant productivity,i.e., fruit quality and yield. First, we upscale field and canopy spectra to WorldView-2 spectral bands using radiative transfer simulations (e.g., MODTRAN). Then we develop remote sensing techniques to quantify plant productivity in different scenarios water stress by identifying the most effective and sensitive wavelengths, and indices that are capable of early detection of plant health and estimation of crop nutrient status. Finally we present predictive models developed from partial least square regression (PLSR) for plant productivity using spectral wavelengths and indices derived from integrated field and satellite remote sensing data.
While exploring the phenomena of synchronicity, Carl Gustav Jung became acquainted with the quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli and eventually began a collaboration with him. During that collaboration Jung's study of synchronistic phenomena underwent a considerable change; prior to the collaboration, Jung had stressed mainly the phenomenological and empirical features of synchronistic phenomena, while in association with Pauli, he focused his attention upon their ontological, archetypal character. Pauli, on the other hand, became increasingly sensitive to the philosophical aspects concerning the unconscious. Jung and Pauli's common reflections went far beyond psychology and physics, entering into the realm where the two areas meet in the philosophy of nature. In fact, as a consequence of their collaboration, synchronicity was transformed from an empirical concept into a fundamental explanatory-interpretative principle, which together with causality could possibly lead to a more complete worldview. Exploring the problematic character of the synchronicity concept has a heuristic value because it leads to the reconsideration of the philosophical issues that drove Jung and Pauli to clear up the conceptual background of their thoughts. Within the philosophical worldview arising from Jung and Pauli's discussions about synchronicity, there are many symbolic aspects that go against mainstream science and that represent a sort of criticism to some of the commonly held views of present day science.
Neigh, C. S. R.; Montesano, P. M.; Sun, G.; Ranson, K.
Estimating forest structure from space is important for monitoring the distribution and abundance of forest carbon stocks. Very-High Spatial Resolution (VHSR, 1 m or less) optical data could be used to estimate forest structure in remote and difficult to access forests of the world, but little information exists about the utility of multi-sensor cross-track stereo pairs for this purpose. We estimated Siberian boreal forest structure in Tura Krasnoyarsk, Russia from a tasked dense 2014 summer time-series of WorldView-1 and 2 in multi-angle combinations of Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) runs to generate point clouds from parallax that are used to produce digital surface models (DSMs). We evaluated single pair point cloud DSMs and accumulated point cloud DSMs with different viewing geometries from ASP to estimate root mean square errors (RMSEs). Our results suggest that a dense multi-angle time series from the WorldView constellation is a useful tool for estimating forest canopy height and dense multi-temporal observations can reduce height RMSEs if they have the appropriate viewing geometry.
Shi, Jing; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael
The importance of knowledge for lay people's climate change concerns has been questioned in recent years, as it had been suggested that cultural values are stronger predictors of concern about climate change than knowledge. Studies that simultaneously measured knowledge related to climate change and cultural values have, however, been missing. We conducted a mail survey in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (N = 1,065). Results suggested that cultural worldviews and climate-related knowledge were significantly related with people's concern about climate change. Also, cultural worldviews and climate-relevant knowledge appeared important for people's willingness to change behaviors and to accept climate change policies. In addition, different types of knowledge were found to have different impacts on people's concern about climate change, their willingness to change behaviors, and their acceptance of policies about climate change. Specifically, causal knowledge significantly increased concern about climate change and willingness to support climate-friendly policies. We therefore concluded that risk communication should focus on causal knowledge, provided this knowledge does not threaten cultural values.
Patterson, Karen W.
Exploitation of satellite and aircraft imagery for ocean color applications is limited by the extent to which an accurate atmospheric correction can be accomplished. Characterizing specular reflection off the sea surface is one component of this correction. The WorldView-2 configuration with two multi-spectral focal planes separated by the panchromatic focal plane and a 0.2 second offset in data collection between the two multi-spectral focal planes creates a challenging specular reflection correction scenario. On June 11, 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc. imaged the Moreton Bay, Australia region seven times between 00:26:07 and 00:27:55 GMT with the WorldView-2 sensor. The atmosphere was exceptionally clear as confirmed by AERONET data collected at the University of Queensland in Brisbane. Specular reflection varied widely among the seven images. With the rapid imaging of the sequence of images other atmospheric and oceanic variable elements can be assumed to be effectively constant making this dataset ideal for testing glint reduction techniques. Glint reduction techniques are compared to identify which technique results in the least variable image sequence of remote sensing reflectances and greatest reduction of spatial glint-induced variability within a glint contaminated image.
Sudano, Laura E; Collins, Greg; Miles, Christopher M
Research suggests that National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student-athletes have higher levels of stress and other behavioral health issues, including substance use, than nonathletes. For several reasons, student-athletes may be less likely to admit to behavioral health issues and seek mental health care. Integrated care is a model of care that integrates behavioral health into a medical practice. This article explores the newly released NCAA Best Mental Health Practice guidelines and the application of integrated care to a Division I athletic training room setting using the three-worldview framework for successful integration, incorporating clinical outcomes, operational reliability, and financial stability. (PsycINFO Database Record
Olsen, James R.
After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…
Arpan, Laura M.; Opel, Andrew R.; Lu, Jia
The current study examined the association of personal values or worldviews with individual motivations for reduced energy use and energy-use-related risk perceptions. We also investigated how perceptions of others' energy use influenced motivation to reduce use among those with high, versus low, risk perceptions. The perception that others were…
Jackson, Yves; Stephenson, Niamh
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are medical terms referring to a group of diseases, yet they are simultaneously socio-political constructs (EID and NTD). When viewed as such, public health interest in EID has been criticised as prioritising free market, Global North interests. This paper asks if the recent turn to NTD, which directs attention and resources to 'the bottom billion' of the world's population, addresses the limitations of focusing on EID. Our approach involves comparing the specific socio-political framing, or 'worldview' of NTD, with that of EID. We examine the distinct history, rationales, morals, political and economic tensions and loci of power entailed in each worldview. This analysis suggests that efforts to foreground NTD constitute a site where humanitarian and biomedical industry actors and actions are increasingly blurred. We examine whether the NTD worldview constitutes a break with or a new version of a free market approach to global health, and whether it reworks or solidifies paternalistic Global North-South relations. We consider some of the limits of work on NTD to date, suggesting that although the NTD worldview does not escape the neo-colonial history of global health, it can actualise it under a different form.
Tryon, Lisa A.
American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.
Coll, Jose E.; Zalaquett, Carlos
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences in world-views between academic advisors and their advisees (both traditional and non-traditional students) impact students' use of and satisfaction with the advising process. This study surveyed 115 students and 5 advisors from a four-year liberal arts university in southeastern…
Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei
The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…
Chuang, Yung-Chung Matt; Shiu, Yi-Shiang
Tea is an important but vulnerable economic crop in East Asia, highly impacted by climate change. This study attempts to interpret tea land use/land cover (LULC) using very high resolution WorldView-2 imagery of central Taiwan with both pixel and object-based approaches. A total of 80 variables derived from each WorldView-2 band with pan-sharpening, standardization, principal components and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture indices transformation, were set as the input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), 34 variables were selected, including seven principal components, 21 GLCM texture indices and six original WorldView-2 bands. Results showed that support vector machine (SVM) had the highest tea crop classification accuracy (OA = 84.70% and KIA = 0.690), followed by random forest (RF), maximum likelihood algorithm (ML), and logistic regression analysis (LR). However, the ML classifier achieved the highest classification accuracy (OA = 96.04% and KIA = 0.887) in object-based image analysis (OBIA) using only six variables. The contribution of this study is to create a new framework for accurately identifying tea crops in a subtropical region with real-time high-resolution WorldView-2 imagery without field survey, which could further aid agriculture land management and a sustainable agricultural product supply. PMID:27128915
Chuang, Yung-Chung Matt; Shiu, Yi-Shiang
Tea is an important but vulnerable economic crop in East Asia, highly impacted by climate change. This study attempts to interpret tea land use/land cover (LULC) using very high resolution WorldView-2 imagery of central Taiwan with both pixel and object-based approaches. A total of 80 variables derived from each WorldView-2 band with pan-sharpening, standardization, principal components and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture indices transformation, were set as the input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), 34 variables were selected, including seven principal components, 21 GLCM texture indices and six original WorldView-2 bands. Results showed that support vector machine (SVM) had the highest tea crop classification accuracy (OA = 84.70% and KIA = 0.690), followed by random forest (RF), maximum likelihood algorithm (ML), and logistic regression analysis (LR). However, the ML classifier achieved the highest classification accuracy (OA = 96.04% and KIA = 0.887) in object-based image analysis (OBIA) using only six variables. The contribution of this study is to create a new framework for accurately identifying tea crops in a subtropical region with real-time high-resolution WorldView-2 imagery without field survey, which could further aid agriculture land management and a sustainable agricultural product supply.
Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa
High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.
Schaum, Alan; Allman, Eric; Stites, Matthew
For every possible mixture of clouds and ocean in WorldView-2 8-band data, we construct an anomaly detector (called a "clairvoyant" because we never know which mixture is appropriate in any given pixel). Then we combine these using a fusion technique. The usual method of deriving an analytic expression describing the envelope of all the clairvoyants' decision boundaries is not possible. Instead, we compute the intersections of infinitesimally close boundaries generated by differential changes in the mixing fraction. When glued together, these 6-dimensional hyperstrings constitute the desired 7-dimensional decision boundary of the fused anomaly detector. However, no closed-form solution exists for the fused result. Therefore, we construct an approximation to the fused detection boundary by first flattening the strings into 6-dimensional hyperplanes and then gluing them together à la 3D printing.
Tramonte, Michael R.
The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine
Purpose: School connectedness is a well-established protective factor for young people's physical, mental, and social health. The purpose of this paper is to explore the promotion of school connectedness through the practice of shared lunches within a secondary school context in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: An ethnographic methodology…
If you knew no one with a mental illness, what would mold your perceptions of someone with a mental illness? A movie character, a television actor, a description from a friend? Each of these explanations has been given to me by nursing students beginning their mental health nursing clinical rotation. Reconsideration of the limited amount of mental health education in nursing school is urgent. As we become more engrossed as a society in television and movies, the result appears to be a deceptive idea of what true mental illness entails. This piece shares personal insight from a mental health nursing educator and the transformation she witnesses in her students after a mental health clinical rotation.
... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
In North America, health care providers are facing an increasingly complex health care system with an increasingly culturally diverse client population. Therefore, it is imperative that care providers are able to work with interpreters who are able to interpret both language and culture. A grounded theory study of nurses' experiences (N = 27) in working with Vietnamese clients provided evidence of the shared brokering concept. Nurses in four major cities in North America were interviewed for approximately 1.5 hours using a semistructured guide. Data were analyzed using dimensional analysis and the constant comparative method. Shared brokering was one concept that emerged within a larger theory of cultural discovery. The shared brokering concept, as described by nurses, provided a framework for providing complex, effective, and efficient care for clients who speak Vietnamese and live within the Vietnamese cultural worldview. Criteria necessary for the development of a shared brokering relationship are described. Further research is needed to develop the conditions and criteria for shared brokering.
... you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, get help right away: Call 911 or your ... immediately. Call your mental health specialist. Call a suicide hotline number — in the U.S., call the National ...
Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C
Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).
McLaren, David; Doubleday, Joshua; Chien, Steve
For the flooding seasons of 2011-2012 multiple space assets were used in a "sensorweb" to track major flooding in Thailand. Worldview-2 multispectral data was used in this effort and provided extremely high spatial resolution (2m / pixel) multispectral (8 bands at 0.45-1.05 micrometer spectra) data from which mostly automated workflows derived surface water extent and volumetric water information for use by a range of NGO and national authorities. We first describe how Worldview-2 and its data was integrated into the overall flood tracking sensorweb. We next describe the use of Support Vector Machine learning techniques that were used to derive surface water extent classifiers. Then we describe the fusion of surface water extent and digital elevation map (DEM) data to derive volumetric water calculations. Finally we discuss key future work such as speeding up the workflows and automating the data registration process (the only portion of the workflow requiring human input).
McLaren, David; Doubleday, Joshua; Chien, Steve
For the flooding seasons of 2011-2012 multiple space assets were used in a "sensorweb" to track major flooding in Thailand. Worldview-2 multispectral data was used in this effort and provided extremely high spatial resolution (2m / pixel) multispectral (8 bands at 0.45-1.05 μ m spectra) data from which mostly automated workflows derived surface water extent and volumetric water information for use by a range of NGO and national authorities. We first describe how Worldview-2 and its data was integrated into the overall flood tracking sensorweb. We next describe the use of Support Vector Machine learning techniques that were used to derive surface water extent classifiers. Then we describe the fusion of surface water extent and digital elevation map (DEM) data to derive volumetric water calculations. Finally we discuss key future work such as speeding up the workflows and automating the data registration process (the only portion of the workflow requiring human input).
Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Jahan Diti, Israt; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil
Saltmarsh is one of the important communities of wetlands. Due to a range of pressures, it has been declared as an EEC (Ecological Endangered Community) in Australia. In order to correctly identify different saltmarsh species, development of distinct spectral characteristics is essential to monitor this EEC. This research was conducted to classify saltmarsh species based on spectral characteristics in the VNIR wavelength of Hyperion Hyperspectral and Worldview 2 multispectral remote sensing data. Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied in Hyperion data to test data quality and to reduce data dimensionality respectively. FLAASH atmospheric correction was done to get surface reflectance data. Based on spectral and spatial information a supervised classification followed by Mapping Accuracy (%) was used to assess the classification result. SNR of Hyperion data was varied according to season and wavelength and it was higher for all land cover in VNIR wavelength. There was a significant difference between radiance and reflectance spectra. It was found that atmospheric correction improves the spectral information. Based on the PCA of 56 VNIR band of Hyperion, it was possible to segregate 16 bands that contain 99.83 % variability. Based on reference 16 bands were compared with 8 bands of Worldview 2 for classification accuracy. Overall Accuracy (OA) % for Worldview 2 was increased from 72 to 79 while for Hyperion, it was increased from 70.47 to 71.66 when bands were added orderly. Considering the significance test with z values and kappa statistics at 95% confidence level, Worldview 2 classification accuracy was higher than Hyperion data.
Kemper, Thomas; Gueguen, Lionel; Soille, Pierre
The enumeration of the population remains a critical task in the management of refugee/IDP camps. Analysis of very high spatial resolution satellite data proofed to be an efficient and secure approach for the estimation of dwellings and the monitoring of the camp over time. In this paper we propose a new methodology for the automated extraction of features based on differential morphological decomposition segmentation for feature extraction and interactive training sample selection from the max-tree and min-tree structures. This feature extraction methodology is tested on a WorldView-2 scene of an IDP camp in Darfur Sudan. Special emphasis is given to the additional available bands of the WorldView-2 sensor. The results obtained show that the interactive image information tool is performing very well by tuning the feature extraction to the local conditions. The analysis of different spectral subsets shows that it is possible to obtain good results already with an RGB combination, but by increasing the number of spectral bands the detection of dwellings becomes more accurate. Best results were obtained using all eight bands of WorldView-2 satellite.
Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.
SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…
Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie
The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion.
Neigh, Christopher S. R.; McCorkel, Joel; Middleton, Elizabeth M.
