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Sample records for shea butter samples

  1. Influence of climate on the tocopherol content of shea butter.

    PubMed

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev

    2004-05-19

    The shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner, is the source of a commercial seed fat known as shea butter. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the tocopherol content of shea butters from different regions of Africa showed high variability between provenances and a significant effect of climate on alpha-tocopherol levels. The total tocopherol content (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in 102 shea butter samples from 11 countries ranged from 29 to 805 microg/g of shea butter, with a mean of 220 microg/g. alpha-Tocopherol, the principal form detected, averaged 64% of the total tocopherol content. Shea butters from Vitellaria populations situated in hot, dry climates had the highest levels of alpha-tocopherol (for example, a mean of 414 microg/g in samples from N'Djamena, Chad). The lowest concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were found in samples from cool highland areas, especially in northern Uganda (a mean of 29 microg/g).

  2. 24-Methylenedammarenol: a new triterpene alcohol from shea butter.

    PubMed

    Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1975-12-01

    A new triterpene alcohol was isolated from shea butter and its structure was shown to be 24-methylenedammarenol (24-methylene-5alpha-dammar-20[21]-en-3beta-o1). Dammaradienol (5alpha-dammara-20[21],24-dien-3beta-o1) also was isolated from shea butter.

  3. Profiling the quality characteristics of the butter of Pentadesma butyracea with reference to shea butter.

    PubMed

    Ayegnon, Bernolde P; Kayodé, Adéchola Pp; Tchobo, Fidèle P; Azokpota, Paulin; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Pentadesma butyracea is a tropical plant species. Its kernels are rich in edible butter similar to shea butter. This study evaluated the quality characteristics of the Pentadesma butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin, using a quantitative survey approach and physicochemical and sensorial analysis methods. The butter of Pentadesma is mostly used for food preparation, cosmetic and therapeutic applications. It is characterized by a yellow colour, a hard texture, a relatively sweet taste and a bright appearance. Consumers preferred Pentadesma butter to shea butter for colour, taste, texture and appearance. Instrumental analysis showed that the average water content (6.5 g kg(-1) ) and peroxide value (0.74 mEq O2 kg(-1) ) of Pentadesma butter were lower than those of shea butter, for which average water content and peroxide values were 20.7g kg(-1) and 2.09 mEq O2 kg(-1) respectively. The fatty acid profile of Pentadesma butter is similar to that of shea butter. This study showed that the Pentadesma butyracea butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin exhibited quality characteristics which are better than that of shea butter. The data generated can be used for a better exploitation of the butter in food and cosmetic industries. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Nutritional composition of shea products and chemical properties of shea butter: a review.

    PubMed

    Honfo, Fernande G; Akissoe, Noel; Linnemann, Anita R; Soumanou, Mohamed; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea butter. Surveying the literature revealed that the pulp is rich in vitamin C (196.1 mg/100 g); consumption of 50 g covers 332% and 98% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of children (4-8 years old) and pregnant women, respectively. The kernels contain a high level of fat (17.4-59.1 g/100 g dry weight). Fat extraction is mainly done by traditional methods that involve roasting and pressing of the kernels, churning the obtained liquid with water, boiling, sieving, and cooling. The fat (butter) is used in food preparation and medicinal and cosmetics industries. Its biochemical properties indicate some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Large variations are observed in the reported values for the composition of shea products. Recommendations for future research are presented to improve the quality and the shelf-life of the butter. In addition, more attention should be given to the accuracy and precision in experimental analyses to obtain more reliable information about biological variation.

  5. Regional variation in shea butter lipid and triterpene composition in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Di Vincenzo, Daria; Maranz, Steve; Serraiocco, Arnaldo; Vito, Raffaella; Wiesman, Zeev; Bianchi, Giorgio

    2005-09-21

    The triacylglycerol, fatty acid, and polycyclic triterpene compositions of shea butter were determined for 150 samples from the sub-Saharan countries of Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. The compositional profiles showed high variability in all three classes of compounds. Shea butter is made up mainly of four triglycerides (TAG) differing in carbon number (CN) by two, starting from CN 50 to CN 56. The greatest source of variation was in the CN 54 TAG. Shea butter is characterized by 16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in greatly varying proportion, the major ones being the even homologues in the range of C(16)-C(20). Oleic acid is dominant in Ugandan provenances, whereas stearic acid is dominant in West African shea butter. Acetyl and cinnamyl polycyclic triterpene means for countries ranged from 3.69 to 12.57%, with the highest values found in Nigerian provenances. Statistical comparisons of fat composition show that the geographic distance between shea populations is reflected in the degree of separation of their chemical profiles.

  6. [The excipient properties of shea butter compared with vaseline and lanolin].

    PubMed

    Thioune, Oumar; Khouma, Barham; Diarra, Mounibé; Diop, Alioune B; Lô, Issa

    2003-01-01

    A shea butter ointment containing 3% aureomycin (clortetracyclin hydrocloride) was prepared and some of its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were evaluated. Then, the release of the active ingredient was compared by UV spectrophotometry with those obtained when excipients such as petroleum jelly and lanoline were used. Results had shown that the shea butter ointment had satisfactory characteristics. In the other hand, it was found that shea butter released the aureomycin easily and at a faster rate than the other excipients.

  7. Preliminary studies on nasal decongestant activity from the seed of the shea butter tree, Butyrospermum parkii.

    PubMed

    Tella, A

    1979-05-01

    1 The seed of Butyrospermum parkii yields shea butter which according to local traditional healers relieves inflammation of the nostrils. 2 Since there is as yet no absolutely satisfactory nasal decongestant in clinical use, it was decided to investigate the effects of shea butter in nasal congestion. The substance was prepared in the laboratory. 3 The human subjects used were those suffering from rhinitis with moderate to severe nasal congestion. They were divided into the test group which received shea butter, the control group which was treated with xylometazoline and the 'placebo' group which received white petroleum jelly B.P. 4 The results showed that nasal congestion was relieved more satisfactorily in the test group than in the other two groups. 5 It is concluded that shea butter may prove more efficacious in nasal congestion than conventional nasal drops.

  8. 24-Methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3beta-ol, new triterpene alcohol from shea butter.

    PubMed

    Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1975-08-01

    A new triterpene alcohol was isolated fron shea butter and its structure was shown to be 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3beta-ol. Gas chromatographic correlations between this triterpene alcohol and other related compounds are discussed.

  9. Preliminary studies on nasal decongestant activity from the seed of the shea butter tree, Butyrospermum parkii.

    PubMed Central

    Tella, A

    1979-01-01

    1 The seed of Butyrospermum parkii yields shea butter which according to local traditional healers relieves inflammation of the nostrils. 2 Since there is as yet no absolutely satisfactory nasal decongestant in clinical use, it was decided to investigate the effects of shea butter in nasal congestion. The substance was prepared in the laboratory. 3 The human subjects used were those suffering from rhinitis with moderate to severe nasal congestion. They were divided into the test group which received shea butter, the control group which was treated with xylometazoline and the 'placebo' group which received white petroleum jelly B.P. 4 The results showed that nasal congestion was relieved more satisfactorily in the test group than in the other two groups. 5 It is concluded that shea butter may prove more efficacious in nasal congestion than conventional nasal drops. PMID:89854

  10. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter.

    PubMed

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of shea butter under tropical climatic conditions. Five packaging materials traditionally used in shea butter value chain were tested for their efficacy in storing shea butter freshly produced. Total germs, yeasts and mould varied with packaging materials and storage duration. After 2 months of storage, moisture content of butter remained constant (5%) whereas acid value increased from 3.3 to 5.4 mg KOH/g, peroxide value from 8.1 to 10.1 meq O2/kg and iodine value dropped from 48.8 to 46.2 mg I2/100 g in shea butter irrespectively to the storage materials used. The basket papered with jute bag was the less effective in ensuring the quality of butter during storage while plastic containers and plastic bags seemed to be the best packaging materials.

  11. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p < 0.05) on the %yield of SB, with R(2) - 0.8989 which showed good fitness of a second-order model. Based on this model, optima operating variables for the extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  12. Infrared analysis of clay bricks incorporated with spent shea waste from the shea butter industry.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-04-15

    The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared. The clay material showed high proportions of SiO 2 (52.97 wt%) and Al 2 O 3 (27.10 wt%) indicating their rich kaolinitic content: whereas, the inert nature of spent shea waste was exhibited by their low oxide content. The striking similarities in infrared absorption bands of pristine clay material and clay materials incorporated with 15 wt% of spent shea waste showed that the waste incorporation had no impact on bond formation of the clay bricks. Potential performance benefits of developing bricks from clay material incorporated with spent shea waste included improved fluxing agents, economic sintering and making of sustainable bricks. Consequently, the analytical results authenticate the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay materials for various desired benefits aside being an environmental correct route of its disposal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving the optimized shea butter quality: a great potential of utilization for common consumers and industrials.

    PubMed

    Megnanou, Rose-Monde; Niamke, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Industrials interest in fats as raw material, resides in their exceptional quality and potentialities of exploitation in several fields. This study aimed to exalt the optimized shea butter quality and present its wide potentialities of utilization. Hence, the characteristics of beige and yellow optimized shea butters were determined. Both samples recorded very weak acid (0.280 ± 0.001 and 0.140 ± 0.001 mgKOH/g) and peroxide (0.960 ± 0.001 and 1.010 ± 0.001 mEgO2/kg) indexes, when the iodine indexes (52.64 ± 0.20 and 53.06 ± 0.20 gI2/100 g) and the unsaponifiable matters (17.61 ± 0.01 and 17.27 ± 0.01 %) were considerable. The refractive indexes (1.454 ± 0.00 and 1.453 ± 0.00) and the pH (6.50 ± 0.30 and 6.78 ± 0.30) were statistically similar; but the specific gravity (0.915 ± 0.01-0.79 ± 0.01 and 0.94 ± 0.01-0.83 ± 0.01) and the viscosity (90.41 ± 0.20-20.02 ± 0.20 and 125.37 ± 0.20-23.55 ± 0.20 MPas) differed and decreased exponentially with the temperature increasing (35-65 °C), except for the specific gravity of the yellow butter which decreased linearly. The UV-Vis spectrum showed a high peak at 300 nm and a rapid decrease from 300 to 500 nm when the near infra-red one, revealed peaks at 450, 1200, 1400, 1725 and 2150 nm for all the samples. The chromatographic profile identified palmitic (16.42 and 26.36 %), stearic (32.39 and 36.36 %), oleic (38.12 and 29.09 %), linoleic (9.72 and 5.92 %) and arachidic (1.84 and 1.59 %) acids, and also exaltolide compound (1.51 and 0.68 %). The samples also contained essential minerals (Calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, etc.) carotene (550 ± 50 and 544 ± 50 ppm), vitamins A (0.065 ± 0.001 and 0.032 ± 0.001 µg/g) and E (2992.09 ± 1.90 and 3788.44 ± 1.90 ppm) in relatively important amounts; neither microbiological germs nor heavy were detected. All these valorizing characteristics would confer to the optimized shea butters good

  14. Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sloffer, Elizabeth M; Gaur, Shashank; Engeseth, Nicki J; Andrade, Juan E

    2017-11-08

    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID's A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree ( Vitellaria paradoxa ), a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg) in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g), and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw ( p < 0.05) but no change in vitamin C, oil separation, or peroxide value. Addition of Shea butter improved the LNS's hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability.

  15. Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sloffer, Elizabeth M.; Engeseth, Nicki J.

    2017-01-01

    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID’s A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa), a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg) in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g), and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw (p < 0.05) but no change in vitamin C, oil separation, or peroxide value. Addition of Shea butter improved the LNS’s hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability. PMID:29117103

  16. Optimization of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter quality using screw expeller extraction.

    PubMed

    Gezahegn, Yonas A; Emire, Shimelis A; Asfaw, Sisay F

    2016-11-01

    The quality of Shea butter is highly affected by processing factors. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of conditioning duration (CD), moisture content (MC), and die temperature (DT) of screw expeller on Shea butter quality. A combination of 3 3 full factorial design and response surface methodology was used for this investigation. Response variables were refractive index, acid value, and peroxide value. The model enabled to identify the optimum operating settings (CD = 28-30 min, MC = 3-5 g/100 g, and DT = 65-70°C) for maximize refractive index and minimum acid value. For minimum peroxide value 0 min CD, 10 g/100 g MC, and 30°C were discovered. In all-over optimization, optimal values of 30 min CD, 9.7 g/100 g MC, and 70°C DT were found. Hence, the processing factors must be at their optimal values to achieve high butter quality and consistence.

  17. [Inflammatory ointment from shea butter and hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks (Cailcederat)].

    PubMed

    Thioune, O; Ahodikpe, D; Dieng, M; Diop, A B; Ngom, S; Lo, I

    2000-01-01

    In a former study, it was proved that the alcoholic solution of hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks had an anti-inflammatory activity on animals after a local application. In this work, ointments made from the same extract and three different excipients (vaseline, lanoline and shea butter (crude and refined)) have been prepared and tested by the method of the croton oil inhibited ear oedema. Results showed inhibition percentages of the ear oedema of 58.8%, 66.7% and 75.4% when the hydro-alcoholic extract was tested at respective doses of 1%, 2% and 3% in shea butter. The two other excipients, (vaceline and Lanoline) tested at the dose of 3% showed between 52% and 58% of inhibitions. The interest of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to maintain the anti-inflammatory activity of Khaya senegalensis barks by using them in a galenic form, easy to prepare and which is, in addition, more adapted than the extract to possible clinical trials.

  18. Modelling energy and environmental impacts of traditional and improved shea butter production in West Africa for food security.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Colleen C; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2017-01-15

    This study improves the global application of methods and analyses, especially Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), that properly incorporates environmental impacts of firewood and a social sustainability indicator (human energy) as tools for sustainable human development. Specifically shea butter production processes, common throughout sub-Saharan Africa and crucial to food security, environmental sustainability, and women's empowerment, are analyzed. Many economic activities in the world rely on firewood for energy and labor that aren't included in traditional LCAs. Human energy (entirely from women) contributed 25-100% of shea butter production processes (2000-6100kJ/kg of shea butter) and mechanized production processes had reduced human energy without considerably greater total energy. Firewood accounted for 94-100% of total embodied energy (103 and 172MJ/kg of shea butter for improved and traditional shea butter production processes respectively) and global warming potential and 18-100% of human toxicity of the production processes. Implementation of improved cookstoves modeled in this study could reduce: (1) global warming potential by 78% (from 18 to 4.1kg CO 2 eq/kg and 11 to 2.4kg CO 2 eq/kg of shea butter for the traditional and improved processes respectively), (2) the embodied energy of using firewood by 52% (from 170 to 82MJ/kg and 103 to 49MJ/kg for the traditional and improved processes respectively), and (3) human toxicity by 83% for the non-mechanized traditional and improved processes (from 0.041 to 0.0071 1,4 DB eq/kg and 0.025 to 0.0042 1,4 DB eq/kg respectively). In addition, this is the first study to compare Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and process-based LCA in a developing country and evaluate five traditional and improved shea butter production processes over different impact categories. Overall, this study developed a framework to evaluate and improve processes for achievement of the United Nation's Sustainable

  19. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    SciTech Connect

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O.

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermunmore » Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  20. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology. PMID:25937979

  1. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology.

  2. Biosorption of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution using activated carbon from shea butter seed shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adekola, Folahan A.; Oba, Ismaila A.

    2017-10-01

    The efficiency of prepared activated carbon from shea butter seed shells (SB-AC) for the adsorption of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of optimization parameters including initial concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and temperature of adsorbate solution on the sorption capacity were studied. The SB-AC was characterized for the following parameters: bulk density, moisture content, ash content, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal conditions for the adsorption were established and the adsorption data for AA fitted Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm well, whereas FA followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data were examined. It was found that pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to adequately explain the sorption kinetic of AA and FA from aqueous solution. It was again found that intraparticle diffusion was found to explain the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the negative values of Δ G showed that the adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous in nature, while the negative values of Δ H indicate that the adsorption process was exothermic. It is therefore established that SB-AC has good potential for the removal of AA and FA from aqueous solution. Hence, it should find application in the regular treatment of polluted water in aquaculture and fish breeding system.

  3. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

  4. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-05-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of shea butter through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the Nf-κB pathway in LPS-activated J774 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nandini; Chakrabarti, Rina; Das, Rakha H; Gautam, Hemant K

    2012-01-12

    Shea butter is traditionally used in Africa for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In this study we explored the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of shea butter (SBE) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774. It was observed that SBE significantly reduced the levels of LPS-induced nitric oxide, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins, 1β (IL-1β), and -12 (IL-12) in the culture supernatants in a dose dependent manner. Expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also inhibited by SBE. These anti-inflammatory effects were due to an inhibitory action of SBE on LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 mRNA expressions. Moreover, SBE efficiently suppressed IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by LPS. These findings explain the molecular bases of shea butter's bioactivity against various inflammatory conditions and substantiate it as a latent source of novel therapeutic agents.

  6. Patient acceptability, efficacy, and skin biophysiology of a cream and cleanser containing lipid complex with shea butter extract versus a ceramide product for eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, K L; Tsang, Y C; Pong, N H; Lee, Vivian W Y; Luk, N M; Chow, C M; Leung, T F

    2015-10-01

    To investigate patient acceptability, efficacy, and skin biophysiological effects of a cream/cleanser combination for childhood atopic dermatitis. Paediatric dermatology clinic at a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Consecutive paediatric patients with atopic dermatitis who were interested in trying a new moisturiser were recruited between 1 April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Swabs and cultures from the right antecubital fossa and the worst eczematous area, disease severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index), skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss were obtained prior to and following 4-week usage of a cream/cleanser containing lipid complex with shea butter extract (Ezerra cream; Hoe Pharma, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia). Global or general acceptability of treatment was documented as 'very good', 'good', 'fair', or 'poor'. A total of 34 patients with atopic dermatitis were recruited; 74% reported 'very good' or 'good', whereas 26% reported 'fair' or 'poor' general acceptability of treatment of the Ezerra cream; and 76% reported 'very good' or 'good', whereas 24% reported 'fair' or 'poor' general acceptability of treatment of the Ezerra cleanser. There were no intergroup differences in pre-usage clinical parameters of age, objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index, pruritus, sleep loss, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, topical corticosteroid usage, oral antihistamine usage, or general acceptability of treatment of the prior emollient. Following use of the Ezerra cream, mean pruritus score decreased from 6.7 to 6.0 (P=0.036) and mean Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index improved from 10.0 to 8.0 (P=0.021) in the 'very good'/'good' group. There were no statistically significant differences in the acceptability of wash (P=0.526) and emollients (P=0.537) with pre-trial products. When compared with the data of another ceramide-precursor moisturiser in a previous study, there was no statistical difference in efficacy and acceptability between the two

  7. Phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels.

    PubMed

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev; Garti, Nissim

    2003-10-08

    Analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels by LC-MS revealed eight catechin compounds-gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate-as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid. The mean kernel content of the eight catechin compounds was 4000 ppm (0.4% of kernel dry weight), with a 2100-9500 ppm range. Comparison of the profiles of the six major catechins from 40 Vitellaria provenances from 10 African countries showed that the relative proportions of these compounds varied from region to region. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound, comprising an average of 27% of the measured total phenols and exceeding 70% in some populations. Colorimetric analysis (101 samples) of total polyphenols extracted from shea butter into hexane gave an average of 97 ppm, with the values for different provenances varying between 62 and 135 ppm of total polyphenols.

  8. Indigenous knowledge of shea processing and quality perception of shea products in Benin.

    PubMed

    Honfo, Fernande G; Linnemann, Anita R; Akissoe, Noël H; Soumanou, Mohamed M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2012-01-01

    A survey among 246 people belonging to 14 ethnic groups and living in 5 different parklands in Benin revealed different practices to process shea kernels (namely boiling followed sun drying and smoking) and extract shea butter. A relation between parklands, gathering period, and sun-drying conditions was established. Moisture content and appearance of kernels were the selection criteria for users of shea kernels; color was the main characteristic to buy butter. Constraints to be solved are long processing times, lack of milling equipment and high water requirements. Best practices for smoking, sun drying, and roasting operations need to be established for further improvement.

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput characterization of Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut fat profiles.

    PubMed

    Davrieux, Fabrice; Allal, François; Piombo, Georges; Kelly, Bokary; Okulo, John B; Thiam, Massamba; Diallo, Ousmane B; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-07-14

    The Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is a major tree species in African agroforestry systems. Butter extracted from its nuts offers an opportunity for sustainable development in Sudanian countries and an attractive potential for the food and cosmetics industries. The purpose of this study was to develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to characterize Shea nut fat profiles. Powders prepared from nuts collected from 624 trees in five African countries (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda) were analyzed for moisture content, fat content using solvent extraction, and fatty acid profiles using gas chromatography. Results confirmed the differences between East and West African Shea nut fat composition: eastern nuts had significantly higher fat and oleic acid contents. Near infrared reflectance spectra were recorded for each sample. Ten percent of the samples were randomly selected for validation and the remaining samples used for calibration. For each constituent, calibration equations were developed using modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression. The equation performances were evaluated using the ratio performance to deviation (RPD(p)) and R(p)(2) parameters, obtained by comparison of the validation set NIR predictions and corresponding laboratory values. Moisture (RPD(p) = 4.45; R(p)(2) = 0.95) and fat (RPD(p) = 5.6; R(p)(2) = 0.97) calibrations enabled accurate determination of these traits. NIR models for stearic (RPD(p) = 6.26; R(p)(2) = 0.98) and oleic (RPD(p) = 7.91; R(p)(2) = 0.99) acids were highly efficient and enabled sharp characterization of these two major Shea butter fatty acids. This study demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput phenotyping of Shea nuts.

  10. Robust new NIRS coupled with multivariate methods for the detection and quantification of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

    PubMed

    Mabood, Fazal; Abbas, Ghulam; Jabeen, Farah; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hamaed, Ahmad M; Hussain, Javid; Al-Nabhani, Mahmood; Al Shukaili, Maryam S; Khan, Alamgir; Manzoor, Suryyia

    2018-03-01

    Cows' butterfat may be adulterated with animal fat materials like tallow which causes increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels upon consumption. There is no reliable technique to detect and quantify tallow adulteration in butter samples in a feasible way. In this study a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was developed to detect as well as quantify the level of tallow adulterant in clarified butter samples. For this investigation the pure clarified butter samples were intentionally adulterated with tallow at the following percentage levels: 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 20% (wt/wt). Altogether 99 clarified butter samples were used including nine pure samples (un-adulterated clarified butter) and 90 clarified butter samples adulterated with tallow. Each sample was analysed by using NIR spectroscopy in the reflection mode in the range 10,000-4000 cm -1 , at 2 cm -1 resolution and using the transflectance sample accessory which provided a total path length of 0.5 mm. Chemometric models including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and partial least-squares regressions (PLSR) were applied for statistical treatment of the obtained NIR spectral data. The PLSDA model was employed to differentiate pure butter samples from those adulterated with tallow. The employed model was then externally cross-validated by using a test set which included 30% of the total butter samples. The excellent performance of the model was proved by the low RMSEP value of 1.537% and the high correlation factor of 0.95. This newly developed method is robust, non-destructive, highly sensitive, and economical with very minor sample preparation and good ability to quantify less than 1.5% of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

  11. Reproduction studies in the rat with shea oleine and hardened shea oleine.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, P; Robinson, J A; Hepburn, P A

    2001-09-01

    Shea oleine is an oil fraction derived from the nut of the tree Butyrospermum parkii, which grows in central and western Africa. There are several uses of shea oleine including its use as a frying oil and, after hardening, in margarine and toffee fat. This investigation was performed to examine the toxicity of 7 or 15% hardened shea oleine in comparison with 7 or 15% unhardened shea oleine and various commercially available materials, sheanut and palm oils, cocoa butter and toffee powder following dietary administration to rats during pre-mating, mating, pregnancy and offspring weaning in two separate investigations. Reproduction was assessed using number of litters and pups born plus survival and body weights at birth and at weaning on day 21. Skeletal evaluation using X-ray, clinical pathology and a macroscopic examination were also performed for F1 rats. Study measures for parent animals comprised evaluation of body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology, organ weights and macroscopic examination. Fatty acids and hydrocarbon levels were measured and an evaluation for lipogranulomata was made for various tissues. Results showed that shea oleine, whether unhardened or hardened, produced no evidence of reproduction toxicity and gave a similar profile to the other commercially available materials used in this study in the rat. Minor findings with shea oleine were not related to reproduction performance but comprised slightly reduced body weight gain and reduced cholesterol and raised alkaline phosphatase levels. None of the findings in this study were considered to be of toxicological significance. Thus, no evidence of reproduction toxicity was seen for both unhardened and hardened shea oleine in this investigation in the rat at levels equating to greater than 7.5 g/kg/day.

  12. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  13. Triacylglycerol and triterpene ester composition of shea nuts from seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Katoh, Naoko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Makoto; Shimizu, Naoto; Masters, Eliot T

    2011-01-01

    The compositions of the triacylglycerol (TAG) and triterpene ester (TE) fractions of the kernel fats (n-hexane extracts; shea butter) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) were determined for 36 samples from seven sub-Saharan countries, i.e., Cote d' Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad, Sudan, and Uganda. The principal TAGs are stearic-oleic-stearic (SOS; mean 31.2%), SOO (27.7%), and OOO (10.8%). The TE fractions contents are in the range of 0.5-6.5%, and contain α-amyrin cinnamate (1c; mean 29.3%) as the predominant TE followed by butyrospermol cinnamate (4c; 14.8%), α-amyrin acetate (1a; 14.1%), lupeol cinnamate (3c; 9.0%), β-amyrin cinnamate (2c; 7.6%), lupeol acetate (3a; 7.2%), butyrospermol acetate (4a; 5.8%), and β-amyrin acetate (2a; 4.9%). Shea kernel fats from West African provenances contained, in general, higher levels of high-melting TAGs such as SOS, and higher amount of TEs than those from East African provenances. No striking regional difference in the composition of the TE fractions was observed. Copyright © 2011 by Japan Oil Chemists' Society

  14. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  15. Volatile halocarbons in butter: elevated tetrachloroethylene levels in samples obtained in close proximity to dry-cleaning establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.J.; Uhler, A.D.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years materials not directly associated with food production, such as polychlorinated and brominated biphenyls, have been found in foods. According to the criteria to evaluate the likelihood for a chemical to contaminate food, the volatile halocarbons (VHCs) were selected as target compounds in an examination for potential contaminants in selected foods. The technique of multiple headspace extraction (MHE) was used in this study to minimize sample handling, and thereby reduce the potential for laboratory contamination and maximize throughput. Recently this laboratory reported findings of several VHCs in margarine, including PCE in four samples at levels above the usualmore » background findings. Those samples had been obtained from a food store located immediately next to a dry-cleaning establishment. Follow-up investigation was conducted to determine the frequency of occurrence and levels of PCE that may be present in fatty foods purchased from stores located both near and distant from dry cleaners. Butter was chosen as a model food because it is a highly uniform product of very high fat content, which would be expected to act as a good absorber of the lipophilic VHCs. This paper presents results of these analyses and correlations between level of VHCs in butter and the proximity to dry cleaners of the food store where the butter was purchased.« less

  16. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  17. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn C. F.) fruit yield assessment and management by farm households in the Atacora district of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Grace B.; Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Wala, Kperkouma; Akpagana, Koffi

    2018-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices. To examine the local pattern of shea tree productivity and relationships between morphological factors and yields, we used a randomized branch sampling method and applied a regression analysis to build a shea yield model based on dendrometric, soil and land-use variables. We also compared potential shea yields based on farm household socio-economic characteristics and management practices derived from the survey data. Soil and land-use variables were the most important determinants of shea fruit yield. In terms of land use, shea trees growing on farmland plots exhibited the highest yields (i.e., fruit quantity and mass) while trees growing on Lixisols performed better than those of the other soil group. Contrary to our expectations, dendrometric parameters had weak relationships with fruit yield regardless of land-use and soil group. There is an inter-annual variability in fruit yield in both soil groups and land-use type. In addition to observed inter-annual yield variability, there was a high degree of variability in production among individual shea trees. Furthermore, household socioeconomic characteristics such as road accessibility, landholding size, and gross annual income influence shea fruit yield. The use of fallow areas is an important land management practice in the study area that influences both conservation and shea yield. PMID:29346406

  18. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn C. F.) fruit yield assessment and management by farm households in the Atacora district of Benin.

