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Sample records for shear flow dynamics

  1. Tethered DNA dynamics in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Donev, Aleksandar; Weisgraber, Todd; Alder, Berni J; Graham, Michael D; de Pablo, Juan J

    2009-06-21

    We study the cyclic dynamics of a single polymer tethered to a hard wall in shear flow using Brownian dynamics, the lattice Boltzmann method, and a recent stochastic event-driven molecular dynamics algorithm. We focus on the dynamics of the free end (last bead) of the tethered chain and we examine the cross-correlation function and power spectral density of the chain extensions in the flow and gradient directions as a function of chain length N and dimensionless shear rate Wi. Extensive simulation results suggest a classical fluctuation-dissipation stochastic process and question the existence of periodicity of the cyclic dynamics, as previously claimed. We support our numerical findings with a simple analytical calculation for a harmonic dimer in shear flow.

  2. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-11-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape.

  3. Dynamics of flexible fibers in shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Słowicka, Agnieszka M.; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L.

    2015-09-28

    Dynamics of flexible non-Brownian fibers in shear flow at low-Reynolds-number are analyzed numerically for a wide range of the ratios A of the fiber bending force to the viscous drag force. Initially, the fibers are aligned with the flow, and later they move in the plane perpendicular to the flow vorticity. A surprisingly rich spectrum of different modes is observed when the value of A is systematically changed, with sharp transitions between coiled and straightening out modes, period-doubling bifurcations from periodic to migrating solutions, irregular dynamics, and chaos.

  4. Patterns and dynamics in transitional shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuckerman, Laurette

    2009-11-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in fluid dynamics is surely transition to turbulence. The classic shear flows -- channel, plane Couette and pipe flow -- while linearly stable, undergo sudden transition to 3D turbulence. In recent years, transition has been attacked with an arsenal of weapons from dynamical systems theory, such as low-dimensional chaos, unstable periodic orbits, heteroclinic connections, fractal basin boundaries. At the same time, 3D physical mechanisms such as streamwise vorticity and streaks have supplanted the 2D picture of linear instability long promoted by Squire's theorem. A striking recent discovery by experimentalists at CEA-Saclay is that large-aspect-ratio plane Couette flow near transition actually takes the form of a steady pattern of wide turbulent and laminar bands, with a fixed angle and wavelength. We have been able to reproduce these remarkable flows in numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. Simulations display a rich variety of variants of these patterns, including spatio-temporal intermittency, branching and travelling states, and localized states analogous to spots. Because similar patterns have since also been observed in Taylor-Couette, channel and pipe flow, it appears that they are inevitable intermediate states on the route from turbulent to laminar flow in large aspect-ratio shear flows. In addition to their intrinsic interest, these patterns provide clues to the transition to turbulence.

  5. Active dynamics of tissue shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Marko; Nandi, Amitabha; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume

    2017-03-01

    We present a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a generic linear constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements and we investigate a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We identify two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven topological rearrangements. We find that these two active processes can produce distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  6. Dynamics of High Pressure Reacting Shear Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-02

    side recirculation zone should be present DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13 Convection Velocities x y Extract...column of pixels at each time along shear layer edge as a function of time, dark streaks represent convecting liquid structures Positive slope streaks...represent upstream traveling features Structures convect at apparent constant velocity Structures start at slow speed and gradually accelerate

  7. Dynamics of prolate spheroidal elastic particles in confined shear flow.

    PubMed

    Villone, M M; D'Avino, G; Hulsen, M A; Maffettone, P L

    2015-12-01

    We investigate through numerical simulations the dynamics of a neo-Hookean elastic prolate spheroid suspended in a Newtonian fluid under shear flow. Both initial orientations of the particle within and outside the shear plane and both unbounded and confined flow geometries are considered. In unbounded flow, when the particle starts on the shear plane, two stable regimes of motion are found, i.e., trembling, where the particle shape periodically elongates and compresses in the shear plane and the angle between its major semiaxis and the flow direction oscillates around a positive mean value, and tumbling, where the particle shape periodically changes and its major axis performs complete revolutions around the vorticity axis. When the particle is initially oriented out of the shear plane, more complex dynamics arise. Geometric confinement of the particle between the moving walls also influences its deformation and regime of motion. In addition, when the particle is initially located in an asymmetric position with respect to the moving walls, particle lateral migration is detected. The effects on the particle dynamics of the geometric and physical parameters that rule the system are investigated.

  8. Dynamics of poloidal flows in enhanced reverse shear bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, R.; Avinash, K.

    2005-07-15

    A simple reduced enhanced reverse shear (RERS) model is constructed to study the dynamics of poloidal flows during the ERS transition. This model predicts that a reversal of poloidal flow shear occurs just prior to the transition, as seen in experiment [R. E. Bell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1429 (1998)]. This transition front propagates until the radial location where the safety factor (q) is minimum and becomes locked there due to insufficient input power to overcome the threshold requirement for the bifurcation. This study also reveals that there can be many routes to ERS transition depending upon various tunable parameters.

  9. Dynamics and Control of Turbulent Shear Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Significant Results A. Mathematical theory of channel flows. This is a joint research with Professor J. G. Heywood of the University of British Columbia. We...supported by URI contract). J. G. Heywood , Professor, University of British Columbia, consultant. I I I I I I I I I I I 37 Ii I AIAA-88-0134 l The...VISCOUS FLOW PAST PLANE DOMAINS WITH I NIONCOMPACT BOUNDARIES I gJ. G. Heywood Department of Mathematics 3 University of British Columbia I 3 S. S

  10. Dynamic wall shear stress measurements in a turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amili, Omid; Soria, Julio

    2010-11-01

    To quantify and understand the dynamics of near wall momentum transfer, high spatial resolution, time-resolved measurements of wall shear stress distribution are essential. In this study, a film-based shear stress sensor has been used to measure the time-resolved local wall shear stress distribution in a turbulent channel flow. Measurements have been undertaken in a turbulent channel flow at Reynolds numbers up to 130,000 based on the bulk velocity and channel height. The measured fluctuating wall shear stress distribution provides spatio-temporal information of the characteristics of near wall structures by detecting their footprints. The span-wise extent of the positive two-point correlation of the stream-wise shear stress fluctuations provides the average width in the order of 100 wall units for the near-wall coherent structures. An investigation of the topological features of the velocity gradient and rate of strain tensors enables us to show an intrinsic characteristic of the near wall flow, which follows a two-dimensional flow pattern.

  11. Dynamics of a polyelectrolyte in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasree, Kandiledath; Kumar Manna, Raj; Banerjee, Debapriya; Kumar, P. B. Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The configurational dynamics of a polyelectrolyte (PE), subjected to a simple shear flow, is studied using Brownian dynamics (BD) and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulations of a bead-spring model with explicit counterions. We explore the effect of counterion condensation on the tumbling and extension of PEs by varying the shear rates for a range of values of the electrostatic coupling parameter A (which is defined as the ratio of the Bjerrum length to the size of the monomer). In all cases, the power spectrum of Rs(t) (which characterizes the projected length of the PE in the flow direction as a function of time) exhibits a power law decay at high frequencies, similar to that for a dumbbell in shear flow. For lower values of A (A ˜ 2), the tumbling of the PE is periodic and is always associated with folding and stretching, which is in contrast to the oscillatory transition between the extended and globular states seen at higher values of A (A ˜ 15). We observe that for A ˜ 2 the tumbling frequency decreases and the average tumbling time increases with hydrodynamic interaction (HI). For A > 15, we observe a critical shear rate {dot{γ }}_c below which there is considerable counterion condensation and the PE remains in the globular state with a structure akin to that of a neutral polymer in poor solvent. The {dot{γ }}_c and the behavior of the PE above the critical shear rate are dependent on the HI. For a given shear rate, when there is considerable condensed counterion fluctuation, the PE extends as a whole and then collapses by the formation of folds with no observable periodicity in tumbling. When the condensed counterion fluctuations are suppressed, the polymer exhibits periodic tumbling. Simulation artifacts resulting from the implicit nature of the solvent and that due to boundary conditions are discussed by comparing the BD results with that obtained from the DPD simulations incorporating Ewald summation for electrostatics.