The land surface imaging (LSI) virtual constellation approach promotes the concept of increasing Earth observations from multiple but disparate satellites. We evaluated this through spectral and spatial domains, by comparing surface reflectance from 30-m Hyperion and 2-m resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) data in the Libya-4 pseudoinvariant calibration site. We convolved and resampled Hyperion to WV-2 bands using both cubic convolution and nearest neighbor (NN) interpolation. Additionally, WV-2 and WV-1 same-date imagery were processed as a cross-track stereo pair to generate a digital terrain model to evaluate the effects from large (>70 m) linear dunes. Agreement was moderate to low on dune peaks between WV-2 and Hyperion (R2 <; 0.4) but higher in areas of lower elevation and slope (R2 > 0.6). Our results provide a satellite sensor intercomparison protocol for an LSI virtual constellation at high spatial resolution, which should start with geolocation of pixels, followed by NN interpolation to avoid tall dunes that enhance surface reflectance differences across this internationally utilized site.
Li, Hui; Jing, Linhai; Tang, Yunwei
Since WorldView-2 (WV-2) images are widely used in various fields, there is a high demand for the use of high-quality pansharpened WV-2 images for different application purposes. With respect to the novelty of the WV-2 multispectral (MS) and panchromatic (PAN) bands, the performances of eight state-of-art pan-sharpening methods for WV-2 imagery including six datasets from three WV-2 scenes were assessed in this study using both quality indices and information indices, along with visual inspection. The normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, and morphological building index, which are widely used in applications related to land cover classification, the extraction of vegetation areas, buildings, and water bodies, were employed in this work to evaluate the performance of different pansharpening methods in terms of information presentation ability. The experimental results show that the Haze- and Ratio-based, adaptive Gram-Schmidt, Generalized Laplacian pyramids (GLP) methods using enhanced spectral distortion minimal model and enhanced context-based decision model methods are good choices for producing fused WV-2 images used for image interpretation and the extraction of urban buildings. The two GLP-based methods are better choices than the other methods, if the fused images will be used for applications related to vegetation and water-bodies. PMID:28067770
Mustafa, Y. T.; Habeeb, H. N.; Stein, A.; Sulaiman, F. Y.
Monitoring and mapping of urban trees are essential to provide urban forestry authorities with timely and consistent information. Modern techniques increasingly facilitate these tasks, but require the development of semi-automatic tree detection and classification methods. In this article, we propose an approach to delineate and map the crown of 15 tree species in the city of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq using WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. A tree crown object is identified first and is subsequently delineated as an image object (IO) using vegetation indices and texture measurements. Next, three classification methods: Maximum Likelihood, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine were used to classify IOs using selected IO features. The best results are obtained with Support Vector Machine classification that gives the best map of urban tree species in Duhok. The overall accuracy was between 60.93% to 88.92% and κ-coefficient was between 0.57 to 0.75. We conclude that fifteen tree species were identified and mapped at a satisfactory accuracy in urban areas of this study.
Aguilar, M. A.; Aguilar, F. J.; García Lorca, A.; Guirado, E.; Betlej, M.; Cichon, P.; Nemmaoui, A.; Vallario, A.; Parente, C.
The latest breed of very high resolution (VHR) commercial satellites opens new possibilities for cartographic and remote sensing applications. In this way, object based image analysis (OBIA) approach has been proved as the best option when working with VHR satellite imagery. OBIA considers spectral, geometric, textural and topological attributes associated with meaningful image objects. Thus, the first step of OBIA, referred to as segmentation, is to delineate objects of interest. Determination of an optimal segmentation is crucial for a good performance of the second stage in OBIA, the classification process. The main goal of this work is to assess the multiresolution segmentation algorithm provided by eCognition software for delineating greenhouses from WorldView- 2 multispectral orthoimages. Specifically, the focus is on finding the optimal parameters of the multiresolution segmentation approach (i.e., Scale, Shape and Compactness) for plastic greenhouses. The optimum Scale parameter estimation was based on the idea of local variance of object heterogeneity within a scene (ESP2 tool). Moreover, different segmentation results were attained by using different combinations of Shape and Compactness values. Assessment of segmentation quality based on the discrepancy between reference polygons and corresponding image segments was carried out to identify the optimal setting of multiresolution segmentation parameters. Three discrepancy indices were used: Potential Segmentation Error (PSE), Number-of-Segments Ratio (NSR) and Euclidean Distance 2 (ED2).
Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.
The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.
Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.
Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…
Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo
Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.
Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal
Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.
Rassool, G Hussein
Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions.
Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.
Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927
Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.
We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.
Brum-Bastos, V. S.; Ribeiro, B. M. G.; Pinho, C. M. D.; Korting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.
Advances in geotechnologies and in remote sensing have improved analysis of urban environments. The new sensors are increasingly suited to urban studies, due to the enhancement in spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. Urban environments present high heterogeneity, which cannot be tackled using pixel-based approaches on high resolution images. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) has been consolidated as a methodology for urban land use and cover monitoring; however, classification of high resolution images is still troublesome. This study aims to assess the improvement on ceramic roof classification using WorldView-2 images due to the increase of 4 new bands besides the standard "Blue-Green-Red-Near Infrared" bands. Our methodology combines GEOBIA, C4.5 classification tree algorithm, Monte Carlo simulation and statistical tests for classification accuracy. Two samples groups were considered: 1) eight multispectral and panchromatic bands, and 2) four multispectral and panchromatic bands, representing previous high-resolution sensors. The C4.5 algorithm generates a decision tree that can be used for classification; smaller decision trees are closer to the semantic networks produced by experts on GEOBIA, while bigger trees, are not straightforward to implement manually, but are more accurate. The choice for a big or small tree relies on the user's skills to implement it. This study aims to determine for what kind of user the addition of the 4 new bands might be beneficial: 1) the common user (smaller trees) or 2) a more skilled user with coding and/or data mining abilities (bigger trees). In overall the classification was improved by the addition of the four new bands for both types of users.
Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.
Rip currents are a worldwide coastal hazard that have claimed 616 lives in Costa Rica since 2001 (~50/yr). Lifeguard staff, warning signs, and flag systems have been shown to reduce deaths at rip-prone beaches but are not a perfect system. At Playa Cocles, a popular beach destination along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica near Puerto Viejo, lifeguards post flags at the mouth of the 3 to 6 rip currents present each morning. In July 2014, these dangerous currents were measured with floating GPS drogues at speeds up to 3.1 m/s. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capability of the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite for identifying rip channels and mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m and less), because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. WV2 was launched in 2009; it has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Using one 25km2 image from 23 December 2009, during the "high season" of tourism, a bathymetric map of Playa Cocles is created and measured for accuracy. Results of the study will assist the Comisión Nacional de Emergencias de Costa Rica and the town of Puerto Viejo by creating a rip current hazard evaluation and prediction system for the rip-prone beach of Playa Cocles. This creation methodology may be repeated for any following dates or other locations in Costa Rica (or anywhere on the globe captured by WV2). Future work will build on this research to determine rip current strength, location, and seasonality from a combination of WV2 satellite information and field data.
Trinder, J. C.; Shamsoddini, A.; Turner, R.
Over last decades, different types of remotely sensed data including lidar, radar and optical data were investigated for forest studies. Undoubtedly, lidar data is one of the promising tools for these purposes; however, the accessibility and cost of this data are the main limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, optical data have been considered for modelling lidar metrics and their use for inferring lidar metrics over areas with no lidar coverage. WorldView-2 (WV-2) data as a high resolution optical data offer 8 bands including four traditional bands, blue, green, red, and infrared, and four new bands including coastal blue, yellow, red edge and a new infrared band whose relationships with lidar metrics were investigated in this study. For this purpose, band reflectance, band ratios, and principal components (PCs) of WV-2 multispectral data along with 23 vegetation indices were extracted. Moreover, the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) indices of bands, band ratios and PCs were also calculated for different window sizes and orientations. Spectral derivatives and textural attributes of WV-2 were provided for a stepwise multiple-linear regression to model 10 lidar metrics including maximum, mean, variance, 10th, 30th, 60th and 90th height percentiles, standard error of mean, kurtosis and skewness for a Pinus radiata plantation, in NSW, Australia. The results indicated that the textural-based models are significantly more efficient than spectral-based models for predicting lidar metrics. Moreover, the integration of spectral derivatives with textural attributes cannot improve the results derived from textural-based models. The study demonstrates that WV-2 data are efficient for predicting lidar metrics.
Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.
Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.
welfare agency boundaries. This would allow the juvenile justice system to play a more focused and limited treatment role. This role would include emergency mental health services for youth in its custody and more substantial mental health care only for the smaller share of youth who cannot be treated safely in the community. www.futureofchildren.org
Tandoc, Fe Andrea M.; Paringit, Enrico C.; Bantayan, Nathaniel C.; Argamosa, Reginald Jay L.; Faelga, Regine Anne G.; Ibañez, Carlyn Ann G.; Posilero, Mark Anthony V.; Zaragosa, Gio P.; Malabanan, Matthew V.
Airborne LiDAR is fast becoming an innovation for forest inventory. It aids in obtaining forest characteristics in areas or cases where actual field inventory would be very tedious. This study aims to estimate diameter at breast height (DBH) using airborne LiDAR point-cloud parameters with Worldview-2 satellite images, and to validate these with actual measurements done in the field. The study site is a field plot with forest inventory at Mt. Makiling, Laguna, Philippines that was surveyed into 20m, 10m and 5m subplots or grids. The estimation of DBH was carried out by extracting the said parameters from the LiDAR point-cloud, and extracting different bands from the Worldview image and performing linear and log-linear regression of these values. The regressions were done in four different cases, namely: LiDAR parameters without intensity (case1), LiDAR parameters without intensity with Worldview bands (case 2), intensity of LiDAR points (case 3), and LiDAR parameters with intensity and Worldview bands (case 4). From these it was found that the best case for estimating DBH is with the use of LiDAR parameters with intensity and Worldview bands in a 10x10 grid, in Log-Linear regression with a root mean squared error of 1.96 cm and an adjusted R2 value of 0.65. This was further improved through stepwise regression, and adjusted R2 value was 0.71.
Wu, M. F.; Sun, Z. C.; Yang, B.; Yu, S. S.
There are lots of challenges for deriving urban land cover types for high resolution optical imagery because of spectral similarity of different objects, mixed pixels, shadows of buildings and large tree crowns. In order to reduce these uncertainties, recently, it’s a trend of the classification of urban land cover from multi-source sensors in the field of urban remote sensing. In this study, a hierarchical support vector machine (SVM) classification method was applied to the urban land cover mapping, using the WorldView-2 imagery and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. The results showed that: (1) The overall accuracy (OA) and overall kappa (OK) were 72.92% and 0.66 for WorldView-2 imagery alone; while the OA and OK were improved up to 89.44% and 0.87 for the synergistic use of the two types of data source. (2) Buildings and road/parking lots extracted from fused data were more precision and well-shaped. The two classes from fused data were optimally classified with higher producer’s accuracy and user’s accuracy than WorldView-2 imagery alone. The trees were also easily separated from the grasslands when the airborne LiDAR data was added. (3) The fused data could reduce the phenomenon of different spectral character of the complex and detailed objects. It was also helpful to address the problem of shadows from the high-rise buildings. The results from this study indicate that the synergistic use of high resolution optical imagery and airborne LiDAR data can be an efficient approach to improving the classification of urban land cover.
Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia
This paper discusses the suggestion of the notion of a worldview as part of the Science of Well-Being. We present, at first, an allegoric comparison as to why the view of a ternary unity of being (i.e. a coherence of the three parts of the being, body, mind, and psyche to maximize well-being) is difficult to grasp. We also discuss that humans do have unique experiences and memories, but that we are also connected to both all living things and to our environment. Finally, we point to a ternary model of personality to increase our understanding of a person's well-being: Temperament, character, and identity.
Doppke, Max George
This non-experimental, quantitative exploratory study examined the relationship between genders, student residency status, acculturation, worldviews, and the motivation towards science education for a group of 291 undergraduate students in the United States. As all demographic variables were nominal, and all survey variables were ordinal, associations and differences utilized non-parametric statistical procedures. The overall design was descriptive, comparative, and correlational. Spearman's rho signified that there was a moderate positive correlation between the total scores on the Worldview Analysis Scale (WAS) and the total scores on the Science Motivation Questionnaire-II (SMQ-II; rs = .393, *p< .01, two-tailed). A Goodman and Kruskal's Gamma was conducted to determine the association between the seven subscales of the Worldview Assessment Survey (WAS) and the five subscales of the Science Motivation Questionnaire -II (SMQ-II). The results showed a moderate to strongly moderate, positive association between WAS Communalism (WASCOM) and the SMQ-II subscales of intrinsic motivation (SMQINTR; G = .322, p<.0005); self-efficacy (SMQSELF; G = .350, p< .0005); career motivation (SMQCAR; G = .307, p< .0005); and self-determination (SMQSELFDET; G = .364, p< .0005). A Mann-Whitney U test was run on the Worldview Analysis Scale (WAS) and the Science Motivation Questionnaire-II (SMQ-II) to determine if differences in score were based on gender. The WAS score was statistically significantly higher in males (Median = 180.00) than in females ( Median = 164.00, U = 8521.500, z = -2.840, p = .005). . The SMQ-II score was statistically insignificantly higher in males (Median = 152.56) than in females (Median = 140.08, U = 9652.500, z = -1.263, p = .207). In following the fundamental dictates of social research, this study offered a thorough description of a situation that ultimately provokes various possible explanations as necessary conclusions to intellectually stimulating
Three short videos exploring some of the different principles in the Mental Capacity Act 2009 are available on Social Care TV, an online channel intended mainly for the social care sector, although the films are relevant to any professionals whose work is affected by the act. The dramas, which are set in a residential home, a person's own home and a residential school for young people with learning difficulties, concern thedecision-making process and can be viewed at www.scie.org.uk/socialcaretv/topic.asp?guid=377dbe1b-de0c-4d66-bb87-22a243542db2.
Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Budakoglu, Murat; Geredeli (Yilmaz), Serpil; Kumral, Mustafa
The objective of the study is performing an estimation of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration for an inland turbid salty lake. The study area is selected as Acigol (Turkey). To retrieve chl-a concentrations, a field study was conducted on July 09th, 2013 to collect water samples at 18 points. Concentrations over the area were between 0.87-8.72 mg/m3. Due to the average chl-a content which was 6.27 mg/m3, the lake is categorized as mezotrophic. As satellite data, a high resolution image acquired by WorldView-2 was used. The data consists of 8 bands that were defined as water bands according to the EM ranges sensitive to water. Radiometric and ATCOR atmospheric corrections were executed as preprocessing. Then, for each sampling point in the image, mean reflectance values in 1*1, 3*3, 5*5, 7*7, 9*9, 11*11, 13*13, 15*15, 17*17, 19*19, 21*21, 51*51 neighborhoods were calculated. As the method, three-band model was applied to the data in all neighborhoods, in order to determine the highest correlations between spectral values and chl-a content. Three-band reflectance model, which was first developed for estimating pigment contents in terrestrial vegetation, could also be evaluated as a method to assess chl-a in turbid productive waters as mentioned in the literature. Three-band model was tested with variable optical properties and it was shown that Λ1 should be around 670 nm, Λ2 around 710 nm, and Λ3 around 750 nm. Although correlations were investigated for all neighborhing windows, results were mainly evaluated for 51*51. Using three-band model for 51*51, Λ1= 546 nm (green), Λ2= 608 nm (red), Λ3= 659 nm (yellow) wavelengths found to give correlation as 0.9494. The results of this study show that a strong linear relationship is found between the chl-a concentration and remotely sensed spectral data, and three-band model is an effective way to detect the correlations between spectra and chlorophyll-a content.