    PubMed

    Aleza, Koutchoukalo; Villamor, Grace B; Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Wala, Kperkouma; Akpagana, Koffi

    2018-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices. To examine the local pattern of shea tree productivity and relationships between morphological factors and yields, we used a randomized branch sampling method and applied a regression analysis to build a shea yield model based on dendrometric, soil and land-use variables. We also compared potential shea yields based on farm household socio-economic characteristics and management practices derived from the survey data. Soil and land-use variables were the most important determinants of shea fruit yield. In terms of land use, shea trees growing on farmland plots exhibited the highest yields (i.e., fruit quantity and mass) while trees growing on Lixisols performed better than those of the other soil group. Contrary to our expectations, dendrometric parameters had weak relationships with fruit yield regardless of land-use and soil group. There is an inter-annual variability in fruit yield in both soil groups and land-use type. In addition to observed inter-annual yield variability, there was a high degree of variability in production among individual shea trees. Furthermore, household socioeconomic characteristics such as road accessibility, landholding size, and gross annual income influence shea fruit yield. The use of fallow areas is an important land management practice in the study area that influences both conservation and shea yield.

  19. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2012-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are produced from vegetable fats by blending palm mid fraction (PMF) and tropical butters coming from shea, mango kernel or kokum fat. In this regard, high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower hard stearins from solvent fractionation can be used in CBE production since their compositions and physical properties are similar to those found in the above-mentioned tropical butters. In this work, three sunflower hard stearins (SHS) ranging from 65% to 95% of disaturated triacylglycerols and a shea stearin (used as reference) were blended with PMF to evaluate their potential use in CBEs formulation. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of PMF/SHS showed eutectic formation for SHS 65 and SHS 80, but monotectic behaviour with softening effect for SHS 95. Three CBEs from SHS and shea stearin were formulated according to phase behaviour diagrams and solid fat content data at 25 °C. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of these CBEs with cocoa butter showed no eutectic behaviour. Therefore, CBEs elaborated from SHS exhibited full compatibility with cocoa butter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; T Masters, Eliot; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2010-01-01

    Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds.

  1. Characterization of cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses: implications for vegetable fat quantification in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, J E; Dionisi, F

    2001-09-01

    The fatty acids from cocoa butters of different origins, varieties, and suppliers and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (Illexao 30-61, Illexao 30-71, Illexao 30-96, Choclin, Coberine, Chocosine-Illipé, Chocosine-Shea, Shokao, Akomax, Akonord, and Ertina) were investigated by bulk stable carbon isotope analysis and compound specific isotope analysis. The interpretation is based on principal component analysis combining the fatty acid concentrations and the bulk and molecular isotopic data. The scatterplot of the two first principal components allowed detection of the addition of vegetable fats to cocoa butters. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk cocoa butter and of the individual fatty acids is related to mixing with other vegetable fats and possibly to thermally or oxidatively induced degradation during processing (e.g., drying and roasting of the cocoa beans or deodorization of the pressed fat) or storage. The feasibility of the analytical approach for authenticity assessment is discussed.

  2. Pegi Deitz Shea: Threads of a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles Pegi Deitz Shea, an author who considers herself a rule-breaker. While she is surely capable of writing lovely, sentimental stories such as "New Moon" (Boyds Mills Press, 1997) and "Bungalow Fungalow" (Clarion Books, 1991), she is concerned with much more than just telling kids about the niceties of life.…

  3. Effects of fungal (Aspergillus niger or Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) fermentation on the nutritive value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2008-05-01

    1. Shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) meal was fermented for 8 d with either Aspergillus niger, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora or a mixture of the two organisms. The fermentation was completed using two methods, an opened container or a closed container. 2. Each of the 6 samples was dried and incorporated into basal broiler diets at 90 g/kg. 3. In addition, the unfermented shea nut meal was incorporated in the diet at 90 g/kg and the basal diet (maize and soybean meal based) was also provided as an eighth dietary treatment to individually caged broiler chickens. 4. All fermented fungi-treated shea nut meals had similar proximate nutrient compositions to the unfermented shea nut meal, but there were substantial decreases in their hydrolysable tannins and saponin contents. Both fermentation methods gave similar reductions in the concentrations of tannins and saponins. 5. Shea nut meal fermented with individual or both fungal organisms gave greater (P < 0.001) growth performance than that of unfermented shea nut meal. However, all shea nut meals including the unfermented meal gave lower (P < 0.001) growth variables than those for the maize-soybean meal control. 6. The nutritional improvement of shea nut meal achieved in this study still falls far short of what is expected for it to become valuable for the poultry feed industry. These fermentation methods using A. niger or C. subvermispora require further improvements to provide satisfactory feed products.

  4. Validating Efficacy of Shea Nut Oil Extract in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sui-Foon; Wang, Yu-Chia; Chou, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Kang-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine and investigate the efficacy of shea nut oil extract (SheaFlex75) in relation to knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Thirty-three patients (age 63.6 ± 5.8 years) with knee OA were recruited. Real-time ultrasound imaging and surface electromyography were used to objectively assess the morphological changes and the activity of vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscles during a 16-week intervention of SheaFlex75. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to examine the reliability of the interscans. A paired-sample t-test was used to compare the findings in different stages. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the relevant variables of OA and percentage of thickness change of VMO at different contraction levels. Results. The baseline findings showed strong correlation, suggesting that the reliability of interscans at pretest was high. The ability to contract the muscles of the knee to a 30% contraction level showed significant change between the baseline and after 16-week testing, both in terms of morphological changes and muscle activity. Pain scale reported a significant decrease at the 16th week. Conclusion. The results suggest that SheaFlex75 can relieve the symptoms of knee OA and can result in improvement of muscle control of the knee. PMID:24454485

  5. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  6. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat exists as globules in its natural state in milk. The potential of using globular fat to modulate the rheological properties and crystallization behavior in butter-like emulsions was studied in the present work. We conducted a comparative study of butter-like emulsions, with a fat phase consisting of 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% anhydrous milk fat (AMF), the remaining fat being butter grains, and all samples containing 20% water, to obtain systematic variation in the ratio of globular fat. All emulsions were studied over 4wk of storage at 5°C. By combining small and large deformation rheology, we conducted a detailed characterization of the rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions. We applied differential scanning calorimetry to monitor thermal behavior, confocal laser scanning microscopy for microstructural analysis, and low-field pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure solid fat content. By combining these techniques, we determined that increasing the fraction of globular fat (by mixing with butter grains) decreases the hardness of butter-like emulsions up to an order of magnitude at d 1. However, no difference was observed in thermal behavior as a function of butter grain content, as all emulsions containing butter grains revealed 2 endothermal peaks corresponding to the high (32.7°C ± 0.6) and medium (14.6°C ± 0.1) melting fractions of fatty acids. In terms of microstructure, decreasing the amount of butter grains in the emulsions resulted in formation of a denser fat crystal network, corresponding to increased hardness. Moreover, microstructural analysis revealed that the presence of butter grains resulted in faster formation of a continuous fat crystal network compared with the 100% AMF sample, which was dominated by crystal clusters surrounded by liquid oil. During storage, hardness remained stable and no changes in thermal behavior were observed, despite an increase in solid fat content of up to 5%. After 28d of storage, we

  7. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or modified Kohman test may be used. (c) Chemical—(1) Acid degree value. This test should be made on... lipase activity. (2) Free fatty acid. This test should be made on churnings or batches from samples taken... temperature of 72 °F. to establish and maintain a satisfactory keeping quality history. Optionally 98 °F. for...

  8. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or modified Kohman test may be used. (c) Chemical—(1) Acid degree value. This test should be made on... lipase activity. (2) Free fatty acid. This test should be made on churnings or batches from samples taken... temperature of 72 °F. to establish and maintain a satisfactory keeping quality history. Optionally 98 °F. for...

  9. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or modified Kohman test may be used. (c) Chemical—(1) Acid degree value. This test should be made on... lipase activity. (2) Free fatty acid. This test should be made on churnings or batches from samples taken... temperature of 72 °F. to establish and maintain a satisfactory keeping quality history. Optionally 98 °F. for...

  10. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or modified Kohman test may be used. (c) Chemical—(1) Acid degree value. This test should be made on... lipase activity. (2) Free fatty acid. This test should be made on churnings or batches from samples taken... temperature of 72 °F. to establish and maintain a satisfactory keeping quality history. Optionally 98 °F. for...

  11. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  13. Meet EPA Scientist Marie O'Shea, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Scientist Dr. Marie O'Shea is Region 2's Liaison to the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Marie has a background in research on urban watershed management, focused on characterizing and controlling nutrients in stormwater runoff.

  14. Mobilisporobacter senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from tropical shea cake.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Malick; Thioye, Abdoulaye; Labat, Marc; Casalot, Laurence; Joseph, Manon; Samb, Abdoulaye; Ben Ali Gam, Zouhaier

    2016-03-01

    A Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming, strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain Gal1 T , was isolated from shea cake, a waste material from the production of shea butter, originating from Saraya, Senegal. The cells were rod-shaped, slightly curved, and motile with peritrichous flagella. The strain was oxidase-negative and catalase-negative. Growth was observed at temperatures ranging from 15 to 45 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 6.5-9.3 (optimum pH 7.8). The salinity range for growth was 0-3.5 % NaCl (optimum 1 %). Yeast extract was required for growth. Strain Gal1 T fermented various carbohydrates such as mannose, mannitol, arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, glucose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose and lactose and the major end-products were ethanol and acetate. The only major cellular fatty acid was C16 : 0 (19.6 %). The DNA base G+C content of strain Gal1 T was 33.8 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that this strain was related to Mobilitalea sibirica DSM 26468 T with 94.27 % similarity, Clostridium populeti ATTC 35295 T with 93.94 % similarity, and Clostridium aminovalericum DSM 1283 T and Anaerosporobacter mobilis DSM 15930 T with 93.63 % similarity. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain Gal1 T was clearly distinguished from closely related genera, and strain Gal1 T can be assigned to a novel species of a new genus for which the name Mobilisporobacter senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gal1 T ( = DSM 26537 T  = JCM 18753 T ).

  15. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent by...

  16. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent by...

  17. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent by...

  18. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent by...

  19. The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on butter flavor and texture.

    PubMed

    Krause, A J; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Dean, L L; Drake, M A

    2008-02-01

    Butter is often stored for extended periods of time; therefore, it is important for manufacturers to know the refrigerated and frozen shelf life. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the sensory and physical characteristics of butter. Fresh butter was obtained on 2 occasions from 2 facilities in 113-g sticks and 4-kg bulk blocks (2 facilities, 2 package forms). Butters were placed into both frozen (-20 degrees C) and refrigerated storage (5 degrees C). Frozen butters were sampled after 0, 6, 12, 15, and 24 mo; refrigerated butters were sampled after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 mo. Every 3 mo, oxidative stability index (OSI) and descriptive sensory analysis (texture, flavor, and color) were conducted. Every 6 mo, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFV), fatty acid profiling, vane, instrumental color, and oil turbidity were examined. A mixed-model ANOVA was conducted to characterize the effects of storage time, temperature, and package type. Storage time, temperature, and package type affected butter flavor, OSI, PV, and FFV. Refrigerated butter quarters exhibited refrigerator/stale off-flavors concurrent with increased levels of oxidation (lower oxidative stability and higher PV and FFV) within 6 mo of refrigerated storage, and similar trends were observed for refrigerated bulk butter after 9 mo. Off-flavors were not evident in frozen butters until 12 or 18 mo for quarters and bulk butters, respectively. Off-flavors in frozen butters were not correlated with instrumental oxidation measurements. Because butter is such a desirable fat source in terms of flavor and textural properties, it is important that manufacturers understand how long their product can be stored before negative attributes develop.

  20. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  1. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby...

  3. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  4. How nut and seed butters are processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month's food processing column follows the theme "How Is It Porcessed?". It will explore how nut and seed butters are processed. In recent years a variety of new nut and seed butters have entered the marketplace. Their predecessor, peanut butter, as well as these new products and the process...

  5. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    PubMed

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  6. Effects of cocoa butter triacylglycerides and minor compounds on oil migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Maleky, Farnaz

    2018-04-01

    In a multi-component chocolate product, oil migration, from high oil content filling into chocolate, is one of the major contributors to the product quality loss. Among various parameters influencing oil diffusivity, cocoa butter is studied intensively. Studies have shown that the rate of oil transportion in cocoa butter is affected by its composition, the way that it is crystallized, and also the storage conditions. To model and study effects of cocoa butter type and processing conditions on oil migration, five different cocoa butter samples were studied in this work. Samples' chemical compositions in addition to their structural properties were analyzed to understand and compare oil migrations in the networks. Crystallized cocoa butter samples were placed in contact with a cream as a source of liquid oil. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the movement of liquid oil into samples was investigated. The effects of minor differences in the cocoa butter chemical compositions on oil migrations rate are shown clearly. The highest effective diffusion coefficient was observed in the sample with the higher unsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids content. Although shearing at 250s -1 delayed oil migration in all the samples and a significantly lower diffusion coefficient was observed in the dynamic samples, the effects of chemical composition were still dominant. This study successfully highlighted that even minor differences in cocoa butter composition affect the network mass transfer phenomenon dramatically and that it is not easy to diminish these possessions by just crystallization processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  9. General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  10. Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  11. General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  12. Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  13. Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking north - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  14. Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking southwest - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  15. General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, view looking south - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  16. Management of spent shea waste: An instrumental characterization and valorization in clay bricks construction.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-06-01

    This work studies the reuse of spent shea waste as an economic construction material in improving fired clay bricks manufacture aside providing a novel approach to ecofriendly managing its excessive generated from the shea agroindustry. For this purpose, the influence of spent shea waste addition on the chemical, mineralogical, molecular bonding and technological properties (i.e. compressive strength and water absorption) of the fired clay bricks were extensively investigated. The results indicated that the chemical, mineralogical, phase transformations, molecular bonding and thermal behavior of the produced bricks were practically unaffected by the addition of spent shea waste. However, spent shea waste addition increased the compressive strengths and water absorptions of the brick products. Potential performance benefits of reusing spent shea waste was improved fluxing agents, energy-contribution reaction, excellent porosifying effect, reduced thermal conductivity and enhanced compressive strengths of the brick products. This research has therefore provided compelling evidence that could create newfound route for the synergistic ecofriendly reuse of spent shea waste to enhance clay brick construction aside being a potential mainstream disposal option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef governorate-Egypt.

    PubMed

    Meshref, A M S

    2010-06-01

    Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter A total of 60 random samples of cooking butter, were collected from different farmers' houses in different villages, Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Cooking butter samples were examined for psychrotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and molds and yeasts counts. Additionally examination for the presence of pathogenic bacteria like E.coli, S.aureus and Ps.aeruginosa were also performed. The microbiological examination revealed that 100, 100, 36.7, 31.7, 31.7 and 23.3% of the examined samples were contaminated by psychrotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts, coliforms, faecal coliforms, E.coli and S.aureus, respectively. None of the examined cooking butter samples contained Ps.aeruginosa. The means values of sodium chloride and titratable acidity were 0.57 ± 0.05 % and 0.20 ± 0.013%, respectively. The present study showed that cooking butter is produced under unhygienic condition and without good manufacturing practice. The Public health significance and suggestive control measures are discussed.

  18. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jen-Hsin; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints.

  19. Shea Nut Oil Triterpene Concentrate Attenuates Knee Osteoarthritis Development in Rats: Evidence from Knee Joint Histology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Kong, Zwe-Ling; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Background Shea nut oil triterpene concentrate is considered to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it has been used to treat arthritic conditions in humans. This study aimed to investigate the effect of attenuating osteoarthritis (OA)-induced pain and joint destruction in rats by administering shea nut oil triterpene concentrate (SheaFlex75, which is more than 50% triterpenes). Methods An anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) with medial meniscectomy (MMx) was used to induce OA in male Wistar rats. Different doses of SheaFlex75 (111.6 mg/kg, 223.2 mg/kg, and 446.4 mg/kg) were then intragastrically administered daily for 12 weeks after surgery. Body weight and the width of the knee joint were measured weekly. Additionally, incapacitance tests were performed at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 to measure the weight bearing of the hind limbs, and the morphology and histopathology of the medial femoral condyles were examined and were evaluated using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. Results This study showed that SheaFlex75 reduced the swelling of the knee joint with OA and rectified its weight bearing after ACLT plus MMx surgery in rats. Treatment with SheaFlex75 also decreased ACLT plus MMx surgery-induced knee joint matrix loss and cartilage degeneration. Conclusion SheaFlex75 relieves the symptoms of OA and protects cartilage from degeneration. SheaFlex75 thus has the potential to be an ideal nutraceutical supplement for joint protection, particularly for injured knee joints. PMID:27583436

  20. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G

    2009-01-01

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where formmore » V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.« less

  1. Contemporary Carbon Content of Bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Butter

    PubMed Central

    Tong, T.; Ondov, J. M.; Buchholz, B. A.; VanDerveer, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈250 µg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5±1.2% (n=3, 1σ) to 97.1±0.8% (n=3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16±0.12 (n=5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S. PMID:26213077

  2. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    PubMed

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fate of Campylobacter jejuni in butter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Berg, D E

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis was associated with a restaurant in Louisiana during the summer of 1995. Thirty cases were identified, and four required hospitalization. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the patients, and epidemiologic studies revealed illness associated with eating garlic butter served at the restaurant. Three batches of garlic butter prepared by the restaurant associated with the outbreak and a C. jejuni isolate obtained from a patient involved in the outbreak were used for studies to determine the fate of C. jejuni in garlic butter. Studies also were done to determine the efficacy of the heat treatment used by the restaurant to prepare garlic bread to kill C. jejuni. Garlic butter was inoculated with approximately 10(4) and 10(6) CFU/g of C. jejuni and held at 5 or 21 degrees C. Results revealed that the survival of C. jejuni differed greatly, depending on the presence or absence of garlic. At 5 degrees C, C. jejuni populations decreased to an undetectable level (<10 CFU/g) within 3 h for two batches and within 24 h for another batch. In contrast, C. jejuni could survive at 5 degrees C for 13 days in butter with no garlic. At 21 degrees C, C. jejuni populations decreased to an undetectable level within 5 h for two batches and to 50 CFU/g in 5 h for another batch. In contrast, C. jejuni was detected at 500 CFU/g at 28 h after inoculation but was undetectable at 3 days in butter with no garlic held at 21 degrees C. The heating procedure (135 degrees C, 4 min) used to make garlic bread by the implicated restaurant was determined not to be sufficient for killing C. jejuni, with the internal temperature of the buttered bread after heating ranging from 19 to 22 degrees C. This study revealed that C. jejuni can survive for many days in refrigerated butter, but large populations (10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g) are killed within a few hours in butter that contains garlic. Furthermore, the heat treatment used by the restaurant to melt garlic butter in

  4. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  5. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  6. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter--integrating environmental and exposure information.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana; Müller, Anne; Vives, Ingrid; Mariani, Giulio; Umlauf, Gunther

    2013-05-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we report the first step of two to investigate whether butter is a feasible matrix to screen with the purpose to reflect regional ambient atmospheric air levels of POPs. The first step described here is to generate monitoring data; the second is to investigate the relationship between the two matrixes, i.e., POP concentrations in air and butter, which will be reported in another article published in this journal. Here, the 27 organochlorine pesticides listed under the Stockholm Convention have been analyzed in 75 butter samples from Europe. The general conclusions were as follows: Total organochlorine pesticide concentration is lower in butter from northern and central Europe. The spatial gradient of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane and hexachlorocyclohexane is increasing in the eastern region of Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine), dieldrin towards France, and endosulfan levels were elevated on the Azores Island in the Atlantic Ocean. One butter sample from Romania exceeded the European Maximum Residue Limit value for lindane, but the other butter pesticide levels were all below the limit values. The dataset reported here can be used for the calibration of the air-grass-dairy products model, which would support the feasibility to use butter as biomonitor for measuring POP levels in ambient air.

  7. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  8. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng; Lauritzen, Lotte; Mu, Huiling

    2008-10-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition. No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower concentration of triacylglycerols in the plasma 2 h after the meal in comparison with the commercial butter blend (p = 0.02); there was, however, no significant difference 24 h after the meal. In conclusion, fish oil-enriched butter blend provides a source to increase the intake of n-3 LCPUFA in the population, but has no acute effect on cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentration in human.

  9. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  10. From margarine to butter: predictors of changing bread spread in an 11-year population follow-up.

    PubMed

    Prättälä, Ritva; Levälahti, Esko; Lallukka, Tea; Männistö, Satu; Paalanen, Laura; Raulio, Susanna; Roos, Eva; Suominen, Sakari; Mäki-Opas, Tomi

    2016-06-01

    Finland is known for a sharp decrease in the intake of saturated fat and cardiovascular mortality. Since 2000, however, the consumption of butter-containing spreads - an important source of saturated fats - has increased. We examined social and health-related predictors of the increase among Finnish men and women. An 11-year population follow-up. A representative random sample of adult Finns, invited to a health survey in 2000. Altogether 5414 persons aged 30-64 years at baseline in 2000 were re-invited in 2011. Of men 1529 (59 %) and of women 1853 (66 %) answered the questions on bread spreads at both time points. Respondents reported the use of bread spreads by choosing one of the following alternatives: no fat, soft margarine, butter-vegetable oil mixture and butter, which were later categorized into margarine/no spread and butter/butter-vegetable oil mixture (= butter). The predictors included gender, age, marital status, education, employment status, place of residence, health behaviours, BMI and health. Multinomial regression models were fitted. Of the 2582 baseline margarine/no spread users, 24.6% shifted to butter. Only a few of the baseline sociodemographic or health-related determinants predicted the change. Finnish women were more likely to change to butter than men. Living with a spouse predicted the change among men. The change from margarine to butter between 2000 and 2011 seemed not to be a matter of compliance with official nutrition recommendations. Further longitudinal studies on social, behavioural and motivational predictors of dietary changes are needed.

  11. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and shall...

  12. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and shall...

  13. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and shall...

  14. Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the North Fork Butter Creek Bridge (located center of frame), view looking west - North Fork Butter Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork Butter Creek Bridge at Milepost 76.63 on Heppner Highway (Oregon Route 74), Pilot Rock, Umatilla County, OR

  15. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and shall...

  16. Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter (Carya illinoinensis).

    PubMed

    Wagener, Emily A; Kerr, William L

    2017-10-20

    It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. The objective of this work was to create pecan butters with varying oil levels (50-70%) and determine which would give the most acceptable product. Consumers rated pecan butters with 55-60% oil the most acceptable, whether roasted or not. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from 51.8 g (70% oil) to 4,880 g (50%) oil, while "spreadability" ranged from 19.2 to 7748 (g/s). Samples with 70% oil had the lowest viscosity and were Newtonian. Pecan butters with 50-55% oil had high viscosity and were shear thinning. Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0.014 to 500 Pa. The storage modulus (G') increased from ∼7 Pa for samples with 70% oil up to 260,000 Pa for those with 50% oil. In conjunction, tan δ decreased from 1 to 0.07, showing the products take on much more solid-like behavior as oil is removed. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable. There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. Pecans generally have too much oil (∼70%) to make a product with proper consistency and stability. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. It was found that pecan butter with 55-60% oil was most acceptable to consumers and with the level of firmness, yield stress, and spreadability most similar to commercial nut butters. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Qin; Li, Yu-Wei; Wang, Ye-Ru; Luo, Xue-Yun

    2009-05-13

    A study on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in Chinese peanut butter and sesame paste samples was conducted. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) was the predominant toxin detected abundantly and frequently at a level up to 68.51 microg/kg in 41 of 50 peanut butter samples and 20.45 microg/kg in 37 of 100 sesame paste samples analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC). Of the AFB(1)-positive samples, 15 (37%) and 1 (2%) peanut butter samples with AFB(1) exceed European Union (EU) and Chinese regulations, respectively, whereas 19 and 32% of sesame paste samples contained AFB(1) higher than Chinese and EU regulations, respectively. Fourteen and 1 peanut butter samples and 10 and 7 sesame paste samples, respectively, will be legally claimed as positive, rejected, and even banned with consideration of an uncertainty of 40% for AFB(1), based on EU and Chinese regulations. Seeking to balance health benefits with the potential trade disruptions that regulations can cause is the issue of concern.

  18. Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, S; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Sumner, S S; Herbein, J H

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation and firmness of butter and ice cream made with modified milkfat containing enhanced amounts of linoleic acid or oleic acid. The influence of the fatty acid profile of the HO milkfat relating to product properties as compared with the influence the fatty acid profile of the HL milkfat was the main focus of the research. Altering the degree of unsaturation in milkfat may affect melting characteristics and oxidation rates, leading to quality issues in dairy products. Three milkfat compositions (high-oleic, high-linoleic, and control) were obtained by modifying the diets of Holstein cows. Ice cream and butter were processed from milkfat obtained from cows in each dietary group. Butter and ice cream samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid profile and firmness. High-oleic milkfat resulted in a softer butter. Solid fat index of high-oleic and high-linoleic milkfat was lower than the control. Control ice cream mix had higher viscosity compared with high-oleic and high-linoleic, but firmness of all ice creams was similar when measured between -17 and -13 degrees C. Nutritional and textural properties of butter and ice cream can be improved by modifying the diets of cows.

  19. Assessment of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) butter content and composition throughout fermentations.

    PubMed

    Servent, Adrien; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice; Pinot, Marie-Neige; Tardan, Eric; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Hue, Clotilde

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. A 4.71% increase in free fat was measured in the Ecuadorian samples fermented for 144 h. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. Triglyceride and total and linked fatty acid kinetics (0 to 6 days) of the butter remained statistically stable during fermentation, as did unsaponifiable matter. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA. This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. This phenomenon causes butter content retention but is slowly broken after 72 h fermentation. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), or if they are food additives as so defined, they are used in conformity with regulations established... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  2. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  3. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  4. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products...