  12. Dynamics of model blood cells in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Callens, Natacha; Minetti, Christophe; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Misbah, Chaouqi

    The dynamics of a vesicle suspension in shear flow was investigated by digital holographic microscopy [1] in parabolic flights and in the MASER 11 sounding rocket. Vesicles are lipid membranes which mimic the mechanical behaviour of cells, such as red blood cells in flow. In a simple shear flow between parallel walls, a lift force of purely viscous origin pushes vesicles away from walls. Our parabolic flight experiments [2] reveal that the lift velocity in a dilute suspen-sion is well described by theoretical predictions by Olla. As vesicles gather near the center of the flow chamber due to lift forces from both walls, one expects hydrodynamic interactions of pairs of vesicles to result in shear induced diffusion in the suspension. The BIOMICS experi-ment in the MASER 11 sounding rocket revealed a complex spatial structure of a polydisperse vesicle suspension due to the interplay between lift forces from the walls and hydrodynamic interactions. These phenomena have a strong impact on the structure and rheology of blood in small vessels, and a precise knowledge of the dynamics of migration and diffusion of soft particles in flow can lead to alternative ways to separate and sort blood cells. 1. Dubois, F., Schockaert, C., Callens, N., Yourrassowsky, C., "Focus plane detection criteria in digital holography microscopy by amplitude analysis", Opt. Express, Vol. 14, pp 5895-5908, 2006 2. Callens, N., Minetti, C., Coupier, G., Mader, M.-A., Dubois, F., Misbah, C., Podgorski, T., "Hydrodynamics lift of vesicles under shear flow in microgravity", Europhys. Lett., Vol. 83, p. 24002, 2008

  13. Molecular dynamics study of tethered polymers in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Gratton, Y; Slater, G W

    2005-08-01

    Single macromolecules can now be isolated and characterized experimentally using techniques such as optical tweezers and videomicroscopy. An interesting and important single-molecule problem is that of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a solid surface and subjected to a shear flow. An experimental study of such a system was reported by Doyle et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4769 (2000)), and their results showed a surprising recirculating motion of the DNA chain. We explore this problem using molecular dynamics computer simulations with explicit hydrodynamic interactions. The dynamical properties of a Freely Jointed Chain (FJC) with Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) links are examined in similar conditions (i.e., confined between two surfaces and in the presence of a Poiseuille flow). We see the remarkable cyclic polymer motion observed experimentally, and we show that a simple cross-correlation function can be used to measure the corresponding period of motion. We also propose a new empirical equation relating the magnitude of the shear flow to the amount of chain deformation, an equation that appears to apply for both weak and strong flows. Finally, we report on packing effects near the molecularly flat wall, an associated chain-sticking phenomenon, and the impact of the chain hydrodynamic drag on the local fluid flow.

  14. Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun

    2016-11-01

    We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  15. Dynamics of Plasma Blobs in a Shear Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podesta, M.; Theiler, C.

    2008-09-12

    The global dynamic of plasma blobs in a shear flow is investigated in a simple magnetized torus using the spatial Fourier harmonics (k-space) framework. Direct experimental evidence of a linear drift in k space of the density fluctuation energy synchronized with blob events is presented. During this drift, an increase of the fluctuation energy and a production of the kinetic energy associated with blobs are observed. The energy source of the blob is analyzed using an advection-dissipation-type equation that includes blob-flow exchange energy, linear drift in k space, nonlinear processes, and viscous dissipations. We show that blobs tap their energy from the dominant ExB vertical background flow during the linear drift stage. The exchange of energy is unidirectional as there is no evidence that blobs return energy to the flow.

  16. Zonal flow dynamics in the double tearing mode with antisymmetric shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Aohua; Li, Jiquan; Liu, Jinyuan; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2014-05-15

    The generation dynamics and the structural characteristics of zonal flows are investigated in the double tearing mode (DTM) with antisymmetric shear flows. Two kinds of zonal flow oscillations are revealed based on reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, which depend on the shear flow amplitudes corresponding to different DTM eigen mode states, elaborated by Mao et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 022114 (2013)]. For the weak shear flows below an amplitude threshold, v{sub c}, at which two DTM eigen states with antisymmetric or symmetric magnetic island structure are degenerated, the zonal flows grow oscillatorily in the Rutherford regime during the nonlinear evolution of the DTMs. It is identified that the oscillation mechanism results from the nonlinear interaction between the distorted islands and the zonal flows through the modification of shear flows. However, for the medium shear flows above v{sub c} but below the critical threshold of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, an oscillatory growing zonal flow occurs in the linear phase of the DTM evolution. It is demonstrated that the zonal flow oscillation originates from the three-wave mode coupling or a modulation instability pumped by two DTM eigen modes with the same frequency but opposite propagating direction. With the shear flows increasing, the amplitude of zonal flow oscillation increases first and then decreases, whilst the oscillation frequency as twice of the Doppler frequency shift increases. Furthermore, impacts of the oscillatory zonal flows on the nonlinear evolution of DTM islands and the global reconnection are also discussed briefly.

  17. Dynamics of nonspherical compound capsules in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an initially ellipsoidal compound capsule in a simple shear flow is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model. Membrane bending resistance is included based on Helfrich's energy function besides the resistances against shear deformation and area dilatation governed by the constitutive law of Skalak et al. In this paper, we focus specifically on how the presence of a spherical inner capsule and its size affects the characteristics and transition of various dynamical states of nonspherical compound capsules (i.e., the outer capsule). Significant differences in the dynamical characteristics are observed between compound capsules and homogeneous capsules in both qualitative and quantitative terms. We find the transition from swinging to tumbling can occur at vanishing viscosity mismatch through increasing the inner capsule size alone to a critical value regardless of the initial shape of the nonspherical compound capsule (i.e., prolate or oblate). Besides, for compound capsules with viscosity mismatch, the critical viscosity ratio for the swinging-to-tumbling transition remarkably decreases by increasing the inner capsule size. It is thus concluded that the inner capsule size is a key governing parameter of compound capsule dynamics apart from the capillary number, aspect ratio, and viscosity ratio that have been long identified for homogeneous capsules. Further, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of the inner capsule on the compound capsule dynamics from the viewpoint of the effective viscosity of internal fluid and find that the effects of the inner capsule on compound capsule dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of increasing the internal viscosity on homogeneous capsule dynamics. However, in quantitative terms, the compound capsule cannot be viewed as a homogeneous capsule with higher viscosity as obvious inhomogeneity in fluid stress distribution is induced by the inner membrane.

  18. The dynamics of semiflexible actin filaments in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Lindner, Anke; Du Roure, Olivia

    2016-11-01

    The rheological properties of complex fluids made of particles in a suspended fluid depend on the behavior of microscopic particles in flow. A first step to understand this link is to investigate the individual particle dynamics in simple shear flows. A rigid rod will perform so-called Jeffery orbits, however when the rod becomes flexible and Brownian, the behavior in terms of deformation and migration is still to be fully understood. We chose here to address this situation by studying experimentally the behavior of semiflexible polymers. We use actin filaments and combine fluorescent labeling techniques, microfluidic devices to carry out controlled systematical experiments. Different dynamics are observed as a function of the elasto-viscous number, comparing viscous forces to elastic restoring forces ζ = (8 πηγ˙L4) / (LpkB T) . The bending modulus of the actin filaments is given by its persistence length Lp = 17 +/- 1 μm . When increasing the elasto-visous number we subsequently observe tumbling, buckling, and bending under flow. Those observations seem to be in good agreement with recent numerical simulations. At the same time, actin filaments fluctuate due to Brownian motion and these fluctuations can modify the individual dynamics of actin filaments. ERC PaDy No.682367.