Kovacs, Jenna M.
For many years, remote sensing has been used to generate land cover type maps to create a visual representation of what is occurring on the ground. One significant use of remote sensing is the identification of forest cover types. New England forests are notorious for their especially complex forest structure and as a result have been, and continue to be, a challenge when classifying forest cover types. To most accurately depict forest cover types occurring on the ground, it is essential to utilize image data that have a suitable combination of both spectral and spatial resolution. The WorldView-2 (WV2) commercial satellite, launched in 2009, is the first of its kind, having both high spectral and spatial resolutions. WV2 records eight bands of multispectral imagery, four more than the usual high spatial resolution sensors, and has a pixel size of 1.85 meters at the nadir. These additional bands have the potential to improve classification detail and classification accuracy of forest cover type maps. For this reason, WV2 imagery was utilized on its own, and in combination with Landsat 5 TM (LS5) multispectral imagery, to evaluate whether these image data could more accurately classify forest cover types. In keeping with recent developments in image analysis, an Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach was used to segment images of Pawtuckaway State Park and nearby private lands, an area representative of the typical complex forest structure found in the New England region. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was then used to classify image segments at two levels of classification detail. Accuracies for each forest cover type map produced were generated using traditional and area-based error matrices, and additional standard accuracy measures (i.e., KAPPA) were generated. The results from this study show that there is value in analyzing imagery with both high spectral and spatial resolutions, and that WV2's new and innovative bands can be useful
Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen
Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.
on Shallow Water Remote Sensing : The Case of WorldView 2 N/A NNH09AM26I 73-4223-01-5 ZhongPing Lee, Alan Weidemann, and Robert Arnone Naval Research...Presentation The Combined Effect of Reduced Spectral Bands and Increased Bandwidth on Shallow Water Remote Sensing : The Case of WorldView 2...ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING , VOL. 51, NO. 5, MAY 2013 2577 Combined Effect of Reduced Band Number and Increased Bandwidth on Shallow Water Remote
Vermeulen, Divan; van Niekerk, Adriaan
Conventional methods for monitoring salt accumulation within irrigation schemes involve regular field visits to collect soil samples for laboratory analysis. Remote sensing has been proposed as a less time-consuming, more cost-effective alternative as it provides imagery covering large areas throughout the year. This study evaluated the efficacy of very high resolution (VHR) WorldView-2 imagery to map areas affected by salt accumulation. Classifications based on thresholds obtained from Jeffries-Matusita distance, regression modeling, classification and regression trees, as well as supervised classification approaches, were evaluated for discriminating between salt-affected and unaffected soils in Vaalharts, South Africa. The WorldView-2 bands were supplemented with salinity indices (SIs), principal components, and texture measures to increase the number of predictive variables. In situ soil samples were used for model development, classifier training, and accuracy assessment. The results showed that a simple threshold implemented on a normalized difference SI was the most successful in separating classes, with an overall accuracy of 80%. The findings suggest that VHR satellite imagery holds much potential for monitoring salt accumulation, but more research is needed to investigate why the classification results tend to overestimate salt-affected areas. More work is also needed to evaluate the transferability of the techniques to other irrigation schemes.
Mustafa, Yaseen T.; Habeeb, Hindav N.
Monitoring and analyzing forests and trees are required task to manage and establish a good plan for the forest sustainability. To achieve such a task, information and data collection of the trees are requested. The fastest way and relatively low cost technique is by using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to identify and map 15 tree species in the Mangish sub-district, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Image-objects (IOs) were used as the tree species mapping unit. This is achieved using the shadow index, normalized difference vegetation index and texture measurements. Four classification methods (Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance, Neural Network, and Spectral Angel Mapper) were used to classify IOs using selected IO features derived from WorldView-2 imagery. Results showed that overall accuracy was increased 5-8% using the Neural Network method compared with other methods with a Kappa coefficient of 69%. This technique gives reasonable results of various tree species classifications by means of applying the Neural Network method with IOs techniques on WorldView-2 imagery.
Senzon, Simon A.
Objective The purpose of this commentary is to describe the conflicts in the history of chiropractic’s professionalization and conflict through the path of increasing educational standards and accreditation using the lens of developmental structuralism. Discussion Within the story of chiropractic’s professionalization and accreditation lie the battles between competing worldviews. Gibbons proposed 4 periods of chiropractic’s educational history; this article proposes a fifth period along with a new methodological approach to explore the complexity of chiropractic’s history. The methodology draws upon constructive developmental psychology and proposes 5 levels of thinking common to the individuals from chiropractic’s history. By using a psychological framework to analyze historical events, it appears that the battle within chiropractic education continues at present. Several important issues are explored: the Council on Chiropractic Education's origins in the medical paradigm and rational thinking, the pre-rational, rational, and post-rational critics of the Council on Chiropractic Education, the schools of thought that were reified or emerged from the history, as well as the more recent legal, economic, and social pressures, which helped to shape chiropractic's accreditation and professionalization. Conclusion A transrational approach, one that includes the partial truths of all perspectives, is a first step to allow for a richer understanding of how the interior worldviews, individual actions, and the exterior forces (legal, economic, political, and educational) brought forth the chiropractic clashes together. Viewing the conflicts within chiropractic from this approach may foster new educational structures to evolve. PMID:25431541
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Hyatt, I. Ralph
Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)
Harris, Mary B.
To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…
Turkat, Ira Daniel
Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…
increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition
Lang, Kathryn; Eaton, Bradley
Value analysis teams, which standardize procurement and use of products across hospitals and health systems, have experienced great success in saving money for health care organizations. One example is the work of the Medical/Surgical Value Analysis Team at a larger New York metropolitan multihospital system, which has saved the system $1.2 million. This article examines what managers need to consider before forming such teams and how to guide the work. It will also look at the qualities and qualifications of the people who must be involved to make the process effective.
individuals for distributed teams: Problem solving assessment for distributed mission research. Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 125-140. Fiore, S. M...model development. Computers in Human Behavior , 19, 185-199. Fiore, S. M., Fowlkes, J., Martin-Milham, L., & Oser, R. L. (2000). Convergence
Scheyett, Anna; Kim, Mimi
To facilitate the recovery of people with mental illness (consumers of mental health services), social workers must be strengths-focused and believe in the potential for consumer growth and improvement. Unfortunately, social workers often share the negative, stigmatizing view of mental illness held by much of the general population. In this…
This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.
MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J
Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.
McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve
Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition.
Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen
Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.
Nouri, Hamideh; Beecham, Simon; Anderson, Sharolyn; Nagler, Pamela
Evapotranspiration estimation has benefitted from recent advances in remote sensing and GIS techniques particularly in agricultural applications rather than urban environments. This paper explores the relationship between urban vegetation evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation indices derived from newly-developed high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. The study site was Veale Gardens in Adelaide, Australia. Image processing was applied on five images captured from February 2012 to February 2013 using ERDAS Imagine. From 64 possible two band combinations of WorldView-2, the most reliable one (with the maximum median differences) was selected. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values were derived for each category of landscape cover, namely trees, shrubs, turf grasses, impervious pavements, and water bodies. Urban landscape evapotranspiration rates for Veale Gardens were estimated through field monitoring using observational-based landscape coefficients. The relationships between remotely sensed NDVIs for the entire Veale Gardens and for individual NDVIs of different vegetation covers were compared with field measured urban landscape evapotranspiration rates. The water stress conditions experienced in January 2013 decreased the correlation between ET and NDVI with the highest relationship of ET-Landscape NDVI (Landscape Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for shrubs (r2 = 0.66) and trees (r2 = 0.63). However, when the January data was excluded, there was a significant correlation between ET and NDVI. The highest correlation for ET-Landscape NDVI was found for the entire Veale Gardens regardless of vegetation type (r2 = 0.95, p > 0.05) and the lowest one was for turf (r2 = 0.88, p > 0.05). In support of the feasibility of ET estimation by WV2 over a longer period, an algorithm recently developed that estimates evapotranspiration rates based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS was employed. The results revealed a significant positive
Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.
Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera
Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.
Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)
Núñez, Rafael E; Cornejo, Carlos
The Aymara of the Andes use absolute (cardinal) frames of reference for describing the relative position of ordinary objects. However, rather than encoding them in available absolute lexemes, they do it in lexemes that are intrinsic to the body: nayra ("front") and qhipa ("back"), denoting east and west, respectively. Why? We use different but complementary ethnographic methods to investigate the nature of this encoding: (a) linguistic expressions and speech-gesture co-production, (b) linguistic patterns in the distinct regional Spanish-based variety Castellano Andino (CA), (c) metaphorical extensions of CA's spatial patterns to temporal ones, and (d) layouts of traditional houses. Findings indicate that, following fundamental principles of Aymara cosmology, people, objects, and land--as a whole--are conceived as having an implicit canonical orientation facing east, a primary landmark determined by the sunrise. The above bodily based lexicalizations are thus linguistic manifestations of a broader macro-cultural worldview and its psycho-cognitive reality.
Sener, Erhan; Sener, Sehnaz; Uysal, Rahmi; Bulut, Cafer
Eğirdir Lake is located in the Lake District, it is fourth largest lake and the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey. The lake is still drinking water sources in many residential areas. In this study two Worldview-2 satellite imagery which is high resolution 8-band has been used. The imagery covering the whole lake and belongs to date 10.05.2010 and 24.10.2010. Using Coastal Band (1.Band), Blue (2.Band), Green (3.Band), Yellow (4.Band) and Red (5.Band) on that satellite, seasonal water level in the rainy and dry periods in the selected pilot areas of the Eğirdir Lake has been aimed to determine. In this context, firstly Atmospheric Correction is applied to reduce their atmospheric effects. In order to mask of surface water The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied. Then seasonally varying fields has been identified with change analysis applied to two different image.
Wirth-Petrik, Brittney; Guenther, R Kim
In a study of terror management theory, participants first responded to prompts asking them to imagine their own death or dental pain and later rated the desirability of a generic job described explicitly as extremely stressful. The job description included either an American or foreign company logo. As predicted by terror management theory, the participants shown an American logo ironically desired the stressful job more, having been prompted with reminders of death than with reminders of dental pain. This study is the first to examine terror management theory's prediction of the influence of symbols of cultural worldview on health-related decisions. The authors discuss possible implications of the findings for making unintentionally stress-inducing decisions and for public health campaigns.
Gomes, Marília F.; Maillard, Philippe
With the availability of high-resolution satellite data, much research has been focused on the automatic detection and classi cation of individual tree crowns. Most of these studies were applied to temperate climates of the northern hemisphere, especially for forests of coniferous. Very few studies have been applied to the detection of trees in the tropical regions, least of all in the urban environment. Urban trees play a major role in maintaining or even improving the quality of life in cities by their contribution to the quality of the air, by absorbing rain water, by refreshing the air through transpiration and providing shadow. In this study we explored the potential of high-resolution WorldView-2 satellite data for the identi cation of urban individual tree crowns in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, through an object-oriented approach. Irrelevant areas were masked (e.g. buildings, asphalt, shadows, exposed soil) using a threshold of NDVI. Three di erent approaches were tested to isolate and delineate individual tree crowns: region growing, watershed and template matching. For the rst two approaches several parameters were tested to nd the best result for the isolation of the individual tree crowns. An in-house program has been developed for template matching using a set of seven di erent templates of di erent species. A set of 300 individual tree crowns were visually interpreted in the WorldView-2 image to serve as validation and to compare the performance of the three di erent approaches. Then, the comparison was performed between the visual interpretation and the results of each approach by calculating the di erence between the areas as a ratio of the validated area. Our results show that the region growing approach provided the best results, with an accuracy of over 80%.
Beaulac, Julie; Edwards, Jeanette; Steele, Angus
Aim To investigate the implementation and initial impact of the Physician Integrated Network (PIN) mental health indicators, which are specific to screening and managing follow-up for depression, in three primary care practices with Shared Mental Health Care in Manitoba.
Grant, Emily A; Reinhart, Chrystal; Wituk, Scott; Meissen, Greg
The formal role of Certified Peer Specialist (CPS) is a recent addition to the mental health field. CPSs are people in recovery employed within the mental health system, mostly by community mental health centers, to provide support through sharing life experiences with those working toward recovery from mental illness. This brief report examines participant's experiences being a CPS, responsibilities and activities as a CPS, and integration into community mental health centers. Findings suggest that CPSs demonstrate high levels of communal orientation, job satisfaction, workplace integration and organizational support and are well received in mental health centers.
Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.
Lee, Hanjing; Yap, Yan Lin; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui
Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients. PMID:28194353
Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne
Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.
Montero Ruiz, E
Surgical departments have increasing difficulties in caring for their hospitalised patients due to the patients' advanced age and comorbidity, the growing specialisation in medical training and the strong political-healthcare pressure that a healthcare organisation places on them, where surgical acts take precedence over other activities. The pressure exerted by these departments on the medical area and the deficient response by the interconsultation system have led to the development of a different healthcare organisation model: Shared care, which includes perioperative medicine. In this model, 2 different specialists share the responsibility and authority in caring for hospitalised surgical patients. Internal Medicine is the most appropriate specialty for shared care. Internists who exercise this responsibility should have certain characteristics and must overcome a number of concerns from the surgeon and anaesthesiologist.
Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano
We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.
Shapiro, Samuel; Rotter, Merrill
Although studies have examined portrayals of mental illness in the mass media, little attention has been paid to such portrayals in video games. In this descriptive study, the fifty highest-selling video games in each year from 2011 to 2013 were surveyed through application of search terms to the Wikia search engine, with subsequent review of relevant footage on YouTube. Depiction categories were then assigned based on the extent of portrayal and qualitative characteristics compared against mental illness stereotypes in cinema. Twenty-three of the 96 surveyed games depicted at least one character with mental illness. Forty-two characters were identified as portraying mental illness, with most characters classified under a "homicidal maniac" stereotype, although many characters did not clearly reflect cinema stereotypes and were subcategorized based on the shared traits. Video games contain frequent and varied portrayals of mental illness, with depictions most commonly linking mental illness to dangerous and violent behaviors.
Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao
Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.
Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan
The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…
Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine
This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…
Thomas, M. Donald
Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…
In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…
... communicate openly and build a relationship of trust. Alternative Names Patient-centered care References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The SHARE Approach. Updated September 2016. www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/shareddecisionmaking/index.html . Accessed October 19, ...
Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…
Mitchell, James E.
Site-based management cannot work without the school board's active involvement and determined support. Suggestions are offered from School District 12, Adams County, Colorado, which has been moving away from a centralized administrative system to shared decision-making. (MLF)
In shared decision making (SDM), principals collaborate with teachers and sometimes parents to take actions aimed at improving instruction and school climate. While research on SDM outcomes is still inconclusive, the literature shows that SDM brings both benefits and problems, and that the principal is a key figure. This brief offers a sampling of…
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.
REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…
Stein, Zena; And Others
Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 had no detectable effects on the adult mental performance of surviving male offspring; birth weight was not related to mental performance; and the association of social class with mental performance was strong. (AL)
Smith, Andrew J; Abeyta, Andrew A; Hughes, Michael; Jones, Russell T
This study tested a conceptual model merging anxiety buffer disruption and social-cognitive theories to predict persistent grief severity among students who lost a close friend, significant other, and/or professor/teacher in tragic university campus shootings. A regression-based path model tested posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity 3 to 4 months postshooting (Time 1) as a predictor of grief severity 1 year postshootings (Time 2), both directly and indirectly through cognitive processes (self-efficacy and disrupted worldview). Results revealed a model that predicted 61% of the variance in Time 2 grief severity. Hypotheses were supported, demonstrating that Time 1 PTS severity indirectly, positively predicted Time 2 grief severity through undermining self-efficacy and more severely disrupting worldview. Findings and theoretical interpretation yield important insights for future research and clinical application.
Recently, we showed that the simultaneous execution of rotational hand movements interferes with mental object rotation, provided that the axes of rotation coincide in space. We hypothesized that mental object rotation and the programming of rotational hand movements share a common process presumably involved in action planning. Two experiments are reported here that show that the mere planning of a rotational hand movement is sufficient to cause interference with mental object rotation. Subjects had to plan different spatially directed hand movements that they were asked to execute only after they had solved a mental object rotation task. Experiment 1 showed that mental object rotation was slower if hand movements were planned in a direction opposite to the presumed mental rotation direction, but only if the axes of hand rotation and mental object rotation were parallel in space. Experiment 2 showed that this interference occurred independent of the preparatory hand movements observed in Experiment 1. Thus, it is the planning of hand movements and not their preparation or execution that interferes with mental object rotation. This finding underlines the idea that mental object rotation is an imagined (covert) action, rather than a pure visual-spatial imagery task, and that the interference between mental object rotation and rotational hand movements is an interference between goals of actions.
The paper aims to investigate the capabilities of using high-resolution satellite images: panchromatic WorldView-1 satellite image acquired on 30/11/2011 and multispectral QuickBird-2 satellite image acquired on 31/05/2009 for crop analysis, which includes crop identification, crop condition assessment and crop area estimates applications in Bulgaria using the power and flexibility of ERDAS IMAGINE tools. The crop identification was accomplished using unsupervised and supervised classification processing techniques using as reference ground data. After the supervised classification, fuzzy convolution filter was applied to reduce the mixed pixels using ERDAS Imagine software. Accuracy totals, error matrix and kappa statistics were calculated using accuracy assessment tool in ERDAS Imagine to assess the quality of the classification process. Crop condition assessment was accomplished using the derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image from the QuickBird-2 image, which was reclassified and was given meaningful estimations on the crop condition. Crop area was estimated using pixel counting approach. Pixel counting methods are known for introducing bias to the crop area estimates but using the high Overall Accuracy of 90.86% and overall Kappa Statistics of 0.8538 for the classified QuickBird-2 image and Overall Accuracy of 86.71% and overall Kappa Statistics of 0.7721% for the classified WorldView-1 allows that option to be utilized according to (Gallego, 2004). As a conclusion it can be stated that using the benefits that high-resolution satellite images gives in combination with the power and flexibility of ERDAS Imagine tools, crop identification can be achieved more accurately by increasing the identification accuracy and also by having the necessary ground information for selecting appropriate training samples. Crop identification by applying an arable mask is better practice, because it is reducing the mixed pixels problem i.e. also known as
Langford, Z.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.
The Arctic has emerged as an important focal point for the study of climate change. Arctic vegetation is particularly sensitive to warming conditions and likely to exhibit shifts in species composition, phenology and productivity under changing climate. Modeling of Arctic tundra vegetation requires representation of the heterogeneous tundra landscape, which includes representation of individual plant functional types (PFT). Vegetation exhibits unique spectral characteristics that can be harnessed to discriminate plant types and develop quantitative vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We have combined high resolution multi-spectral remote sensing from the WorldView-2 satellite with LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to characterize the tundra landscape in four 100m X 100m sites within the Barrow Environmental Observatory, a 3021 hectare research reserve located at the northern most location on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Classification of landscape PFT's using spectral and topographic characteristics yields spatial regions with expectedly similar vegetation characteristics. A field campaign was conducted during peak growing season (June - August) to collect vegetation surveys from a number of 1m x 1m plots in the study region, which were then analyzed for distribution of vegetation types in the plots. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic characteristics and vegetation type distributions at the vegetation plots. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale the vegetation distributions for the landscape based on spectral characteristics. We will describe two versions of PFT upscaling from WorldView-2 imagery: 1) a version computed from multiple imagery through the growing season and 2) a version computed from a single image in the middle of the growing season. This approach allowed us to test the degree to which including phenology helps predict PFT distribution
Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.
A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.
Ryan, Rob; Garlick, Robyn; Happell, Brenda
There is currently considerable discussion about the impact of the aging population on the demand for health care services, however there is considerably less attention paid to the impact of mental health issues on the needs of the aged population. Nurses comprise the largest professional group within the mental health workforce in Australia. The availability of a high quality mental health nursing workforce will therefore be crucial to meeting the health needs of aging clients in the future, accompanied by an increased pressure to increase the proportion of care delivered in the community. There is however, a paucity of literature on the role and contribution of community mental health nurses specialising in the aged care field. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of a project designed to examine the role of mental health nursing within aged persons' community mental health teams in Victoria, Australia, with particular emphasis on the biopsychosocial interventions used. Fifteen participants from three community mental health services in Victoria participated in a focus group interview to share their insights and experiences. Data analysis revealed two main themes, the role of the nurse, and the specific functions of the nurse. This data is presented as a beginning contribution to the paucity of literature currently available in this important area.
Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U
Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a new research network from 2015 to 2019 with up to 35 million euros to investigate mental disorders in order to devise and develop better therapeutic measures and strategies for this population by means of basic and translational clinical research. This is the result of a competitive call for research proposals entitled research network for mental diseases. It is a nationwide network of nine consortia with up to ten psychiatric and clinical psychology partner institutions from largely university-based research facilities for adults and/or children and adolescents. Furthermore, three cross-consortia platform projects will seek to identify shared causes of diseases and new diagnostic modalities for anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHS), autism, bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders as well as substance-related and addictive disorders. The spectrum of therapeutic approaches to be examined ranges from innovative pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment to novel brain stimulation procedures. In light of the enormous burden such diseases represent for society as a whole, a sustainable improvement in the financial support for those researching mental disorders seems essential. This network aims to become a nucleus for long overdue and sustained
Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)
An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.
Ruger, Jennifer Prah
Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082
There are more than 70,000 nurse prescribers in the UK, many of whom have years of experience that should be shared with trainee prescribers. In November, the General Pharmaceutical Council launched a consultation on whether pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) should be able to mentor trainee PIPs. This discussion, which closes on 1 February, should be expanded to our own and other professional groups, because we could all gain so much from each other.
Routledge, 2004), 75. 3 Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, Redefining transatlantic security relations: The Challenge of Change...Redefining Transatlantic Security Relations, by Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, it is argued that these differences coupled with...Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction” by U.S. Senators Laurence Silbermann and Charles Robb, “the information sharing problem manifested itself in
Dr. W.D. Reece
The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.
Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica
Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people's emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner' s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia.
Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd
Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.
Since the events of September 11, 2001, the intelligence focus has moved from large order-of-battle targets to small targets of opportunity. Additionally, the business community has discovered the use of remotely sensed data to anticipate demand and derive data on their competition. This requires the finer spectral and spatial fidelity now available to recognize those targets. This work hypothesizes that directed searches using calibrated data perform at least as well as inscene manually intensive target detection searches. It uses calibrated Worldview-2 multispectral images with NEF generated signatures and standard detection algorithms to compare bespoke directed search capabilities against ENVI™ in-scene search capabilities. Multiple execution runs are performed at increasing thresholds to generate detection rates. These rates are plotted and statistically analyzed. While individual head-to-head comparison results vary, 88% of the directed searches performed at least as well as in-scene searches with 50% clearly outperforming in-scene methods. The results strongly support the premise that directed searches perform at least as well as comparable in-scene searches.
Jawak, Shridhar D.; Udhayaraj, A. D.; Alvarinho, Luis J.
A robust monitoring of the changes in the distribution and density of cryospheric plant species requires accurate and high-resolution baseline maps of vegetation. Mapping such change at the landscape scale is often problematic, particularly in remote areas, such as Antarctica. Vegetation mapping of plant communities at fine spatial scales is increasingly supported by remote sensing technology in cryospheric regions. Less frequent imaging with high spatial resolution satellite sensors enable more detailed analyses of vegetation change frequently. This study is the first to use high-resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery to classify vegetation communities on Antarctic oases and to provide semi-automated means to map vegetation, as an imperative indicator for environmental change. Multispectral imagery (MSI) and panchromatic imagery (PAN) from very high resolution WV-2 have been used for mapping of vegetation in different forms in Antarctic environment. A range of supervised classification methods have been executed using pan-sharpened WV-2 data. This study comparatively and statistically evaluates vegetation mapping results using supervised and unsupervised classification methods to extract vegetation in Larsemann Hills and Schirmacher oasis, east Antarctica. We also discuss on the use of supervised pixel-based classifiers and textural measures, in addition to standard multispectral information, to improve the classification of Antarctic vegetation communities. Classification results were validated with independent reference datasets. This work indicates that the overall accuracy of mapping vegetation using WV-2 imagery and semi-automated target extraction methods ranged from 90% to 94%.
Alrassi, Fitzastri; Salim, Emil; Nina, Anastasia; Alwi, Luthfi; Danoedoro, Projo; Kamal, Muhammad
The east coast of Banyuwangi regency has a diverse variety of land use such as ponds, mangroves, agricultural fields and settlements. WorldView-2 is a multispectral image with high spatial resolution that can display detailed information of land use. Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) classification technique uses object segments as the smallest unit of analysis. The segmentation and classification process is not only based on spectral value of the image but also considering other elements of the image interpretation. This gives GEOBIA an opportunities and challenges in the mapping and monitoring of land use. This research aims to assess the GEOBIA classification method for generating the classification of land use in coastal areas of Banyuwangi. The result of this study is land use classification map produced by GEOBIA classification. We verified the accuracy of the resulted land use map by comparing the map with result from visual interpretation of the image that have been validated through field surveys. Variation of land use in most of the east coast of Banyuwangi regency is dominated by mangrove, agricultural fields, mixed farms, settlements and ponds.
Baumstark, René; Duffey, Renee; Pu, Ruiliang
The offshore extent of seagrass habitat along the West Florida (USA) coast represents an important corridor for inshore-offshore migration of economically important fish and shellfish. Surviving at the fringe of light requirements, offshore seagrass beds are sensitive to changes in water clarity. Beyond and intermingled with the offshore seagrass areas are large swaths of colonized hard bottom. These offshore habitats of the West Florida coast have lacked mapping efforts needed for status and trends monitoring. The objective of this study was to propose an object-based classification method for mapping offshore habitats and to compare results to traditional photo-interpreted maps. Benthic maps were created from WorldView-2 satellite imagery using an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) method and a visual photo-interpretation method. A logistic regression analysis identified depth and distance from shore as significant parameters for discriminating spectrally similar seagrass and colonized hard bottom features. Seagrass, colonized hard bottom and unconsolidated sediment (sand) were mapped with 78% overall accuracy using the OBIA method compared to 71% overall accuracy using the photo-interpretation method. This study suggests an alternative for mapping deeper, offshore habitats capable of producing higher thematic and spatial resolution maps compared to those created with the traditional photo-interpretation method.
The significance of Herbert Spencer's evolutionary philosophy has been generally recognized for over a century, as the familiarity of his phrase "survival of the fittest" indicates, yet accounts of the origins of his system still tend to follow too closely his own description, written many decades later. This essay argues that Spencer's own interpretation of his intellectual development gives an inadequate impression of the debt he owed to provincial scientific culture and its institutions. Most important, it shows that his evolutionism was originally stimulated by his association with the Derby philosophical community, for it was through this group--of which his father, who also appears to have espoused a deistic evolutionary theory, was a member--that he was first exposed to progressive Englightenment social and educational philosophies and to the evolutionary worldview of Erasmus Darwin, the first president of the Derby Philosophical Society. Darwin's scheme was the first to incorporate biological evolution, associationist psychology, evolutionary geology, and cosmological developmentalism. Spencer's own implicit denials of the link with Darwin are shown to be implausible in the face of Darwin's continuing influence on the Derby savants, the product of insecurity in his later years when he feared for his reputation as Lamarckism became increasingly untenable.
Odindi, John; Adam, Elhadi; Ngubane, Zinhle; Mutanga, Onisimo; Slotow, Rob
Plant species invasion is known to be a major threat to socioeconomic and ecological systems. Due to high cost and limited extents of urban green spaces, high mapping accuracy is necessary to optimize the management of such spaces. We compare the performance of the new-generation WorldView-2 (WV-2) and SPOT-5 images in mapping the bracken fern [Pteridium aquilinum (L) kuhn] in a conserved urban landscape. Using the random forest algorithm, grid-search approaches based on out-of-bag estimate error were used to determine the optimal ntree and mtry combinations. The variable importance and backward feature elimination techniques were further used to determine the influence of the image bands on mapping accuracy. Additionally, the value of the commonly used vegetation indices in enhancing the classification accuracy was tested on the better performing image data. Results show that the performance of the new WV-2 bands was better than that of the traditional bands. Overall classification accuracies of 84.72 and 72.22% were achieved for the WV-2 and SPOT images, respectively. Use of selected indices from the WV-2 bands increased the overall classification accuracy to 91.67%. The findings in this study show the suitability of the new generation in mapping the bracken fern within the often vulnerable urban natural vegetation cover types.
Xu, Y.; Grunwald, S.; Smith, S. E.; Abd-Elrahman, A.; Clingensmith, C. M.; Wani, S.
Soil nutrient storage is essential and important to maintain food security and soil security in smallholder farm settings. The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in Kothapally, India. We utilized Bayesian kriging (BK) to characterize the spatial pattern of total nitrogen (TN) and exchangeable potassium (Kex) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30m), RapidEye (5m) and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1 images (2m). The band ratio of red to green, red to blue and green to blue, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images generally had high linear correlations with TN and Kex. The BK model of TN based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 attained the highest model fit (R2=0.41) and lowest prediction error (RMSE=171.35 mg kg-1) compared with the BK models of TN based on Landsat 8 (R2=0.30; RMSE=182.26 mg kg-1) and RapidEye (R2=0.28; RMSE=183.52 mg kg-1). The BK model of Kex based on Landsat 8 had the highest model fit (R2=0.55) and the second lowest prediction error (RMSE=79.57 mg kg-1) compared with the BK models of Kex based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 (R2=0.52; RMSE=79.42 mg kg-1) and RapidEye (R2=0.47; RMSE=83.91 mg kg-1). The lowest prediction fit and highest prediction error of soil TN and Kex models based on RapidEye suggest that the effect of fine spatial remote sensing spectral data inputs do not always lead to an increase of model fit. Soil maps based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 have significant advantages in characterizing the variation of soil TN and Kex spatial pattern in smallholder farm settings compared with coarser maps. This research suggests that Digital Soil Mapping utilizing remote sensing spectral data from WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 has high potential to be widely applied in smallholder farm settings and help smallholder farmers manage their soils and attain soil
Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio
Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.