  5. Bioactive lipids in the butter production chain from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area.

    PubMed

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M; Gori, Alessandro; Losi, Giuseppe; Caboni, Maria F

    2013-11-01

    Bovine milk contains hundreds of diverse components, including proteins, peptides, amino acids, lipids, lactose, vitamins and minerals. Specifically, the lipid composition is influenced by different variables such as breed, feed and technological process. In this study the fatty acid and phospholipid compositions of different samples of butter and its by-products from the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area, produced by industrial and traditional churning processes, were determined. The fatty acid composition of samples manufactured by the traditional method showed higher levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with industrial samples. In particular, the contents of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids were higher in samples produced by the traditional method than in samples produced industrially. Sample phospholipid composition also varied between the two technological processes. Phosphatidylethanolamine was the major phospholipid in cream, butter and buttermilk samples obtained by the industrial process as well as in cream and buttermilk samples from the traditional process, while phosphatidylcholine was the major phospholipid in traditionally produced butter. This result may be explained by the different churning processes causing different types of membrane disruption. Generally, samples produced traditionally had higher contents of total phospholipids; in particular, butter produced by the traditional method had a total phospholipid content 33% higher than that of industrially produced butter. The samples studied represent the two types of products present in the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area, where the industrial churning process is widespread compared with the traditional processing of Reggiana cow's milk. This is because Reggiana cow's milk production is lower than that of other breeds and the traditional churning process is time-consuming and economically disadvantageous. However, its products have been demonstrated to

  6. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  7. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  8. Observing Planets and Small Bodies in Sputtered High Energy Atom (SHEA) Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Baragiola, R.; Fama, M.; Johnson, R.; Mura, A.; Plainaki, Ch.; Sarantos, M.; Cassidy, T. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper speculates on the possibility of performing remote sensing of exposed bodies using SHEA The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper

  9. Contamination of U.S. Butter with Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers from Wrapping Paper

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Smith, Sarah; Colacino, Justin; Malik, Noor; Opel, Matthias; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, excluding the elevated sample. Results The highly contaminated butter sample had a total upper bound PBDE level of 42,252 pg/g wet weight (ww). Levels of brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-206, -207, and -209 were 2,000, 2,290, and 37,600 pg/g ww, respectively. Its wrapping paper contained a total upper-bound PBDE concentration of 804,751 pg/g ww, with levels of BDE-206, -207, and -209 of 51,000, 11,700, and 614,000 pg/g, respectively. Total PBDE levels in the remaining nine butter samples ranged from 180 to 1,212 pg/g, with geometric mean of 483 and median of 284 pg/g. Excluding the outlier, total PBDE daily intake from all food was 22,764 pg/day, lower than some previous U.S. dietary intake estimates. Conclusion Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk. PMID:21138809

  10. Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Smith, Sarah; Colacino, Justin; Malik, Noor; Opel, Matthias; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, excluding the elevated sample. The highly contaminated butter sample had a total upper bound PBDE level of 42,252 pg/g wet weight (ww). Levels of brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-206, -207, and -209 were 2,000, 2,290, and 37,600 pg/g ww, respectively. Its wrapping paper contained a total upper-bound PBDE concentration of 804,751 pg/g ww, with levels of BDE-206, -207, and -209 of 51,000, 11,700, and 614,000 pg/g, respectively. Total PBDE levels in the remaining nine butter samples ranged from 180 to 1,212 pg/g, with geometric mean of 483 and median of 284 pg/g. Excluding the outlier, total PBDE daily intake from all food was 22,764 pg/day, lower than some previous U.S. dietary intake estimates. Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk.

  11. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  12. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  13. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  14. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer, April 14, 1936. FRONT VIEW OF SERVANTS HOME (WEST ELEVATION) - Auburn, Auburn Boulevard, Duncan Memorial Park, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, 1936 GENERAL REAR VIEW (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - Hope Farm (Villa), Auburn Avenue & Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer April 8, 1936 FRONT VIEW REAR WING (NORTH ELEVATION) - Hope Farm (Villa), Auburn Avenue & Homochitto Street, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer. Mar, 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey James Butters, Photographer. Mar, 28, 1936. GENERAL FRONT VIEW (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION) - Marschalk Printing Office, Wall & Franklin Streets, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  18. Enantioselectivity of anteiso-fatty acids in hitherto uninspected sample matrices.

    PubMed

    Eibler, Dorothee; Seyfried, Carolin; Vetter, Walter

    2017-09-01

    Anteiso-fatty acids (aFAs) are chiral molecules due to a methyl substituent on the antepenultimate carbon of the otherwise straight acyl chain. 12-Methyltetradecanoic acid (a15:0) and 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (a17:0) are the predominant aFAs in nature but their individual contributions e.g. to food lipids are usually low. Enantioselective data has been collected in fish, bovine milk/cheese, and Brussels sprouts. In this study, we determined the enantioselectivity of a15:0 and a17:0 in shea butter, moose and camel milk, two soil samples and mold (collected from contaminated cheese). For this purpose, sample lipids were extracted and containing fatty acids were converted into methyl esters. Methyl esters of aFAs were selectively enriched by hydrogenation, urea complexation and/or RP-HPLC-fractionation. Enantioselective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion monitoring mode using a chiral stationary phase consisting of 66% tert.-butyldimethylsilylated β-cyclodextrin in OV-1701. While a15:0 and a17:0 in moose milk were (S)-enantiopure, all other determined samples contained up to 10% (R)-aFAs. The highest proportions of (R)-enantiomers were detected in the soil samples (ee=80%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese and butter by HPLC using an immunoaffinity column.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Hisako; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive convenient method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in cheese and butter by HPLC was developed and validated. The method employs a safe extraction solution (mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water) and an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up. Compared with the widely used method employing chloroform and a Florisil column, the IAC method has a short analytical time and there are no interference peaks. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the IAC method were 0.12 and 0.14 µg/kg, while those of the Florisil column method were 0.47 and 0.23 µg/kg in cheese and buffer, respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD) for cheese (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 92% and 7%, respectively, while for the Florisil column method the corresponding values were 76% and 10%. The recovery and RSD for butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 97% and 9%, and those in the Florisil method were 74% and 9%, respectively. In the IAC method, the values of in-house precision (n=2, day=5) of cheese and butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) were 9% and 13%, respectively. The IAC method is superior to the Florisil column method in terms of safety, ease of handling, sensitivity and reliability. A survey of AFM₁ contamination in imported cheese and butter in Japan was conducted by the IAC method. AFM₁ was not detected in 60 samples of cheese and 30 samples of butter.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of polar and apolar constituents of butter and margarine by nuclear magnetic resonance, reflecting quality and production processes.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Jan

    2008-04-23

    The separation of butter or margarine into polar (soluble in water) and apolar fractions (soluble in chloroform) and subsequent analysis of these fractions by (1)H NMR permits a comprehensive analysis of its constituents. In the polar fraction the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid, the organic acids citric, lactic, butyric, acetic, and formic acid, and, furthermore, the carbohydrate lactose were quantified. In the apolar fraction the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) rumenic acid, diglycerides, and linoleic acid were quantified. Rumenic acid is a characteristic component of ruminant fats and was found in all butter samples. The levels varied between 0.50 and 1.08%. Ten brands of Brazilian butter were investigated as was one brand from Norway. Also, two brands of margarine were investigated for comparison. A large variation in especially polar constituents was found between the butter samples, revealing the presence of preservatives in five brands of butter from Brazil, remarkable because these additives are legally not allowed. Furthermore, the levels of organic acids and lactose permitted conclusions about the production process and quality; for example, the presence of higher levels of free butyric acid indicate lipolysis, leading to a lower quality, and low levels of lactose indicate that after churning the residual milk fluids have been removed by an additional washing step in the production process.

  1. Chem I Supplement. Butter and Margarine: Their Chemistry, Their Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, William R.; McGill, Diana Combs

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the differences between margarine and butter, focusing on the chemical differences. Provides a brief historical overview of the development of both commodities. Describes the manufacture of butter and of margarine, and details the differences in chemical composition and nutritive contents. (TW)

  2. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of...

  3. Method for the routine quantitative gas chromatographic analysis of major free fatty acids in butter and cream.

    PubMed

    Woo, A H; Lindsay, R C

    1980-07-01

    A rapid quantiative method was developed for routine analysis of the major, even carbon-numbered free fatty acids in butter and cream. Free fatty acids were isolated directly from intact samples by a modified silicic acid-potassium hydroxide arrestant column and were separated by gas chromatography with a 1.8 m x 2 mm inner diameter glass column packed with 10% neopentyl glycol adipate on 80/100 Chromosorb W. Purified, formic acid-saturated carrier gas was required for minimal peak tailing and extended column life. The accuracy and reproducibility of the mmethod was established through quantitative recovery studies of free fatty acid mixtures, free fatty acids added to butter, and replicate analysis of butter and cream samples.

  4. Discordance of SHEA/IDSA Clostridium difficile Disease Severity Scale in Solid Organ Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tiffany; McCoy, Christopher; Alonso, Carolyn D; Snyder, Graham M; Rogers, Christin; Richards, Katelyn; Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Mahoney, Monica V

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Solid organ transplant (SOT) patients are at high risk for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) due to chronic immunosuppression and a propensity to receive antimicrobials. Management of CDI in SOT patients poses unique challenges as this population has disease-altered clinical and laboratory parameters. The objective of this study was to assess concordance between various CDI severity scales and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Infectious Diseases Society of America (SHEA/IDSA) guidelines. Methods This retrospective study included all SOT recipients with a first CDI episode following transplant and time-matched (2:1) to non-SOT patients experiencing first CDI episodes between 2008 and 2016. The primary endpoint was concordance rates of CDI episodes considered mild-moderate or severe/severe-complicated in published CDI scales compared with the SHEA/IDSA guidelines. We also sought to compare the distribution of CDI severity across all scales between SOT and non-SOT patients. Results Overall, 32 SOT patients and 64 non-SOT patients were included. The SOT group had significantly higher leukopenia rates at CDI diagnosis; however, the magnitude of serum creatinine change did not differ between groups. According to the SHEA/IDSA scale, CDI episodes in SOT recipients were categorized as mild-moderate and severe/severe-complicated in 23 (72%) and 9 (28%) patients, respectively. Overall concordance rates among SHEA/IDSA guidelines and other scales ranged from 28% to 72%. Concordance rates were highest for mild-moderate CDI with Belmares and for severe/severe-complicated CDI with ESCMID (Table 1). No scale evenly categorized SOT and non-SOT patients across all severities (Figure 1). Conclusion Severity scales with heavy emphasis on white blood cell counts may not adequately categorize SOT patients. Immunocompromised status may need to be considered on its own when categorizing CDI severity and prescribing therapy. Table 1 Number

  5. Emission of diacetyl (2,3 butanedione) from natural butter, microwave popcorn butter flavor powder, paste, and liquid products.

    PubMed

    Rigler, Mark W; Longo, William E

    2010-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3 butanedione), a butter-flavored diketone, has been linked to a severe lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans. We tested a total of three natural butters and artificial microwave popcorn butter flavorings (three powders, two pastes, and one liquid) for bulk diacetyl concentration and diacetyl emissions when heated. Pastes and liquid butter flavors contained the highest amount (6% to 10.6%) while natural butter possessed up to 7500 times less diacetyl. All artificial butter flavors studied emitted diacetyl. Dry powders emitted up to 1.62 ppm diacetyl; wetted powders up to 54.7 ppm diacetyl; and pastes emitted up to 34.9 ppm diacetyl. The liquid butter flavor emitted up to 17.2 ppm diacetyl. Microwave popcorn flavoring mixtures emitted up to 11.4 ppm diacetyl. At least 93% of the dry powder particles were inhalable. These studies show that microwave butter flavoring products generate concentrations of diacetyl in the air great enough to endanger those exposed.

  6. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  7. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter.

    PubMed

    Minckler, Michael R; Fisher, Joseph; Bowers, Rachel; Amini, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient's presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter.

  8. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    PubMed Central

    Minckler, Michael R; Fisher, Joseph; Bowers, Rachel; Amini, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. Case report This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient’s presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. Conclusion This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter. PMID:28223850

  9. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P < 0·05) in pathogen populations. Supernatants of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus cultures inhibited pathogen growth; however, the elevation of pH diminished their antibacterial activities. Crude bacteriocin extracts had a strain-specific inhibitory effect only towards Listeria monocytogenes. Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Apparent metabolisable energy and digestibility of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) fat, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) fat and soybean oil in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to determine and compare the apparent lipid digestibility coefficient and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) fat in broiler chickens with that of soybean oil and cocoa fat. 2. One hundred and sixty 13-d-old male broiler chicks were used in a randomised complete block design. The fats were added at 30, 60 and 90 g/kg to a basal diet. A tenth dietary treatment was the basal feed with no added fats or oils. The birds were fed on the diets for 8 d and all droppings were collected for the final 4 d. 3. The mean coefficient of apparent lipid digestibility for shea fat (0.58) was similar to that of cocoa fat (0.54) but lower than that of soybean oil (0.95). There was evidence of a lipid x concentration interaction with the 90 g/kg shea fat diet having low lipid digestibility (0.43). 4. There was an interaction between the effects of dietary lipid concentration and test lipid on AME but, at dietary levels of 60 g/kg and below, the AME of shea fat (22.0 MJ/kg DM) and cocoa fat (26.4 MJ/kg DM) was significantly lower than that of soybean oil (39.8 MJ/kg DM).

  11. Triterpene glycosides and other polar constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Kurita, Masahiro; Shinozaki, Takuro; Ukiya, Motohiko; Yasukawa, Ken; Shimizu, Naoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Masters, Eliot T; Akihisa, Momoko; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    The MeOH extract of defatted shea (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) kernels was investigated for its constituents, and fifteen oleanane-type triterpene acids and glycosides, two steroid glucosides, two pentane-2,4-diol glucosides, seven phenolic compounds, and three sugars, were isolated. The structures of five triterpene glycosides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Upon evaluation of the bioactivity of the isolated compounds, it was found that some or most of the compounds have potent or moderate inhibitory activities against the following: melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH); generation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-teradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells; t TPA-induced inflammation in mice, and proliferation of one or more of HL-60, A549, AZ521, and SK-BR-3 human cancer cell lines, respectively. Western blot analysis established that paradoxoside E inhibits melanogenesis by regulation of expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2. In addition, tieghemelin A was demonstrated to exhibit cytotoxic activity against A549 cells (IC50 13.5 μM) mainly due to induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry. The extract of defatted shea kernels and its constituents may be, therefore, valuable as potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin-whitening, chemopreventive, and anticancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  13. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  14. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  15. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  16. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  17. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  18. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  19. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  20. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  2. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67....67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a) Claims may be made to characterize the level of nutrients, including fat, in butter if: (1) The claim complies with the requirements of § 101.13 and with...

  4. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  5. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  6. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  7. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Tibetan butter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yawei; Yang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-02-01

    The Tibetan plateau is considered a potential cold trap for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and plays an important role in the global long-range transport of these compounds. This present work surveyed the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Tibetan butter samples collected from different prefectures in Tibet autonomous region (TAR). summation operator(25)PCB concentrations ranged from 137 to 2518 pg g(-1) with a mean value 519 pg g(-1), which were far lower than those in the butter from other regions in the world. The highest level was found in butter from Sichuan province, which is located to the east of the Tibetan plateau and the lowest value was in samples from southeast TAR. The average concentration of summation Sigma(12)PBDE was 125 pg g(-1). The sample with highest and lowest summation Sigma(12)PBDE concentration (955 and 18.0 pg g(-1)) was from the south and southeast part of the plateau, respectively. Back trajectory model implied that the sources of these two groups of POPs were by atmospheric deposition in south, whereas the western plateau was mainly influenced by the tropical monsoon from south Asia. Air currents from Sichuan and Gansu province are further responsible for the atmospheric transport of PCBs and PBDEs to the eastern and northern side of the plateau. Local air concentrations of summation Sigma(5)PCBs predicted using air-milk transfer factor were at the lower end of published global levels. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  10. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  11. Letter to the Editor re: Bittman's "Butter is Back"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mark Bittman suggests that “Butter Is Back” (column, March 26) based on one highly controversial meta-analysis. There are a number of ways to summarize the available scientific data. The links? Conclusions of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, released last fall, ...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  13. Butter vs. Margarine: Which Is Better for My Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is made from vegetable oils, so it contains unsaturated "good" fats — polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. These types of fats help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad," cholesterol when substituted for saturated fat. Butter, on the other hand, is made ...

  14. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in…

  15. "The Butter Battle Book": Engaging Children's Thoughts of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature…

  16. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  17. ESolvent-free, enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production from mango, neem, and shea oils via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nde, Divine Bup; Astete, Carlos; Boldor, Dorin

    2015-12-01

    Mango, neem and shea kernels produce non-conventional oils whose potentials are not fully exploited. To give an added value to these oils, they were transesterified into biodiesel in a solvent-free system using immobilized enzyme lipozyme from Mucor miehei. The Doehlert experimental design was used to evaluate the methyl ester (ME) yields as influenced by enzyme concentration-EC, temperature-T, added water content-AWC, and reaction time-RT. Biodiesel yields were quantified by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and subsequently modeled by a second order polynomial equation with interactions. Lipozyme enzymes were more tolerant to high temperatures in neem and shea oils reaction media compared to that of mango oil. The optimum reaction conditions EC, T, AWC, and RT assuring near complete conversion were as follows: mango oil 7.25 %, 36.6 °C, 10.9 %, 36.4 h; neem oil EC = 7.19 %, T = 45.7 °C, AWC = 8.43 %, RT = 25.08 h; and shea oil EC = 4.43 %, T = 45.65 °C, AWC = 6.21 % and RT = 25.08 h. Validation experiments of these optimum conditions gave ME yields of 98.1 ± 1.0, 98.5 ± 1.6 and 99.3 ± 0.4 % for mango, neem and shea oils, respectively, which all met ASTM biodiesel standards.

  18. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and acid value; lower moisture and ash; and was softer than the control. Cream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A national outbreak of Salmonella serotype Tennessee infections from contaminated peanut butter: a new food vehicle for salmonellosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Anandi N; Hoekstra, Mike; Patel, Nehal; Ewald, Gwen; Lord, Cathy; Clarke, Carmen; Villamil, Elizabeth; Niksich, Katherine; Bopp, Cheryl; Nguyen, Thai-An; Zink, Donald; Lynch, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella serotype Tennessee is a rare cause of the estimated 1 million cases of salmonellosis occurring annually in the United States. In January 2007, we began investigating a nationwide increase in Salmonella Tennessee infections. We defined a case as Salmonella Tennessee infection in a patient whose isolate demonstrated 1 of 3 closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and whose illness began during the period 1 August 2006 through 31 July 2007. We conducted a case-control study in 22 states and performed laboratory testing of foods and environmental samples. We identified 715 cases in 48 states; 37% of isolates were from urine specimens. Illness was associated with consuming peanut butter more than once a week (matched odds ratio [mOR], 3.5 [95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 1.4-9.9]), consuming Brand X peanut butter (mOR, 12.1 [95% CI, 3.6-66.3]), and consuming Brand Y peanut butter (mOR, 9.1 [95% CI, 1.0-433]). Brands X and Y were produced in 1 plant, which ceased production and recalled products on 14 February 2007. Laboratories isolated outbreak strains of Salmonella Tennessee from 34 Brands X and Y peanut butter jars and 2 plant environmental samples. This large, widespread outbreak of salmonellosis is the first linked to peanut butter in the United States; a nationwide recall resulted in outbreak control. Environmental contamination in the peanut butter plant likely caused this outbreak. This outbreak highlights the risk of salmonellosis from heat-processed foods of nonanimal origin previously felt to be low risk for Salmonella contamination.

  20. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Development and validation of a method for the determination of low-ppb levels of macrocyclic lactones in butter, using HPLC-fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Resende, Michele Fabri; Brasil, Taila Figueiredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-07-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four macrocyclic lactones (ML) (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin) in butter, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The method employed heated liquid-liquid extraction and a mixture of acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and water, with preconcentration and derivatization, to produce stable fluorescent derivatives. The chromatographic run time was <12.5 min, with excellent separation. The method validation followed international guidelines and employed fortified butter samples. The figures of merit obtained, e.g. recovery (72.4-106.5%), repeatability (8.8%), within-laboratory reproducibility (15.7%) and limits of quantification (0.09-0.16 μg kg(-1)) were satisfactory for the desired application. The application of the method to real samples showed that ML residues were present in six of the ten samples evaluated. The method proved to be simple, easy and appropriate for simultaneous determination of ML residues in butter. To our knowledge, this is the first method described for the evaluation of ML in butter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

  3. Impact of the addition of cocoa butter equivalent on the volatile compounds profile of dark chocolate.

    PubMed

    de Silva Souza, Cristiano; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the partial replacement of cocoa butter (CB) by cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) in the release of volatile compounds in dark chocolate was studied. The fatty acid profile, triacylglyceride composition, solid fat content (SFC) and melting point were determined in CB and CBE. Chocolate with CB (F1) and with different content of CBE (5 and 10%-F2 and F3, respectively) were prepared. Plastic viscosity and Casson flow limit, particle size distribution and release of volatile compounds using a solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SMPE-GC) were determined in the chocolate samples. The melting point was similar for the studied samples but SFC indicated different melting behavior. CBE showed a higher saturated fatty acid content when compared to CB. The samples showed similar SOS triglyceride content (21 and 23.7% for CB and CBE, respectively). Higher levels of POS and lower POP were observed for CB when compared to CBE (44.8 and 19.7 and 19 and 41.1%, respectively). The flow limit and plastic viscosity were similar for the studied chocolates samples, as well as the particle size distribution. Among the 27 volatile compounds identified in the samples studied, 12 were detected in significantly higher concentrations in sample F1 (phenylacetaldehyde, methylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2-acetylpyrrole, acetophenone and isovaleric acid). The highest changes were observed in the pyrazines group, which presented a decrease of more than half in the formulations where part of the CB was replaced by the CBE.

  4. The Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT): Relationship of Interest Scale Scores to Fluid and Crystallized IQs at Ages 12 to 22 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    1995-01-01

    The six Holland-based Interest Scale scores yielded by the Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making System (CDM) (T. Harrington and A. O'Shea, 1982) were related to sex, race, and performance on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test for 254 adolescents and young adults. CDM scores did not relate to most of the variables studied, and…

  5. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    PubMed

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 American

  6. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  7. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  8. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2012-12-01

    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or...

  10. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes-based matrix solid phase dispersion extraction for determination of hormones in butter by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Su, Rui; Wang, Xinghua; Xu, Xu; Wang, Ziming; Li, Dan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2011-08-05

    The multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-based matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) was applied for the extraction of hormones, including 17-α-ethinylestradiol, 17-α-estradiol, estriol, 17-β-estradiol, estrone, medroxyprogesterone, progesterone and norethisterone acetate in butter samples. The method includes MSPD extraction of the target analytes from butter samples, derivatization of hormones with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride-acetonitrile mixture, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mixture containing 0.30 g graphitized MWCNTs and 0.10 g MWCNTs was selected as absorbent. Ethyl acetate was used as elution solvent. The elution solvent volume and flow rate were 12 mL and 0.9 mL min(-1), respectively. The recoveries of hormones obtained by analyzing the five spiked butter samples were from 84.5 to 111.2% and relative standard deviations from 1.9 to 8.9%. Limits of detection and quantification for determining the analytes were in the range of 0.2-1.3 and 0.8-4.5 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with other traditional methods, the proposed method is simpler in the operation and shorter in the sample pretreatment time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational Lung Disease Risk and Exposure to Butter-Flavoring Chemicals After Implementation of Controls at a Microwave Popcorn Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Fedan, Kathleen B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives After an outbreak of severe lung disease among workers exposed to butter-flavoring chemicals at a microwave popcorn plant, we determined whether or not lung disease risk declined after implementation of exposure controls. Methods National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health staff performed eight serial cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene surveys at the plant from November 2000 through August 2003. Medical surveys included standardized questionnaires and spirometry testing. Industrial hygiene surveys measured levels of production-related air contaminants, including butter-flavoring chemicals such as diacetyl. All diacetyl concentrations above detectable limits were corrected for the effects of absolute humidity and days to sample extraction. Results Ventilation and isolation of the production process resulted in one to three orders of magnitude reductions in diacetyl air concentrations in different areas of the plant. Workers with past high exposures had stable chest symptoms over time; nasal, eye, and skin irritation symptoms declined. New workers had lower symptom prevalences and higher lung function than workers with past high exposures, and they did not worsen over time. In workers who had at least three spirometry tests, those with past high exposures were more likely to experience rapid declines in lung function than new workers. Conclusions Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce. Some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk and should use respiratory protection and have regularly scheduled spirometry to detect rapid lung function declines that may be work-related. Close follow-up of such workers is likely to yield additional information on risks due to peak and time-weighted exposure levels. PMID:21800743

  13. Occupational lung disease risk and exposure to butter-flavoring chemicals after implementation of controls at a microwave popcorn plant.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Fedan, Kathleen B; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    After an outbreak of severe lung disease among workers exposed to butter-flavoring chemicals at a microwave popcorn plant, we determined whether or not lung disease risk declined after implementation of exposure controls. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health staff performed eight serial cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene surveys at the plant from November 2000 through August 2003. Medical surveys included standardized questionnaires and spirometry testing. Industrial hygiene surveys measured levels of production-related air contaminants, including butter-flavoring chemicals such as diacetyl. All diacetyl concentrations above detectable limits were corrected for the effects of absolute humidity and days to sample extraction. Ventilation and isolation of the production process resulted in one to three orders of magnitude reductions in diacetyl air concentrations in different areas of the plant. Workers with past high exposures had stable chest symptoms over time; nasal, eye, and skin irritation symptoms declined. New workers had lower symptom prevalences and higher lung function than workers with past high exposures, and they did not worsen over time. In workers who had at least three spirometry tests, those with past high exposures were more likely to experience rapid declines in lung function than new workers. Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce. Some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk and should use respiratory protection and have regularly scheduled spirometry to detect rapid lung function declines that may be work-related. Close follow-up of such workers is likely to yield additional information on risks due to peak and time-weighted exposure levels.

  14. Salmonellosis and the GI Tract: More than Just Peanut Butter

    PubMed Central

    Cianflone, Nancy F. Crum

    2009-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., causing approximately 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats. However, almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of over 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the U.S. occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and a variety of immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis; however, bacteremia, endovascular, and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, with antibiotic therapy reserved among persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and among consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis. PMID:18627657

  15. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2008-08-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing about 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats, but almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of more than 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis, but bacteremia and endovascular and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, and antibiotic therapy is reserved for persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

  16. Studies into the transfer and migration of phthalate esters from aluminium foil-paper laminates to butter and margarine.