  19. Dynamics of vesicles in a wall-bounded shear flow.

    PubMed

    Abkarian, M; Viallat, A

    2005-08-01

    We report a detailed study of the behavior (shapes, experienced forces, velocities) of giant lipid vesicles subjected to a shear flow close to a wall. Vesicle buoyancy, size, and reduced volume were separately varied. We show that vesicles are deformed by the flow and exhibit a tank-treading motion with steady orientation. Their shapes are characterized by two nondimensional parameters: the reduced volume and the ratio of the shear stress with the hydrostatic pressure. We confirm the existence of a force, able to lift away nonspherical buoyant vesicles from the substrate. We give the functional variation and the value of this lift force (up to 150 pN in our experimental conditions) as a function of the relevant physical parameters: vesicle-substrate distance, wall shear rate, viscosity of the solution, vesicle size, and reduced volume. Circulating deformable cells disclosing a nonspherical shape also experience this force of viscous origin, which contributes to take them away from the endothelium and should be taken into account in studies on cell adhesion in flow chambers, where cells membrane and the adhesive substrate are in relative motion. Finally, the kinematics of vesicles along the flow direction can be described in a first approximation with a model of rigid spheres.

  20. Brownian-dynamics simulation studies of a charge-stabilized colloidal suspension under shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, J. ); Sood, A.K.; Krishnamurthy, H.R. Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Indian Institute of Science campus, Bangalore 560012 )

    1994-11-01

    We have carried out Brownian-dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension under oscillatory shear flow with both Couette and Poiseuille velocity profiles. We show that in the steady-shear'' limit, for both of the velocity profiles, the enhancement of the self-diffusion coefficient in directions transverse to the flow shows a crossover from a [dot [gamma

  1. Vortex dynamics in a turbulent shear flow over a cavity at near-zero Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Shiyao; Ceccio, Steven; Driscoll, James

    2007-11-01

    A kilohertz frame-rate Cinematographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry system was used to acquire time series of whole-field velocity data for an incompressible, turbulent shear flow over a rectangular, shallow cavity with ReL = 2.87 x 10^5, where L is the cavity length. The cavity shear layer was divided into three regions that exhibited different vortex dynamics: formation, convection/evolution, and impingement. The second region is similar to a free shear layer, with vortex roll-up that is well predicted by linear, inviscid instability theory. The impinging shear layer produces a jet-like flow along the downstream wall, resulting in a large-scale recirculation zone in the cavity. This flow impinges on the shear layer in the formation region, increasing the shear layer growth rate. No self-sustained pressure or flow-field oscillations were observed for a variety of flow speeds. The dynamics of the shear layer in the impingement region was found to be correlated with the dynamic pressure on the downstream wall.

  2. Response of a single grafted polyethylene chain to simple shear flow: A Brownian dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haliloglu, Turkan; Bahar, Ivet; Erman, Burak

    1996-08-01

    The behavior of a single polyethylene chain grafted to an impenetrable surface, under shear flow, is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Both short-range conformational energies and excluded volume effects are included in the model. Simulations are performed in good and poor solvent conditions in order to explore the effect of solvent quality. The shear flow is represented by the superposition of a force profile increasing linearly with the distance from the surface. Distribution of rotational angles, chain dimensions, components of the radius of gyration, segment density distribution, average layer thickness, and average orientation of bond vectors with respect to flow direction are determined and compared with other studies. Above a certain value of the shear rate, a significant increase in chain dimensions is observed for both good and poor solvents, the transition from coiled to stretched state being sharper in poor solvent. In good solvent, chain dimensions along the two perpendicular directions to the flow direction diminish with increasing shear rate. On the other hand, in poor solvent, there is an overall expansion in chain dimensions in all directions at low shear rates, which is subsequently followed by the orientation and alignment of the chain along the direction of flow. The experimentally observed increase in chain dimensions normal to the flow field at low shear rates is evidenced for the first time by simulations.

  3. Unstable shear flows in two dimensional strongly correlated liquids - a hydrodynamic and molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin

    2016-11-01

    In Navier-Stokes fluids, shear flows are known to become unstable leading to instability and eventually to turbulence. A class of flow namely, Kolmogorov Flows (K-Flows) exhibit such transition at low Reynolds number. Using fluid and molecular dynamics, we address the physics of transition from laminar to turbulent regime in strongly correlated-liquids such as in multi-species plasmas and also in naturally occurring plasmas with K-Flows as initial condition. A 2D phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic model is invoked wherein the effect of strong correlations is incorporated via a viscoelastic memory. To study the stability of K-Flows or in general any shear flow, a generalized eigenvalue solver has been developed along with a spectral solver for the full nonlinear set of fluid equations. A study of the linear and nonlinear features of K-Flow in incompressible and compressible limit exhibits cyclicity and nonlinear pattern formation in vorticity. A first principles based molecular dynamics simulation of particles interacting via Yukawa potential is performed with features such as configurational and kinetic thermostats for K-Flows. This work reveals several interesting similarities and differences between hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics studies.

  4. Steady shear rheometry of dissipative particle dynamics models of polymer fluids in reverse Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce

    2010-04-14

    Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.

  5. Nonequilibrium dynamics of a confined colloidal bilayer in a planar shear flow.

    PubMed

    Vezirov, Tarlan A; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2013-11-01

    Using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations we investigate the impact of shear flow on structural and dynamical properties of a system of charged colloids confined to a narrow slit pore. Our model consists of spherical microions interacting through a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and a soft-sphere potential. The DLVO parameters were chosen according to a system of moderately charged silica particles (with valence Z~35) in a solvent of low ionic strength. At the confinement conditions considered, the colloids form two well-pronounced layers. In the present study we investigate shear-induced transitions of the translational order and dynamics in the layers, including a discussion of the translational diffusion. In particular, we show that diffusion in the shear-melted state can be described by an analytical model involving a single shear-driven particle in a harmonic trap. We also explore the emergence of zigzag motion characterized by spatiotemporal oscillations of the particles in the layers in the vorticity direction. Similar behavior has been recently observed in experiments of much thicker colloidal films.

  6. Modeling Nanoparticle Targeting to a Vascular Surface in Shear Flow Through Diffusive Particle Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yihua; Yang, Longxiang; Zhang, Guocheng; Liu, Yaling

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles are regarded as promising carriers for targeted drug delivery and imaging probes. A fundamental understanding of the dynamics of polymeric nanoparticle targeting to receptor-coated vascular surfaces is therefore of great importance to enhance the design of nanoparticles toward improving binding ability. Although the effects of particle size and shear flow on the binding of nanoparticles to a vessel wall have been studied at the particulate level, a computational model to investigate the details of the binding process at the molecular level has not been developed. In this research, dissipative particle dynamics simulations are used to study nanoparticles with diameters of several nanometers binding to receptors on vascular surfaces under shear flow. Interestingly, shear flow velocities ranging from 0 to 2000 s(-1) had no effect on the attachment process of nanoparticles very close to the capillary wall. Increased binding energy between the ligands and wall caused a corresponding linear increase in bonding ability. Our simulations also indicated that larger nanoparticles and those of rod shape with a higher aspect ratio have better binding ability than those of smaller size or rounder shape.