Corballis, Michael C
A central component of mind wandering is mental time travel, the calling to mind of remembered past events and of imagined future ones. Mental time travel may also be critical to the evolution of language, which enables us to communicate about the non-present, sharing memories, plans, and ideas. Mental time travel is indexed in humans by hippocampal activity, and studies also suggest that the hippocampus in rats is active when the animals replay or pre play activity in a spatial environment, such as a maze. Mental time travel may have ancient origins, contrary to the view that it is unique to humans. Since mental time travel is also thought to underlie language, these findings suggest that language evolved gradually from pre-existing cognitive capacities, contrary to the view of Chomsky and others that language and symbolic thought emerged abruptly, in a single step, within the past 100,000 years.
Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.
Smaldone, Arlene; Cullen-Drill, Mary
Although recognition and treatment of mental health disorders have become integrated into routine medical care, inequities remain regarding limits on mental health outpatient visits and higher copayments and deductibles required for mental health services when accessed. Two federal laws were passed by Congress in 2008: The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Both laws became effective on January 1, 2010. The purpose of this article is to discuss provisions of each act and provide clinical examples describing how patients are affected by lack of parity and may potentially benefit from implementation of these new laws. Using available evidence, we examine the potential strengths and limitations of mental health parity legislation from the health policy perspectives of health care access, cost, and quality and identify the important role of nurses as patient and mental health parity advocates.
Chiao, Joan Y; Bordeaux, Andrew R; Ambady, Nalini
How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers that were semantically farther apart relative to those more closely related. In Study 2, we examined the semantic distance effect for a social status category, for which participants have as much knowledge of, as with numbers. We asked 15 US Navy Midshipmen to compare the social status associated with different ranks in the Navy as well as compare number magnitudes. Participants were fastest when comparing ranks far in status relative to ranks close in status. These findings reveal that humans have mental representations of social status that share properties with that of number.
Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253
Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.
HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.
Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra
Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)
Jongeward, Ray; Heesacker, Frank
The focus of this report is on shared services in the rural setting. The kit contains three documents of useful information for any school planning a shared service activity to improve rural education. 13-A identifies 215 shared services in 50 states along with an indexing of each service by subject area and by state. 13-B is a series of 10…
Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere
Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…
Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.
This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…
Connor, Ulla M; Mac Neill, Robert S; Mzumara, Howard R; Sandy, Robert
Nonadherence to prescribed medication and healthy behaviors is a pressing health care issue. Much research has been conducted in this area under a variety of labels, such as compliance, disease management and, most recently, adherence. However, the complex factors related to predicting and, more importantly, understanding and explaining adherence, have nevertheless remained elusive. However, through an in-depth linguistic analysis of patient talk, the International Center for Intercultural Communication (ICIC) at Indiana University has produced a psycholinguistic coding system that uses patients' own language to cluster them into distinct groups based on their worldviews. ICIC's studies have shown, for example, that patients reveal their fundamental perceptions about themselves and their environment in their life narratives; clustering of individual patients based on these different perceptions is possible via the use of differential language in survey questions, and differential language can be used to tailor messages for individual patients in a manner that these individuals prefer over generically worded communication. In grant-funded research, an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the ICIC reviewed the literature and identified three basic psychosocial tenets related to adherence: control orientation, based on locus of control research; agency, based on self-efficacy; and affect or attitude and emotion. These three constructs were selected because, in the published literature, they have been consistently found to be connected to patient adherence. Based on this research, a survey, the CoMac Descriptor™ was developed. This report shows that The Descriptor™ questions and responses are valid and reliable in segmenting patients across psychosocial constructs, which will have positive implications for health care providers and patients.
Khopkar, Parag S.; Jawak, Shridhar D.; Luis, Alvarinho J.
Current research study emphasizes the importance of advanced digital image processing methods in order to delineate between various LULC features. In the case of the Antarctica, the present LC (snow/ice, landmass, water, vegetation etc.) and the present LU (research stations of various nations) needs to be mapped accurately for the hassle free routine activities. Geo-location has become the most important part of geosciences studies. In this paper we have tried to locate three most important features (snow/ice, landmass, and water) and also have extracted the extent of the same using the multisource classification (image fusion/pansharpening) and pattern recognition (supervised/unsupervised methods, index ratio methods). Innovation in developing spectral index ratios has led us to come up with an unique ratio named Normalized Difference Landmass Index (NDLI) which performed better (Avg. Bias: 51.99m) than other ratios such as Normalized Difference Snow/Ice Index (NDSII) (Avg. Bias: -1572.11m) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) (Avg. Bias: 1886.60m). The practiced trial and error methodology quantifies the productivity of not only the classification methods over one other but also that of the fusion methods. In present study, classifiers used (Mahalanobis and Winner Takes All) performed better (Avg. Bias: 122.16 m) than spectral index ratios (Avg. Bias: 620.16 m). The study also revealed that newly introduced bands in WorldView-2, band 1 (Coastal Blue), 4 (Yellow), 6 (Red-edge) and 8 (Near Infrared-2) along with traditional bands have the capacity to mine the polar geospatial information with utmost accuracy and efficiency.
Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Mendiola, Di Ana; Lang, Megan
Natural variability in surface-water extent and associated characteristics presents a challenge to gathering timely, accurate information, particularly in environments that are dominated by small and/or forested wetlands. This study mapped inundation extent across the Upper Choptank River Watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, occurring within both Maryland and Delaware. We integrated six quad-polarized Radarsat-2 images, Worldview-3 imagery, and an enhanced topographic wetness index in a random forest model. Output maps were filtered using light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived depressions to maximize the accuracy of forested inundation extent. Overall accuracy within the integrated and filtered model was 94.3%, with 5.5% and 6.0% errors of omission and commission for inundation, respectively. Accuracy of inundation maps obtained using Radarsat-2 alone were likely detrimentally affected by less than ideal angles of incidence and recent precipitation, but were likely improved by targeting the period between snowmelt and leaf-out for imagery collection. Across the six Radarsat-2 dates, filtering inundation outputs by lidar-derived depressions slightly elevated errors of omission for water (+1.0%), but decreased errors of commission (−7.8%), resulting in an average increase of 5.4% in overall accuracy. Depressions were derived from lidar datasets collected under both dry and average wetness conditions. Although antecedent wetness conditions influenced the abundance and total area mapped as depression, the two versions of the depression datasets showed a similar ability to reduce error in the inundation maps. Accurate mapping of surface water is critical to predicting and monitoring the effect of human-induced change and interannual variability on water quantity and quality.
GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.
The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.
Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.
Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.
Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Susan Douglas Kelley, Ph.D...Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2-0172 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER... mental health clinicians (See Appendix F). In these meetings, military providers shared rich detail on the presentation, history, and background of
Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about
Horvath, Michael; And Others
This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…
Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.
Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…
Argues that mental timelines for learning history are analogous to mental mapping for learning geography: both visually represent abstract concepts. Describes the construction of a classroom timeline and activities for fifth- and sixth-grade students that incorporate the use of timelines. Notes reasonable expectations for student progress at this…
... of benign genes ID’s ASD suspects More Additional Mental Health Information from NIMH Medications Statistics Clinical Trials Coping ... Finder Publicaciones en Español The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of ...
... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Hopfield, John J
Thinking allows an animal to take an effective action in a novel situation based on a mental exploration of possibilities and previous knowledge. We describe a model animal, with a neural system based loosely on the rodent hippocampus, which performs mental exploration to find a useful route in a spatial world it has previously learned. It then mentally recapitulates the chosen route, and this intent is converted to motor acts that move the animal physically along the route. The modeling is based on spiking neurons with spike-frequency adaptation. Adaptation causes the continuing evolution in the pattern of neural activity that is essential to mental exploration. A successful mental exploration is remembered through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The system is also an episodic memory for an animal chiefly concerned with locations.
Thinking allows an animal to take an effective action in a novel situation based on a mental exploration of possibilities and previous knowledge. We describe a model animal, with a neural system based loosely on the rodent hippocampus, which performs mental exploration to find a useful route in a spatial world it has previously learned. It then mentally recapitulates the chosen route, and this intent is converted to motor acts that move the animal physically along the route. The modeling is based on spiking neurons with spike-frequency adaptation. Adaptation causes the continuing evolution in the pattern of neural activity that is essential to mental exploration. A successful mental exploration is remembered through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The system is also an episodic memory for an animal chiefly concerned with locations. PMID:20080534
Balcioglu, Huseyin Avni; Kocaelli, Humeyra
Context: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Case report: A 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scan of a female patient revealed an accessory mental foramen on the right side of her mandible. Conclusion: A 3D-CT scan should be obtained prior to mandibular surgeries so that the presence of accessory mental foramen can be detected, and so that the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or hemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an accessory mental foramen may exist. PMID:22666714
Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.
Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric
Milkman, Katherine L.; Berger, Jonah
Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content. PMID:25225360
Cowan, Katherine C.
Behind every student dealing with a mental health problem is a family trying to grasp what's happening to their child and struggling to do its best. This personal story shares the journey of a family as it confronts a child with Generalized Anxiety and Panic Disorder and describes the many starts and stops and confusion of diagnosing and…
Gary, Lawrence E.; Howard, Cleopatra
Though there are substantial funding resources for supporting mental health research, Black scholars have not received their fair share of the funds in this area. Both affirmative action programs and community pressure are needed to solve this problem and to place increasing numbers of Blacks in policymaking positions. (Author/GC)
Hogan, Anne E.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Fernandes, Sherira; Spieker, Susan; ZeanahTulane, Paula D.
Developing a sustainable, competent workforce is an urgent and challenging task for the Infant Mental Health (IMH) field. In this article, the authors share their experiences and perspectives on the importance of and challenges in the development of the IMH workforce. The broad view of both workforce members and professional development…
Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara
This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.
Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L.; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G.; Keator, David B.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N.
Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576
This paper explains our experience working in a transdisciplinary research team focused on adolescence mental health. It introduces briefly the two key theoretical concepts: participation and transdisciplinarity. In order to be followed with a deep description of the methodology and the creation of the two principal materials resulting from our research: a guide of best practices in adolescent mental health, and a documentary film. Showing in a practical way how the research could be enhanced by the sharing of knowledge.
Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087
Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.
Mohler, Bryan L.
Workplace safety is inextricably tied to the culture – the leadership, management and organization – of the entire company. Nor is a safety lesson fundamentally different from any other business lesson. With these points in mind, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recast its lessons learned program in 2000. The laboratory retained elements of a traditional lessons learned program, such as tracking and trending safety metrics, and added a best practices element to increase staff involvement in creating a safer, healthier work environment. Today, the Lessons Learned/Best Practices program offers the latest business thinking summarized from current external publications and shares better ways PNNL staff have discovered for doing things. According to PNNL strategic planning director Marilyn Quadrel, the goal is to sharpen the business acumen, project management ability and leadership skills of all staff and to capture the benefits of practices that emerge from lessons learned. A key tool in the PNNL effort to accelerate learning from past mistakes is one that can be easily implemented by other firms and tailored to their specific needs. It is the weekly placement of Lessons Learned/Best Practices articles in the lab’s internal electronic newsletter. The program is equally applicable in highly regulated environments, such as the national laboratories, and in enterprises that may have fewer external requirements imposed on their operations. And it is cost effective, using less than the equivalent of one fulltime person to administer.
Lee, Kevin M.; Siedell, C. M.; Prather, E. E.; CATS
Computer simulations are valuable tools for the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. They enable students to link together small pieces of information into mental models of complex physical systems that are far beyond their everyday experience. They can also be used to authentically test a student's conceptual understanding of a physical system by asking the student to make predictions regarding its behavior. Students receive formative feedback by testing their predictions in simulations. Think-Pair-Share - the posing of conceptual questions to students and having them vote on the answer before and after discussion with their peers - can benefit considerably from the incorporation of simulations. Simulations can be used for delivering content that precedes Think-Pair-Share, as the prompt the questions is based upon, or as a feedback tool to illustrate the answer to a question. These techniques are utilized in ClassAction - a collection of materials designed to enhance the metacognitive skills of Astro 101 students by promoting interactive engagement and providing rapid feedback. The main focus is dynamic conceptual questions largely based upon graphics that can be projected in the classroom. Many questions are available in a Flash computer database and instructors have the capability to recast these questions into alternate permutations based on their own preferences and student responses. Outlines, graphics, and simulations are included which instructors can use to provide feedback. This poster provides examples of simulation usage in Think-Pair-Share related to sky motions, lunar phases, and stellar properties. A multi-institutional classroom validation study of ClassAction is currently underway as a Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) research project. All materials are publicly available at http://astro.unl.edu. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant Nos. 0404988 and 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385
Niroumand-Jadidi, M.; Vitti, A.
The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) could be considered as an efficient technique for bathymetry from optical imagery due to its robustness on substrate variability. This point receives more attention for very shallow rivers where different substrate types can contribute remarkably into total at-sensor radiance. The OBRA examines the total possible pairs of spectral bands in order to identify the optimal two-band ratio that its log transformation yields a strong linear relation with field measured water depths. This paper aims at investigating the effectiveness of additional spectral bands of newly launched WorldView-3 (WV-3) imagery in the visible and NIR spectrum through OBRA for retrieving water depths in shallow rivers. In this regard, the OBRA is performed on a WV-3 image as well as a GeoEye image of a small Alpine river in Italy. In-situ depths are gathered in two river reaches using a precise GPS device. In each testing scenario, 50% of the field data is used for calibration of the model and the remained as independent check points for accuracy assessment. In general, the effect of changes in water depth is highly pronounced in longer wavelengths (i.e. NIR) due to high and rapid absorption of light in this spectrum as long as it is not saturated. As the studied river is shallow, NIR portion of the spectrum has not been reduced so much not to reach the riverbed; making use of the observed radiance over this spectral range as denominator has shown a strong correlation through OBRA. More specifically, tightly focused channels of red-edge, NIR-1 and NIR-2 provide a wealth of choices for OBRA rather than a single NIR band of conventional 4-band images (e.g. GeoEye). This advantage of WV-3 images is outstanding as well for choosing the optimal numerator of the ratio model. Coastal-blue and yellow bands of WV-3 are identified as proper numerators while only green band of the GeoEye image contributed to a reliable correlation of image derived values and field
Robinson, T. P.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Pracilio, G.; Brown, C.; Corner, R.; van Klinken, R. D.