    PubMed

    Page, B D; Lacroix, G M

    1992-01-01

    Retail samples of Canadian butter and margarine wrapped in aluminium foil-paper laminate were found to contain dibutyl, butyl benzyl and/or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DBP, BBP, DEHP) as packaging migrants at levels up to 10.6, 47.8 and 11.9 micrograms/g, respectively. These phthalates were determined by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after clean-up of the separated oil by sweep co-distillation. The phthalate esters found in the contacted butter or margarine were also found in the contacting wrappers. They were determined in wrapper extracts by liquid chromatography with diode array detection or by GC-FID. Analysis of unused wrappers showed 76-88% of the total DBP and DEHP to be present on the foil (outer) surface as a component of the protective coating (washcoat). The remainder of the DBP and DEHP was found on the food-contacting paper surface, presumably by transfer from the outer to inner surface during storage in tightly wound rolls, although transfer of phthalate esters, if present in the paper-foil adhesive, cannot be ruled out. Food-contacting surface concentrations of DBP and DEHP were found to be 2.4 to 4.7 and 2.8 to 3.6 micrograms/cm2, respectively. Samples of each packaging component: paper, foil, adhesive, washcoat and inks were analysed for phthalate esters and only the washcoat was found to contain phthalate esters.

  17. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  18. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    PubMed

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, İlkay; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25136602

  20. Relevance of casual contact with peanut butter in children with peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Simonte, Steven J; Ma, Songhui; Mofidi, Shideh; Sicherer, Scott H

    2003-07-01

    Casual skin contact or inhalation of peanut butter fumes is reported and feared to cause allergic reactions in highly sensitive children with peanut allergy but has not been systematically studied. We sought to determine the clinical relevance of exposure to peanut butter by means of inhalation and skin contact in children with peanut allergy. Children with significant peanut allergy (recent peanut-specific IgE antibody concentration >50 kIU/L or evidence of peanut-specific IgE antibody and one of the following: clinical anaphylaxis, a reported inhalation-contact reaction, or positive double-blind, placebo-controlled oral challenge result to peanut) underwent double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized exposures to peanut butter by means of contact with intact skin (0.2 mL pressed flat for 1 minute) and inhalation (surface area of 6.3 square inches 12 inches from the face for 10 minutes). Placebo challenges were performed by using soy butter mixed with histamine (contact), and scent was masked with soy butter, tuna, and mint (inhalation). Thirty children underwent the challenges (median age, 7.7 years; median peanut IgE level, >100 kIU/L; 13 with prior history of contact and 11 with inhalation reactions). None experienced a systemic or respiratory reaction. Erythema (3 subjects), pruritus without erythema (5 subjects), and wheal-and-flare reactions (2 subjects) developed only at the site of skin contact with peanut butter. From this number of participants, it can be stated with 96% confidence that at least 90% of highly sensitive children with peanut allergy would not experience a systemic-respiratory reaction from casual exposure to peanut butter. Casual exposure to peanut butter is unlikely to elicit significant allergic reactions. The results cannot be generalized to larger exposures or to contact with peanut in other forms (flour and roasted peanuts).

  1. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  3. Industrial Application of Different Heat Treatments and Cream Fat Contents for Improving the Spreadability of Butter.

    PubMed

    Tondhoosh, Arash; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohamadifar, Mohamad A; Homayouni-Rad, Aziz; Hosseinoghli, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Individual factors, which interfere in the continuous churning, were manipulated to enhance the rheological properties and chemical composition of butter. This process leads to achieve softer; more spreadable, and ultimately healthier product for consumers. In addition it could prevent hardening of texture especially in winter. Firstly, Pasteurized cream with different fat contents (40 & 45% fat) was passed through heat treatments, and then it was injected to a continuous churn. Textural and melting behavior and fatty acid composition of butter were analyzed. Increasing the fat content of cream (from 40 to 45 %) and holding time (from 3h to 5h) in mid-temperature (18 ºC) and reducing the churning temperature (from 12 ºC to 10 ºC), resulted in soft butter texture and improved butter spreadability. Loss Tangent (tan δ) was increased from 0.11 to 0.74 (T=15 ºC;f=1Hz). The melting temperature of butter was decreased from 36ºC to 32ºC and total trans fatty acid content was decreased from 3.2 % to 1.87 %. It was concluded that such heating process (which has been studied and reported in patents) absorbs the low- SFC fats of the cream, integrates them into the butter texture a softer and more spreadable product. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  5. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Julia; Rosenquist, Anna; Ohlsson, Lena

    2011-06-28

    Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs). Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in plasma. A randomized crossover design (n = 19) was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P < 0.05). No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC) plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  6. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: A randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs). Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in plasma. Methods A randomized crossover design (n = 19) was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P < 0.05). Results No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC) plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. Conclusions The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially. PMID:21711508

  7. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals. © 2013.

  8. Delaying fat bloom formation in dark chocolate by adding sorbitan monostearate or cocoa butter stearin.

    PubMed

    Buscato, Monise Helen Masuchi; Hara, Larissa Miho; Bonomi, Élida Castilho; Calligaris, Guilherme de Andrade; Cardoso, Lisandro Pavie; Grimaldi, Renato; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2018-08-01

    Two formulations of dark chocolate were developed by adding cocoa butter stearin (CBSt) or sorbitan monostearate (SMS) and compared to a standard formulation in order to investigate fat bloom formation over time. Fat bloom was monitored by Whiteness Index (WI), melting behavior and polymorphism determinations, in bars stored during 90 days at 20 °C and under oscillating temperature between 20 and 32 °C. All samples stored at 20 °C did not develop fat bloom and the required β(V) form was maintained. Under oscillating storage condition, samples with CBSt (6.0%, w/w) and SMS (0.15%, w/w) delayed the surface fat bloom formation by at least 45 and 15 days, respectively, compared to standard chocolate, observed visually and through WI increments. The β(V) to β(VI) polymorphic transition correlated well with the WI, and also with changes in DSC thermograms, confirming the higher effectiveness of specific triacylglycerol (mainly StOSt) in delaying bloom formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J.R.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3 = 17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25–50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. PMID:24007741

  10. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  12. Environmental impacts of milk powder and butter manufactured in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, William; Goggins, Jamie; Clifford, Eoghan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2017-02-01

    The abolition of the milk quota system that was in place in Europe was abolished in 2015, which instigated an immediate increase in milk production in many European countries. This increase will aid in addressing the world's ever growing demand for food, but will incur increased stresses on the environmental impact and sustainability of the dairy industry. In this study, an environmental life cycle assessment was performed in order to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of milk powder and butter in the Republic of Ireland. A farm gate to processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk transportation, processing into each product and packaging, is assessed in this study. Operational data was obtained from 5 dairy processing factories that produce milk powder (4 of which also produce butter). Results for each environmental impact category are presented per kilogram of product. Energy consumption (raw milk transportation and on-site electrical and thermal energy usage) contributes, on average, 89% and 78% of the total global warming potential, for milk powder and butter respectively, for the life cycle stages assessed. Similarly, energy consumption contributes, on average, 86% and 96% of the total terrestrial acidification potential for milk powder and butter respectively, for these life cycle stages. Emissions associated with wastewater treatment contribute approximately 10% and 40% to the total freshwater eutrophication potential and marine eutrophication potential, respectively, for both milk powder and butter production. In addition, packaging materials also has a significant contribution to these environmental impact categories for butter production. Results were also presented for three milk powder products being manufactured by the factories surveyed: skim milk powder, whole milk powder and full fat milk powder. The analysis presented in this paper helps to identify opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts

  13. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  14. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Birnie-Gauvin, K; Peiman, K S; Larsen, M H; Aarestrup, K; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher with cortisol-vegetable shortening than with cortisol-cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol-vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol-cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are both viable techniques for cortisol manipulation in fishes in temperate climates, providing researchers with different options depending on study objectives. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Investigating the Small and Medium Enterprise Landscape of Accra, Ghana: Prospects and Barriers to Economic Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    similar comments on a previous visit to Ghana-there is a familial aversion and almost a cultural “ shame ” to give up control of an entity that is seen to...firm that manufactures cosmetics made of shea butter (shea butter is a common fat extracted from the African Shea tree and is becoming very popular in

  16. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.

    PubMed

    Kalla, Adarsh M; Sahu, C; Agrawal, A K; Bisen, P; Chavhan, B B; Sinha, Geetesh

    2016-05-01

    The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. In the present study, the cream was churned at different temperatures (8, 10 and 12 °C) and churn speeds (35, 60 and 85 rpm). The optimum parameters of churning time (40 min), moisture content (16 %) and overrun (19.42 %) were obtained when cream was churned at churning temperature of 10 °C and churn speed of 60 rpm. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale.

  17. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  19. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  20. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  1. Survival and heat resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment.

  2. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  4. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pimpin, Laura; Wu, Jason H. Y.; Haskelberg, Hila; Del Gobbo, Liana; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary guidelines recommend avoiding foods high in saturated fat. Yet, emerging evidence suggests cardiometabolic benefits of dairy products and dairy fat. Evidence on the role of butter, with high saturated dairy fat content, for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the association of butter consumption with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in general populations. Methods and Findings We searched 9 databases from inception to May 2015 without restriction on setting, or language, using keywords related to butter consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Prospective cohorts or randomized clinical trials providing estimates of effects of butter intake on mortality, cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, or diabetes in adult populations were included. One investigator screened titles and abstracts; and two reviewed full-text articles independently in duplicate, and extracted study and participant characteristics, exposure and outcome definitions and assessment methods, analysis methods, and adjusted effects and associated uncertainty, all independently in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Random and fixed effects meta-analysis pooled findings, with heterogeneity assessed using the I2 statistic and publication bias by Egger’s test and visual inspection of funnel plots. We identified 9 publications including 15 country-specific cohorts, together reporting on 636,151 unique participants with 6.5 million person-years of follow-up and including 28,271 total deaths, 9,783 cases of incident cardiovascular disease, and 23,954 cases of incident diabetes. No RCTs were identified. Butter consumption was weakly associated with all-cause mortality (N = 9 country-specific cohorts; per 14g(1 tablespoon)/day: RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.03, P = 0.045); was not significantly associated

  7. Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality.

    PubMed

    Pimpin, Laura; Wu, Jason H Y; Haskelberg, Hila; Del Gobbo, Liana; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend avoiding foods high in saturated fat. Yet, emerging evidence suggests cardiometabolic benefits of dairy products and dairy fat. Evidence on the role of butter, with high saturated dairy fat content, for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the association of butter consumption with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in general populations. We searched 9 databases from inception to May 2015 without restriction on setting, or language, using keywords related to butter consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Prospective cohorts or randomized clinical trials providing estimates of effects of butter intake on mortality, cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, or diabetes in adult populations were included. One investigator screened titles and abstracts; and two reviewed full-text articles independently in duplicate, and extracted study and participant characteristics, exposure and outcome definitions and assessment methods, analysis methods, and adjusted effects and associated uncertainty, all independently in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Random and fixed effects meta-analysis pooled findings, with heterogeneity assessed using the I2 statistic and publication bias by Egger's test and visual inspection of funnel plots. We identified 9 publications including 15 country-specific cohorts, together reporting on 636,151 unique participants with 6.5 million person-years of follow-up and including 28,271 total deaths, 9,783 cases of incident cardiovascular disease, and 23,954 cases of incident diabetes. No RCTs were identified. Butter consumption was weakly associated with all-cause mortality (N = 9 country-specific cohorts; per 14g(1 tablespoon)/day: RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.03, P = 0.045); was not significantly associated with any cardiovascular disease (N

  8. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    PubMed

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers.

  9. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P < 0.001), the ratio plasma lathosterol/cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.001) and apoB (P<0.001) levels were significantly different among the diets and were significantly lower during coconut and safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (P< or =0.001) different among the diets and were not significantly different between buffer and coconut diets. These data suggest that cholesterol synthesis is lower during diets rich in coconut fat and safflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  10. Fourth-Grade Primary School Students' Thought Processes and Challenges Encountered during the Butter Beans Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Neslihan; Eraslan, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…

  11. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67 Section 101.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101...

  12. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67 Section 101.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101...

  13. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67 Section 101.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101...

  14. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67 Section 101.67 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101...

  15. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    PubMed

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  16. Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes.

    PubMed

    Sae-Eaw, A; Chompreeda, P; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Haruthaithanasan, V; Suwonsichon, T; Saidu, J E; Xu, Z

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated consumer acceptance and purchase intent of nonwheat butter cake formulations prepared with Thai jasmine rice flour. Three nonwheat rice butter cakes were prepared with varying amounts of powdered emulsifier (propylene glycol ester:diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyceride, 8:2) at 0% (product A), 7.5% (product B), and 15% (product C) of the margarine content (15%) in the cake formulation. A commercial wheat-based butter cake served as the control. Consumers (n= 400) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a binomial (yes/no) scale. At least 81% of consumers accepted products B and C, of which 42.1% and 47%, respectively, would purchase the products if commercially available. Product A was neither liked nor disliked with an overall liking score of 5.39. The butter cake products were differentiated by textural acceptability (overall texture, softness, and moistness) with a canonical correlation of 0.71 to 0.79. Overall liking and taste influenced overall acceptance and purchase intent. Odor influenced purchase intent (P= 0.0014), but not overall acceptance. The odds ratio of overall liking was 3.462 for purchase intent, indicating the probability of the product being purchased is 3.462 times higher (than not being purchased, P < 0.0001) with every 1-unit increase of the overall liking score. Based on the logit model, overall acceptance and purchase intent could be predicted with 89.3% and 83.3% accuracy, respectively. The study demonstrated feasibility of completely substituting wheat flour with Thai jasmine rice flour for production of butter cake products acceptable to American consumers.

  17. Theoretical Effects of Substituting Butter with Margarine on Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Rossouw, Jacques E; Roberts, Mary B; Liu, Simin; Johnson, Karen C; Shikany, James M; Manson, JoAnn E; Tinker, Lesley F; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-01-01

    Several recent articles have called into question the deleterious effects of high animal fat diets due to mixed results from epidemiologic studies and the lack of clinical trial evidence in meta-analyses of dietary intervention trials. We were interested in examining the theoretical effects of substituting plant-based fats from different types of margarine for animal-based fat from butter on the risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). We prospectively studied 71,410 women, aged 50-79 years, and evaluated their risk for clinical myocardial infarction (MI), total coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and atherosclerosis-related CVD with an average of 13.2 years of follow-up. Butter and margarine intakes were obtained at baseline and year 3 by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression using a cumulative average diet method was used to estimate the theoretical effect of substituting 1 teaspoon/day of three types of margarine for the same amount of butter. Substituting butter or stick margarine with tub margarine was associated with lower risk of MI (HRs = 0.95 and 0.91). Subgroup analyses, which evaluated these substitutions among participants with a single source of spreadable fat, showed stronger associations for MI (HRs = 0.92 and 0.87). Outcomes of total CHD, ischemic stroke, and atherosclerosis-related CVD showed wide confidence intervals but the same trends as the MI results. This theoretical dietary substitution analysis suggests that substituting butter and stick margarine with tub margarine when spreadable fats are eaten may be associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction.

  18. Theoretical effects of substituting butter with margarine on risk of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Roberts, Mary B.; Liu, Simin; Johnson, Karen C.; Shikany, James M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Eaton, Charles B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Several recent papers have called into question the deleterious effects of high animal fat diets due to mixed results from epidemiologic studies and the lack of clinical trial evidence in meta-analyses of dietary intervention trials. We were interested in examining the theoretical effects of substituting plant-based fats from different types of margarine for animal based fat from butter on the risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We prospectively studied 71,410 women, aged 50–79 years, and evaluated their risk for clinical myocardial infarction (MI), total coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and atherosclerosis-related CVD with an average of 13.2 years of follow-up. Butter and margarine intakes were obtained at baseline and Year 3 by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression using a cumulative average diet method was used to estimate the theoretical effect of substituting 1 teaspoon/day of three types of margarine for the same amount of butter. Results Substituting butter or stick margarine with tub margarine was associated with lower risk of MI (HRs=0.95 and 0.91). Subgroup analyses, which evaluated these substitutions among participants with a single source of spreadable fat, showed stronger associations for MI (HRs=0.92 and 0.87). Outcomes of total CHD, ischemic stroke, and atherosclerosis-related CVD showed wide confidence intervals but the same trends as the MI results. Conclusions This theoretical dietary substitution analysis suggests that substituting butter and stick margarine with tub margarine when spreadable fats are eaten may be associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction. PMID:27648593

  19. Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

    2001-01-01

    Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers.

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  1. Preparation of peanut butter suspension for determination of peanuts using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, Mary W; Brewer, Vickery A; Williams, Kristina M; Westphal, Carmen D; Heeres, James T

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the 8 most common allergenic foods and a large proportion of peanut-allergic individuals have severe reactions, some to minimal exposure. Specific protein constituents in the peanuts are the cause of the allergic reactions in sensitized individuals who ingest the peanuts. To avoid accidental ingestion of peanut-contaminated food, methods of analysis for the determination of the allergenic proteins in foods are important tools. Such methods could help identify foods inadvertently contaminated with peanuts, thereby reducing the incidence of allergic reactions to peanuts. Commercial immunoassay kits are available but need study for method performance, which requires reference materials for within- and between-laboratory validations. In this study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2387 peanut butter was used. A polytron homogenizer was used to prepare a homogenous aqueous Peanut Butter suspension for the evaluation of method performance of some commercially available immunoassay kits such as Veratox for Peanut Allergen Test (Neogen Corp.), Ridascreen Peanut (R-Biopharm GmbH), and Bio-Kit Peanut Protein Assay Kit (Tepnel). Each gram of the aqueous peanut butter suspension contained 20 mg carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, 643 microg peanut, 0.5 mg thimerosal, and 2.5 mg bovine serum albumin. The suspension was homogenous, stable, reproducible, and applicable for adding to ice cream, cookies, breakfast cereals, and chocolate for recovery studies at spike levels ranging from 12 to 90 microg/g.

  2. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  3. Butter feeding enhances TNF-alpha production from macrophages and lymphocyte adherence in murine small intestinal microvessels.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Yoichi; Hokari, Ryota; Miura, Soichiro; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Oyama, Tokushige; Kurihara, Chie; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-11-01

    Dietary fat is known to modulate immune functions. Intake of an animal fat-rich diet has been linked to increased risk of inflammation; however, little is known about how animal fat ingestion directly affects intestinal immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of butter feeding on lymphocyte migration in intestinal mucosa and the changes in adhesion molecules and cytokines involved in this effect. T-lymphocytes isolated from the spleen were fluorescence-labeled and injected into recipient mice. Butter was administered into the duodenum, and villus microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa were observed under an intravital microscope. mRNA expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines in the intestinal mucosa were determined by quantitative PCR. The effect of butter feeding on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression of intestinal macrophages was also determined. Intraluminal butter administration significantly increased lymphocyte adherence to intestinal microvessels accompanied by increases in expression levels of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1. This accumulation was significantly attenuated by anti-MAdCAM-1 and anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Butter administration significantly increased TNF-alpha in the lamina proprial macrophages but not interleukin-6. Anti-TNF-alpha treatment attenuated the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules induced by butter administration. T-lymphocyte adherence to microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa was significantly enhanced after butter ingestion. This enhancement is due to increase in expression levels of adhesion molecules of the intestinal mucosa, which is mediated by TNF-alpha from macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria.

  4. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content.

    PubMed

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Leedo, Eva; Tholstrup, Tine

    2011-12-01

    Despite its high content of saturated fatty acids, cheese does not seem to increase plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations when compared with an equivalent intake of fat from butter. This effect may be due to the high calcium content of cheese, which results in a higher excretion of fecal fat. The objective was to compare the effects of diets of equal fat content rich in either hard cheese or butter or a habitual diet on blood pressure and fasting serum blood lipids, C-reactive protein, glucose, and insulin. We also examined whether fecal fat excretion differs with the consumption of cheese or butter. The study was a randomized dietary intervention consisting of two 6-wk crossover periods and a 14-d run-in period during which the subjects consumed their habitual diet. The study included 49 men and women who replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 13% of energy from cheese or butter. After 6 wk, the cheese intervention resulted in lower serum total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and higher glucose concentrations than did the butter intervention. Cheese intake did not increase serum total or LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the run-in period, during which total fat and saturated fat intakes were lower. Fecal fat excretion did not differ between the cheese and butter periods. Cheese lowers LDL cholesterol when compared with butter intake of equal fat content and does not increase LDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01140165.

  5. Detection of Butter Adulteration with Lard by Employing (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fadzillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Man, Yaakob bin Che; Rohman, Abdul; Rosman, Arieff Salleh; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2015-01-01

    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.

  6. Development of an ultrasonic shear reflection technique to monitor the crystallization of cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Rigolle, Annelien; Foubert, Imogen; Hettler, Jan; Verboven, Erik; Demuynck, Ruth; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2015-09-01

    The quasi-isothermal crystallization process of cocoa butter was monitored by an ultrasonic shear reflection technique utilizing a custom-built experimental set-up in a temperature controlled environment. To facilitate the interpretation of the measurement results, the propagation of shear waves was first theoretically studied in different configurations of gas, liquid or solid layers with varying thickness for the case of normal incidence, yielding theoretical equations of the shear wave reflection coefficient (swRC) for different layering conditions. The typical experimentally observed pattern of the swRC during quasi-isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was subsequently linked to the theoretical equations. The remarkable oscillatory damped response in the swRC as function of the crystallization time could be explained by constructive and destructive interference of a first reflection at the boundary between a plexiglass delay line and the crystallized cocoa butter and a second reflection occurring at the interface between crystallized and liquid substance. This hypothesis was supported by the excitation frequency dependence of the oscillations. The quality of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental results was very good and also the reproducibility between different independent measurements was acceptable. Finally, measurements at different temperatures (18°C and 20°C) suggested that the technique was able to detect differences in crystallization behavior, as measurements at 18°C displayed faster oscillations compared to measurements at 20°C. Moreover, this was also confirmed by the theoretical model, as a higher value of the crystallization rate parameter K, exhibited more rapid oscillations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF ALLOY 152 WELD BUTTER NEAR THE LOW ALLOY STEEL INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, Bogdan; Chen, Yiren; Natesan, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain SCC growth data in Alloy 152 weld butter near the interface with Low Alloy Steel (LAS), which is a region where some dilution of Cr was expected to have occurred, thus presumably exhibiting an increased SCC-susceptibility vs. the bulk of the weld. The LAS piece used in this application was Alloy 533-Gr B from the Midland reactor lower head, and the Alloy 152 weld butter received a prototypical Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) prior to joining by Alloy 152 to an Alloy 690 piece according to a procedure qualified to ASME IX.more » The compact tension specimens for SCC testing were aligned in the first layer of the Alloy 152 butter. The experimental approach based on tracking environmental enhancement vs. location was successful in identifying SCC-susceptible locations, and SCC rates ranging from 10-12 m/s to as high as 10-10 m/s were measured. The post-test examination of the specimens found that the fracture had the intergranular/interdendritic appearance typical of welds, and that the propagation was arrested wherever an intersection with the LAS occurred. The large range of SCC rates measured does not appear to correlate well with the local concentration of Cr (approx. 25% at the SCC locations), and, in fact, low Cr (20%) – high Fe “streaks” seemed to slow/arrest crack propagation. In short, simple “Cr dilution” does not seem to fully account for the “SCC-susceptible” microstructure that yielded the 10-10 m/s growth rate in this weld.« less

  8. Direct valorisation of waste cocoa butter triglycerides via catalytic epoxidation, ring-opening and polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Dorota D; Strobel, Vinzent; Heer, Parminder Kaur Ks; Sellars, Andrew B; Hoong, Seng-Soi; Clark, Andrew J; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-01

    Development of circular economy requires significant advances in the technologies for valorisation of waste, as waste becomes new feedstock. Food waste is a particularly important feedstock, containing large variation of complex chemical functionality. Although most food waste sources are complex mixtures, waste from food processing, no longer suitable for the human food chain, may also represent relatively clean materials. One such material requiring valorisation is cocoa butter. Epoxidation of a triglyceride from a food waste source, processing waste cocoa butter, into the corresponding triglyceride epoxide was carried out using a modified Ishii-Venturello catalyst in batch and continuous flow reactors. The batch reactor achieved higher yields due to the significant decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the laminar flow tubular reactor. Integral and differential models describing the reaction and the phase transfer kinetics were developed for the epoxidation of cocoa butter and the model parameters were estimated. Ring-opening of the epoxidised cocoa butter was undertaken to provide polyols of varying molecular weight (M w = 2000-84 000 Da), hydroxyl value (27-60 mg KOH g -1 ) and acid value (1-173 mg KOH g -1 ), using either aqueous ortho-phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) or boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF 3 · OEt 2 )-mediated oligomerisation in bulk, using hexane or tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents. The thermal and tensile properties of the polyurethanes obtained from the reaction of these polyols with 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) are described. The paper presents a complete valorisation scheme for a food manufacturing industry waste stream, starting from the initial chemical transformation, developing a process model for the design of a scaled-up process, and leading to synthesis of the final product, in this case a polymer. This work describes aspects of optimisation of the conversion route, focusing on clean synthesis and also demonstrates

  9. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    PubMed

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  10. Comparison of the impact of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Allaire, Janie; Rajendiran, Ethendhar; She, Yongbo; Ramprasath, Vanu; Gigleux, Iris; Talbot, Denis; Levy, Emile; Tremblay, Angelo; Jones, Peter Jh; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12.4-12.6% of calories) from either cheese or butter; a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, MUFAs: 19.6%); a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, PUFAs: 11.5%); and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (fat: 25%, SFAs: 5.8%). Results: Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were similar after the cheese and butter diets but were significantly higher than after the carbohydrate diet (+3.8% and +4.7%, respectively; P < 0.05 for both). LDL-cholesterol concentrations after the cheese diet were lower than after the butter diet (-3.3%, P < 0.05) but were higher than after the carbohydrate (+2.6%), MUFA (+5.3%), and PUFA (+12.3%) diets ( P < 0.05 for all). LDL-cholesterol concentrations after the butter diet also increased significantly (from +6.1% to +16.2%, P < 0.05) compared with the carbohydrate, MUFA, and PUFA diets. The LDL-cholesterol response to treatment was significantly modified by baseline values ( P -interaction = 0.02), with the increase in LDL cholesterol being significantly greater with butter than with cheese only among individuals with high baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations. There was no significant difference between all diets on inflammation markers, blood pressure, and insulin-glucose homeostasis. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that the consumption of SFAs from cheese and butter has similar effects on HDL cholesterol but differentially modifies LDL

  11. Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour).

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, H; Larsen, J C; Tarding, F

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic food colours especially some azo dyes can provoke hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, and astma (Michaëlsson and Juhlin, 1973, Granholt and Thune, 1975). Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e.g. butter, has been tested in patients. Among 61 consecutive patients suffereing from chornic urticaria and/or angioneurotic oedema 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during elimination diet. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours (SD: 2,6) after intake. Similar challenges with synthetic dyes showed the following results: Tartrazine 11%, Sunset Yellow FCF 17%, Food Red 17 16%, Amaranth 9%, Ponceau 4 R 15%, Erythrosine 12% and Brillant Blue FCF 14%. The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes.