  7. Comparison of erythrocyte dynamics in shear flow under different stress-free configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Yazdani, Alireza; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2014-04-01

    An open question that has persisted for decades is whether the cytoskeleton of a red blood cell is stress-free or under a stress. This question is important in the context of theoretical modeling of cellular motion under a flowing condition where it is necessary to make an assumption about the stress-free state. Here, we present a 3D numerical study to compare the cell dynamics in a simple shear flow under two different stress-free states, a biconcave discocyte representing the resting shape of the cell, and a nearly spherical oblate shape. We find that whether the stress-free states make a significant difference or not depends on the viscosity of the suspending medium. If the viscosity is close to that of blood plasma, the two stress-free states do not show any significant difference in cell dynamics. However, when the suspending medium viscosity is well above that of the physiological range, as in many in vitro studies, the shear rate separating the tank-treading and tumbling dynamics is observed to be higher for the biconcave stress-free state than the spheroidal state. The former shows a strong shape oscillation with repeated departures from the biconcave shape, while the latter shows a nearly stable biconcave shape. It is found that the cell membrane in the biconcave stress-free state is under a compressive stress and a weaker bending force density, leading to a periodic compression of the cell. The shape oscillation then leads to a higher energy barrier against membrane tank-tread leading to an early transition to tumbling. However, if the cells are released with a large off-shear plane angle, the oscillations can be suppressed due to an azimuthal motion of the membrane along the vorticity direction leading to a redistribution of the membrane points and lowering of the energy barrier, which again results in a nearly similar behavior of the cells under the two different stress-free states. A variety of off-shear plane dynamics is observed, namely, rolling

  8. Fully automated digital holographic processing for monitoring the dynamics of a vesicle suspension under shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Minetti, Christophe; Podgorski, Thomas; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a vesicle suspension under shear flow between plates using DHM with a spatially reduced coherent source. Holograms are grabbed at a frequency of 24 frames/sec. The distribution of the vesicle suspension is obtained after numerical processing of the digital holograms sequence resulting in a 4D distribution. Obtaining this distribution is not straightforward and requires special processing to automate the analysis. We present an original method that fully automates the analysis and provides distributions that are further analyzed to extract physical properties of the fluid. Details of the numerical implementation, as well as sample experimental results are presented. PMID:24877015

  9. Dynamics of a single red blood cell in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kushal; Graham, Michael D.

    2015-10-01

    This work describes simulations of a red blood cell (RBC) in simple shear flow, focusing on the dependence of the cell dynamics on the spontaneous curvature of the membrane. The results show that an oblate spheroidal spontaneous curvature maintains the dimple of the RBC during tank-treading dynamics as well as exhibits off-shear-plane tumbling consistent with the experimental observations of Dupire et al. [J. Dupire, M. Socol, and A. Viallat, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 20808 (2012), 10.1073/pnas.1210236109] and their hypothesis of an inhomogeneous spontaneous shape. As the flow strength (capillary number Ca ) is increased at a particular viscosity ratio between inner and outer fluid, the dynamics undergo transitions in the following sequence: tumbling, kayaking or rolling, tilted tank-treading, oscillating-swinging, swinging, and tank-treading. The tilted tank-treading (or spinning frisbee) regime has been previously observed in experiments but not in simulations. Two distinct classes of regime are identified: a membrane reorientation regime, where the part of membrane that is at the dimple at rest moves to the rim and vice versa, is observed in motions at high Ca such as tilted tank-treading, oscillating-swinging, swinging, and tank-treading, and a nonreorientation regime, where the part of the membrane starting from the dimple stays at the dimple, is observed in motions at low Ca such as rolling, tumbling, kayaking, and flip-flopping.

  10. Neutrophil adhesion and crawling dynamics on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Li, Ning; Du, Yu; Tong, Chunfang; Lü, Shouqin; Hu, Jinrong; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

    2017-02-01

    Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte, PMN) recruitment in the liver sinusoid takes place in almost all liver diseases and contributes to pathogen clearance or tissue damage. While PMN rolling unlikely appears in liver sinusoids and Mac-1 or CD44 is assumed to play respective roles during in vivo local or systematic inflammatory stimulation, the regulating mechanisms of PMN adhesion and crawling dynamics are still unclear from those in vivo studies. Here we developed a two-dimensional in vitro sinusoidal model with primary liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells (KCs) to investigate TNF-α-induced PMN recruitment under shear flow. Our data demonstrated that LFA-1 dominates the static or shear resistant adhesion of PMNs while Mac-1 decelerates PMN crawling on LSEC monolayer. Any one of LFA-1, Mac-1, and CD44 molecules is not able to work effectively for mediating PMN transmigration across LSEC monolayer. The presence of KCs only affects the randomness of PMN crawling. These findings further the understandings of PMN recruitment under shear flow in liver sinusoids.

  11. Dynamics of a double-stranded DNA segment in a shear flow.

    PubMed

    Panja, Debabrata; Barkema, Gerard T; van Leeuwen, J M J

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) segment, as a semiflexible polymer, in a shear flow, the strength of which is customarily expressed in terms of the dimensionless Weissenberg number Wi. Polymer chains in shear flows are well known to undergo tumbling motion. When the chain lengths are much smaller than the persistence length, one expects a (semiflexible) chain to tumble as a rigid rod. At low Wi, a polymer segment shorter than the persistence length does indeed tumble as a rigid rod. However, for higher Wi the chain does not tumble as a rigid rod, even if the polymer segment is shorter than the persistence length. In particular, from time to time the polymer segment may assume a buckled form, a phenomenon commonly known as Euler buckling. Using a bead-spring Hamiltonian model for extensible dsDNA fragments, we first analyze Euler buckling in terms of the oriented deterministic state (ODS), which is obtained as the steady-state solution of the dynamical equations by turning off the stochastic (thermal) forces at a fixed orientation of the chain. The ODS exhibits symmetry breaking at a critical Weissenberg number Wi_{c}, analogous to a pitchfork bifurcation in dynamical systems. We then follow up the analysis with simulations and demonstrate symmetry breaking in computer experiments, characterized by a unimodal to bimodal transformation of the probability distribution of the second Rouse mode with increasing Wi. Our simulations reveal that shear can cause strong deformation for a chain that is shorter than its persistence length, similar to recent experimental observations.

  12. Dynamics of a double-stranded DNA segment in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Debabrata; Barkema, Gerard T.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) segment, as a semiflexible polymer, in a shear flow, the strength of which is customarily expressed in terms of the dimensionless Weissenberg number Wi. Polymer chains in shear flows are well known to undergo tumbling motion. When the chain lengths are much smaller than the persistence length, one expects a (semiflexible) chain to tumble as a rigid rod. At low Wi, a polymer segment shorter than the persistence length does indeed tumble as a rigid rod. However, for higher Wi the chain does not tumble as a rigid rod, even if the polymer segment is shorter than the persistence length. In particular, from time to time the polymer segment may assume a buckled form, a phenomenon commonly known as Euler buckling. Using a bead-spring Hamiltonian model for extensible dsDNA fragments, we first analyze Euler buckling in terms of the oriented deterministic state (ODS), which is obtained as the steady-state solution of the dynamical equations by turning off the stochastic (thermal) forces at a fixed orientation of the chain. The ODS exhibits symmetry breaking at a critical Weissenberg number Wic, analogous to a pitchfork bifurcation in dynamical systems. We then follow up the analysis with simulations and demonstrate symmetry breaking in computer experiments, characterized by a unimodal to bimodal transformation of the probability distribution of the second Rouse mode with increasing Wi. Our simulations reveal that shear can cause strong deformation for a chain that is shorter than its persistence length, similar to recent experimental observations.