Invasive plants pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function globally, leading to costly monitoring and management effort. While remote sensing promises cost-effective, robust and repeatable monitoring tools to support intervention, it has been largely restricted to airborne platforms that have higher spatial and spectral resolutions, but which lack the coverage and versatility of satellite-based platforms. This study tests the ability of the WorldView-2 (WV2) eight-band satellite sensor for detecting the invasive shrub mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the north-west Pilbara region of Australia. Detectability was challenged by the target taxa being largely defoliated by a leaf-tying biological control agent (Gelechiidae: Evippe sp. #1) and the presence of other shrubs and trees. Variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores identified bands offering greatest capacity for discrimination were those covering the near-infrared, red, and red-edge wavelengths. Wavelengths between 400 nm and 630 nm (coastal blue, blue, green, yellow) were not useful for species level discrimination in this case. Classification accuracy was tested on three band sets (simulated standard multispectral, all bands, and bands with VIP scores ≥1). Overall accuracies were comparable amongst all band-sets (Kappa = 0.71-0.77). However, mesquite omission rates were unacceptably high (21.3%) when using all eight bands relative to the simulated standard multispectral band-set (9.5%) and the band-set informed by VIP scores (11.9%). An incremental cover evaluation on the latter identified most omissions to be for objects <16 m2. Mesquite omissions reduced to 2.6% and overall accuracy significantly improved (Kappa = 0.88) when these objects were left out of the confusion matrix calculations. Very high mapping accuracy of objects >16 m2 allows application for mapping mesquite shrubs and coalesced stands, the former not previously possible, even with 3 m resolution hyperspectral
González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto
The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.
Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi
Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089
Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted.
Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.
This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…
The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…
Harada, Ken; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Sugihara, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Shimmei, Masaya
This study examined the additive effects of social support and negative interactions in various relationship domains and the cross-domain buffering effects of social support on the detrimental impact of negative interactions on mental health among older adults in Japan. Data were obtained from a survey of residents of 30 municipalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area ( N = 1,592). The results indicated that family members living together may share ambivalent social ties, anchored in positive sentiments and serving as sources of support but where criticism and excessive demands may occur. We found that negative interactions had a more potent additive effect on mental health. Moreover, the interaction effects of negative interactions with family and social support from other relatives suggested reverse buffering. Our findings suggest that interventions might be more necessary to cope with the negative social exchanges of close kin relationships among the elderly Japanese.
Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene
Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (≥100 m2) trees compared to small (<35 m2) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815
Gustafson, M B
This article described certain aspects of Haitian life, voodoo and its role in Haitian society, the quality and quantity of psychiatric and mental health care for Haitians in Haiti, and suggestions for providing appropriate mental health care to Haitian refugees in the United States. Conway and Buchanan (1985) described what has helped Haitian refugees adapt in the transition to life in the United States: the strengths from their cultural heritage, such as fortitude; perseverance in the most arduous circumstances; deep religious faith; high self-respect; reliance on the extended family; and the tradition of sharing. Building on these assets may assist Western mental health-care providers in offering culturally sensitive mental health care to Haitians.
Goldner, Elliot M.; Jeffries, Victoria; Bilsker, Dan; Jenkins, Emily; Menear, Matthew; Petermann, Lisa
Intensified knowledge translation (KT) efforts are considered important in the field of mental health in order to accelerate the implementation of various developments in research, policy and practice. A scoping review of KT focused on the field of mental health was undertaken to help inform development of a Knowledge Exchange Centre being initiated by the Mental Health Commission of Canada. A systematic search of publications in English and French identified 187 publications that met inclusion criteria. Relevant literature was found across a number of disparate thematic research areas: implementation science, community-based and participatory action research, shared decision-making studies, mental health literacy research, network analysis and studies directly addressing KT. The available literature is concerned predominantly with KT efforts between a few specific stakeholder dyads. A paradigm shift has been emerging and has resulted in a progressively broader perspective, incorporating a wider range of participants and increased valuing of experiential knowledge. PMID:23115572
Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.
We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008
Schmidt, Anton J M
In this study the relevance of the concept of mental kinesiophobia (respectively cogniphobia or fear of mental exertion) for clients with chronic stress problems was explored. It was hypothesized that cognitive, chronic stress complaints, such as concentration problems or decreased problem solving abilities, could be catastrophized as signs of heightened personal vulnerability, with a chance of becoming permanent. As a consequence, mental exertion is avoided. This line of reasoning comes from the existing concept of kinesiophobia. This concept describes the avoidance behavior in chronic benign pain patients and refers to their fear of inflicting irreversible bodily damage due to physical exertion.An illustrative case of cogniphobia is presented. In an explorative pilot-study it was demonstrated that chronically stressed clients scored significantly higher on an experimental questionnaire measuring avoidance tendencies for mental exertion, compared with actively working employees. Consequences for treatment and suggestions for further study are discussed.
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Cournos, Francine; And Others
Discusses the role of mental health and social services personnel in helping patients apply for recertification for Supplementary Security Income (SSI) benefits. Describes the appeal process and provides guidelines for professionals. (JAC)
Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.
Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Paxion, Julie; Galy, Edith; Berthelon, Catherine
The aim of this review is to identify the most representative measures of subjective and objective mental workload in driving, and to understand how the subjective and objective levels of mental workload influence the performance as a function of situation complexity and driving experience, i.e., to verify whether the increase of situation complexity and the lack of experience increase the subjective and physiological levels of mental workload and lead to driving performance impairments. This review will be useful to both researchers designing an experimental study of mental workload and to designers of drivers’ training content. In the first part, we will broach the theoretical approach with two factors of mental workload and performance, i.e., situation complexity and driving experience. Indeed, a low complex situation (e.g., highways), or conversely a high complex situation (e.g., town) can provoke an overload. Additionally, performing the driving tasks implies producing a high effort for novice drivers who have not totally automated the driving activity. In the second part, we will focus on subjective measures of mental workload. A comparison of questionnaires usually used in driving will allow identifying the most appropriate ones as a function of different criteria. Moreover, we will review the empirical studies to verify if the subjective level of mental workload is high in simple and very complex situations, especially for novice drivers compared to the experienced ones. In the third part, we will focus on physiological measures. A comparison of physiological indicators will be realized in order to identify the most correlated to mental workload. An empirical review will also take the effect of situation complexity and experience on these physiological indicators into consideration. Finally, a more nuanced comparison between subjective and physiological measures will be established from the impact on situation complexity and experience. PMID:25520678
Haynes, Charles C.
Escalating conflicts over issues involving sexual orientation in public schools often pit conservative Christians against proponents of gay rights--with school leaders caught in the crossfire. Some beleaguered school administrators attempt to put a lid on the controversy by censoring student expression on one side or the other. But that tactic…
Is there a place for Indigenous Knowledge in the science curriculum for a Zulu community in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa? This article argues "yes," based on a participative research and development project that discovered relevant science learning in a Zulu community. Among community concerns for relevant factual and performative…
Marzano, Robert J.
A Roman Catholic educator ponders his failure to defend a thinking-skills program to angry parents convinced that such "New Age" philosophies would corrupt their children. Many Christian Fundamentalist authors are ultrafundamentalists attempting to assert their world view as dominant. Hated New Age practices include acupressure, YMCA…
Background In the context of the high prevalence and impact of mental disorders worldwide, and less than optimal utilisation of services and adequacy of care, strengthening primary mental healthcare should be a leading priority. This article assesses the state of collaboration among general practitioners (GPs), psychiatrists and psychosocial mental healthcare professionals, factors that enable and hinder shared care, and GPs’ perceptions of best practices in the management of mental disorders. A collaboration model is also developed. Methods The study employs a mixed-method approach, with emphasis on qualitative investigation. Drawing from a previous survey representative of the Quebec GP population, 60 GPs were selected for further investigation. Results Globally, GPs managed mental healthcare patients in solo practice in parallel or sequential follow-up with mental healthcare professionals. GPs cited psychologists and psychiatrists as their main partners. Numerous hindering factors associated with shared care were found: lack of resources (either professionals or services); long waiting times; lack of training, time and incentives for collaboration; and inappropriate GP payment modes. The ideal practice model includes GPs working in multidisciplinary group practice in their own settings. GPs recommended expanding psychosocial services and shared care to increase overall access and quality of care for these patients. Conclusion As increasing attention is devoted worldwide to the development of optimal integrated primary care, this article contributes to the discussion on mental healthcare service planning. A culture of collaboration has to be encouraged as comprehensive services and continuity of care are key recovery factors of patients with mental disorders. PMID:23730332
Hall, Calvin W.
Divided into four major sections, this collection of articles addresses the sharing of services in California by school districts or by districts and other agencies. The section on advertising and recruitment makes a case for districts to share in the purchase of employment ads or in the hiring of a recruiter. A reprint of an article about a…
Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…
Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.
A 1977 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey indicated that nearly all respondents viewed enhanced access to needed information and service capabilities as the primary benefit of resource sharing. Most responding libraries participated in more than one type of resource sharing activity, ranging from informal understandings among a few…
Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…
Meyer, Frank; Hines, Edward; Lupo, Anita; Ley, Connie
Presents a study analyzing voluntary resource sharing practices in a state population of 49 community colleges. Asserts that while resource sharing has been used primarily to solve short-term needs, it should be integrated in strategic and long-term fiscal planning. (JDI)
The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.
Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years.
Bergin, Michael; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara
This paper explores gender and mental health with particular reference to the emerging philosophical field of critical realism. This philosophy suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. Until recently, most of the debate surrounding gender and mental health has been guided either implicitly or explicitly within a positivist or constructivist philosophy. With this in mind, key areas of critical realism are explored in relation to gender and mental health, and contrasted with the positions of positivism and constructivism. It is argued that critical realism offers an alternative philosophical framework for the exploration of gender issues within mental health care.
Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are
Pfeiffer, R A; Kapferer, L; Tietze, H U
We report on two unrelated mentally retarded girls aged 14 and 24 years with short stature and strikingly similar craniofacial dysmorphisms. Whether they share the same entity or different unknown syndromes remains an open question.
Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young
Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334
Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young
Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.
Woods, N F
Women are entering the labor force at unprecedented rates, many combining employment with their roles as wives and mothers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the complement of women's roles was associated with negative mental health effects. It was hypothesized that multiple roles would have negative effects on mental health only in the presence of a social context that itself was associated with symptoms of mental ill health. The contextual variables included influence of sex role norms, task-sharing support from the spouse, and support from a confidant. A sample of 140 married women randomly selected from registrants at a family health clinic were interviewed about their roles and mental health. The complement of the women's roles was not associated with mental ill health, nor was there a clear relationship between employment or parenting on mental health. Each of the contextual variables had a moderate influence on symptoms of mental ill health. Women who had traditional sex role norms, little task-sharing support from a spouse, and little support from a confidant had poorer mental health than their counterparts. Thus, in this sample, the context for role performance had a stronger influence on mental health than did the actual roles women performed. In addition, the importance of the social contextual variables was contingent on the woman's complement of roles. For women who were both spouse and parent, confiding support was most important.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A
The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor); Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Inventor)
A shared system is disclosed for robot control including integration of the human and autonomous input modalities for an improved control. Autonomously planned motion trajectories are modified by a teleoperator to track unmodelled target motions, while nominal teleoperator motions are modified through compliance to accommodate geometric errors autonomously in the latter. A hierarchical shared system intelligently shares control over a remote robot between the autonomous and teleoperative portions of an overall control system. Architecture is hierarchical, and consists of two levels. The top level represents the task level, while the bottom, the execution level. In space applications, the performance of pure teleoperation systems depend significantly on the communication time delays between the local and the remote sites. Selection/mixing matrices are provided with entries which reflect how each input's signals modality is weighted. The shared control minimizes the detrimental effects caused by these time delays between earth and space.
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž
More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.
Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.
Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251
Parkar, Shubhangi R.
This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727
Wallace, Beverly B
A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions
Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.
Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.
Puberty is characterized by a complexity of different developmental tasks. During this period of sometimes dramatic changes, the adolescent must find a new balance between personal experiences and the demands made by the environment. In this period of development, some 18% of all adolescents experience a mental crisis, and 5% need specialist treatment. Such mental disorders in puberty as anorexia nervosa, depression or suicidality can be classified on the basis of their development and course. They must be taken seriously and treated as early as possible.
Toward Organizational Change.” Journal of Managerial Psychology , Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004. 93 10. GLOSSARY 15 Knowledge Management Glossary...from one another. Conceptual Knowledge: Abstract mental models of the world. Concepts, Perspectives, and Gestalts are meta-models for complex
Blaes, X.; Lambert, M.-J.; Chome, G.; Traore, P. S.; de By, R. A.; Defourny, P.
Efficient yield mapping in Sudano-Sahelian Africa, characterized by a very heterogeneous landscape, is crucial to help ensure food security and decrease smallholder farmers' vulnerability. Thanks to an unprecedented in-situ data and HR and VHR remote sensing time series collected in the Koutiala district (in south-eastern Mali), the yield and some key factors of yield estimation were estimated. A crop-specific biomass map was derived with a mean absolute error of 20% using metric WorldView and 25% using decametric SPOT-5 TAKE5 image time series. The very high intra- and inter-field heterogeneity was captured efficiently. The presence of trees in the fields led to a general overestimation of yields, while the mixed pixels at the field borders introduced noise in the biomass predictions.
Kattenborn, Teja; Maack, Joachim; Faßnacht, Fabian; Enßle, Fabian; Ermert, Jörg; Koch, Barbara
Spaceborne sensors allow for wide-scale assessments of forest ecosystems. Combining the products of multiple sensors is hypothesized to improve the estimation of forest biomass. We applied interferometric (Tandem-X) and photogrammetric (WorldView-2) based predictors, e.g. canopy height models, in combination with hyperspectral predictors (EO1-Hyperion) by using 4 different machine learning algorithms for biomass estimation in temperate forest stands near Karlsruhe, Germany. An iterative model selection procedure was used to identify the optimal combination of predictors. The most accurate model (Random Forest) reached a r2 of 0.73 with a RMSE of 14.9% (29.4 t/ha). Further results revealed that the predictive accuracy depended highly on the statistical model and the area size of the field samples. We conclude that a fusion of canopy height and spectral information allows for accurate estimations of forest biomass from space.
The purpose of this paper was to explore the types of sensitive health information posted by individuals through social network media sites such as Facebook. The researcher found several instances in which individuals, who could be identified by their user profiles, posted personal and sensitive health information related to mental and genetic disorders and sexually transmitted diseases. The data suggest that Facebook users should be made aware of the potential harm that may occur when sharing sensitive health information publicly through Facebook. Ethical considerations in undertaking such research are also examined.
... property. Shared equity will be the lesser of the interest assistance granted or the amount of value appreciation available for shared equity. Value appreciation available for shared equity means the market value... amount of shared equity. The RHS approval official will calculate shared equity when a borrower's...
Cho, Moses Azong; Malahlela, Oupa; Ramoelo, Abel
Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches < 1 km2). The utilization of timber and non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5-2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders' workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.
Fujiki, Shogoro; Okada, Kei-ichi; Nishio, Shogo; Kitayama, Kanehiro
We developed a new method to estimate stand ages of secondary vegetation in the Bornean montane zone, where local people conduct traditional shifting cultivation and protected areas are surrounded by patches of recovering secondary vegetation of various ages. Identifying stand ages at the landscape level is critical to improve conservation policies. We combined a high-resolution satellite image (WorldView-2) with time-series Landsat images. We extracted stand ages (the time elapsed since the most recent slash and burn) from a change-detection analysis with Landsat time-series images and superimposed the derived stand ages on the segments classified by object-based image analysis using WorldView-2. We regarded stand ages as a response variable, and object-based metrics as independent variables, to develop regression models that explain stand ages. Subsequently, we classified the vegetation of the target area into six age units and one rubber plantation unit (1-3 yr, 3-5 yr, 5-7 yr, 7-30 yr, 30-50 yr, >50 yr and 'rubber plantation') using regression models and linear discriminant analyses. Validation demonstrated an accuracy of 84.3%. Our approach is particularly effective in classifying highly dynamic pioneer vegetation younger than 7 years into 2-yr intervals, suggesting that rapid changes in vegetation canopies can be detected with high accuracy. The combination of a spectral time-series analysis and object-based metrics based on high-resolution imagery enabled the classification of dynamic vegetation under intensive shifting cultivation and yielded an informative land cover map based on stand ages.