  12. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    PubMed

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  13. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid-enriched Butter After 24 hours of Intestinal Mucositis Induction.

    PubMed

    Barros, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira de; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Andrade, Maria Emília Rabelo; da Gama, Marco Antonio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando Cesar Ferraz; de Sales E Souza, Éricka Lorenna; Martins, Flaviano Dos Santos; Miranda, Sued Eustáquio Mendes; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Mucositis is the most common side effect due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It refers to the inflammation of intestinal mucous membranes, and it is associated with complications such as diarrhea, weight loss, and increased intestinal permeability (IP). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched butter on intestinal damage and inflammatory response after 24 h of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis. Mice were divided into four groups: CTL; CLA; 5-FU, and CLA 5-FU, and they were fed for 31 days. On the 30th experimental day, mucositis was induced by unique injection of 300 mg/kg of 5-FU. After 24 h (31st experimental day), IP was evaluated; ileum and fecal material were collected to determine cytokine level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). The 5-FU group showed an increase in IP and MPO activity (CTL vs. 5-FU: P < 0.05). Additionally, increased levels of IP and MPO were observed in CLA 5-FU group compared to those in the test groups (P < 0.05). Animals in the CLA 5-FU group showed reduced concentrations of sIgA (CTL vs. CLA 5-FU: P < 0.05). CLA-enriched butter exacerbating the 5-FU-induced intestinal damage. Safety concerns regarding the use of CLA require further investigation.

  14. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  15. High butter-fat diet and bisphenol A additively impair male rat spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tarapore, Pheruza; Hennessy, Max; Song, Dan; Ying, Jun; Ouyang, Bin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to xenoestrogens is a probable cause of male infertility in humans. Consumption of high-fat diets and exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is pervasive in America. Here, we test the hypothesis that gestational exposure to high dietary fats and/or BPA disrupt spermatogenesis in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10kcal% butter fat (AIN), 39kcal% butter fat (HFB), or 39kcal% olive oil (HFO), with or without BPA (25μg/kg body weight/day) during pregnancy. One group of male offspring received testosterone (T)- and estradiol-17β (E2)-filled implants or sham-implants from postnatal day (PND)70-210. Another group was naturally aged to 18 months. We found that adult males with gestational exposure to BPA, HFB, or HFB+BPA, in both the aged group and the T+E2-implanted group, exhibited impairment of spermatogenesis. In contrast, gestational exposure to HFO or HFO+BPA did not affect spermatogenesis. Sham-implanted, gestational exposed groups also had normal spermatogenesis. Loss of ERα expression in round spermatids and premature expression of protamine-1 in diplotene spermatocytes were features associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Compared with the single-treatment groups, the HFB+BPA group experienced more severe effects, including atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Butter battles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Nick

    2013-02-01

    Your article on academia-industry collaborations ("A clean solution", January pp44-45) was extremely interesting, and I wish Durham University and Procter & Gamble every success in their challenging and worthwhile project - which, as the article described, is partly aimed at improving the formulation of biological washing powders.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Werner, Louise B; Hellgren, Lars I; Raff, Marianne; Jensen, Søren K; Petersen, Rikke A; Drachmann, Tue; Tholstrup, Tine

    2013-07-10

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589.

  19. Is the metabolic syndrome inversely associates with butter, non-hydrogenated- and hydrogenated-vegetable oils consumption: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hydrogenated- (HVOs) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (non-HVOs) and butter and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) after 3-years of follow-up in adults. This study was conducted between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011 within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1582 adults, aged 19-84 years. Intakes of HVOs, non-HVOs and butter were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Based on the consumption of food rich in fat including HVOs, non-HVOs and butter, participants were categorized to consumers and non-consumers. Of 1582 participants during a 3-year follow-up, 15.2% developed MetS. Non-consumption of butter was associated with lower MetS risk compared with its consumption. Among consumers of food rich in fat, intake of HVOs and butter were associated with an increased risk of MetS; ORs in the final multivariate model were 2.70 (95% CI: 1.52-4.78) for HVOs and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.20-3.41) for butter, in the highest, compared to the lowest category of dietary intakes. Intake of non-HVOs was not associated with risk of MetS. Consumption of HVOs and butter were positively associated with an increase risk of MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects].

    PubMed

    Caramia, G; Losi, G; Frega, N; Lercker, G; Cocchi, M; Gori, A; Cerretani, L

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation) ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not all fats are harmful

  1. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for trace multi-element determination in vegetable oils, margarine and butter after stabilization with propan-1-ol and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Roseli M.; Mathias, Bárbara M.; da Silveira, Carmem Lúcia P.; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.

    2005-06-01

    The quantitative evaluation of trace elements in foodstuffs is of considerable interest due to the potential toxicity of many elements, and because the presence of some metallic species might affect the overall quality (flavor and stability) of these products. In the present work, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method has been developed for the determination of six elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn) in olive oil, soy oil, margarine and butter. Organic samples (oils and fats) were stabilized using propan-1-ol and water, which enabled long-time sample dispersion in the solution. This simple sample preparation procedure, together with an efficient sample introduction strategy (using a Meinhard K3 nebulizer and a twister cyclonic spray chamber), facilitated the overall analytical procedure, allowing quantification using calibration curves prepared with inorganic standards. Internal standardization (Sc) was used for correction of matrix effects and signal fluctuations. Good sensitivities with limits of detection in the ng g -1 range were achieved for all six elements. These sensitivities were appropriate for the intended application. The method was tested through the analysis of laboratory-fortified samples with good recoveries (between 91.3% and 105.5%).

  2. Bronchiolitis obliterans and consumer exposure to butter-flavored microwave popcorn: a case series.

    PubMed

    Egilman, David S; Schilling, John Henry

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to diacetyl and diacetyl-containing flavorings used in butter-flavored microwave popcorn (BFMP) causes lung disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), in flavorings and popcorn manufacturing workers. However, there are no published reports of lung disease among BFMP consumers. We present a case series of three BFMP consumers with biopsy-confirmed BO. We review data relating to consumer exposures, estimate case exposures, and compare them to diacetyl-containing flavoring-exposed manufacturing workers with lung disease. These consumer cases' exposure levels are comparable to those that caused disease in workers. We were unable to identify any other exposures or diseases known or suspected to cause BO in these cases. BFMP poses a significant respiratory risk to consumers. Some manufacturers have substituted diacetyl with other alpha-diketones that are likely to pose a similar risk. Simple consumer practices such as cooling the popcorn bag would eliminate the risk of severe lung disease.

  3. Health risk assessment: WTE (waste-to-energy) vs. peanut butter

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    The degree to which society will come to accept potential health risks associated with municipal waste-to-energy plants depends on three factors: the reliability with which exposure and adverse health effects associated with facility emissions can be described, quantified, and gradually reduced; the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of other waste management options, especially landfilling and recycling; and the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of more familiar activities, such as driving, flying, smoking, and eating peanut butter sandwiches. Progress in risk assessment has already improved quantification of human exposure to emissions through the food chain,more » as well as through other pathways within the general categories of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Where does this progress leave municipal refuse incineration relative to other risks This article explores that issue.« less

  4. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  5. Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Zaida do Rego; Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins

    2012-01-01

    To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  6. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process.more » As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.« less

  7. Acute malnutrition is common in Malawian patients with a Wilms tumour: A role for peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Israëls, Trijn; Borgstein, Eric; Jamali, Monica; de Kraker, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Molyneux, Elizabeth M

    2009-12-15

    Children with cancer in resource limited countries are often malnourished at diagnosis. Acute malnutrition is associated with more infectious complications and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in major surgery. All new patients with the clinical diagnosis of a Wilms tumour admitted in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from January 2007 until June 2008 were included. We documented anthropometric parameters, tumour size and serum levels of micronutrients at diagnosis. Corrected weight (body weight - tumour weight) was repeated after 4 weeks of preoperative chemotherapy. During therapy oral feeds were encouraged and a locally made ready to use therapeutic peanut butter-based food (chiponde) supplied. A high rate of acute malnutrition was found in patients with Wilms tumour at diagnosis (45-55%), much higher than in community controls (11%). Patients (40%) and community controls (37%) had a similar, high rate of stunting (low height for age), a sign of chronic malnutrition. Tumour size at diagnosis and the degree of acute malnutrition at diagnosis was correlated; patients with a larger tumour had more severe acute malnutrition (r = -0.88, P < 0.01). With a supply of chiponde, 7 of 18 patients had a >5% increase in corrected weight during preoperative chemotherapy. Patients with a more positive nutritional course had a better tumour response to chemotherapy (r = 0.52, P < 0.05). Surprisingly, few micronutrient deficiencies were found, except for low serum levels of vitamin A (44% of patients). Acute malnutrition, superimposed on chronic malnutrition, is common in patients with Wilms tumour in Malawi. Earlier presentation needs to be encouraged. Chiponde, a peanut butter based ready-to-use-therapeutic-food, is an attractive means of nutritional support which needs further study. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography using post-column bromination for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter, pistachio paste, fig paste, and paprika powder: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Stroka, J; Anklam, E; Jörissen, U; Gilbert, J

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunoaffinity column cleanup liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins at European regulatory limits. The test portion is extracted with methanol-water (8 + 2) for dried figs and paprika, and with methanol-water (8 + 2) plus hexane (or cyclohexane) for peanut butter and pistachios. The sample extract is filtered, diluted with phosphate buffer saline, and applied to an immunoaffinity column. The column is washed with water and the aflatoxins are eluted with methanol. Aflatoxins are quantitated by reversed-phase LC with post-column derivatization (PCD) involving bromination. PCD is achieved with either an electrochemical cell (Kobra cell) and addition of bromide to the mobile phase or pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide. Determination is by fluorescence. Peanut butter, pistachio paste, dried fig paste, and paprika powder samples, both naturally contaminated with aflatoxins and containing added aflatoxins, were sent to 16 collaborators in 16 European countries. Test portions of samples were spiked at levels of 2.4 and 9.6 ng/g for total aflatoxins which included 1.0 and 4.0 ng/g aflatoxin B1, respectively. Recoveries for total aflatoxins ranged from 71 to 92% with corresponding recoveries for aflatoxin B1 of 82 to 109%. Based on results for spiked samples (blind duplicates at 2 levels) as well as naturally contaminated samples (blind duplicates at 4 levels, including blank), the relative standard deviation for repeatability ranged from 4.6 to 23.3% for total aflatoxins and from 3.1 to 20.0% for aflatoxin B1. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility ranged from 14.1 to 34.2% for total aflatoxins, and from 9.1 to 32.2% for aflatoxin B1. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for all 4 matrixes, as evidenced by HORRAT values <1, at the low levels of determination for both total aflatoxins and

  9. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. Results No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Conclusions Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589 PMID:23842081

  10. Split rheometer Couette attachment to enable sample extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the development of a Couette attachment insert for a rheometer, which is designed to split in half, enabling intact sample extraction of cocoa butter crystallized from the melt under known dynamic stress conditions. This cell is capable of producing a sample 1mm thick. At shear rates of 90-720s-1 and final temperatures of 18-20°C it was shown that the sample will completely separate from the cell surface intact.

  11. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (p<0.005, respectively). Higher levels of α-tocopherol were found in the butter groups than in the safflower oil groups (p<0.05) and in the casein groups than in the soy protein groups (p<0.01). In comparison with the safflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (p<0.005). The ratios of n-3/n-6 PUFA in the butter groups in serum, 0.26 and 0.18, and in the hearts, 0.37 and 0.36, (butter-casein diet and butter-soy protein diet, respectively) were higher than those of the safflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (p<0.005). In the soy protein groups, higher n-3 PUFA contents in the hearts were found than those of the casein groups (p<0.05). This study suggested that the butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and a higher n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the safflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  12. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs. PMID:18759970

  13. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-08-29

    Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  14. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (P<0.05) as the level of substitution with RS III increased from 2.1 to 4.4% of resistant starch content. The butter cake with RS III replacement had a significantly lower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  15. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Roosta, Mostafa; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-10-15

    A novel approach, ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-RM-DLLME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for selective determination of acetoin in butter. The melted butter sample was diluted and homogenised by n-hexane and Triton X-100, respectively. Subsequently, 400μL of distilled water was added and the microextraction was accelerated by 4min sonication. After 8.5min of centrifugation, sedimented phase (surfactant-rich phase) was withdrawn by microsyringe and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. The influence of effective variables was optimised using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with desirability function (DF). Under optimised experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.6-200mgL(-1). The detection limit of method was 0.2mgL(-1) and coefficient of determination was 0.9992. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5% (n=5) while the recoveries were in the range of 93.9-107.8%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Chlorogenic acid oxidation-induced greening of sunflower butter cookies as a function of different sweeteners and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sihui; Were, Lilian M

    2018-02-15

    Sunflower butter use as an allergen-free alternative to tree and legume nut butter in baking is limited by chlorogenic acid induced greening that occurs at alkaline pH. Limited information is available on controlling this greening in a food matrix. This study examined how different liquid sweeteners and relative humidity influenced greening of sunflower butter cookies. Doughs had similar initial pH (7.52-7.66) which increased to 8.44-9.13 after baking as ranked: xylitol>maple syrup>corn syrup>honey>agave syrup. Cookies made with maple syrup had the highest moisture and greening corresponding with lowest free chlorogenic acid. The % greening followed the same trend as greening intensity, and was positively correlated (r=0.9101) with chlorogenic-lysine adduct content. Our findings provide an ingredient solution to controlling greening, as results demonstrate that greening can be promoted with high relative humidity storage, and use of high moisture and pH ingredients. Unwanted greening can be inhibited by simply changing the liquid sweetener. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid and non-destructive determination of rancidity levels in butter cookies by multi-spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Liu, Changhong; Liu, Jinxia; Pan, Wenjuan; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-30

    Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multi-spectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). The study demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real-time by the multi-spectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solutions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet.

    PubMed

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-08-01

    Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P < 0.05) and the run-in period (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively) and increased HDL cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P < 0.05). No difference in effects was observed for triacylglycerol, hsCRP, insulin, and glucose concentrations. The intake of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in the butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P < 0.0001). Moderate intake of butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Food groups, oils and butter, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, S; Favero, A; Conti, E; Talamini, R; Volpe, R; Negri, E; Barzan, L; Vecchia, C La

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the role of dietary habits, a study was carried out in 1992–1997 in the province of Pordenone in Northeastern Italy, and those of Rome and Latina in central Italy. Cases were 512 men and 86 women with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (lip, salivary glands and nasopharynx excluded) and controls were 1008 men and 483 women who had been admitted to local hospitals for a broad range of acute non-neoplastic conditions. The validated dietary section of the questionnaire included 78 foods or recipes and ten questions on fat intake patterns. After allowance for education, smoking, alcohol and total energy intake, significant trends of increasing risk with increasing intake emerged for soups, eggs, processed meats, cakes and desserts, and butter. Risk was approximately halved in the highest compared to the lowest intake quintile for coffee and tea, white bread, poultry, fish, raw and cooked vegetables, citrus fruit, and olive oil. The inverse association with oils, especially olive oil, was only slightly attenuated by allowance for vegetable intake. Thus, frequent consumption of vegetables, citrus fruit, fish and vegetable oils were the major features of a low-risk diet for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408875

  1. Greening in sunflower butter cookies as a function of egg replacers and baking temperature.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Amanda; Hahn, Lan; Pham, Vu; Were, Lilian

    2018-04-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) binding to proteins in alkaline conditions results in the production of green trihydroxy benzacradine (TBA) derivatives. The formation of TBA derivatives could decrease product quality due to the potential losses in soluble protein and antioxidants and the production of an undesirable green color. To determine how cookie formulation affected the formation of TBA derivatives in sunflower butter cookies, two egg replacers (chia and banana) and two baking temperatures (162.8 and 190.6 °C) were used. Moisture, greening intensity, CGA content and antioxidant capacity were measured. Cookies made with egg and baked at 162.8 °C had the highest moisture, internal greening intensity, and TBA derivative formation, in addition to lower CGA content and antioxidant capacity. Cookies made with banana baked at 190.6 °C produced the opposite outcome with 35, 4, and 23% less internal greening, moisture, and TBA derivatives, respectively, and 90 and 76% higher CGA and antioxidant capacity. Internal greening was positively correlated with moisture and adduct concentration, and negatively correlated with spread factor and CGA content. Moisture had a significant impact on greening, which indicates that baking temperature and cookie dough formulation can be modified to produce a less green cookie with more unreacted antioxidants and protein.

  2. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  3. Storage stability of traditional Tunisian butter enriched with antioxidant extract from tomato processing by-products.

    PubMed

    Abid, Yousra; Azabou, Samia; Jridi, Mourad; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi

    2017-10-15

    Traditional Tunisian butter (TTB) is one of the most appreciated dairy products in Tunisia. Herein, the storage stability of TTB enriched with antioxidants from tomato processing by-products (TPB) was evaluated during 60days of storage at 4°C. TPB extract contains significant amounts of lycopene and phenolics. TTB enriched with 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB revealed the lowest peroxide values at all the determination intervals. Adding 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB did not exhibit any undesired effect on lactic bacteria which are necessary for development of aroma and chemical properties of TTB. However, raw TTB and highly enriched TTB (800mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB) displayed higher lipid peroxidation. The detrimental effect of high antioxidant amounts on TTB stability could be due to a possible pro-oxidant character. Thus, appropriate supplementation of TPB extract could be used in TTB as a protective agent against lipid peroxidation to extend its shelf-life up to two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  6. Long-term exposure to a butter-rich diet induces mild-to-moderate steatosis in Chang liver cells and Swiss albino mice models.

    PubMed

    Nalloor, Thomas John Philip; Kumar, Nitesh; Narayanan, Kasinathan; Palanimuthu, Vasanth Raj

    2017-05-01

    Butter is one of the widely used fats present in the diet. However, there is no satisfactory study available that evaluates the effect of a high-fat diet containing butter as the principal fat on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, butter was used for the development of steatosis in Chang liver cells in an in vitro study and Swiss albino mice in an in vivo study. In vitro steatosis was established, and butter was compared with oleic acid in Chang liver cells using an oil red O (ORO)-based colorimetric assay. In the in vivo study, a butter-rich special diet was fed for 15 weeks to mice, who showed no significant change in body weight. The expression pattern of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and miR-21 was compared by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Special diet-fed animals showed downregulated PTEN compared to normal diet-fed animals, while levels of miR-21 remained the same. Elevations in biochemical parameters, viz., triglycerides and liver function tests showed symptoms of onset of NAFLD. Histophathological study of livers of test animals confirmed mild-to-moderate degree of NAFLD.

  7. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Ari; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Wallenius, Marja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Aro, Heikki; Husgafvel, Sari; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Oksanen, Kalevi

    2010-12-01

    Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of Virgino R CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  8. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... temperature of 72 °F. to establish and maintain a satisfactory keeping quality history. Optionally 98 °F. for...

  9. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  10. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    SciTech Connect

    Fedan, J.S.; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G.,more » 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10{sup -7} M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function

  11. Popcorn worker's lung: in vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine.

    PubMed

    Fedan, J S; Dowdy, J A; Fedan, K B; Hubbs, A F

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., "popcorn worker's lung" (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10(-7) M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  12. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    PubMed

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy

  13. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    PubMed

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbardo, Rebecca Putri; Santoso, Herry; Witono, Judy Retti

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter has responsibility for dispersion medium to create a stable chocolate bar. Due to the economic reason, cocoa butter is partially or wholly substituted by edible oils e.g palm oil and coconut oil. The objective of the research was to observe the effect of oil substitution in the chocolate bar towards its melting point and texture. The research were divided in three steps which were preliminary research started with fat content analysis in cocoa powder, melting point analysis of substituted oils anc cocoa butter, and iodine number analysis in vegetable fats (cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil), chocolate bar production with substitution 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%wt of cocoa butter with each of substituted oils, and analysis process to determine the chocolate bar melting point with DSC and chocolate bar hardness with texture analyser. The increasement of substituted oils during substitution in chocolate bar would reduce the melting point of chocolate bar from 33.5°C to 31.6°C in palm oil substitution with cocoa butter and 33.5°C to 30.75°C in coconut oil substitution. The hardness of chocolate with palm oil were around 88.5 to 139 g on the 1st cycle and 22.75 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. The hardness of chocolate with coconut oil were around 74.75 to 152.5 g on the 1st cycle and 53.25 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. Maximum amount of fats substitution to produce a stable texture chocolate bar is 60% wt.

  15. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2015-09-28

    We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared from milk collected from cows fed a high fermentable carbohydrate diet to create subacute rumen acidosis (SARA); control (non-SARA) butter was collected from cows fed a low grain diet. Female fatty Zucker rats (10 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments: i) low fat (10 % kcal), ii) 45 % kcal lard, iii) 45 % kcal SARA butter, or iv) 45 % kcal non-SARA butter. A low fat fed lean Zucker group was used as a control group. After 8 weeks, i) glucose and insulin tolerance tests, ii) insulin signaling in muscle, adipose and liver, and iii) metabolic caging measurements were performed. Glucose and insulin tolerance were significantly impaired in all fatty Zucker groups, but to the greatest extent in the LARD and SARA conditions. Insulin signaling (AKT phosphorylation) was impaired in muscle, visceral (perigonadal) adipose tissue and liver in fatty Zucker rats, but was generally similar across dietary groups. Physical activity, oxygen consumption, food intake and weight gain were also similar amongst the various fatty Zucker groups. Increasing the consumption of a food naturally enriched with CLAt10,c12 significantly worsens glucose and insulin tolerance in a diabetes-prone rodent model. This outcome is not explained by changes in tissue insulin signaling, physical activity, energy expenditure, food intake or body mass.

  16. Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter at 17 and 20 °C with and without Limonene.

    PubMed

    Rigolle, Annelien; Goderis, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2016-05-04

    Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17 and 20 °C in the absence and presence of different limonene concentrations. At 17 °C, a three-step crystallization process was visible for pure cocoa butter, whereby first an unknown structure with long spacings between a 2L and 3L structure was formed that rapidly transformed into the more stable α structure, which in turn was converted into more stable β' crystals. At 20 °C, an α-mediated β' crystallization was observed. The addition of limonene resulted in a reduction of the amount of unstable crystals and an acceleration of polymorphic transitions. At 17 °C, the crystallization process was accelerated due to the acceleration of the formation of more stable polymorphic forms, whereas there were insufficient α crystals for an α-mediated β' nucleation at 20 °C, resulting in a slower crystallization process.

  17. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter

    PubMed Central

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K.; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A.; Kreil, Katherine R.; Melka, David C.; Boden, William D.; Dion, Jamie L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B.; Zink, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods. A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results. Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions. Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels. PMID:26389125

  18. Butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevents hyperinsulinemia and increases both serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; Santos da Conceição, Ellen Paula; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando César Ferraz; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González

    2014-12-22

    Evidence from in vitro and animal studies indicates that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) possesses anti-diabetic properties, which appear to be attributed to cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the major CLA isomer in ruminant fat. However, there is a shortage of studies addressing CLA from natural source. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA on parameters related to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: 1) Normal fat-Soybean oil (NF-So): diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); 2) High Fat-Control Butter (HF-Cb): diet containing 21.7% control butter and 2.3% SO; 3) High Fat-CLA enriched Butter (HF-CLAb): diet containing 21.7% cis-9, trans-11 CLA-enriched butter and 2.3% SO; and 4) High fat-Soybean oil (HF-So): diet containing 24.0% SO. HF-Cb and HF-CLAb diets contained 0.075% and 0.235% of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, respectively. HF-CLAb-fed rats had lower serum insulin levels at fasting than those fed with the HF-Cb diet, while the PPARγ protein levels in adipose tissue was increased in HF-CLAb-fed rats compared to HF-Cb-fed rats. Furthermore, R-QUICK was lower in HF-Cb than in NF-So group, while no differences in R-QUICK were observed among NF-So, HF-CLAb and HF-So groups. Serum HDL cholesterol levels were higher in HF-CLAb-fed rats than in those fed NF-So, HF-Cb and HF-So diets, as well as higher in NF-So-fed rats than in HF-Cb and HF-So-fed rats. HF-CLAb, HF-Cb and HF-So diets reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels when compared to NF-So, whereas serum triacylglycerol levels were increased in HF-CLAb. Feeding rats on a high-fat diet containing butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevented hyperinsulinemia and increased HDL cholesterol, which could be associated with higher levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and lower levels of short and medium

  19. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  20. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690 PMID:21122147

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products.

    PubMed

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-06-01

    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to lean rats does not impair glucose tolerance or muscle insulin response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow’s milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. Methods We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 –enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. Results There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p < 0.05). However, blood glucose and insulin concentration, and maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle were similar in all groups. Following 8 weeks of feeding, insulin tolerance was impaired by the SARA butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. Conclusions This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response. PMID:24956949

  6. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to lean rats does not impair glucose tolerance or muscle insulin response.

    PubMed

    Stefanson, Amanda; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; Ritchie, Ian R; MacDonald, Tara; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2014-06-23

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow's milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 -enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p < 0.05). However, blood glucose and insulin concentration, and maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle were similar in all groups. Following 8 weeks of feeding, insulin tolerance was impaired by the SARA butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response.

  7. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  8. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of margarines and butter consumption on lipid profiles, inflammation markers and lipid transfer to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, A C M; Maranhão, R C; de Sousa, H P; Schaefer, E J; Santos, R D

    2010-10-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effects of daily servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine and plant sterol margarine, within recommended amounts, on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos), biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and on the transfer of lipids to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome. This was a randomized, single-blind study where 53 metabolic syndrome subjects (62% women, mean age 54 years) received isocaloric servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine or plant sterol margarine in addition to their usual diets for 5 weeks. The main outcome measures were plasma lipids, Apo, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers (CRP, IL-6, CD40L or E-selectin), small dense LDL cholesterol concentrations and in vitro radioactive lipid transfer from cholesterol-rich emulsions to HDL. Difference among groups was evaluated by analysis of variance. There was a significant reduction in Apo-B (-10.4 %, P=0.043) and in the Apo-B/Apo-A-1 ratio (-11.1%, P=0.034) with plant sterol margarine. No changes in plasma lipids were noticed with butter and no-trans-fat margarine. Transfer rates of lipids to HDL were reduced in the no-trans-fat margarine group: triglycerides -42.0%, (P<0.001 vs butter and sterol margarine) and free cholesterol -16.2% (P=0.006 vs sterol margarine). No significant effects were noted on the concentrations of inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers among the groups. In free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome consumption of plant sterol and no-trans-fat margarines within recommended amounts reduced, respectively, Apo-B concentrations and the ability of HDL to accept lipids.