  13. Flow-activated chloride channels in vascular endothelium. Shear stress sensitivity, desensitization dynamics, and physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Mamta; Shen, Yue; Thirkill, Twanda L; Douglas, Gordon C; Barakat, Abdul I

    2006-12-01

    Although activation of outward rectifying Cl(-) channels is one of the fastest responses of endothelial cells (ECs) to shear stress, little is known about these channels. In this study, we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings to characterize the flow-activated Cl(-) current in bovine aortic ECs (BAECs). Application of shear stress induced rapid development of a Cl(-) current that was effectively blocked by the Cl(-) channel antagonist 5-nitro-2-(3-phenopropylamino)benzoic acid (100 microM). The current initiated at a shear stress as low as 0.3 dyne/cm(2), attained its peak within minutes of flow onset, and saturated above 3.5 dynes/cm(2) approximately 2.5-3.5-fold increase over pre-flow levels). The Cl(-) current desensitized slowly in response to sustained flow, and step increases in shear stress elicited increased current only if the shear stress levels were below the 3.5 dynes/cm(2) saturation level. Oscillatory flow with a physiological oscillation frequency of 1 Hz, as occurs in disturbed flow zones prone to atherosclerosis, failed to elicit the Cl(-) current, whereas lower oscillation frequencies led to partial recovery of the current. Nonreversing pulsatile flow, generally considered protective of atherosclerosis, was as effective in eliciting the current as steady flow. Measurements using fluids of different viscosities indicated that the Cl(-) current is responsive to shear stress rather than shear rate. Blocking the flow-activated Cl(-) current abolished flow-induced Akt phosphorylation in BAECs, whereas blocking flow-sensitive K(+) currents had no effect, suggesting that flow-activated Cl(-) channels play an important role in regulating EC flow signaling.

  14. A master dynamic flow diagram for the shear thickening transition in micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Bautista, F; Tepale, N; Fernández, V V A; Landázuri, G; Hernández, E; Macías, E R; Soltero, J F A; Escalante, J I; Manero, O; Puig, J E

    2016-01-07

    The shear thickening behavior of dilute micellar solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium-type surfactants with different counterions (tosylate, 3- and 4-fluorobenzoate, vinylbenzoate and salicylate) and of n-alkyltetradecylammonium bromide (CnTAB), with n = 14, 16 and 18, is examined here. These solutions undergo a shear thickening transition due to the formation of shear-induced structures (SISs) in the shear range studied. Here we report a relationship between the shear thickening intensity and the differences in the hydrophobicity of counterions according to the Hofmeister-like anion series, which leads to a master flow diagram. This master flow diagram is produced by plotting a normalized shear thickening intensity (Iη - 1)/(Imax - 1) versus CD/CD,max, where Iη is the shear-thickening intensity, defined as the largest viscosity obtained in the shear-thickening transition (STT) at a given surfactant concentration CD divided by the Newtonian viscosity η0, and Imax is the largest intensity value obtained in the STT at a surfactant concentration CD,max. The master flow diagram is built using several cetyltrimethylammonium-type surfactants with different counterions, according to a Hofmeister-like series, and by n-alkyltetradecylammonium bromide surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths.

  15. On the effect of dynamic flow conditions on blood microstructure investigated with optical shearing microscopy and rheometry.

    PubMed

    Kaliviotis, E; Yianneskis, M

    2007-11-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation affects significantly the flow of blood at low shear rates. Increased RBC aggregation is associated with various pathological conditions; hence an accurate quantification and better understanding of the phenomenon is important. The present study aims to improve understanding of the effect of dynamic flow conditions on aggregate formation; whole blood samples from healthy volunteers, adjusted at 0.45 haematocrit were tested in different flow conditions with a plate-plate optical shearing system, image analysis, and a double-walled Couette rheometric cell. Results are presented in terms of aggregation index Aa, aggregate size index As and number of aggregates, which are shown to vary with shear rate gamma and with different shear rate variations with time gamma. The aggregation index Aa was observed to increase as the shear rate decreased between 10 and 3 s(-1). Above 10 s(-1), Aa was found to have a minimum value indicating minimal aggregation while, at approximately 3 s(-1), Aa reaches a maximum. The aggregation size index As, the number of aggregates, and the blood viscosity were found to vary considerably when the same sample was examined over the same shear rate range, but for different variations of shear rate with time, gamma.

  16. Structure and dynamics of cylindrical micelles at equilibrium and under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.-C.; Ryckaert, J.-P.; Xu, H.

    2009-04-01

    The dynamics and rheology of semidilute unentangled micellar solutions are investigated by Langevin dynamics mesoscopic simulations coupled to a microreversible kinetic model for scissions and recombinations. Two equilibrium state points, differing by the scission energy and therefore by the corresponding average micelle length, have been examined. The kinetic rates are tuned by an independent parameter of the model, whose range is chosen in such a way that the kinetics always strongly couple to the chain dynamics. Our results confirm, as predicted by Faivre and Gardissat, that the stress relaxation, as well as the monomer diffusion, is characterized by a time τΛ , defined by the lifetime of a segment Λ , whose Rouse relaxation time is equal to its lifetime. Moreover, the power-law dependence of the zero-shear viscosity versus τΛ was evidenced. Under stationary shear, the chains are deformed and their average bond length is increased, which enhances the overall scission frequency. In turn, this induces an overall shortening of the chains in order to increase the overall corresponding chain-end recombination frequency, as required by the stationary conditions. Nonequilibrium simulations show that the chain deformation and orientation, as well as the rheology of the system, can be expressed as universal functions of a single reduced shear rate βΛ=γ˙τΛ (with γ˙ the bare shear rate). Furthermore, local analysis of the kinetics under stationary shear gives insights on the variation of the average length with shear rate.

  17. Numerical modelling of a healthy/malaria-infected erythrocyte in shear flow using dissipative particle dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Cheong Khoo, Boo; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, the dynamics of healthy and malaria-infected erythrocytes in the shear flow are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a particle-based method. A discrete model is developed, where the computational domain is discretized into a set of particles to represent the suspending liquid, as well as erythrocytes as suspended deformable particles. The particles on an erythrocyte surface are connected into a triangular network to represent the membrane. The interaction between any two particles is modelled by the DPD method, which conserves both mass and momentum. In order to validate this model, the deformation of a spherical capsule in the shear flow is firstly simulated, and a good agreement is found with previously published works. Then, the dynamics of a healthy biconcave erythrocyte in a shear flow is investigated. The results demonstrate that a healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tank-treading motion at a high capillary number, and a tumbling motion at a low capillary number or at a high viscosity ratio, internal (erythrocyte) to external fluids. Two other types of trembling motions, breathing with tumbling and swinging with tank-treading, are also found at an intermediate capillary number or viscosity ratio. Finally, the dynamics of malaria-infected erythrocyte in a shear flow is studied. At the same shear rate, if the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tumbling motion, the malaria-infected one will exhibit a tumbling motion only. If the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a trembling motion, the malaria-infected one cannot exhibit tank-treading motion. If the healthy erythrocyte undergoes a tank-treading motion, the malaria-infected one will exhibit one of three dynamic motions: tumbling, trembling or tank-treading motion.

  18. Shear stress and flow dynamics of the femoral vein among obese patients who qualify for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Wiewiora, Maciej; Piecuch, Jerzy; Glűck, Marek; Slowinska-Lozynska, Ludmila; Sosada, Krystyn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of obesity on wall shear stress and its relationship to erythrocyte aggregation. We studied 35 morbidly obese patients who were qualified for bariatric surgery. The control group consisted of 20 non-obese people. Blood rheological measurements were performed using the Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (Mechatronics, the Netherlands) and a cone-plate viscometer (Brookfield DV-II). The venous flow dynamics were assessed using a duplex ultrasound. The shear rate was estimated from the measured blood flow velocity and the diameter of the femoral vein. Venous wall shear stress was calculated from the whole blood viscosity and the shear rate. The shear rate (P < 0.005) and the venous wall shear stress (P < 0.05) were significantly lower in obese patients compared with the controls. The aggregation index (P < 0.001), syllectogram amplitude - AMP (P < 0.05) and Tslow (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the obese patients; the aggregation half-time (P < 0.001) and Tfast (P < 0.001) were decreased compared with the control group. Multivariate regression analyses found waist circumference (β -0.31, P < 0.05), thigh circumference (β 0.33, P < 0.05) and Tslow (β -0.47, P < 0.005) to be variables that independently influenced the shear rate. Nevertheless, the AMP (β 0.34, P < 0.05) and Tslow (β -0.47, P < 0.01) were independent predictors that influenced the wall shear stress. This study indicates that there is a relationship between wall shear stress in the femoral vein and the rheological impairment of the RBC among obese patients, but further studies are necessary to confirm this suggestion.