Fritz, Andreas; Enßle, Fabian; Zhang, Xiaoli; Koch, Barbara
The present study analyses the two earth observation sensors regarding their capability of modelling forest above ground biomass and forest density. Our research is carried out at two different demonstration sites. The first is located in south-western Germany (region Karlsruhe) and the second is located in southern China in Jiangle County (Province Fujian). A set of spectral and spatial predictors are computed from both, Sentinel-2A and WorldView-2 data. Window sizes in the range of 3*3 pixels to 21*21 pixels are computed in order to cover the full range of the canopy sizes of mature forest stands. Textural predictors of first and second order (grey-level-co-occurrence matrix) are calculated and are further used within a feature selection procedure. Additionally common spectral predictors from WorldView-2 and Sentinel-2A data such as all relevant spectral bands and NDVI are integrated in the analyses. To examine the most important predictors, a predictor selection algorithm is applied to the data, whereas the entire predictor set of more than 1000 predictors is used to find most important ones. Out of the original set only the most important predictors are then further analysed. Predictor selection is done with the Boruta package in R (Kursa and Rudnicki (2010)), whereas regression is computed with random forest. Prior the classification and regression a tuning of parameters is done by a repetitive model selection (100 runs), based on the .632 bootstrapping. Both are implemented in the caret R pack- age (Kuhn et al. (2016)). To account for the variability in the data set 100 independent runs are performed. Within each run 80 percent of the data is used for training and the 20 percent are used for an independent validation. With the subset of original predictors mapping of above ground biomass is performed.
Wu, M. F.; Sun, Z. C.; Yang, B.; Yu, S. S.
In order to reduce the “salt and pepper” in pixel-based urban land cover classification and expand the application of fusion of multi-source data in the field of urban remote sensing, WorldView-2 imagery and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were used to improve the classification of urban land cover. An approach of object- oriented hierarchical classification was proposed in our study. The processing of proposed method consisted of two hierarchies. (1) In the first hierarchy, LiDAR Normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM) image was segmented to objects. The NDVI, Costal Blue and nDSM thresholds were set for extracting building objects. (2) In the second hierarchy, after removing building objects, WorldView-2 fused imagery was obtained by Haze-ratio-based (HR) fusion, and was segmented. A SVM classifier was applied to generate road/parking lot, vegetation and bare soil objects. (3) Trees and grasslands were split based on an nDSM threshold (2.4 meter). The results showed that compared with pixel-based and non-hierarchical object-oriented approach, proposed method provided a better performance of urban land cover classification, the overall accuracy (OA) and overall kappa (OK) improved up to 92.75% and 0.90. Furthermore, proposed method reduced “salt and pepper” in pixel-based classification, improved the extraction accuracy of buildings based on LiDAR nDSM image segmentation, and reduced the confusion between trees and grasslands through setting nDSM threshold.
Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon
This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Brown, Michael A.
The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.
Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter
The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD. PMID:26157198
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea
Three observers performed a task designed to quantify their “pictorial relief” in visual awareness for a photograph of a piece of sculpture. In separate sessions, they were instructed to assume one of two “mental viewpoints.” The main objective was to investigate whether human observers have such command. All three observers could redirect their “mental view direction” by up to 20°. These observers experience “paradoxical monocular” stereopsis, whereas a sizable fraction of the population does not. Moreover, they had some experience in assuming various “viewing modes.” Whereas one cannot generalize to the population at large, these findings at least prove that it is possible to direct the mental viewpoint actively. This is of importance to the visual arts. For instance, academic drawings require one to be simultaneously aware of a “viewing” (for the drawing) and an “illumination direction” (for the shading). Being able to mentally deploy various vantage points is a crucial step from the “visual field” to the “visual space.” PMID:27648221
Stewart, Larry G., Ed.
Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
The author argues that children's books are not, as commonly held, either didactic or entertaining and that successful juvenile literature teaches what Lewis Carroll, who wrote "Alice in Wonderland," termed "mental recreation." Pendlebury contends that learning and play, far from being opposites, can closely resemble one…
Crnic, Linda S.
Studies on the effects of malnutrition on mental development are reviewed and the complexity of factors (such as alternatives in maternal behavior) surrounding malnutrition in animal studies is noted. Findings are cited which suggest that environmental stimulation may in part reverse the neurological effects and remediate some behavioral effects…
Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…
Valdez, Pablo; Reilly, Thomas; Waterhouse, Jim
Cognitive performance is affected by an individual's characteristics and the environment, as well as by the nature of the task and the amount of practice at it. Mental performance tests range in complexity and include subjective estimates of mood, simple objective tests (reaction time), and measures of complex performance that require decisions to…
Kenney, Brigitte L.
Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…
Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.
A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
Broekgaarden, R.; And Others
The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…
Segal, Julius, Ed.
The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…
Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen
Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…
Vail, David J.
The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…
Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mental health are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Touburg, Giorgio; Veenhoven, Ruut
Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.
Suddendorf, Thomas; Addis, Donna Rose; Corballis, Michael C
Episodic memory, enabling conscious recollection of past episodes, can be distinguished from semantic memory, which stores enduring facts about the world. Episodic memory shares a core neural network with the simulation of future episodes, enabling mental time travel into both the past and the future. The notion that there might be something distinctly human about mental time travel has provoked ingenious attempts to demonstrate episodic memory or future simulation in non-human animals, but we argue that they have not yet established a capacity comparable to the human faculty. The evolution of the capacity to simulate possible future events, based on episodic memory, enhanced fitness by enabling action in preparation of different possible scenarios that increased present or future survival and reproduction chances. Human language may have evolved in the first instance for the sharing of past and planned future events, and, indeed, fictional ones, further enhancing fitness in social settings.
Suddendorf, Thomas; Addis, Donna Rose; Corballis, Michael C.
Episodic memory, enabling conscious recollection of past episodes, can be distinguished from semantic memory, which stores enduring facts about the world. Episodic memory shares a core neural network with the simulation of future episodes, enabling mental time travel into both the past and the future. The notion that there might be something distinctly human about mental time travel has provoked ingenious attempts to demonstrate episodic memory or future simulation in non-human animals, but we argue that they have not yet established a capacity comparable to the human faculty. The evolution of the capacity to simulate possible future events, based on episodic memory, enhanced fitness by enabling action in preparation of different possible scenarios that increased present or future survival and reproduction chances. Human language may have evolved in the first instance for the sharing of past and planned future events, and, indeed, fictional ones, further enhancing fitness in social settings. PMID:19528013
Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias
The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention.
Jordan, Harry F.
The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.
... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...
... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...
... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...
Vorkapic, Camila Ferreira
Background: Many yoga texts make reference to the importance of mental health and the use of specific techniques in the treatment of mental disorders. Different concepts utilized in modern psychology may not come with contemporary ideas, instead, they seem to share a common root with ancient wisdom. Aims: The goal of this perspective article is to correlate modern techniques used in psychology and psychiatry with yogic practices, in the treatment of mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The current article presented a dialogue between the yogic approach for the treatment of mental disorder and concepts used in modern psychology, such as meta-cognition, disidentification, deconditioning and interoceptive exposure. Conclusions: Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West. PMID:26865774
Hanson, Lynne; Fitzpatrick, Renee; Abo-El Ella, Shaimaa
The use of an inter-disciplinary teaching strategy in the context of mental health law is explored here as a means of balancing concerns for the patient's best interests and maximizing their autonomy. One law professor and one psychiatrist participated in joint teaching sessions in the Queen's University School of Medicine, and share their strategies for overcoming perceived conflicts between patient's legal rights and the practice of psychiatry.
Empathy is a multidimensional process that incorporates both mentalizing and emotional sharing dimensions. Empathic competencies are important for creating interpersonal relationships with other people and developing adequate social behaviour. The lack of these social components also leads to isolation and exclusion in healthy populations. However, few studies have investigated how to improve these social skills. In a recent study, Kidd and Castano (2013) found that reading literary fiction increases mentalizing ability and may change how people think about other people’s emotions and mental states. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of reading literary fiction, compared to nonfiction and science fiction, on empathic abilities. Compared to previous studies, we used a larger variety of empathy measures and utilized a pre and post-test design. In all, 214 healthy participants were randomly assigned to read a book representative of one of three literary genres (literary fiction, nonfiction, science fiction). Participants were assessed before and after the reading phase using mentalizing and emotional sharing tests, according to Zaki and Ochsner’ s (2012) model. Comparisons of sociodemographic, mentalizing, and emotional sharing variables across conditions were conducted using ANOVA. Our results showed that after the reading phase, the literary fiction group showed improvement in mentalizing abilities, but there was no discernible effect on emotional sharing abilities. Our study showed that the reading processes can promote mentalizing abilities. These results may set important goals for future low-cost rehabilitation protocols for several disorders in which the mentalizing deficit is considered central to the disease, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia. PMID:27490164
Foyle, M F; Beer, M D; Watson, J P
This paper reviews the historical aspects of expatriate mental health, and comments on the paucity of literature in the medical and psychiatric journals. Data obtained from 397 expatriate probands examined during overseas service are described. It was noted that there was a high incidence of affective and adjustment disorders. The results showed six areas significantly related to those with affective disorders at interview, namely a history of consultation for psychological problems in out-patient departments or with the patient's own doctor, a history of depressed mood, and a family history of suicide, psychosis or personality disorder. Subjects with adjustment disorders at interview showed a significant positive correlation with four stressors (occupational anxiety, home country anxieties, acculturation and physical ill-health), but showed a negative association with a past personal history of consultation for psychological problems at out-patient departments or with their own doctors. These findings are discussed and practical applications suggested for improving expatriate mental health.
In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183
Keeling, Patrick J
A nested set of bacterial endosymbionts within mealybug cells collectively provides amino acids to their host, but their genomes show that some pathways are distributed between both endosymbionts, while other essential proteins are missing altogether. The possibility that additional functions are shared between partners warrants comparisons with organelles.
share many of the goals and requirements for IRIS: Java-based, ontology-driven, user centric. We negotiated, and CEO Nova Spivack agreed to join the...Department of Interior-National Business Center (DOI-NBC). We would like to thank Nova Spivack and Jim Wissner at Radar Networks for their
Discusses using students' graded papers as a "text" to be read and commented upon by other students. Notes that sharing students' papers (and the teacher's comments) (1) reassures the students that they are not the only ones making errors; (2) deepens their understanding of literature; and (3) increases their awareness of writing styles and…
Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Savas, Erkay; Levi, Albert
In biometric based authentication, biometric traits of a person are matched against his/her stored biometric profile and access is granted if there is sufficient match. However, there are other access scenarios, which require participation of multiple previously registered users for a successful authentication or to get an access grant for a certain entity. For instance, there are cryptographic constructs generally known as secret sharing schemes, where a secret is split into shares and distributed amongst participants in such a way that it is reconstructed/revealed only when the necessary number of share holders come together. The revealed secret can then be used for encryption or authentication (if the revealed key is verified against the previously registered value). In this work we propose a method for the biometric based secret sharing. Instead of splitting a secret amongst participants, as is done in cryptography, a single biometric construct is created using the biometric traits of the participants. During authentication, a valid cryptographic key is released out of the construct when the required number of genuine participants present their biometric traits.
Discussion of information needs in a business environment focuses on how to build a shared information network. Highlights include the evolution of corporate intelligence systems; results of a survey that examined the information networking needs of large corporations; and a case study of the development of an information network at Citibank N.A.…
machines and continued to collect shoppers ’ information for three more days.39 On December 27, Target also acknowledged, contrary to early reports...cyber criminals it is difficult, costly and ineffective to fight online attacks alone. Having the ability to connect and share information about
Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.
Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.
Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Moore, Frank I
Objective The purpose of this paper is to present differences in mental models of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) among 15 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities throughout the United States. Data Sources Two hundred and forty-four employees from 15 different VHA facilities across four service networks around the country were invited to participate. Participants were selected from different levels throughout each service setting from primary care personnel to facility leadership. Study Design This qualitative study used purposive sampling, a semistructured interview process for data collection, and grounded theory techniques for analysis. Data Collection A semistructured interview was used to collect information on participants' mental models of CPGs, as well as implementation strategies and barriers in their facility. Findings Analysis of these interviews using grounded theory techniques indicated that there was wide variability in employees' mental models of CPGs. Findings also indicated that high-performing facilities exhibited both (a) a clear, focused shared mental model of guidelines and (b) a tendency to use performance feedback as a learning opportunity, thus suggesting that a shared mental model is a necessary but not sufficient step toward successful guideline implementation. Conclusions We conclude that a clear shared mental model of guidelines, in combination with a learning orientation toward feedback are important components for successful guideline implementation and improved quality of care. PMID:15960693
Murthy, R. Srinivasa
Bhopal disaster is an important milestone in Indian Industrial Psychiatry. The disaster was not only the biggest industrial disaster but also one in which complex forces have joined hands to demy the mental health needs of the population. Though the biggest general population epidemiological study over 5 years was carried out to understand the mental health impact of the disaster, the findings of this study did not get reflected in mental health care for the population. Furthermore, the needed longitudinal studies and evaluation of the interventions were not undertaken. There was no sharing of information with the survivors about the impact of the disaster on their health and well-being and sharing of skills for self-care. A result of these factors is the extreme degree of dissatisfaction in the population. Looking back, it would have met the needs of the Bhopal population, if the mental health services were community based and reaching the population, rather than the clinic-based approaches, there was a wide range of services, especially rehabilitation, continuous research into the changing mental health needs of the population and the effectiveness of interventions and most importantly, there was a continuous dialogue with the population and sharing of information with the general population. These are the tasks for the immediate future to reorganize the focus of mental health initiatives in Bhopal. Many lessons can be learnt from the Bhopal disaster and the continuing tragedy for the population. PMID:25788796
Rubio-Valera, Maria; Chen, Timothy F.; O’Reilly, Claire L.
Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1) the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2) the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3) barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma. PMID:25337943
Rubio-Valera, Maria; Chen, Timothy F; O'Reilly, Claire L
Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1) the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2) the pharmacists' role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3) barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists' attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.
Submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of DOCfOR OF PHILOSOPHY in COMPUTER SCIENCE in the GRADUATE DMSION of the...California at Berkeley,Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences ,Berkeley,CA,94720 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...Susan J. Eggers Computer Science Division University of California Berkeley CA 94720 ABSTRACT This dissertation examines shared memory reference
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 85.40 Section 85.40 Wildlife... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total costs approved in the grant agreement. (b) The provisions of 43 CFR 12.64 apply to cost sharing...
Maitra, Arpita; Paul, Goutam
A resilient secret sharing scheme is supposed to generate the secret correctly even after some shares are damaged. In this paper, we show how quantum error correcting codes can be exploited to design a resilient quantum secret sharing scheme, where a quantum state is shared among more than one parties.