  10. Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; López-Miranda, José; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ruano, Juan; Paniagua, Juan A; Rodríguez, Fernando; Egido, Jesús; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Inflammation is crucial in all stages of atherosclerosis, and few studies have investigated the effect of dietary fat on markers of inflammation related to this disease during the postprandial period. To evaluate the chronic effects of dietary fat on the postprandial expression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy subjects. 20 healthy men followed three different diets for 4 weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design: Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); CHO-rich and n-3 diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO, <30% fat (8% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)). After 12-h fast, volunteers were given a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets-butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA). The butter breakfast induced a higher increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression than the olive oil or walnut breakfasts (P=0.014) in PBMCs. Moreover, we found a higher postprandial response in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-6 with the intake of butter and olive oil breakfasts than with the walnut breakfast (P=0.025) in these cells. However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences (P=N.S.). Consumption of a butter-enriched meal elicits greater postprandial expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in PBMCs, compared to the olive oil and walnut breakfasts.

  11. A Collaborative Study: Determination of Mycotoxins in Corn, Peanut Butter, and Wheat Flour Using Stable Isotope Dilution Assay (SIDA) and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Schaab, Matthew R; Southwood, Gavin; Tor, Elizabeth R; Aston, Linda S; Song, Wenlu; Eitzer, Brian; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Lapainis, Theodore; Mai, Huy; Tran, Kevin; El-Demerdash, Aref; Vega, Victor; Cai, Yanxuan; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexandra J; Begley, Timothy H

    2017-08-23

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , and G 2 ; deoxynivalenol; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 ; ochratoxin A; HT-2 toxin; T-2 toxin; and zearalenone in foods. Samples were fortified with 12 13 C uniformly labeled mycotoxins ( 13 C-IS) corresponding to the native mycotoxins and extracted with acetonitrile/water (50:50 v/v), followed by centrifugation, filtration, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In addition to certified reference materials, the six participating laboratories analyzed corn, peanut butter, and wheat flour fortified with the 12 mycotoxins at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1000 ng/g. Using their available LC-MS/MS platform, each laboratory developed in-house instrumental conditions for analysis. The majority of recoveries ranged from 80 to 120% with relative standard derivations (RSDs) <20%. Greater than 90% of the average recoveries of the participating laboratories were in the range of 90-110%, with repeatability RSD r (within laboratory) < 10% and reproducibility RSD R (among laboratory) < 15%. All Z scores of the results of certified reference materials were between -2 and 2. Using 13 C-IS eliminated the need for matrix-matched calibration standards for quantitation, simplified sample preparation, and achieved simultaneous identification and quantitation of multiple mycotoxins in a simple LC-MS/MS procedure.

  12. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.

  13. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Wolf, Patricia G.; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Cooney, Paula; Cockrell, Chase; Chang, Eugene; Gaskins, H. Rex; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if consuming table grapes reduces adiposity and its metabolic consequences and alters gut microbiota in mice fed a high fat (HF), butter-rich diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (LF) diet or HF diet with 3% or 5% grapes for 11 weeks. Total body and inguinal fat were moderately, but significantly reduced in mice fed both levels of grapes compared to their controls. Mice fed 5% grapes had lower liver weights and triglyceride levels, and decreased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat1) compared to the 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, sterol-CoA desaturase 1, fatty-acid binding protein 4, and Gpat1 compared to the 3% controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation or lipogenesis in adipose tissue or intestine, 3% grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp., and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA-Bw), and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to controls. Additionally, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Allobaculum, and several other genera correlated negatively with adiposity. Allobaculum in particular was increased in the LF and 3% grapes groups compared to the HF-fed controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the HF-induced impairment in epithelial localization of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens. Collectively, these data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming a HF diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption. PMID:26423887

  14. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Wolf, Patricia G; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Cooney, Paula; Cockrell, Chase; Chang, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if consuming table grapes reduces adiposity and its metabolic consequences and alters gut microbiota in mice fed a high-fat (HF), butter-rich diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or HF diet with 3% or 5% grapes for 11weeks. Total body and inguinal fat were moderately but significantly reduced in mice fed both levels of grapes compared to their controls. Mice fed 5% grapes had lower liver weights and triglyceride levels and decreased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat1) compared to the 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, sterol-CoA desaturase 1, fatty-acid binding protein 4 and Gpat1 compared to the 3% controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation or lipogenesis in adipose tissue or intestine, 3% of grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp. and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to controls. In addition, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Allobaculum and several other genera correlated negatively with adiposity. Allobaculum in particular was increased in the LF and 3% grapes groups compared to the HF-fed controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the HF-induced impairment in epithelial localization of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens. Collectively, these data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming an HF diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-06-01

    Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear. We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies. Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-<5, 5-<10 and 10+ g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend = 0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0 g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality. Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Influence of a diet enriched with virgin olive oil or butter on mouse gut microbiota and its correlation to physiological and biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Isabel; Hidalgo, Marina; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana María; Cobo, Antonio; Ramírez, Manuel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Gálvez, Antonio; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The type of fat in the diet determinates the characteristics of gut microbiota, exerting a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesize that a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has a distinctive effect on the intestinal microbiome in comparison with an enriched butter diet (BT) and this effect is related to the physiological benefits exerted by EVOO. Swiss Webster mice were fed standard (SD) or two high fat diets enriched with EVOO or butter. Hormonal, physiological and metabolic parameters were evaluated. At the end of the feeding period, DNA was extracted from faeces and the 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced. Among the main significant differences found, BT triggered the highest values of systolic blood pressure, correlating positively with the percentage of Desulfovibrio sequences in faeces, which in turn showed significantly higher values in BT than in EVOO. EVOO had the lowest values of plasmatic insulin, correlating inversely with Desulfovibrio, and had the lowest plasmatic values of leptin which correlated inversely with Sutterellaceae, Marispirillum and Mucilaginibacter dageonensis, the three showing significantly higher percentages in EVOO. The lowest total cholesterol levels in plasma were detected in SD, correlating positively with Prevotella and Fusicatenibacter, both taxa with significantly greater presence in SD. These results may be indicative of a link between specific diets, certain physiological parameters and the prevalence of some taxa, supporting the possibility that in some of the proposed effects of virgin olive oil the modulation of intestinal microbiota could be involved.

  17. Influence of a diet enriched with virgin olive oil or butter on mouse gut microbiota and its correlation to physiological and biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Isabel; Hidalgo, Marina; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana María; Cobo, Antonio; Ramírez, Manuel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Gálvez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The type of fat in the diet determinates the characteristics of gut microbiota, exerting a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesize that a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has a distinctive effect on the intestinal microbiome in comparison with an enriched butter diet (BT) and this effect is related to the physiological benefits exerted by EVOO. Swiss Webster mice were fed standard (SD) or two high fat diets enriched with EVOO or butter. Hormonal, physiological and metabolic parameters were evaluated. At the end of the feeding period, DNA was extracted from faeces and the 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced. Among the main significant differences found, BT triggered the highest values of systolic blood pressure, correlating positively with the percentage of Desulfovibrio sequences in faeces, which in turn showed significantly higher values in BT than in EVOO. EVOO had the lowest values of plasmatic insulin, correlating inversely with Desulfovibrio, and had the lowest plasmatic values of leptin which correlated inversely with Sutterellaceae, Marispirillum and Mucilaginibacter dageonensis, the three showing significantly higher percentages in EVOO. The lowest total cholesterol levels in plasma were detected in SD, correlating positively with Prevotella and Fusicatenibacter, both taxa with significantly greater presence in SD. These results may be indicative of a link between specific diets, certain physiological parameters and the prevalence of some taxa, supporting the possibility that in some of the proposed effects of virgin olive oil the modulation of intestinal microbiota could be involved. PMID:29293629

  18. Bread and Butter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Annual giving is the number one indicator that someone will make a major or planned gift. Annual funds are the meat and potatoes of fundraising. But if the annual fund has recently taken a backseat to major and megagifts, the recession made a bad situation even worse. Today, most annual fund performance indicators have plummeted. Virtually all…

  19. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  20. Guns, Butter, or Sheepskins?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbeiter, Solomon

    1985-01-01

    Some of the uneven effects of the coming enrollment decline are delineated. This condition may be exacerbated by the competition for 18-year-olds from the military and business and industry. Statistical comparisons are included. (MLW)

  1. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Shimko, Michael J.

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl ormore » 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (R{sub t}) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na{sup +} transport, without affecting Cl{sup −} transport or Na{sup +},K{sup +}-pump activity. R{sub t} was unaffected. Na{sup +} transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. - Highlights: • Butter flavoring vapor effects on human cultured airway epithelium were studied. • Na transport was reduced by a 6-h exposure to 25 ppm diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. • Na transport recovered 18 h after exposure. • > 60 ppm transepithelial voltage and resistance were abolished; cells were damaged. • Cells metabolized diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione

  2. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P < 0.001) and follow-ups, and better initial attention (P < 0.05). Membership in DP1 and DP3 was associated with overall worse SMMSE scores (β = 0.09, P = 0.01 and β = 0.08, P = 0.02, respectively) than membership in DP2 after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, multimorbidity, and body mass index (BMI). Additional adjustment for apolipoprotein (apoE) ε4 genotype attenuated the association to nonsignificant in women but not in men in DP1 (β = 0.13, P = 0.02). Participants in DP1 and DP3 also had overall worse concentration (β = 0.04, P = 0.002 and β = 0.028, P = 0.03, respectively) and focused attention (β = 0.02, P = 0.01 and β = 0.02, P = 0.03, respectively), irrespective of apoE ε4 genotype, but similar rate of decline in all cognitive measures over time. DPs high in red meat, potato, gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate

  3. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P < 0.001) and follow-ups, and better initial attention (P < 0.05). Membership in DP1 and DP3 was associated with overall worse SMMSE scores (β = 0.09, P = 0.01 and β = 0.08, P = 0.02, respectively) than membership in DP2 after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, multimorbidity, and body mass index (BMI). Additional adjustment for apolipoprotein (apoE) ε4 genotype attenuated the association to nonsignificant in women but not in men in DP1 (β = 0.13, P = 0.02). Participants in DP1 and DP3 also had overall worse concentration (β = 0.04, P = 0.002 and β = 0.028, P = 0.03, respectively) and focused attention (β = 0.02, P = 0.01 and β = 0.02, P = 0.03, respectively), irrespective of apoE ε4 genotype, but similar rate of decline in all cognitive measures over time. Conclusion: DPs high in red meat, potato, gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were

  4. "When Does It Stop Being Peanut Butter?": FDA Food Standards of Identity, Ruth Desmond, and the Shifting Politics of Consumer Activism, 1960s-1970s.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Angie M

    This article uses a historical controversy over the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's standard of identity for peanut butter as a site for investigating three topics of high importance for historians of technology, consumption, and food activism: how new industrial food-processing technologies have become regulatory problems; how government, industry, and consumer actors negotiate standards development; and how laypeople try to shape technological artifacts in spaces dominated by experts. It examines the trajectory of consumer activist Ruth Desmond, co-founder of the organization the Federation of Homemakers. By following Desmond's evolving strategies, the article shows how the broader currents of the 1960s-70s consumer movement played out in a particular case. Initially Desmond used a traditional style that heavily emphasized her gendered identity, working within a grassroots organization to promote legislative and regulatory reforms. Later, she moved to a more modern advocacy approach, using adversarial legal methods to fight for consumer protections.

  5. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar; Nonboe, Pernille; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-03-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115 g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha concentration compared with the control, P < 0.0001. We observed no other significant differences in the effect of the interventions diets. In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

  6. High sugar and butter (HSB) diet induces obesity and metabolic syndrome with decrease in regulatory T cells in adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Gonçalves, Juliana Lauar; Miranda, Mariana Camila Gonçalves; Martins, Vinícius Dantas; Horta, Laila Sampaio; Moreira, Thais Garcias; Godard, Ana Lucia Brunialti; Santiago, Andrezza Fernanda; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a novel diet based on standard AIN93G diet that would be able to induce experimental obesity and impair immune regulation with high concentrations of both carbohydrate and lipids. To compare the effects of this high sugar and butter (HSB) diet with other modified diets, male C57BL/6 mice were fed either mouse chow, or AIN93G diet, or high sugar (HS) diet, or high-fat (HF) diet, or high sugar and butter (HSB) diet for 11 weeks ad libitum. HSB diet induced higher weight gain. Therefore, control AIN93G and HSB groups were chosen for additional analysis. Regulatory T cells were studied by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Although HF and HSB diets were able to induce a higher weight gain compatible with obesity in treated mice, HSB-fed mice presented the higher levels of serum glucose after fasting and the lowest frequency of regulatory T cells in adipose tissue. In addition, mice that were fed HSB diet presented higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, hyperleptinemia, increased resistin and leptin levels as well as reduced adiponectin serum levels. Importantly, we found increased frequency of CD4(+)CD44(+) effector T cells, reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) and Th3 regulatory T cells as well as decreased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in adipose tissue of HSB-fed mice. Therefore, HSB represents a novel model of obesity-inducing diet that was efficient in triggering alterations compatible with metabolic syndrome as well as impairment in immune regulatory parameters.

  7. The Immunomodulating Effect of a Diet Consisting of Green Vegetables, Beef, Whole Milk and Full-Fat Butter for Children with Non-Specific Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, Ellen Jose; Forbes, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific elevated IgE and allergies are common in children, and their prevalence is increasing. Dietary changes could be an explanation for this increase. Zinc, iron, vitamins A, C and E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids all play possible roles in the etiology and possible treatment of allergies due to their numerous immunomodulating properties. To investigate the immunomodulating effect of recommending a nutrient-rich diet consisting of green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter. We conducted a case-controlled, non-randomized, retrospective study. Children between the ages of 1 and 18 years with non-specific elevated IgE were included. Baseline and follow-up measurements of serum total IgE and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared for 49 children who received the dietary advice (to eat green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter) and 56 children who did not. The initial analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in IgE in the intervention group compared to the control group; a 9.2 kU/l versus a 0.1 kU/l decrease, respectively (P = 0.02). When supplement (vitamin D) use was taken into account, however, no significant difference was produced by the dietary effect alone (unstandardized coefficient = 71.3 kU/l, P = 0.16). 53.2 % of participants in the intervention group reported considerable improvement in symptoms versus 28.6 % in the control group (P < 0.001). Overall, the effects of nutrients and vitamins on the decrease in IgE are promising. The separate contributions of dietary advice and/or supplements need to be investigated in the future.

  8. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Shimko, Michael J.; Wells, J.R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A.; Case, Shannon L.; Thompson, Janet A.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport, without affecting Cl− transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  9. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro.

  10. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J; Finikarides, Leila; Afzal, Islam; Forouhi, Nita G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution and metabolic markers after four weeks consumption of 50 g daily of one of three different dietary fats, extra virgin coconut oil, butter or extra virgin olive oil, in healthy men and women in the general population. Design Randomised clinical trial conducted over June and July 2017. Setting General community in Cambridgeshire, UK. Participants Volunteer adults were recruited by the British Broadcasting Corporation through their websites. Eligibility criteria were men and women aged 50–75 years, with no known history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes, not on lipid lowering medication, no contraindications to a high-fat diet and willingness to be randomised to consume one of the three dietary fats for 4 weeks. Of 160 individuals initially expressing an interest and assessed for eligibility, 96 were randomised to one of three interventions; 2 individuals subsequently withdrew and 94 men and women attended a baseline assessment. Their mean age was 60 years, 67% were women and 98% were European Caucasian. Of these, 91 men and women attended a follow-up assessment 4 weeks later. Intervention Participants were randomised to extra virgin coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil or unsalted butter and asked to consume 50 g daily of one of these fats for 4 weeks, which they could incorporate into their usual diet or consume as a supplement. Main outcomes and measures The primary outcome was change in serum LDL-C; secondary outcomes were change in total and high

  11. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J; Finikarides, Leila; Afzal, Islam; Lentjes, Marleen; Luben, Robert; Forouhi, Nita G

    2018-03-06

    High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution and metabolic markers after four weeks consumption of 50 g daily of one of three different dietary fats, extra virgin coconut oil, butter or extra virgin olive oil, in healthy men and women in the general population. Randomised clinical trial conducted over June and July 2017. General community in Cambridgeshire, UK. Volunteer adults were recruited by the British Broadcasting Corporation through their websites. Eligibility criteria were men and women aged 50-75 years, with no known history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes, not on lipid lowering medication, no contraindications to a high-fat diet and willingness to be randomised to consume one of the three dietary fats for 4 weeks. Of 160 individuals initially expressing an interest and assessed for eligibility, 96 were randomised to one of three interventions; 2 individuals subsequently withdrew and 94 men and women attended a baseline assessment. Their mean age was 60 years, 67% were women and 98% were European Caucasian. Of these, 91 men and women attended a follow-up assessment 4 weeks later. Participants were randomised to extra virgin coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil or unsalted butter and asked to consume 50 g daily of one of these fats for 4 weeks, which they could incorporate into their usual diet or consume as a supplement. The primary outcome was change in serum LDL-C; secondary outcomes were change in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC and HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio and non

  12. New NATO Members: Security Consumers or Producers?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    political constraints.3 Dr. Jamie Shea Director of Policy Planning, NATO Burden-sharing can be defined as “the distribution of costs and risks among...certainly a “guns versus butter ” debate in the allocation of resources, the demand for military expenditures is more complex. Social welfare spending...Outputs. At the end of the day, political solidarity is more important than specific notions of equal numerical contributions.64 Dr. Jamie Shea Director

  13. An increase in liver PPARγ2 is an initial event to induce fatty liver in response to a diet high in butter: PPARγ2 knockdown improves fatty liver induced by high-saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Shiraishi, Sayaka; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2011-06-01

    The effects of a diet rich in saturated fat on fatty liver formation and the related mechanisms that induce fatty liver were examined. C57BL/6J mice were fed butter or safflower oil as a high-fat (HF) diet (40% fat calories) for 2, 4, 10, or 17 weeks. Although both HF diets induced similar levels of obesity, HF butter-fed mice showed a two to threefold increase in liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration compared to HF safflower oil-fed mice at 4 or 10 weeks without hyperinsulinemia. At 4 weeks, increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), CD36, and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) mRNAs were observed in HF butter-fed mice; at 10 weeks, an increase in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was observed; at 17 weeks, these increases were attenuated. At 4 weeks, a single injection of adenoviral vector-based short hairpin interfering RNA against PPARγ2 in HF butter-fed mice reduced PPARγ protein and mRNA of its target genes (CD36 and ADRP) by 43%, 43%, and 39%, respectively, with a reduction in liver TG concentration by 38% in 5 days. PPARγ2 knockdown also reduced mRNAs in lipogenic genes (fatty-acid-synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1) without alteration of SREBP-1c mRNA. PPARγ2 knockdown reduced mRNAs in genes related to inflammation (CD68, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). In conclusion, saturated fatty acid-rich oil induced fatty liver in mice, and this was triggered initially by an increase in PPARγ2 protein in the liver, which led to increased expression of lipogenic genes. Inactivation of PPARγ2 may improve fatty liver induced by HF saturated fat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the butter flavoring chemical diacetyl and a fluorochemical paper additive for mutagenicity and toxicity using the mammalian cell gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Paul; Clarke, Jane J; San, Richard H C; Begley, Timothy H; Dunkel, Virginia C

    2008-08-01

    Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a yellowish liquid that is usually mixed with other ingredients to produce butter flavor or other flavors in a variety of food products. Inhalation of butter flavoring vapors was first associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans among workers in microwave popcorn production. Recent findings have shown irreversible obstructive lung disease among workers not only in the microwave popcorn industry, but also in flavoring manufacture, and in chemical synthesis of diacetyl, a predominant chemical for butter flavoring. It has been reported that perfluorochemicals utilized in food packaging are migrating into foods and may be sources of oral exposure. Relatively small quantities of perfluorochemicals are used in the manufacturing of paper or paperboard that is in direct contact with food to repel oil or grease and water. Because of recent concerns about perfluorochemicals such as those found on microwave popcorn bags (e.g. Lodyne P208E) and diacetyl in foods, we evaluated both compounds for mutagenicity using the mammalian cell gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Lodyne P208E was less toxic than diacetyl and did not induce a mutagenic response. Diacetyl induced a highly mutagenic response in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma mutation assay in the presence of human liver S9 for activation. The increase in the frequency of small colonies in the assay with diacetyl indicates that diacetyl causes damage to multiple loci on chromosome 11 in addition to functional loss of the thymidine kinase locus.

  15. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  16. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    PubMed Central

    Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition. PMID:28465837

  17. Postprandial lipid responses do not differ following consumption of butter or vegetable oil when consumed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2015-04-01

    Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.

  18. Randomized controlled study of the effect of a butter naturally enriched in trans fatty acids on blood lipids in healthy women123

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Émilie; Charest, Amélie; Cyr, Audrey; Baril-Gravel, Lisa; Lebeuf, Yolaine; Paquin, Paul; Chouinard, P Yvan; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whereas the negative effect of consuming trans fatty acids found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is well established, the effect of trans fatty acids from ruminant sources (rTFAs) on CVD risk factors has not yet been established, particularly among women. Objective: We investigated the effects of a butter naturally enriched in rTFAs, of which vaccenic acid is the predominant isomer, on plasma lipid concentrations among healthy women. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, crossover controlled study, 61 healthy women aged 19–70 y were fed 2 isoenergetic diets lasting 4 wk each. The 2 diets were defined as moderately high in rTFAs (3.7 g/d, 1.5% of daily energy) and control (0.9 g/d, 0.3% of daily energy). Results: No significant effect of the rTFA diet was found on total plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and triglyceride concentrations compared with the control diet. There was a small yet statistically significant reduction in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations with the rTFA diet (−2.8%; P = 0.004), which was significant (P for the BMI × treatment interaction = 0.006) among women with a BMI (in kg/m2) ≥25 (−5.2%; P = 0.004; n = 18) but not among women with a BMI <25 (−1.2%; P = 0.13; n = 43). Conclusions: These results suggest that an increase in dietary rTFAs equivalent to ∼1% of daily energy has no significant effect on LDL but may be associated with a reduction in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations, particularly in overweight women. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00930137. PMID:22205319

  19. Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity. PMID:28777292

  20. Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Vías, Germán; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Prieto, Isabel

    2017-08-04

    The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity.

  1. Archeological and Historical Investigations of Four Proposed Revetment Areas Located Along the Mississippi River in Southeast Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Point sites (Ford 1974; Shea 1978; Jackson 1986). Two temporally distinct Poverty Point phases have been identified in southeast Louisiana. The...peas (bushels) 120 Irish potatoes (bushels) 150 Sweet potatoes (bushels) 225 Butter (pounds) 400 Value of animals slaughtered $ 300 its previous...beans 6 10 Irish potatoes 3 0 Sweet potatoes 36 60 Butter 24 0 Tons of hay 1 0 Value of animals slaughtered $ 10.00 $ 0.00 59 Table 5. Sugar

  2. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's.

  3. Lunar Sample Quarantine & Sample Curation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this presentation is to discuss some of the responsibility of the lunar sample quarantine project. The responsibilities are: flying the mission safely, and on schedule, protect the Earth from biohazard, and preserve scientific integrity of samples.

  4. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  6. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    PubMed

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  7. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  8. Relation Between Cigarette Smoking, Body Fat Distribution and Density of Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    processed foods such as powdered eggs, freeze- dried meats, and dehydrated cheese and butter powders. French-fried foods are a major source of dietary...E., Shea , M. J., Wilson, R. A., Horlock, P., deLandsheere, C. M., & Selwyn, A. P. (1986). Direct effects of smoking on the heart: Silent ischemic

  9. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-29

    finding the wall shea stress. Finally, ft ;hould be noted that the wall shear stress can be found from the streamwrwise gradient of the mornsntum...somewhat butter collapse than inner scaling, suggesting that the outer flow affects events at the wall. By comparison, the burst frequency in a planar

  10. Implementation Aspects of Flood Warning and Preparedness Planning Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    committees, and the Congress as a whole was on these other provisions which traditionally are regarded as bread and butter items by influential interests...near Shea Blvd. in Scottsdale. 7-23 iy.i.• I I I " I I I I I ’n , -. ... . .. 2• 3. Purchase, installation, calibration, opera- tion, servicing and

  11. Parallelizing a peanut butter sandwich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenette, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    This poster aims to demonstrate, in a novel way, why contemporary computational code development is seemingly hard to a geodynamics modeler (i.e. a non-computer-scientist). For example, to utilise comtemporary computer hardware, parallelisation is required. But why do we chose the explicit approach (MPI) over an implicit (OpenMP) one? How does this relate to the typical geodynamics codes. And do we face this same style of problems in every day life? We aim to demonstrate that the little bit of complexity, fore-thought and effort is worth its while.

  12. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  13. SAMPLING OSCILLOSCOPE

    DOEpatents

    Sugarman, R.M.

    1960-08-30

    An oscilloscope is designed for displaying transient signal waveforms having random time and amplitude distributions. The oscilloscopc is a sampling device that selects for display a portion of only those waveforms having a particular range of amplitudes. For this purpose a pulse-height analyzer is provided to screen the pulses. A variable voltage-level shifter and a time-scale rampvoltage generator take the pulse height relative to the start of the waveform. The variable voltage shifter produces a voltage level raised one step for each sequential signal waveform to be sampled and this results in an unsmeared record of input signal waveforms. Appropriate delay devices permit each sample waveform to pass its peak amplitude before the circuit selects it for display.

  14. Sampling Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Sampling Intervals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    is practically the same as the one proposed by ARINC Research Corporation [ 4 ] for the construction of oil analysis decision tables. For each...pooled over two different failure modes ( auxillary drive bearing and an oil pump). The plot seems to indicate two distinct groups of data and one of the... decision would be to continue sampling at the same rate. -0 S 4,, .4 -12 Oo INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST DIRECTOR (2) DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS DEFENSE TECH

  16. Counseling Deaf College Students: The Case of Shea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Aimee K.; Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes developmental and psychosocial challenges experienced by a Deaf college student. A counseling intervention that combines person-centered and cognitive behavior approaches with psycho-educational strategies designed to educate the client about Deaf identity development and Deaf culture is presented.

  17. Detection of triglycerides using immobilized enzymes in food and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichur, Ashish; Lesi, Abiodun; Pedersen, Henrik

    1996-04-01

    A scheme for the determination of total triglyceride (fat) content in biomedical and food samples is being developed. The primary emphasis is to minimize the reagents used, simplify sample preparation and develop a robust system that would facilitate on-line monitoring. The new detection scheme developed thus far involves extracting triglycerides into an organic solvent (cyclohexane) and performing partial least squares (PLS) analysis on the NIR (1100 - 2500 nm) absorbance spectra of the solution. A training set using 132 spectra of known triglyceride mixtures was complied. Eight PLS calibrations were generated and were used to predict the total fat extracted from commercial samples such as mayonnaise, butter, corn oil and coconut oil. The results typically gave a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99 or better. Predictions were typically within 90% and better at higher concentrations. Experiments were also performed using an immobilized lipase reactor to hydrolyze the fat extracted into the organic solvent. Performing PLS analysis on the difference spectra of the substrate and product could enhance specificity. This is being verified experimentally. Further work with biomedical samples is to be performed. This scheme may be developed into a feasible detection method for triglycerides in the biomedical and food industries.