  19. Depinning and heterogeneous dynamics of colloidal crystal layers under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Sascha; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2016-12-01

    Using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations and an analytical approach we investigate the shear-induced, nonequilibrium dynamics of dense colloidal suspensions confined to a narrow slit-pore. Focusing on situations where the colloids arrange in well-defined layers with solidlike in-plane structure, the confined films display complex, nonlinear behavior such as collective depinning and local transport via density excitations. These phenomena are reminiscent of colloidal monolayers driven over a periodic substrate potential. In order to deepen this connection, we present an effective model that maps the dynamics of the shear-driven colloidal layers to the motion of a single particle driven over an effective substrate potential. This model allows us to estimate the critical shear rate of the depinning transition based on the equilibrium configuration, revealing the impact of important parameters, such as the slit-pore width and the interaction strength. We then turn to heterogeneous systems where a layer of small colloids is sheared with respect to bottom layers of large particles. For these incommensurate systems we find that the particle transport is dominated by density excitations resembling the so-called "kink" solutions of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. In contrast to the FK model, however, the corresponding "antikinks" do not move.

  20. Depinning and heterogeneous dynamics of colloidal crystal layers under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerloff, Sascha; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2016-12-01

    Using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations and an analytical approach we investigate the shear-induced, nonequilibrium dynamics of dense colloidal suspensions confined to a narrow slit-pore. Focusing on situations where the colloids arrange in well-defined layers with solidlike in-plane structure, the confined films display complex, nonlinear behavior such as collective depinning and local transport via density excitations. These phenomena are reminiscent of colloidal monolayers driven over a periodic substrate potential. In order to deepen this connection, we present an effective model that maps the dynamics of the shear-driven colloidal layers to the motion of a single particle driven over an effective substrate potential. This model allows us to estimate the critical shear rate of the depinning transition based on the equilibrium configuration, revealing the impact of important parameters, such as the slit-pore width and the interaction strength. We then turn to heterogeneous systems where a layer of small colloids is sheared with respect to bottom layers of large particles. For these incommensurate systems we find that the particle transport is dominated by density excitations resembling the so-called "kink" solutions of the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. In contrast to the FK model, however, the corresponding "antikinks" do not move.

  1. Zonal flow generation in parallel flow shear driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2017-03-01

    Generation of zonal flow in parallel flow shear driven turbulence is discussed. Nonlinear dynamics is formulated by calculating energy transfer in the wave number space. It is shown that zonal flows can be generated (gain energy) from the primary mode which is driven by parallel flow shear. As a result, helical flow pattern can develop in turbulent plasmas. Our results imply that zonal flow can be generated in 3D parallel flow shear driven turbulence, which indicates that zonal flows are ubiquitous in turbulent plasmas, either 2D or 3D. Implications for turbulent momentum transport in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are discussed.

  2. Dynamics of two balls in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shang-Huan; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The motion of dilute sphere suspensions in bounded shear flow of Oldroyd-B fluids has been studied at zero Reynolds number. Up to the initial sphere displacement, binary encounters of spheres in bounded shear flow of Newtonian fluid are known to have either swapping or non-swapping trajectories at zero Reynolds number. We have simulated the interaction of two spherical particles in Newtonian fluid and Oldroyd-B fluid, respectively, and compared the resulting motions of particles. The motions of two spheres in Newtonian fluid are consistent with those in literature. In Oldroyd-B fluid, swapping trajectories can be obtained for the lower values of the relaxation time. For the non-swapping cases, two spheres do not return to their original transversed position once the encounter terminates, but being closer to the mid-plane between two walls, due to the effect of the elastic force. Two spheres may also attract each other first and then form rotating dipole in bounded shear flow, depending on the value of the relaxation time and initial sphere displacement. NSF.

  3. Dynamics of a high viscosity layer in response to shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaili, Ehsan; Staples, Anne

    2016-11-01

    We use the Shan-Chen multicomponent Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to investigate the time evolution of a thin liquid film (phase I) coating a solid surface under the action of a shearing force imposed by a surrounding fluid (phase II), whose viscosity is significantly lower than that of the film. The goal of this study is to use LBM to capture the contact line motion and interfacial dynamics for an oil-like liquid film which is driven by the upper phase (water) movement as a first approach to modeling thin film dewetting in wave swept marine environments. Lubrication theory is used to validate the results for the driven thin film, and the LBM simulations investigate the effects of the upper phase movement, lower phase thickness, and angle of the imposed shearing force on the thin film profile. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1437387.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the angular dynamics of a single spheroid in simple shear flow at moderate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, Tomas; Nordmark, Arne; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Do-Quang, Minh; Lundell, Fredrik

    2016-08-01

    A spheroidal particle in simple shear flow shows surprisingly complicated angular dynamics; caused by effects of fluid inertia (characterized by the particle Reynolds number Rep) and particle inertia (characterized by the Stokes number St). Understanding this behavior can provide important fundamental knowledge of suspension flows with spheroidal particles. Up to now only qualitative analysis has been available at moderate Rep. Rigorous analytical methods apply only to very small Rep and numerical results lack accuracy due to the difficulty in treating the moving boundary of the particle. Here we show that the dynamics of the rotational motion of a prolate spheroidal particle in a linear shear flow can be quantitatively analyzed through the eigenvalues of the log-rolling particle (particle aligned with vorticity). This analysis provides an accurate description of stable rotational states in terms of Rep,St, and particle aspect ratio (rp). Furthermore we find that the effect on the orientational dynamics from fluid inertia can be modeled with a Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. This opens up the possibility of developing a reduced-order model that takes into account effects from both fluid and particle inertia.

  5. Dynamic flow localization in porous rocks under combined pressure and shear loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarushina, Viktoriya; Podladchikov, Yuri; Simon, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Flow localization occurs in deforming porous fluid saturated rocks. It exhibits itself as veins, pockmarks on the ocean floor or gas chimneys visible on seismic images from several chalk fields of the Central North Sea and from the Utsira formation at Sleipner in the Norwegian North Sea, which is one of the best documented CO2 storage sites. Porosity waves were repeatedly shown to be a viable mechanism of flow self-localization that does not require the pre-existence of a connected fracture network. Porosity waves result from an instability of the Darcy flow that occurs in porous rocks with time-dependent viscous or viscoelastoplastic rheology. Local fluid overpressure generated by fluid injection or chemical reactions aided by buoyancy force drives upward fluid migration. Viscous deformation delays pressure diffusion thus maintaining local overpressure for considerable periods of time. Development of an under-pressured region just below the over-pressured domain leads to separation of the fluid-filled high-porosity blob from the source and the background flow. The instability organizes the flow into separate vertical channels. Pressure distribution, shape and scaling of these channels are highly sensitive to the rheology of the porous rock. In this contribution, based on a micromechanical approach, we consider the complex rheology of brittle, ductile and transitional regimes of deformation of porous rocks in the presence of combined pressure and shear loading. Accurate description of transitional brittle-ductile deformation is a challenging task due to a large number of microscopic processes involved. We use elastoplastic and viscoplastic analytical solutions for the non-hydrostatic deformation of a singular cavity in the representative volume element in order to deduce expected behavior of the porous rock. The model provides micro-mechanisms for various failure modes (localized and homogeneous) and dilatancy onset. In particular, the model predicts that dilatancy

  6. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.