Becker, Samantha Lauren; Hirst, Dalton; Barron-Santella, Angelica; Prather, Edward E.; Mendelsohn, Benjamin; Wallace, Colin Scott
A group of graduate and undergraduate students and researchers with the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) have been analyzing general education introductory astronomy (Astro 101) students’ written responses to questions that probe their ideas about the role and relevance of science in our society and in their lives. At the end of the semester, students were asked several questions to elicit their ideas about the positive and potential negative impacts that science has on our society's prosperity and their quality of life. Students were asked to provide examples and justifications for the most important discoveries in science, advancements in health and medicine and innovations in technology over the past century. Students were also asked to comment on which facet of the course (lecture, homework, in-class writings, Think-Pair-Share questions and/or Lecture-Tutorials) contributed to changing their understanding of their world and society.
Miller, Margery S
Epistemology is examined from two different perspectives within the framework of a broader evolutionary epistemology. Within this framework, reality is not absolute, and truth is a relative concept. People construct individual or personal epistemologies through their experiences, and develop or receive group or socially constructed epistemologies through their interactions with others with shared or similar experiences. There is a common perception that Deaf culture and Deaf epistemologies have been transmitted primarily by Deaf children and Deaf adults who have Deaf parents and who have grown up in a linguistically rich signing environment. The author posits that the far more numerous deaf children of hearing parents may be an even greater force in transmitting some of the strongest views of Deaf epistemology.
Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Moreno, Sergio
Mental disorders, including substance abuse, are part of the Mexican epidemiologic scenario and will remain so during several decades. They may even become more prominent as causes of disease, disability, and death in our country. It is thus imperative to frame appropriate management strategies to curb these problems without delay. This paper aims at outlining epidemiology of mental diseases as a field of study, and to identify its limitations. Emphasis is made on common elements shared with other more traditional fields of epidemiology, as well as on the specific contributions made by this particular field to epidemiology and to psychiatry in general. This paper describes the main study designs and problems in this field of epidemiology, its usefulness in prevention actions, and future challenges. A unique characteristic of mental disorder epidemiology is that its target diseases manifest in two levels: behaviorally (for example, compulsive hand-washing) and as an element of the individual's mental life (e.g., obsession with bacteria being a constant, omnipresent health threat). It follows that much of the knowledge currently available on the phenomena of mental disorders in general is based on the self-reported insight of individuals. Trained clinicians have collected such reports by interview or with standardized questionnaires. This field of epidemiology is characterized by having two-sides: a mental disorder is a problem in and of itself, causing suffering and prompting the search for specialized care, as it has peculiar clinical manifestations. On the other hand, mental disorder epidemiology also focuses on determining factors (drug use, abuse, or addiction) and on the way these independent variables result in certain processes and outcomes (such as accidents, homicide, suicide, liver cirrhosis, etc.). Finally, the epidemiology of mental disorders has also been set apart by its focus in series of processes that are not suitably classified as syndromes, but
Poldrack, Russell A.; Barch, Deanna M.; Mitchell, Jason P.; Wager, Tor D.; Wagner, Anthony D.; Devlin, Joseph T.; Cumba, Chad; Koyejo, Oluwasanmi; Milham, Michael P.
The large-scale sharing of task-based functional neuroimaging data has the potential to allow novel insights into the organization of mental function in the brain, but the field of neuroimaging has lagged behind other areas of bioscience in the development of data sharing resources. This paper describes the OpenFMRI project (accessible online at http://www.openfmri.org), which aims to provide the neuroimaging community with a resource to support open sharing of task-based fMRI studies. We describe the motivation behind the project, focusing particularly on how this project addresses some of the well-known challenges to sharing of task-based fMRI data. Results from a preliminary analysis of the current database are presented, which demonstrate the ability to classify between task contrasts with high generalization accuracy across subjects, and the ability to identify individual subjects from their activation maps with moderately high accuracy. Clustering analyses show that the similarity relations between statistical maps have a somewhat orderly relation to the mental functions engaged by the relevant tasks. These results highlight the potential of the project to support large-scale multivariate analyses of the relation between mental processes and brain function. PMID:23847528
Kidd, Jo; Ziebland, Sue
Online health information is increasingly popular and may bring both benefits and potential harm to users with mental health problems. The encouragement of harmful behaviour among this population is a particular concern. The website healthtalk.org provides the benefits of shared experience by publishing excerpts from rigorous research interviews with patients, contextualised with medical information. This article sets out evidence for the positive and negative effects of online mental health information and describes the methodology behind healthtalk.org, with an overview of the mental health information it provides and how it can benefit patients and health professionals. PMID:27752347
Kidd, Jo; Ziebland, Sue
Online health information is increasingly popular and may bring both benefits and potential harm to users with mental health problems. The encouragement of harmful behaviour among this population is a particular concern. The website healthtalk.org provides the benefits of shared experience by publishing excerpts from rigorous research interviews with patients, contextualised with medical information. This article sets out evidence for the positive and negative effects of online mental health information and describes the methodology behind healthtalk.org, with an overview of the mental health information it provides and how it can benefit patients and health professionals.
Nepal, Surya; Glozier, Nick
Background Internet-based applications are providing new ways of promoting health and reducing the cost of care. Although data can be kept encrypted in servers, the user does not have the ability to decide whom the data are shared with. Technically this is linked to the problem of who owns the data encryption keys required to decrypt the data. Currently, cloud service providers, rather than users, have full rights to the key. In practical terms this makes the users lose full control over their data. Trust and uptake of these applications can be increased by allowing patients to feel in control of their data, generally stored in cloud-based services. Objective This paper addresses this security challenge by providing the user a way of controlling encryption keys independently of the cloud service provider. We provide a secure and usable system that enables a patient to share health information with doctors and specialists. Methods We contribute a secure protocol for patients to share their data with doctors and others on the cloud while keeping complete ownership. We developed a simple, stereotypical health application and carried out security tests, performance tests, and usability tests with both students and doctors (N=15). Results We developed the health application as an app for Android mobile phones. We carried out the usability tests on potential participants and medical professionals. Of 20 participants, 14 (70%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt safer using our system. Using mixed methods, we show that participants agreed that privacy and security of health data are important and that our system addresses these issues. Conclusions We presented a security protocol that enables patients to securely share their eHealth data with doctors and nurses and developed a secure and usable system that enables patients to share mental health information with doctors. PMID:27234691
Marshall, Michael; Thenkabail, Prasad
Crop biomass is increasingly being measured with surface reflectance data derived from multispectral broadband (MSBB) and hyperspectral narrowband (HNB) space-borne remotely sensed data to increase the accuracy and efficiency of crop yield models used in a wide array of agricultural applications. However, few studies compare the ability of MSBBs versus HNBs to capture crop biomass variability. Therefore, we used standard data mining techniques to identify a set of MSBB data from the IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, WorldView-2 sensors and compared their performance with HNB data from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor in explaining crop biomass variability of four important field crops (rice, alfalfa, cotton, maize). The analysis employed two-band (ratio) vegetation indices (TBVIs) and multiband (additive) vegetation indices (MBVIs) derived from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and stepwise regression. Results demonstrated that HNB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs performed better than MSBB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs on a per crop basis and for the pooled data: overall, HNB TBVIs explained 5-31% greater variability when compared with various MSBB TBVIs; and HNB MBVIs explained 3-33% greater variability when compared with various MSBB MBVIs. The performance of MSBB MBVIs and TBVIs improved mildly, by combining spectral information across multiple sensors involving IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, and WorldView-2. A number of HNBs that advance crop biomass modeling were determined. Based on the highest factor loadings on the first component of the SVD, the "red-edge" spectral range (700-740 nm) centered at 722 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) stood out prominently, while five additional and distinct portions of the recorded spectral range (400-2500 nm) centered at 539 nm, 758 nm, 914 nm, 1130 nm, 1320 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) were also important. The best HNB vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation involved 549 and 752 nm for rice (R2 = 0.91); 925 and 1104 nm for alfalfa (R2 = 0
Marshall, Michael T.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.
Crop biomass is increasingly being measured with surface reflectance data derived from multispectral broadband (MSBB) and hyperspectral narrowband (HNB) space-borne remotely sensed data to increase the accuracy and efficiency of crop yield models used in a wide array of agricultural applications. However, few studies compare the ability of MSBBs versus HNBs to capture crop biomass variability. Therefore, we used standard data mining techniques to identify a set of MSBB data from the IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, WorldView-2 sensors and compared their performance with HNB data from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor in explaining crop biomass variability of four important field crops (rice, alfalfa, cotton, maize). The analysis employed two-band (ratio) vegetation indices (TBVIs) and multiband (additive) vegetation indices (MBVIs) derived from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and stepwise regression. Results demonstrated that HNB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs performed better than MSBB-derived TBVIs and MBVIs on a per crop basis and for the pooled data: overall, HNB TBVIs explained 5–31% greater variability when compared with various MSBB TBVIs; and HNB MBVIs explained 3–33% greater variability when compared with various MSBB MBVIs. The performance of MSBB MBVIs and TBVIs improved mildly, by combining spectral information across multiple sensors involving IKONOS, GeoEye-1, Landsat ETM+, MODIS, and WorldView-2. A number of HNBs that advance crop biomass modeling were determined. Based on the highest factor loadings on the first component of the SVD, the “red-edge” spectral range (700–740 nm) centered at 722 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) stood out prominently, while five additional and distinct portions of the recorded spectral range (400–2500 nm) centered at 539 nm, 758 nm, 914 nm, 1130 nm, 1320 nm (bandwidth = 10 nm) were also important. The best HNB vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation involved 549 and 752 nm for rice (R2 = 0.91); 925 and 1104 nm for
Hoy, Janet M
Incorporating individuals' understandings and explanations of mental illness into service delivery offers benefits relating to increased service relevance and meaning. Existing research delineates explanatory models of mental illness held by individuals in home, outpatient, and hospital-based contexts; research on models held by those in peer-support contexts is notably absent. In this article, I describe themes identified within and across explanatory models of mental illness and recovery held by mental health consumers (N = 24) at one peer center, referred to as a consumer-operated service center (COSP). Participants held explanatory models inclusive of both developmental stressors and biomedical causes, consistent with a stress-diathesis model (although no participant explicitly referenced such). Explicit incorporation of stress-diathesis constructs into programming at this COSP offers the potential of increasing service meaning and relevance. Identifying and incorporating shared meanings across individuals' understandings of mental illness likewise can increase relevance and meaning for particular subgroups of service users.
Preisig, M; Waeber, G; Mooser, V; Vollenweider, P
Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD), their well established risk factors (CVRF) and mental disorders are common and co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. The main study questions of PsyCoLaus, the psychiatric arm of CoLaus, are: 1) Do mental disorders increase vulnerability to CVRF and CVD? 2) Do CVRF and CVD promote the development of mental disorders? 3) Do CVRF/ CVD and mental disorders share common pathogenetic processes? The longitudinal project adds a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation to the CoLaus investigation. A better understanding of the psychological, physiological and behavioral links underlying CVD/ CVRF and mental disorders will result in the development of more specific and efficient strategies of prevention and treatment for both psychiatric and CVD/CVRF, two major elements of burden of disease.
Barry, Sinead; Ward, Louise
The purpose of this literature review was to identify research and current literature surrounding nursing students' understandings of mental health. The aim is to share findings from an extensive international and national literature review exploring undergraduate nurse education specific to mental health content. Data were collected utilising a comprehensive search of electronic databases including CINAHL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, and PsycINFO 1987-(Ovid) from 2008 to 2016. The initial search terms were altered to include undergraduate, mental health, nursing, education, experience, and knowledge. Three content themes emerged which included: 1. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge has been considered compromised due to concerns relating to the variation and inconsistencies within the comprehensive nursing curriculums representation of mental health, 2. Undergraduate nursing students knowledge of mental health is thought to be compromised due to the quality of mental health theoretical and experiential learning opportunities, and 3. Research indicates that nursing students' knowledge of mental health was influenced by their experience of undertaking mental health content. Based on these findings greater consideration of students' understandings of mental health is required.
Fistein, E.C.; Holland, A.J.; Clare, I.C.H.; Gunn, M.J.
Introduction In the regulation of involuntary treatment, a balance must be found between duties of care and protection and the right to self-determination. Despite its shared common roots, the mental health legislation of Commonwealth countries approaches this balance in different ways. When reform is planned, lessons can be learned from the experiences of other countries. Method Criteria for involuntary treatment used in a sample of 32 Commonwealth Mental Health Acts were compared using a framework developed from standards derived from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Reasons for non-compliance were considered and examples of good practice were noted. Changes in the criteria used over time and across areas with differing levels of economic development were analysed. Results 1. Widespread deviation from standards was demonstrated, suggesting that some current legislation may be inadequate for the protection of the human rights of people with mental disorders. 2. Current trends in Commonwealth mental health law reform include a move towards broad diagnostic criteria, use of capacity and treatability tests, treatment in the interests of health rather than safety, and regular reviews of treatment orders. Nevertheless, there are some striking exceptions. Discussion Explanations for deviation from the standards include differing value perspectives underpinning approaches to balancing conflicting principles, failure to keep pace with changing attitudes to mental disorder, and variations in the resources available for providing treatment and undertaking law reform. Current good practice provides examples of ways of dealing with some of these difficulties. PMID:19299015
Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.
Many resources, such as oil, gas, or water, are extracted from porous soils and their exploration is often shared among different companies or nations. We show that the effective shares can be obtained by invading the porous medium simultaneously with various fluids. Partitioning a volume in two parts requires one division surface while the simultaneous boundary between three parts consists of lines. We identify and characterize these lines, showing that they form a fractal set consisting of a single thread spanning the medium and a surrounding cloud of loops. While the spanning thread has fractal dimension 1.55 ± 0.03, the set of all lines has dimension 1.69 ± 0.02. The size distribution of the loops follows a power law and the evolution of the set of lines exhibits a tricritical point described by a crossover with a negative dimension at criticality. PMID:23087816
Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.; Schaffer, Steven R.
an increasing need for space missions to be able to collaboratively (and competitively) develop plans both within and across missions. In addition, interacting spacecraft that interleave onboard planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other prior to execution. In domains where missions have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, the missions will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus with in their imposed deadlines. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities over the lifetimes of multiple agents and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We investigate variations of a few simple protocols based on argumentation and distributed constraints satisfaction techniques and evaluate their abilities to reach consistent solutions according to computation, time, and communication costs in an abstract domain where spacecraft propose joint measurements.
Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.
Many resources, such as oil, gas, or water, are extracted from porous soils and their exploration is often shared among different companies or nations. We show that the effective shares can be obtained by invading the porous medium simultaneously with various fluids. Partitioning a volume in two parts requires one division surface while the simultaneous boundary between three parts consists of lines. We identify and characterize these lines, showing that they form a fractal set consisting of a single thread spanning the medium and a surrounding cloud of loops. While the spanning thread has fractal dimension 1.55 +/- 0.03, the set of all lines has dimension 1.69 +/- 0.02. The size distribution of the loops follows a power law and the evolution of the set of lines exhibits a tricritical point described by a crossover with a negative dimension at criticality.
Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706
People within large organizations have probably already dealt with problems similar to the problems that you face; you can save time and money by taking advantage of that experience and knowledge. Knowledge sharing by mentors can empower less experienced managers who would otherwise not challenge the status quo. Reviews should encourage joint problem solving rather than just reporting. To accomplish this, ensure that the review process is viewed as feedback from independent and supportive experts.