  18. A Portable Immunoassay Platform for Multiplexed Detection of Biotoxins in Clinical and Environmental Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew Ernest; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    Multiple cases of attempted bioterrorism events using biotoxins have highlighted the urgent need for tools capable of rapid screening of suspect samples in the field (e.g., mailroom and public events). We present a portable microfluidic device capable of analyzing environmental (e.g., white powder), food (e.g., milk) and clinical (e.g., blood) samples for multiplexed detection of biotoxins. The device is rapid (<15-30 min sample-to-answer), sensitive (< 0.08 pg/mL detection limit for botulinum toxin), multiplexed (up to 64 parallel assays) and capable of analyzing small volume samples (< 20 μL total sample input). The immunoassay approach (SpinDx) is based on binding ofmore » toxins in a sample to antibody-laden capture particles followed by sedimentation of particles through a density-media in a microfluidic disk and quantification using a laser-induced fluorescence detector. A direct, blinded comparison with a gold standard ELISA revealed a 5-fold more sensitive detection limit for botulinum toxin while requiring 250-fold less sample volume and a 30 minute assay time with a near unity correlation. A key advantage of the technique is its compatibility with a variety of sample matrices with no additional sample preparation required. Ultrasensitive quantification has been demonstrated from direct analysis of multiple clinical, environmental and food samples, including white powder, whole blood, saliva, salad dressing, whole milk, peanut butter, half and half, honey, and canned meat. We believe that this device can met an urgent need in screening both potentially exposed people as well as suspicious samples in mail-rooms, airports, public sporting venues and emergency rooms. The general-purpose immunodiagnostics device can also find applications in screening of infectious and systemic diseases or serve as a lab device for conducting rapid immunoassays.« less

  19. Influence of hydrogenated oil as cocoa butter replacers in the development of sugar-free compound chocolates: Use of inulin as stabilizing agent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Baracco, Yanina; Lecot, Javier; Zaritzky, Noemi; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI. This chocolate also showed less fracturability and improved thermal properties. DSC studies revealed increased values of onset and peak temperatures and enthalpy of melting of the polymorphic form V, at higher storage temperatures, achieving greater stability against degradation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  1. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  2. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  3. The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of toxic and essential elements in different types of food samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, C.; Dehelean, A.; Kovacs, M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements. In this context, levels of essential and toxic elements must be determined routinely in consumed food products. The content of trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Sn, Hg) in different types of food samples (e.g. rice, bread, sugar, cheese, milk, butter, wheat, coffee, chocolate, biscuits pasta, etc.) was determined, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Trace element contents in some foods were higher than maximum permissible levels of toxic metals in human food (Cd in bread, Zn in cheese, Cu in coffee, Hg in carrots and peppers).

  4. Natural lipid nanoparticles containing nimesulide: synthesis, characterization and in vivo antiedematogenic and antinociceptive activities.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Renata P; Lima, Amanda; Lorenzoni, Ricardo; Antonow, Michelli B; Turra, Cláudia; Alves, Marta P; Fagan, Solange B

    2012-04-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are drug delivery systems able to increase bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. They can be prepared with different lipid materials, especially natural lipids. Shea butter is a natural lipid obtained from the Butyrospermum parkii seed and rich in oleic and stearic acids. Nimesulide is a COX 2 selective anti-inflammatory that is poorly soluble in water. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize shea butter lipid nanoparticles using a new technique and evaluate the in vivo activity of these nanoparticles. Lipid nanoparticles were prepared by melting shea butter and mixing with an aqueous phase using a high shear mixer. The nanoparticles presented pH of 6.9 +/- 0.1, mean particle size of 90 nm and a narrow polydispersity (0.21). Zeta potential was around -20 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was 97.5%. Drug release was evaluated using dialysis bags and presented monoexponential profile with t50% of 4.80 h (free drug t50% was only 2.86 h). Antinociceptive activity was performed by the acetic acid model. Both nimesulide and nimesulide-loaded nanoparticles presented significant activity compared to the control. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema and was statistically different for the nanoparticles containing nimesulide compared to free nimesulide, blank nanoparticles and saline. In conclusion, the use of shea butter as encapsulating lipid was very successful and allowed nanoparticles to be prepared with a very simple technique. The nanoparticles presented significant pharmacological effects that were not seen for free drug administration.

  5. Marine Seismic System (MSS). Development, Deployment and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    HYTREL SHEA TH, 0.040 IN. WALL OD 0.692 IN. ELECTRICAL. NOM CONDUCTOR DC RESISTANCE *@ 20 0 C: @10 AWG: 1.08 OHMS/K PT COAX RETURN BRAID-. 1.40 OHMS/KFT...Juice. Follow vith one of the following: white- or-egg, olive oil, starch water, mineral oil,.or melted butter . Obtain medical attention at once. . - S

  6. Sampling efficacy for the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Suckling, David Maxwell; Baird, David; Vander Meer, Robert K; Christian, Sheree J; Lester, Philip J

    2011-10-01

    Cost-effective detection of invasive ant colonies before establishment in new ranges is imperative for the protection of national borders and reducing their global impact. We examined the sampling efficiency of food-baits and pitfall traps (baited and nonbaited) in detecting isolated red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) nests in multiple environments in Gainesville, FL. Fire ants demonstrated a significantly higher preference for a mixed protein food type (hotdog or ground meat combined with sweet peanut butter) than for the sugar or water baits offered. Foraging distance success was a function of colony size, detection trap used, and surveillance duration. Colony gyne number did not influence detection success. Workers from small nests (0- to 15-cm mound diameter) traveled no >3 m to a food source, whereas large colonies (>30-cm mound diameter) traveled up to 17 m. Baited pitfall traps performed best at detecting incipient ant colonies followed by nonbaited pitfall traps then food baits, whereas food baits performed well when trying to detect large colonies. These results were used to create an interactive model in Microsoft Excel, whereby surveillance managers can alter trap type, density, and duration parameters to estimate the probability of detecting specified or unknown S. invicta colony sizes. This model will support decision makers who need to balance the sampling cost and risk of failure to detect fire ant colonies.

  7. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    PubMed Central

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  8. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

    2009-01-01

    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  9. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (<10% SFA, 22% PUFA and 6% MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates. Size and body composition, glucose, insulin, HOMA, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL.C were measured; dietary Anamnesis/24 hours, daily food record. ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical analysis (SPSS 20) was applied. The age was 56 ± 5 years, BMI 29.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2, waist circumference: 93.2 ± 10.1 cm, waist/hip ratio: 0.86 ± 0.14, waist/height: 0.59 ± 0.06 and 38.6 ± 4% body fat (NS). Lipid profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  11. Applied Survey Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Edward; Blair, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Written for students and researchers who wish to understand the conceptual and practical aspects of sampling, this book is designed to be accessible without requiring advanced statistical training. It covers a wide range of topics, from the basics of sampling to special topics such as sampling rare populations, sampling organizational populations,…

  12. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  13. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out skins... Apricot 7.0 Grape 7.0 Peach 8.5 Pear 6.5 Plum (other than prune) 7.0 Prune 7.0 Quince 7.5 (2) The...

  14. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out skins... Apricot 7.0 Grape 7.0 Peach 8.5 Pear 6.5 Plum (other than prune) 7.0 Prune 7.0 Quince 7.5 (2) The...

  15. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out skins... Apricot 7.0 Grape 7.0 Peach 8.5 Pear 6.5 Plum (other than prune) 7.0 Prune 7.0 Quince 7.5 (2) The...

  16. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are the smooth... permitted combinations are of two, three, four, and five of the fruit ingredients specified in paragraph (b..., call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr...

  17. Guns or butter, family planning or widgets?

    PubMed

    Hirshbein, N

    1992-02-01

    In January 1992 Congress returned from its Christmas recess to begin wrestling with the upcoming year's federal budget. The Budget Enforcement Act places absolute limits on the amounts Congress can appropriate for domestic programs, international assistance, and defense spending. Unless the president declares an emergency, Congress has no flexibility to adjust the $293 billion defense allocation in favor of domestic or international assistance. For the next few years, spending for the military would account for about 55% of all discretionary spending. The Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations subcommittee has a predetermined slice of the $222 billion domestic allocation. The subcommittee must then decide how to subdivide its slice among employment programs, education assistance, and health care, which includes domestic family planning programs. Similarly, the foreign operations subcommittee slices up a small $20 billion for international assistance. Some will go for economic aid, some for development assistance, including international family planning programs. And, about 30% of the international aid budget will go to military assistance to foreign governments. The massive shifts on the international scene and an uncertain domestic economy are forcing a reconsideration of this iron-clad budget agreement. Consequently, efforts to nullify the budget agreement are underway. Over 100 organizations and church groups have formed a coalition calling on Congress and the administration to reorder fiscal priorities so that resources can be redirected toward worthwhile domestic and international programs. Worldwide, the demand for contraceptive services is increasing, yet the US spends only about $300 million for population assistance per year, about the same as it was 20 years ago. But policy makers are finally beginning to understand that the costs of Title X, international family planning, and providing quality family planning services are far less than the long-term costs of caring for ill infants, abused children, or women suffering from the health effects of multiple pregnancies.

  18. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., canned, and/or dried (evaporated) mature fruits, with or without added water, and screening out skins... this section; (ii) multiply the percent so found by the weight of such fruit ingredient; (iii) divide... no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL...

  19. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... count, not more than 50 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 10 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram; and keeping-quality test, satisfactory after 7 days at 72 °F. (2) Optional... ppm; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. [59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 48976...

  20. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... count, not more than 50 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 10 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram; and keeping-quality test, satisfactory after 7 days at 72 °F. (2) Optional... ppm; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. [59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 48976...

  1. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with §§ 58.336 and 58.337. (b) Proteolytic count, not more than 100 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 20 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram. (c) Optional except when...; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. ...

  2. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with §§ 58.336 and 58.337. (b) Proteolytic count, not more than 100 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 20 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram. (c) Optional except when...; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... count, not more than 50 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 10 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram; and keeping-quality test, satisfactory after 7 days at 72 °F. (2) Optional... ppm; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. [59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 48976...

  4. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with §§ 58.336 and 58.337. (b) Proteolytic count, not more than 100 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 20 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram. (c) Optional except when...; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. ...

  5. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... count, not more than 50 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 10 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram; and keeping-quality test, satisfactory after 7 days at 72 °F. (2) Optional... ppm; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. [59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 48976...

  6. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with §§ 58.336 and 58.337. (b) Proteolytic count, not more than 100 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 20 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram. (c) Optional except when...; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. ...

  7. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with §§ 58.336 and 58.337. (b) Proteolytic count, not more than 100 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 20 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram. (c) Optional except when...; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. ...

  8. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... count, not more than 50 per gram; yeast and mold count, not more than 10 per gram; coliform count, not more than 10 per gram; and keeping-quality test, satisfactory after 7 days at 72 °F. (2) Optional... ppm; enterococci, not more than 10 per gram. [59 FR 1264, Jan. 10, 1994, as amended at 67 FR 48976...

  9. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  10. Stardust Sample: Investigator's Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust spacecraft returned the first in situ collection of samples from a comet, and the first samples of contemporary interstellar dust. Stardust is the first US sample return mission from a planetary body since Apollo, and the first ever from beyond the moon. This handbook is a basic reference source for allocation procedures and policies for Stardust samples. These samples consist of particles and particle residues in aerogel collectors, in aluminum foil, and in spacecraft components. Contamination control samples and unflown collection media are also available for allocation.

  11. Apollo 14 rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, I. C.

    1978-01-01

    Petrographic descriptions of all Apollo 14 samples larger than 1 cm in any dimension are presented. The sample description format consists of: (1) an introductory section which includes information on lunar sample location, orientation, and return containers, (2) a section on physical characteristics, which contains the sample mass, dimensions, and a brief description; (3) surface features, including zap pits, cavities, and fractures as seen in binocular view; (4) petrographic description, consisting of a binocular description and, if possible, a thin section description; and (5) a discussion of literature relevant to sample petrology is included for samples which have previously been examined by the scientific community.

  12. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Danny A.; Tomich, Stanley D.; Glover, Donald W.; Allen, Errol V.; Hales, Jeremy M.; Dana, Marshall T.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  13. Improved Sampling Method Reduces Isokinetic Sampling Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karels, Gale G.

    The particulate sampling system currently in use by the Bay Area Air Pollution Control District, San Francisco, California is described in this presentation for the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. The method represents a practical, inexpensive tool that can…

  14. Sampling--how big a sample?

    PubMed

    Aitken, C G

    1999-07-01

    It is thought that, in a consignment of discrete units, a certain proportion of the units contain illegal material. A sample of the consignment is to be inspected. Various methods for the determination of the sample size are compared. The consignment will be considered as a random sample from some super-population of units, a certain proportion of which contain drugs. For large consignments, a probability distribution, known as the beta distribution, for the proportion of the consignment which contains illegal material is obtained. This distribution is based on prior beliefs about the proportion. Under certain specific conditions the beta distribution gives the same numerical results as an approach based on the binomial distribution. The binomial distribution provides a probability for the number of units in a sample which contain illegal material, conditional on knowing the proportion of the consignment which contains illegal material. This is in contrast to the beta distribution which provides probabilities for the proportion of a consignment which contains illegal material, conditional on knowing the number of units in the sample which contain illegal material. The interpretation when the beta distribution is used is much more intuitively satisfactory. It is also much more flexible in its ability to cater for prior beliefs which may vary given the different circumstances of different crimes. For small consignments, a distribution, known as the beta-binomial distribution, for the number of units in the consignment which are found to contain illegal material, is obtained, based on prior beliefs about the number of units in the consignment which are thought to contain illegal material. As with the beta and binomial distributions for large samples, it is shown that, in certain specific conditions, the beta-binomial and hypergeometric distributions give the same numerical results. However, the beta-binomial distribution, as with the beta distribution, has a more

  15. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  16. Mold Testing or Sampling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  17. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  18. Mars Sample Handling Functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    The final leg of a Mars Sample Return campaign would be an entity that we have referred to as Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH.) This talk will address our current view of the functional requirements on MRSH, focused on the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

  19. Decision by Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory of decision by sampling (DbS) in which, in contrast with traditional models, there are no underlying psychoeconomic scales. Instead, we assume that an attribute's subjective value is constructed from a series of binary, ordinal comparisons to a sample of attribute values drawn from memory and is its rank within the sample. We…

  20. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  1. SAMPLING OF CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of characterization of the amount and species of contamination of a hazardous waste site is the sampling plan developed for that site. f the sampling plan is not thoroughly conceptualized before sampling takes place, then certain critical aspects of the limits o...

  2. Randomized branch sampling

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine

    2002-01-01

    Randomized branch sampling (RBS) is a special application of multistage probability sampling (see Sampling, environmental), which was developed originally by Jessen [3] to estimate fruit counts on individual orchard trees. In general, the method can be used to obtain estimates of many different attributes of trees or other branched plants. The usual objective of RBS is...

  3. IAEA Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2017-09-15

    The objectives for this presentation are to describe the method that the IAEA uses to determine a sampling plan for nuclear material measurements; describe the terms detection probability and significant quantity; list the three nuclear materials measurement types; describe the sampling method applied to an item facility; and describe multiple method sampling.

  4. Rockballer Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Cook, Brant T.

    2013-01-01

    It would be desirable to acquire rock and/or ice samples that extend below the surface of the parent rock or ice in extraterrestrial environments such as the Moon, Mars, comets, and asteroids. Such samples would allow measurements to be made further back into the geologic history of the rock, providing critical insight into the history of the local environment and the solar system. Such samples could also be necessary for sample return mission architectures that would acquire samples from extraterrestrial environments for return to Earth for more detailed scientific investigation.

  5. DIY Tomography sample holder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, L.; Wright, I.; Boyes, E. D.

    2015-10-01

    A very simple tomography sample holder at minimal cost was developed in-house. The holder is based on a JEOL single tilt fast exchange sample holder where its exchangeable tip was modified to allow high angle degree tilt. The shape of the tip was designed to retain mechanical stability while minimising the lateral size of the tip. The sample can be mounted on as for a standard 3mm Cu grids as well as semi-circular grids from FIB sample preparation. Applications of the holder on different sample systems are shown.

  6. Phylogenetic effective sample size.

    PubMed

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-10-21

    In this paper I address the question-how large is a phylogenetic sample? I propose a definition of a phylogenetic effective sample size for Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes-the regression effective sample size. I discuss how mutual information can be used to define an effective sample size in the non-normal process case and compare these two definitions to an already present concept of effective sample size (the mean effective sample size). Through a simulation study I find that the AICc is robust if one corrects for the number of species or effective number of species. Lastly I discuss how the concept of the phylogenetic effective sample size can be useful for biodiversity quantification, identification of interesting clades and deciding on the importance of phylogenetic correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  8. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  9. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  10. Drug sampling in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Erika E; Alikhan, Ali; Brodell, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    The use of drug samples in a dermatology clinic is controversial. Drug samples are associated with influencing physician prescribing patterns often toward costlier drugs, increasing health care costs, increasing waste, inducing potential conflicts of interest, and decreasing the quality of patient education. On the other hand, they have the potential to help those in financial need, to improve adherence and convenience, and to expose patients to better drugs. Although some academic centers have banned drug samples altogether, many academic and private practices continue to distribute drug samples. Given the controversy of the topic, physicians who wish to distribute drug samples must do so in an ethical manner. We believe, when handled properly, drug sampling can be used in an ethical manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  12. Adaptive web sampling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Steven K

    2006-12-01

    A flexible class of adaptive sampling designs is introduced for sampling in network and spatial settings. In the designs, selections are made sequentially with a mixture distribution based on an active set that changes as the sampling progresses, using network or spatial relationships as well as sample values. The new designs have certain advantages compared with previously existing adaptive and link-tracing designs, including control over sample sizes and of the proportion of effort allocated to adaptive selections. Efficient inference involves averaging over sample paths consistent with the minimal sufficient statistic. A Markov chain resampling method makes the inference computationally feasible. The designs are evaluated in network and spatial settings using two empirical populations: a hidden human population at high risk for HIV/AIDS and an unevenly distributed bird population.

  13. Sampling in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    2011-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

  14. Immune Blood Sample Draw

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-26

    ISS030-E-257690 (26 April 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, prepares for IMMUNE venous blood sample draws in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station. Following the blood draws, the samples were temporarily stowed in the Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS 1 (MELFI-1) and later packed together with saliva samples on the Soyuz TMA-22 for return to Earth for analysis.

  15. LUNAR SAMPLES - APOLLO 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-08-03

    S69-40749 (July 1969) --- Dr. Grant Heikan, MSC and a Lunar Sample Preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.

  16. Fluid sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inlet leak is described for sampling gases, more specifically, for selectively sampling multiple fluids. This fluid sampling device includes a support frame. A plurality of fluid inlet devices extend through the support frame and each of the fluid inlet devices include a longitudinal aperture. An opening device that is responsive to a control signal selectively opens the aperture to allow fluid passage. A closing device that is responsive to another control signal selectively closes the aperture for terminating further fluid flow.

  17. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  18. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  19. Statistical distribution sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Determining the distribution of statistics by sampling was investigated. Characteristic functions, the quadratic regression problem, and the differential equations for the characteristic functions are analyzed.

  20. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...

  1. Simple street tree sampling

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  2. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  3. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  4. Extraterrestrial Samples at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the curation of extraterrestrial samples at NASA Johnson Space Center is shown. The topics include: 1) Apollo lunar samples; 2) Meteorites from Antarctica; 3) Cosmic dust from the stratosphere; 4) Genesis solar wind ions; 5) Stardust comet and interstellar grains; and 5) Space-Exposed Hardware.

  5. Gaussian Boson Sampling.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Craig S; Kruse, Regina; Sansoni, Linda; Barkhofen, Sonja; Silberhorn, Christine; Jex, Igor

    2017-10-27

    Boson sampling has emerged as a tool to explore the advantages of quantum over classical computers as it does not require universal control over the quantum system, which favors current photonic experimental platforms. Here, we introduce Gaussian Boson sampling, a classically hard-to-solve problem that uses squeezed states as a nonclassical resource. We relate the probability to measure specific photon patterns from a general Gaussian state in the Fock basis to a matrix function called the Hafnian, which answers the last remaining question of sampling from Gaussian states. Based on this result, we design Gaussian Boson sampling, a #P hard problem, using squeezed states. This demonstrates that Boson sampling from Gaussian states is possible, with significant advantages in the photon generation probability, compared to existing protocols.

  6. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  7. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  8. Sample analysis at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Sam Team

    The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite consists of a group of tightly-integrated experiments that would analyze samples delivered directly from a coring drill or by a facility sample processing and delivery (SPAD) mechanism. SAM consists of an advanced GC/MS system and a laser desorption mass spectrometer (LDMS). The combined capabilities of these techniques can address Mars science objectives with much improved sensitivity, resolution, and analytical breadth over what has been previously possible in situ. The GC/MS system analyzes the bulk composition (both molecular and isotopic) of solid-phase and atmospheric samples. Solid samples are introduced with a highly flexible chemical derivatization/pyrolysis subsystem (Pyr/GC/MS) that is significantly more capable than the mass spectrometers on Viking. The LDMS analyzes local elemental and molecular composition in solid samples vaporized and ionized with a pulsed laser. We will describe how each of these capabilities has particular strengths that can achieve key measurement objectives at Mars. In addition, the close codevelopment of the GC/MS and LDMS along with a sample manipulation system enables the the sharing of resources, the correlation of results, and the utilization of certain approaches that would not be possible with separate instruments. For instance, the same samples could be analyzed with more than one technique, increasing efficiency and providing cross-checks for quantification. There is also the possibility of combining methods, such as by permitting TOF-MS analyses of evolved gas (Pyr/EI-TOF-MS) or GC/MS analyses of laser evaporated gas (LD-GC/MS).

  9. Sealed container sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Sampling device, by means of a tapered needle, pierces a sealed container while maintaining the seal and either evacuates or pressurizes the container. This device has many applications in the chemical, preservative and battery-manufacturing industries.

  10. FIR ACE samples

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-04

    ISS040-E-007368 (5 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, works with Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) samples in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  11. Sediment Sampling Operating Procedure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting sediment samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  12. Utility of Work Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchinsky, Paul M.

    1975-01-01

    A work sample test can provide a high degree of content validity, and offers a practical method of screening job applicants in accordance with guidelines on employee selection procedures set forth by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (MW)

  13. Roadway sampling evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has traditionally required that all sampling : and testing of asphalt mixtures be at the Contractors production facility. With recent staffing cuts, as : well as budget reductions, FDOT has been cons...

  14. Soil Gas Sampling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  15. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  16. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  17. Sample positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Thomas H.; Johnson, Jr., Charles H.; Lane, Robert L.; Martin, Bradley E.; Tyree, William H.

    1976-01-06

    Apparatus for use in alpha particle counting with such as photomultiplier tubes, comprising a platform and linkage mechanism whereby samples are moved in linear manner toward and away from ends of the photomultiplier tubes.

  18. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2017-12-09

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  19. Open port sampling interface

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J

    A system for sampling a sample material includes a probe which can have an outer probe housing with an open end. A liquid supply conduit within the housing has an outlet positioned to deliver liquid to the open end of the housing. The liquid supply conduit can be connectable to a liquid supply for delivering liquid at a first volumetric flow rate to the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust conduit within the housing is provided for removing liquid from the open end of the housing. A liquid exhaust system can be provided for removing liquid from themore » liquid exhaust conduit at a second volumetric flow rate, the first volumetric flow rate exceeding the second volumetric flow rate, wherein liquid at the open end will receive sample, liquid containing sample material will be drawn into and through the liquid exhaust conduit, and liquid will overflow from the open end.« less

  20. Sample EPA Biotech Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This sample “EPA Biotech Form” is a header sheet that will accompany all biotechnology submission choices, including MCANs, TERAs, Tier I and Tier II exemption, and biotechnology Test Market Exemption Applications (TMEAs).

  1. Dissolution actuated sample container

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  2. Lunar Samples - Apollo 17

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-27

    S72-56362 (27 Dec. 1972) --- Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt (facing camera), Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, was one of the first to look at the sample of "orange" soil which was brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen. Schmitt discovered the material at Shorty Crater during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA). The "orange" sample, which was opened Wednesday, Dec. 27, 1972, is in the bag on a weighing platform in the sealed nitrogen cabinet in the upstairs processing line in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Just before, the sample was removed from one of the bolt-top cans visible to the left in the cabinet. The first reaction of Schmitt was "It doesn't look the same." Most of the geologists and staff viewing the sample agreed that it was more tan and brown than orange. Closer comparison with color charts showed that the sample had a definite orange cast, according the MSC geology branch Chief William Phinney. After closer investigation and sieving, it was discovered that the orange color was caused by very fine spheres and fragments of orange glass in the midst of darker colored, larger grain material. Earlier in the day the "orange" soil was taken from the Apollo Lunar Sample Return Container No. 2 and placed in the bolt-top can (as was all the material in the ALSRC "rock box").

  3. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  4. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  5. Liquid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Loren L.

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  6. Recommended protocols for sampling macrofungi

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Mueller; John Paul Schmit; Sabine M. Hubndorf Leif Ryvarden; Thomas E. O' Dell; D. Jean Lodge; Patrick R. Leacock; Milagro Mata; Loengrin Umania; Qiuxin (Florence) Wu; Daniel L. Czederpiltz

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses several issues regarding reommended protocols for sampling macrofungi: Opportunistic sampling of macrofungi, sampling conspicuous macrofungi using fixed-size, sampling small Ascomycetes using microplots, and sampling a fixed number of downed logs.

  7. Nonuniform sampling by quantiles.

    PubMed

    Craft, D Levi; Sonstrom, Reilly E; Rovnyak, Virginia G; Rovnyak, David

    2018-03-01

    A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid. A characteristic of quantile scheduling is that one-dimensional, weighted NUS schedules are deterministic, however higher dimensional schedules are similar within a user-specified jittering parameter. To develop unweighted sampling, we investigated the minimum jitter needed to disrupt subharmonic tracts, and show that this criterion can be met in many cases by jittering within 25-50% of the subharmonic gap. For nD-NUS, three supplemental components to choosing samples by quantiles are proposed in this work: (i) forcing the corner samples to ensure sampling to specified maximum values in indirect evolution times, (ii) providing an option to triangular backfill sampling schedules to promote dense/uniform tracts at the beginning of signal evolution periods, and (iii) providing an option to force the edges of nD-NUS schedules to be identical to the 1D quantiles. Quantile-directed scheduling meets the diverse needs of current NUS experimentation, but can also be used for future NUS implementations such as off-grid NUS and more. A computer program implementing these principles (a.k.a. QSched) in 1D- and 2D-NUS is available under the general public license. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonuniform sampling by quantiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, D. Levi; Sonstrom, Reilly E.; Rovnyak, Virginia G.; Rovnyak, David

    2018-03-01

    A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid. A characteristic of quantile scheduling is that one-dimensional, weighted NUS schedules are deterministic, however higher dimensional schedules are similar within a user-specified jittering parameter. To develop unweighted sampling, we investigated the minimum jitter needed to disrupt subharmonic tracts, and show that this criterion can be met in many cases by jittering within 25-50% of the subharmonic gap. For nD-NUS, three supplemental components to choosing samples by quantiles are proposed in this work: (i) forcing the corner samples to ensure sampling to specified maximum values in indirect evolution times, (ii) providing an option to triangular backfill sampling schedules to promote dense/uniform tracts at the beginning of signal evolution periods, and (iii) providing an option to force the edges of nD-NUS schedules to be identical to the 1D quantiles. Quantile-directed scheduling meets the diverse needs of current NUS experimentation, but can also be used for future NUS implementations such as off-grid NUS and more. A computer program implementing these principles (a.k.a. QSched) in 1D- and 2D-NUS is available under the general public license.