    2015-08-15

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.

  7. Electroosmotic shear flow in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Mampallil, Dileep; van den Ende, Dirk

    2013-01-15

    We generate and study electroosmotic shear flow in microchannels. By chemically or electrically modifying the surface potential of the channel walls a shear flow component with controllable velocity gradient can be added to the electroosmotic flow caused by double layer effects at the channel walls. Chemical modification is obtained by treating the channel wall with a cationic polymer. In case of electric modification, we used gate electrodes embedded in the channel wall. By applying a voltage to the gate electrode, the zeta potential can be varied and a controllable, uniform shear stress can be applied to the liquid in the channel. The strength of the shear stress depends on both the gate voltage and the applied field which drives the electroosmotic shear flow. Although the stress range is still limited, such a microchannel device can be used in principle as an in situ micro-rheometer for lab on a chip purposes.

  8. Stress-sensitive nutrient consumption via steady and non-reversing dynamic shear in continuous-flow rotational bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Belfiore, Laurence A; Bonani, Walter; Leoni, Matteo; Belfiore, Carol J

    2009-05-01

    Stress-sensitive biological response is simulated in a modified parallel-disk viscometer that implements steady and unidirectional dynamic shear under physiological conditions. Anchorage-dependent mammalian cells adhere to a protein coating on the surface of the rotating plate, receiving nutrients and oxygen from an aqueous medium that flows radially and tangentially, accompanied by transverse diffusion in the z-direction toward the active surface. This process is modeled as radial convection and axial diffusion with angular symmetry in cylindrical coordinates. The reaction/diffusion boundary condition on the surface of the rotating plate includes position-dependent stress-sensitive nutrient consumption via the zr- and zTheta-elements of the velocity gradient tensor at the cell/aqueous-medium interface. Linear transport laws in chemically reactive systems that obey Curie's theorem predict the existence of cross-phenomena between scalar reaction rates and the magnitude of the second-rank velocity gradient tensor, selecting only those elements of nabla v experienced by anchorage-dependent cells that are bound to protein-active sites. Stress sensitivity via the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics introduces a zeroth-order contribution to heterogeneous reaction rates that must be quenched when nutrients, oxygen, chemically anchored cells, or vacant active protein sites are not present on the surface of the rotating plate. Computer simulations of nutrient consumption profiles via simple nth-order kinetics (i.e., n=1,2) suggest that rotational bioreactor designs should consider stress-sensitivity when the shear-rate-based Damköhler number (i.e., ratio of the stress-dependent zeroth-order rate of nutrient consumption relative to the rate of nutrient diffusion toward active cells adhered to the rotating plate) is greater than approximately 25% of the stress-free Damköhler number. Rotational bioreactor simulations are presented for simple 1st-order, simple 2nd

  9. Grafted polymer under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Foster, Damien P.; Giri, Debaprasad; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    A self-attracting-self-avoiding walk model of polymer chain on a square lattice has been used to gain an insight into the behaviour of a polymer chain under shear flow in a slit of width L. Using exact enumeration technique, we show that at high temperature, the polymer acquires the extended state continuously increasing with shear stress. However, at low temperature the polymer exhibits two transitions: a transition from the coiled to the globule state and a transition to a stem-flower like state. For a chain of finite length, we obtained the exact monomer density distributions across the layers at different temperatures. The change in density profile with shear stress suggests that the polymer under shear flow can be used as a molecular gate with potential application as a sensor.

  10. Dynamic shear-stress-enhanced rates of nutrient consumption in gas-liquid semi-continuous-flow suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Laurence A.; Volpato, Fabio Z.; Paulino, Alexandre T.; Belfiore, Carol J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to establish guidelines for generating significant mammalian cell density in suspension bioreactors when stress-sensitive kinetics enhance the rate of nutrient consumption. Ultra-low-frequency dynamic modulations of the impeller (i.e., 35104 Hz) introduce time-dependent oscillatory shear into this transient analysis of cell proliferation under semi-continuous creeping flow conditions. Greater nutrient consumption is predicted when the amplitude A of modulated impeller rotation increases, and stress-kinetic contributions to nutrient consumption rates increase linearly at higher modulation frequency via an application of fluctuation-dissipation response. Interphase mass transfer is required to replace dissolved oxygen as it is consumed by aerobic nutrient consumption in the liquid phase. The theory and predictions described herein could be important at small length scales in the creeping flow regime where viscous shear is significant at the interface between the nutrient medium and isolated cells in suspension. Two-dimensional flow around spherically shaped mammalian cells, suspended in a Newtonian culture medium, is analyzed to calculate the surface-averaged magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor and modify homogeneous rates of nutrient consumption that are stimulated by viscous shear, via the formalism of stress-kinetic reciprocal relations that obey Curie's theorem in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Time constants for stress-free free and stress-sensitive stress nutrient consumption are defined and quantified to identify the threshold (i.e., stress,threshold) below which the effect of stress cannot be neglected in accurate predictions of bioreactor performance. Parametric studies reveal that the threshold time constant for stress-sensitive nutrient consumption stress,threshold decreases when the time constant for stress

  11. Shear Acceleration in Expanding Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, F. M.; Duffy, P.

    2016-12-01

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  12. Dynamic scaling of unsteady shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid flows in a large-scale model of a distal anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. D.; Owen, I.; Escudier, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Dimensional analysis has been applied to an unsteady pulsatile flow of a shear-thinning power-law non-Newtonian liquid. An experiment was then designed in which both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were used to model blood flow through a large-scale (38.5 mm dia.), simplified, rigid arterial junction (a distal anastomosis of a femorodistal bypass). The flow field within the junction was obtained by Particle Imaging Velocimetry and near-wall velocities were used to calculate the wall shear stresses. Dimensionless wall shear stresses were obtained at different points in the cardiac cycle for two different but dynamically similar non-Newtonian fluids; the good agreement between the measured dimensionless wall shear stresses confirm the validity of the dimensional analysis. However, blood exhibits a constant viscosity at high-shear rates and to obtain complete dynamic similarity between large-scale experiments and life-scale flows, the high-shear viscosity also needs to be included in the analysis. How this might be done is discussed in the paper.

  13. Dynamo quenching due to shear flow.

    PubMed

    Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-jin

    2008-04-11

    We provide a theory of dynamo (alpha effect) and momentum transport in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. For the first time, we show that the alpha effect is reduced by the shear even in the absence of magnetic field. The alpha effect is further suppressed by magnetic fields well below equipartition (with the large-scale flow) with different scalings depending on the relative strength of shear and magnetic field. The turbulent viscosity is also found to be significantly reduced by shear and magnetic fields, with positive value. These results suggest a crucial effect of shear and magnetic field on dynamo quenching and momentum transport reduction, with important implications for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, in particular, for the dynamics of the Sun.

  14. Nonlinear stresses and temperatures in transient adiabatic and shear flows via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Three definitions of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2009-04-01

    We compare nonlinear stresses and temperatures for adiabatic-shear flows, using up to 262 144 particles, with those from corresponding homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows. Two varieties of kinetic temperature tensors are compared to the configurational temperatures. This comparison of temperatures led us to two findings beyond our original goal of analyzing shear algorithms. First, we found an improved form for local instantaneous velocity fluctuations, as calculated with smooth-particle weighting functions. Second, we came upon the previously unrecognized contribution of rotation to the configurational temperature.