  9. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  10. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  11. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  12. Experimental scattershot boson sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J.; Galvão, Ernesto F.; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy. PMID:26601164

  13. Experimental scattershot boson sampling.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Vitelli, Chiara; Flamini, Fulvio; Viggianiello, Niko; Latmiral, Ludovico; Mataloni, Paolo; Brod, Daniel J; Galvão, Ernesto F; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Boson sampling is a computational task strongly believed to be hard for classical computers, but efficiently solvable by orchestrated bosonic interference in a specialized quantum computer. Current experimental schemes, however, are still insufficient for a convincing demonstration of the advantage of quantum over classical computation. A new variation of this task, scattershot boson sampling, leads to an exponential increase in speed of the quantum device, using a larger number of photon sources based on parametric down-conversion. This is achieved by having multiple heralded single photons being sent, shot by shot, into different random input ports of the interferometer. We report the first scattershot boson sampling experiments, where six different photon-pair sources are coupled to integrated photonic circuits. We use recently proposed statistical tools to analyze our experimental data, providing strong evidence that our photonic quantum simulator works as expected. This approach represents an important leap toward a convincing experimental demonstration of the quantum computational supremacy.

  14. Viscous sludge sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  15. LUNAR SAMPLES - APOLLO XI

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-27

    S69-45002 (26 July 1969) --- A close-up view of the lunar rocks contained in the first Apollo 11 sample return container. The rock box was opened for the first time in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center’s Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37, at 3:55 p.m. (CDT), Saturday, July 26, 1969. The gloved hand gives an indication of size. This box also contained the Solar Wind Composition experiment (not shown) and two core tubes for subsurface samples (not shown). These lunar samples were collected by astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during their lunar surface extravehicular activity on July 20, 1969.

  16. Lunar Samples - Apollo 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-28

    S69-60354 (29 Nov. 1969) --- A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. The rocks are under thorough examination in the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  17. Contamination sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Felix A. (Inventor); Stern, Susan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A contamination sample collection device has a wooden dowel with a cotton swab at one end, the cotton being covered by a nylon cloth and the wooden dowel being encapsulated by plastic tubing which is heat shrunk onto the dowel and onto a portion of the cotton swab to secure the cotton in place. Another plastic tube is heat shrunk onto the plastic that encapsulates the dowel and a portion of the nylon cloth to secure the nylon cloth in place. The device may thereafter be covered with aluminum foil protector. The device may be used for obtaining samples of contamination in clean room environments.

  18. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    From the first half century of space exploration, we have obtained samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded profound knowledge that could not have been obtained without the returned samples. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is crucial science, it is rarely done due to cost and complexity. Cassini's discovery of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials, indicate that there is an exceptional opportunity and science rational to do a low-cost flyby sample return mission, similar to what was done by the Stardust. The earliest low cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012]. Enceladus Plume Discovery - While Voyager provided evidence for young surfaces on Enceladus, the existence of Enceladus plumes was discovered by Cassini. Enceladus and comets are the only known solar system bodies that have jets enabling sample collection without landing or surface contact. Cassini in situ Findings -Cassini's made many discoveries at Saturn, including the break up of large organics in the plumes of Enceladus. Four prime criteria for habitability are liquid water, a heat source, organics and nitrogen [McKay et al. 2008, Waite et al. 2009, Postberg et al. 2011]. Out of all the NASA designated habitability targets, Enceladus is the single body that presents evidence for all four criteria. Significant advancement in the exploration of the biological potential of Enceladus can be made on returned samples in terrestrial laboratories where the full power of state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation and procedures can be used. Without serious limits on power, mass or even cost, terrestrial laboratories provide the ultimate in analytical capability, adaptability, reproducibility and reliability. What Questions can Samples Address? - Samples collected from the Enceladus plume will enable a thorough and replicated

  19. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    Discussing an array of water quality topics, from water quality regulations and criteria, to project planning and sampling activities, this book outlines a framework for improving water quality programs. Using this framework, you can easily put the proper training and tools in place for better management of water resources.

  20. Chorionic villus sampling - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... the embryonic sac. Surgeons sample these projections for genetic testing because they contain the same genetic material as a fetus. If you are at ... 12 weeks gestation to find out a fetus' genetic makeup. Review Date 10/4/2016 ... Prenatal Testing A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  1. Drafting Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic mechanical drawing. (The course is based on the entry level of an assistant drafter.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  2. Using Language Sample Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

  3. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  4. Driven Boson Sampling.

    PubMed

    Barkhofen, Sonja; Bartley, Tim J; Sansoni, Linda; Kruse, Regina; Hamilton, Craig S; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2017-01-13

    Sampling the distribution of bosons that have undergone a random unitary evolution is strongly believed to be a computationally hard problem. Key to outperforming classical simulations of this task is to increase both the number of input photons and the size of the network. We propose driven boson sampling, in which photons are input within the network itself, as a means to approach this goal. We show that the mean number of photons entering a boson sampling experiment can exceed one photon per input mode, while maintaining the required complexity, potentially leading to less stringent requirements on the input states for such experiments. When using heralded single-photon sources based on parametric down-conversion, this approach offers an ∼e-fold enhancement in the input state generation rate over scattershot boson sampling, reaching the scaling limit for such sources. This approach also offers a dramatic increase in the signal-to-noise ratio with respect to higher-order photon generation from such probabilistic sources, which removes the need for photon number resolution during the heralding process as the size of the system increases.

  5. Sampling for Chemical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Byron; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This review, designed to make analysts aware of uncertainties introduced into analytical measurements during sampling, is organized under these headings: general considerations; theory; standards; and applications related to mineralogy, soils, sediments, metallurgy, atmosphere, water, biology, agriculture and food, medical and clinical areas, oil…

  6. Check Sample Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  7. Drill Press Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and to screen interested students into a training program in basic machine shop I. (The course is based on the entry level of the drill press operator.) Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for…

  8. ANNULAR IMPACTOR SAMPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Tait, G.W.C.

    1959-03-31

    A high-rate air sampler capable of sampling alphaemitting particles as small as 0.5 microns is described. The device is a cylindrical shaped cup that fits in front of a suction tube and which has sticky grease coating along its base. Suction forces contaminated air against the periodically monitored particle absorbing grease.

  9. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Flameless atomic abosrption, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to investigate the evolution of the lunar regolith, the transport of volatile trace metals, and the surface composition of lunar samples. The development of a model for lunar volcanic eruptions is also discussed.

  10. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that very small amounts of absorbed volatiles only removed by outgassing in high vacuum and elevated temperatures-drastically increase the internal friction in terrestrial analogs of lunar basalt. Recently room temperature Q values as high as 2000 were achieved by thorough outgassing procedures in 10 to the 8th power torr. Results are presented on Q measurements for lunar rock 70215.85, along with some data on the effect on Q of a variety of gases. Data show that substantially greater increases in Q are obtainable in a lunar rock sample than in the terrestrial analog samples studied, and that in addition to H2O other gases also can make non-negligible contributions to the internal friction.

  11. Phoenix Test Sample Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Sampling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  13. Apollo 11 lunar sample

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-24

    ISS020-E-14200 (FOR RELEASE 21 JULY 2009) --- A moon rock brought to Earth by Apollo 11, humans? first landing on the moon in July 1969, is shown as it floats aboard the International Space Station. Part of Earth can be seen through the window. The 3.6 billion year-old lunar sample was flown to the station aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-119 in April 2009 in honor of the July 2009 40th anniversary of the historic first moon landing. The rock, lunar sample 10072, was flown to the station to serve as a symbol of the nation?s resolve to continue the exploration of space. It will be returned on shuttle mission STS-128 to be publicly displayed.

  14. Apollo 11 lunar sample

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-24

    ISS020-E-014193 (FOR RELEASE 21 JULY 2009) --- A moon rock brought to Earth by Apollo 11, humans? first landing on the moon in July 1969, is shown as it floats aboard the International Space Station. Part of Earth can be seen through the window. The 3.6 billion year-old lunar sample was flown to the station aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-119 in April 2009 in honor of the July 2009 40th anniversary of the historic first moon landing. The rock, lunar sample 10072, was flown to the station to serve as a symbol of the nation?s resolve to continue the exploration of space. It will be returned on shuttle mission STS-128 to be publicly displayed.

  15. Apollo 11 lunar sample

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-24

    ISS020-E-14196 (FOR RELEASE 21 JULY 2009) --- A moon rock brought to Earth by Apollo 11, humans? first landing on the moon in July 1969, is shown as it floats aboard the International Space Station. Part of Earth can be seen through the window. The 3.6 billion year-old lunar sample was flown to the station aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-119 in April 2009 in honor of the July 2009 40th anniversary of the historic first moon landing. The rock, lunar sample 10072, was flown to the station to serve as a symbol of the nation?s resolve to continue the exploration of space. It will be returned on shuttle mission STS-128 to be publicly displayed.

  16. Triacylglycerol "hand-shape profile" of Argan oil. Rapid and simple UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS and HPTLC methods to detect counterfeit Argan oil and Argan-oil-based products.

    PubMed

    Pagliuca, Giordana; Bozzi, Carlotta; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Multari, Giuseppina; Palazzino, Giovanna; Porrà, Rita; Panusa, Alessia

    2018-02-20

    The marketing of new argan-based products is greatly increased in the last few years and consequently, it has enhanced the number of control analysis aimed at detecting counterfeit products claiming argan oil as a major ingredient. Argan oil is produced in Morocco and it is quite expensive. Two simple methods for the rapid screening of pure oil and argan-oil based products, focused on the analysis of the triacylglycerol profile, have been developed. A three-minute-run by UHPLC-PDA allows the identification of a pure argan oil, while the same run with the MS detector allows also the analysis of products containing the oil down to 0.03%. On the other hand, by HPTLC the simultaneous analysis of twenty samples, containing argan oil down to 0.5%, can be carried out in a forty-five-minute run. The triglyceride profile of the most common vegetable fats such as almond, coconut, linseed, wheat germ, sunflower, peanut, olive, soybean, rapeseed, hemp oils as well as shea butter used either in cosmetics or commonly added for the counterfeiting of argan oil, has been also investigated. Over sixty products with different formulations and use have been successfully analyzed and argan oil in the 2.4-0.06% concentration range has been quantified. The methods are suitable either for a rapid screening or for quantifying argan oil in different formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17550 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  18. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17547 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  19. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  20. Comet flyby sample return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Albee, A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a joint JPL/CSFC feasability study of a low-cost comet sample return flyby mission are presented. It is shown that the mission could be undertaken using current earth orbiter spacecraft technology in conjunction with pathfinder or beacon spacrcraft. Detailed scenarios of missions to the comets Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova (HMP), comet Kopff, and comet Giacobini-Zinner (GZ) are given, and some crossectional diagrams of the spacecraft designs are provided.

  1. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    resolved through further experimentation . Underwater Sediment Sampling Research vi UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | A. Hanson, et al. Public...Chemical Oceanographer, and In situ Chemical Analysis Subject Matter Expert (SME). 2 LABORATORY TEST SET UP The experimental research and laboratory... methodology involved using a fluorescence oil sensor (Turner Designs Cyclops-7) to measure the TPH contained in the interstitial waters (i.e., pore

  2. Multicast Parametric Synchronous Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    enhancement in a parametric mixer device. Fig. 4 shows the principle of generating uniform, high quality replicas extending over previously un-attainable...critical part of the MPASS architecture and is responsible for the direct and continuous acquisition of data across all of the multicast signal copies...ii) ability to copy THz signals with impunity to tens of replicas ; (iii) all-optical delays > 1.9 us; (iv) 10’s of THz-fast all-optical sampling of

  3. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  4. Water sample filtration unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skougstad, M.W.; Scarbro, G.F.

    1968-01-01

    A readily portable, all plastic, pressure filtration unit is described which greatly facilitates rapid micropore membrane field filtration of up to several liters of water with a minimum risk of inorganic chemical alteration or contamination of the sample. The unit accommodates standard 10.2-cm. (4-inch) diameter filters. The storage and carrying case serves as a convenient filter stand for both field and laboratory use.

  5. Natural sampling strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallum, C. R.; Basu, J. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A natural stratum-based sampling scheme and the aggregation procedures for estimating wheat area, yield, and production and their associated prediction error estimates are described. The methodology utilizes LANDSAT imagery and agrophysical data to permit an improved stratification in foreign areas by ignoring political boundaries and restratifying along boundaries that are more homogeneous with respect to the distribution of agricultural density, soil characteristics, and average climatic conditions. A summary of test results is given including a discussion of the various problems encountered.

  6. Laboratory Sampling Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-11

    their uses: Table 10. Types of Solid Sorbent Tubes Tube Type Typical Uses Anasorb® 747 Methyl Ethyl Ketone , Ethylene Oxide Charcoal Tube...Silica Gel Aliphatic Amines, Methanol, Aldehydes , Acid Mist 2.5.3 Passive Samplers. Passive samplers do not require a sampling pump (Figure 9). They...often encountered within the first 6 inches of soil. Water-soluble contaminants such as metals, acids, ketones , and alcohols will be encountered at

  7. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  8. Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Jyotirmoy; Rashid, Mamunur

    2017-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the "mean" squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This…

  9. Air Sampling Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    General Metal Works' Accu-Vol is a high-volume air sampling system used by many government agencies to monitor air quality for pollution control purposes. Procedure prevents possible test-invalidating contamination from materials other than particulate pollutants, caused by manual handling or penetration of windblown matter during transit, a cassette was developed in which the filter is sealed within a metal frame and protected in transit by a snap-on aluminum cover, thus handled only under clean conditions in the laboratory.

  10. Lunar Samples - Apollo 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-26

    S69-60294 (26 Nov. 1969) --- One of the first views of the Apollo 12 lunar rocks is this photograph of the open sample return container. The large rock is approximately 7 1/2 inches across and is larger than any rock brought back to Earth by the crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Two of the rocks in the first container are crystalline and generally lighter in color than those returned on the first lunar landing. The rocks in this box are medium charcoal brown/gray in color.

  11. Stack sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Love, Lonnie J; Noakes, Mark W; Pin, Francois G; Richardson, Bradley S; Rowe, John C

    2014-09-16

    An apparatus for obtaining samples from a structure includes a support member, at least one stabilizing member, and at least one moveable member. The stabilizing member has a first portion coupled to the support member and a second portion configured to engage with the structure to restrict relative movement between the support member and the structure. The stabilizing member is radially expandable from a first configuration where the second portion does not engage with a surface of the structure to a second configuration where the second portion engages with the surface of the structure.

  12. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  13. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  14. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  15. Inspecting Engineering Samples

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Goddard's Ritsko Wins 2011 SAVE Award The winner of the 2011 SAVE Award is Matthew Ritsko, a Goddard financial manager. His tool lending library would track and enable sharing of expensive space-flight tools and hardware after projects no longer need them. This set of images represents the types of tools used at NASA. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/people/features/ritsko-save.html Dr. Doug Rabin (Code 671) and PI La Vida Cooper (Code 564) inspect engineering samples of the HAS-2 imager which will be tested and readout using a custom ASIC with a 16-bit ADC (analog to digital converter) and CDS (correlated double sampling) circuit designed by the Code 564 ASIC group as a part of an FY10 IRAD. The purpose of the IRAD was to develop and high resolution digitizer for Heliophysics applications such as imaging. Future goals for the collaboration include characterization testing and eventually a sounding rocket flight of the integrated system. *ASIC= Application Specific Integrated Circuit NASA/GSFC/Chris Gunn

  16. Improved sample preparation to determine acrylamide in difficult matrixes such as chocolate powder, cocoa, and coffee by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Delatour, Thierry; Périsset, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Riediker, Sonja; Stadler, Richard H

    2004-07-28

    An improved sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) is presented that enables the quantification of low levels of acrylamide in difficult matrixes, including soluble chocolate powder, cocoa, coffee, and coffee surrogate. Final analysis is done by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using d3-acrylamide as internal standard. Sample pretreatment essentially encompasses (a) protein precipitation with Carrez I and II solutions, (b) extraction of the analyte into ethyl acetate, and (c) solid-phase extraction on a Multimode cartridge. The stability of acrylamide in final extracts and in certain commercial foods and beverages is also reported. This approach provided good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Full validation was conducted in soluble chocolate powder, achieving a decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 9.2 and 12.5 microg/kg, respectively. The method was extended to the analysis of acrylamide in various foodstuffs such as mashed potatoes, crisp bread, and butter biscuit and cookies. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method is demonstrated by the results obtained in three inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  17. 46. VIEW OF SAMPLING ROOM FROM SOUTHEAST. TO LEFT, SAMPLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF SAMPLING ROOM FROM SOUTHEAST. TO LEFT, SAMPLING ELEVATOR AND IN CENTER, SAMPLE BINS WITH DISCHARGE CHUTE AND THREE LABELS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. Stratospheric CCN sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    When Mt. St. Helens produced several major eruptions in the late spring of 1980, there was a strong interest in the characterization of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of the material that was injected into the troposphere and stratosphere. The scientific value of CCN measurements is two fold: CCN counts may be directly applied to calculations of the interaction of the aerosol (enlargement) at atmospherically-realistic relative humidities or supersaturations; and if the chemical constituency of the aerosol can be assumed, the number-versus-critical supersaturation spectrum may be converted into a dry aerosol size spectrum covering a size region not readily measured by other methods. The sampling method is described along with the instrumentation used in the experiments.

  19. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  20. Glass sample characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anees

    1990-01-01

    The development of in-house integrated optical performance modelling capability at MSFC is described. This performance model will take into account the effects of structural and thermal distortions, as well as metrology errors in optical surfaces to predict the performance of large an complex optical systems, such as Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility. The necessary hardware and software were identified to implement an integrated optical performance model. A number of design, development, and testing tasks were supported to identify the debonded mirror pad, and rebuilding of the Technology Mirror Assembly. Over 300 samples of Zerodur were prepared in different sizes and shapes for acid etching, coating, and polishing experiments to characterize the subsurface damage and stresses produced by the grinding and polishing operations.

  1. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus.

  2. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1993-12-21

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus. 5 figures.

  3. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  4. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.

    1991-02-05

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

  5. Fluid sampling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Yeamans, D.R.

    1998-02-03

    Incorporation of a bellows in a sampling syringe eliminates ingress of contaminants, permits replication of amounts and compression of multiple sample injections, and enables remote sampling for off-site analysis. 3 figs.

  6. Fluid sampling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Yeamans, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Incorporation of a bellows in a sampling syringe eliminates ingress of contaminants, permits replication of amounts and compression of multiple sample injections, and enables remote sampling for off-site analysis.

  7. Variable Sampling Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  8. Microcraters on lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechtig, H.; Gentner, W.; Hartung, J. B.; Nagel, K.; Neukum, G.; Schneider, E.; Storzer, D.

    1977-01-01

    The lunar microcrater phenomenology is described. The morphology of the lunar craters is in almost all aspects simulated in laboratory experiments in the diameter range from less than 1 nu to several millimeters and up to 60 km/s impact velocity. An empirically derived formula is given for the conversion of crater diameters into projectile diameters and masses for given impact velocities and projectile and target densities. The production size frequency distribution for lunar craters in the crater size range from approximately 1 nu to several millimeters in diameter is derived from various microcrater measurements within a factor of up to 5. Particle track exposure age measurements for a variety of lunar samples have been performed. They allow the conversion of the lunar crater size frequency production distributions into particle fluxes. The development of crater populations on lunar rocks under self-destruction by subsequent meteoroid impacts and crater overlap is discussed and theoretically described. Erosion rates on lunar rocks on the order of several millimeters per 10 yr are calculated. Chemical investigations of the glass linings of lunar craters yield clear evidence of admixture of projectile material only in one case, where the remnants of an iron-nickel micrometeorite have been identified.

  9. Quantum Metropolis sampling.

    PubMed

    Temme, K; Osborne, T J; Vollbrecht, K G; Poulin, D; Verstraete, F

    2011-03-03

    The original motivation to build a quantum computer came from Feynman, who imagined a machine capable of simulating generic quantum mechanical systems--a task that is believed to be intractable for classical computers. Such a machine could have far-reaching applications in the simulation of many-body quantum physics in condensed-matter, chemical and high-energy systems. Part of Feynman's challenge was met by Lloyd, who showed how to approximately decompose the time evolution operator of interacting quantum particles into a short sequence of elementary gates, suitable for operation on a quantum computer. However, this left open the problem of how to simulate the equilibrium and static properties of quantum systems. This requires the preparation of ground and Gibbs states on a quantum computer. For classical systems, this problem is solved by the ubiquitous Metropolis algorithm, a method that has basically acquired a monopoly on the simulation of interacting particles. Here we demonstrate how to implement a quantum version of the Metropolis algorithm. This algorithm permits sampling directly from the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, and thus evades the sign problem present in classical simulations. A small-scale implementation of this algorithm should be achievable with today's technology.

  10. [A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling].

    PubMed

    Suen, Lee-Jen Wu; Huang, Hui-Man; Lee, Hao-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Convenience sampling and purposive sampling are two different sampling methods. This article first explains sampling terms such as target population, accessible population, simple random sampling, intended sample, actual sample, and statistical power analysis. These terms are then used to explain the difference between "convenience sampling" and purposive sampling." Convenience sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique applicable to qualitative or quantitative studies, although it is most frequently used in quantitative studies. In convenience samples, subjects more readily accessible to the researcher are more likely to be included. Thus, in quantitative studies, opportunity to participate is not equal for all qualified individuals in the target population and study results are not necessarily generalizable to this population. As in all quantitative studies, increasing the sample size increases the statistical power of the convenience sample. In contrast, purposive sampling is typically used in qualitative studies. Researchers who use this technique carefully select subjects based on study purpose with the expectation that each participant will provide unique and rich information of value to the study. As a result, members of the accessible population are not interchangeable and sample size is determined by data saturation not by statistical power analysis.

  11. Sample Manipulation System for Sample Analysis at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumm, Erik; Kennedy, Tom; Carlson, Lee; Roberts, Dustyn

    2008-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument will analyze Martian samples collected by the Mars Science Laboratory Rover with a suite of spectrometers. This paper discusses the driving requirements, design, and lessons learned in the development of the Sample Manipulation System (SMS) within SAM. The SMS stores and manipulates 74 sample cups to be used for solid sample pyrolysis experiments. Focus is given to the unique mechanism architecture developed to deliver a high packing density of sample cups in a reliable, fault tolerant manner while minimizing system mass and control complexity. Lessons learned are presented on contamination control, launch restraint mechanisms for fragile sample cups, and mechanism test data.

  12. Sample holder with optical features

    DOEpatents

    Milas, Mirko; Zhu, Yimei; Rameau, Jonathan David

    2013-07-30

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  13. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling.

    PubMed

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between household budget survey and 24-hour recall data in a nationally representative sample of Polish households.

    PubMed

    Sekula, W; Nelson, M; Figurska, K; Oltarzewski, M; Weisell, R; Szponar, L

    2005-06-01

    Household budget survey (HBS) data are used regularly for nutritional epidemiological purposes. The validity of HBS data, however, is not well established. The aim of this project was to compare HBS and individual nutrition survey (INS) data in a nationally representative sample of Polish households. Estimates of food consumption and nutrient intake were compared between household food acquisition data collected over 1 month and a single 24-hour recall collected from every household member in a nationally representative sample of Polish households surveyed between September and November 2000. To facilitate the comparison, INS food consumption data excluded food eaten away from home and were modified using a computer program to estimate food 'as purchased' (including disaggregation of recipe data) and to allow for wastage. Poland. Participants were 3716 individuals in 1215 households (representing co-operation rates of 86.2% and 89.2%, respectively). Good agreement was shown between median estimates of foods such as potatoes, vegetables (including processed), meat, meat products and poultry, and animal fats (excluding butter), but agreement was poor for bread and rolls, fruit, vegetable fats and oils, eggs and six other food groups. Estimates of energy and nutrient intake were within +/-10% with the exceptions of polyunsaturated fats, potassium and vitamin C. Possible reasons for differences in findings between the two surveys include survey bias (e.g. social approval bias leading to overreporting of fruit), seasonal variations (e.g. high potato purchases between September and November) and aspects of the methodology (e.g. HBS data were based on records collected over 1 month, whereas 24-hour recall data were based on recalls collected from all household respondents on only 1 day and averaged for each household type). HBSs provide useful data for epidemiological research, but findings need to be interpreted in the light of other data regarding consumption, and

  15. Dimensionality and the sample unit

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The sample unit and its implications for the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program are discussed in light of a generalized three-dimensional concept of continuous forest inventories. The concept views the sampled population as a spatial-temporal cube and the sample as a finite partitioning of the cube. The sample...

  16. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

  17. Systematic sampling for suspended sediment

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - Because of high costs or complex logistics, scientific populations cannot be measured entirely and must be sampled. Accepted scientific practice holds that sample selection be based on statistical principles to assure objectivity when estimating totals and variances. Probability sampling--obtaining samples with known probabilities--is the only method that...

  18. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-29

    gories. These include edge sampling methods where edges are selected by a predetermined criteria; snowball sampling methods where algorithms start... Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...process and disseminate information for discovery and exploration under real-time constraints. Common signal processing operations such as sampling and

  19. Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

  20. Adaptive sampling in behavioral surveys.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S K

    1997-01-01

    Studies of populations such as drug users encounter difficulties because the members of the populations are rare, hidden, or hard to reach. Conventionally designed large-scale surveys detect relatively few members of the populations so that estimates of population characteristics have high uncertainty. Ethnographic studies, on the other hand, reach suitable numbers of individuals only through the use of link-tracing, chain referral, or snowball sampling procedures that often leave the investigators unable to make inferences from their sample to the hidden population as a whole. In adaptive sampling, the procedure for selecting people or other units to be in the sample depends on variables of interest observed during the survey, so the design adapts to the population as encountered. For example, when self-reported drug use is found among members of the sample, sampling effort may be increased in nearby areas. Types of adaptive sampling designs include ordinary sequential sampling, adaptive allocation in stratified sampling, adaptive cluster sampling, and optimal model-based designs. Graph sampling refers to situations with nodes (for example, people) connected by edges (such as social links or geographic proximity). An initial sample of nodes or edges is selected and edges are subsequently followed to bring other nodes into the sample. Graph sampling designs include network sampling, snowball sampling, link-tracing, chain referral, and adaptive cluster sampling. A graph sampling design is adaptive if the decision to include linked nodes depends on variables of interest observed on nodes already in the sample. Adjustment methods for nonsampling errors such as imperfect detection of drug users in the sample apply to adaptive as well as conventional designs.