  15. Shearing dynamics and jamming density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Peter; Vâgberg, Daniel; Teitel, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    We study the effect of a shearing dynamics on the properties of a granular system, by examining how the jamming density depends on the preparation of the starting configurations. Whereas the jamming density at point J was obtained by relaxing random configurations [O'Hern et al, Phys. Rev. E 68, 011306 (2003)], we apply this method to configurations obtained after shearing the system at a certain shear rate. We find that the jamming density increases somewhat and that this effect is more pronounced for configurations produced at smaller shear rates. Different measures of the order of the jammed configurations are also discussed.

  16. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of the rheological and structural properties of linear and branched molecules. Simple shear and poiseuille flows; instabilities and slip.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Tejas, Jorge; Alvarado, Juan F J; González-Alatorre, Guillermo; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Sanchez, Isaac C; Macias-Salinas, Ricardo; Manero, Octavio

    2005-08-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations are performed for linear and branched chain molecules to study their rheological and structural properties under simple shear and Poiseuille flows. Molecules are described by a spring-monomer model with a given intermolecular potential. The equations of motion are solved for shear and Poiseuille flows with Lees and Edward's [A. W. Lees and S. F. Edwards, J. Phys. C 5, 1921 (1972)] periodic boundary conditions. A multiple time-scale algorithm extended to nonequilibrium situations is used as the integration method, and the simulations are performed at constant temperature using Nose-Hoover [S. Nose, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 511 (1984)] dynamics. In simple shear, molecules with flow-induced ellipsoidal shape, having significant segment concentrations along the gradient and neutral directions, exhibit substantial flow resistance. Linear molecules have larger zero-shear-rate viscosity than that of branched molecules, however, this behavior reverses as the shear rate is increased. The relaxation time of the molecules is associated with segment concentrations directed along the gradient and neutral directions, and hence it depends on structure and molecular weight. The results of this study are in qualitative agreement with other simulation studies and with experimental data. The pressure (Poiseuille) flow is induced by an external force F(e) simulated by confining the molecules in the region between surfaces which have attractive forces. Conditions at the boundary strongly influence the type of the slip flow predicted. A parabolic velocity profile with apparent slip on the wall is predicted under weakly attractive wall conditions, independent of molecular structure. In the case of strongly attractive walls, a layer of adhered molecules to the wall produces an abrupt distortion of the velocity profile which leads to slip between fluid layers with magnitude that depends on the molecular structure. Finally, the molecular deformation

  17. Modeling Acoustic Effects on shear-Coaxial Jet Flow Utilizing Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    two models. Model A is a second order equation while Model B is a simpler first order equation with a general slip coefficient , b, included in the...Acceleration Ai Inner jet area Ao Outer jet area b General slip coefficient c Propagation speed Di Inner jet diameter Do Outer jet...injectors exhausting parallel to the main flow field operating closely enough so their mixing zones interfere (Schetz, 1980:137). The second definition

  18. Ignition dynamics of a laminar diffusion flame in the field of a vortex embedded in a shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macaraeg, Michele G.; Jackson, T. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1994-01-01

    The role of streamwise-spanwise vorticity interactions that occur in turbulent shear flows on flame/vortex interactions is examined by means of asymptotic analysis and numerical simulation in the limit of small Mach number. An idealized model is employed to describe the interaction process. The model consists of a one-step, irreversible Arrhenius reaction between initially unmixed species occupying adjacent half-planes which are then allowed to mix and react in the presence of a streamwise vortex embedded in a shear flow. It is found that the interaction of the streamwise vortex with shear gives rise to small-scale velocity oscillations which increase in magnitude with shear strength. These oscillations give rise to regions of strong temperature gradients via viscous heating, which can lead to multiple ignition points and substantially decrease ignition times. The evolution in time of the temperature and mass-fraction fields is followed, and emphasis is placed on the ignition time and structure as a function of vortex and shear strength.

  19. Computational fluid dynamic simulation of aggregation of deformable cells in a shear flow.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Prosenjit; Johnson, Paul C; Popel, Aleksander S

    2005-12-01

    We present computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of aggregation of two deformable cells in a shearflow. This work is motivated by an attempt to develop computational models of aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs). Aggregation of RBCs is a major determinant of blood viscosity in microcirculation under physiological and pathological conditions. Deformability of the RBCs plays a major role in determining their aggregability. Deformability depends on the viscosity of the cytoplasmic fluid and on the rigidity of the cell membrane, in a macroscopic sense. This paper presents a computational study of RBC aggregation that takes into account the rheology of the cells as well as cell-cell adhesion kinetics. The simulation technique considered here is two dimensional and based on the front tracking/immersed boundary method for multiple fluids. Results presented here are on the dynamic events of aggregate formation between two cells, and its subsequent motion, rolling, deformation, and breakage. We show that the rheological properties of the cells have significant effects on the dynamics of the aggregate. A stable aggregate is formed at higher cytoplasmic viscosity and membrane rigidity. We also show that the bonds formed between the cells change in a cyclic manner as the aggregate rolls in a shearflow. The cyclic behavior is related to the rolling orientation of the aggregate. The frequency and amplitude of oscillation in the number of bonds also depend on the rheological properties.

  20. Active shear flow control for improved combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, E.; Parr, T. P.; Hanson-Parr, D. M.; Schadow, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    The acoustical and fluid dynamic facets of an excited premixed flame were studied experimentally to evaluate possibilities for development of a stabilizing closed-loop control system. The flame was analyzed as a nonlinear system which includes different subcomponents: acoustics, fluid dynamics, and chemical reaction. Identification of the acoustical and fluid dynamics subsystems is done by analyzing the transfer function, which was obtained by driving the system with both white-noise and a frequency-sweeping sine-wave. The features obtained by this analysis are compared to results of flow visualization and hot-wire flow-field and spectral measurements. The acoustical subsystem is determined by the resonant acoustic modes of the settling chamber. These modes are subsequently filtered and amplified by the flow shear layer, whose instability characteristics are dominated by the preferred mode frequency.

  1. RheoSpeckle: a new tool to investigate local flow and microscopic dynamics of soft matter under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N.; Roux, DCD; Cipelletti, L.; Caton, F.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the interplay between microscopic dynamics and macroscopic rheology in soft matter, we couple a stress-controlled-rheometer equipped with a Couette cell to a light scattering setup in the imaging geometry, which allows us to measure both the deformation field and the microscopic dynamics. To validate our setup, we test two model systems. For an elastic solid sample, we recover the expected deformation field within 1 µm. For a pure viscous fluid seeded with tracer particles, we measure the velocity profile and the dynamics of the tracers, both during shear and at rest. The velocity profile is acquired over a gap of 5 mm with a temporal and spatial resolution of 1 s and 100 µm, respectively. At rest, the tracer dynamics have the expected diffusive behavior. Under shear, the microscopic dynamics corrected for the average drift due to solid rotation scale with the local shear rate, demonstrating that our setup captures correctly the relative motion of the tracers due to the affine deformation.

  2. Gravity waves on shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, John

    2001-09-01

    The eigenvalue problem for gravity waves on a shear flow of depth h and non-inflected velocity profile U(y) (typically parabolic) is revisited, following Burns (1953) and Yih (1972). Complementary variational formulations that provide upper and lower bounds to the Froude number F as a function of the wave speed c and wavenumber k are constructed. These formulations are used to improve Burns's long-wave approximation and to determine Yih's critical wavenumber k[low asterisk], for which the wave is stationary (c = 0) and to which k must be inferior for the existence of an upstream running wave.

  3. Invariant Quantities in Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of systems out of thermal equilibrium is usually treated on a case-by-case basis without knowledge of fundamental and universal principles. We address this problem for a class of driven steady states, namely, those mechanically driven at the boundaries such as complex fluids under shear. From a nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB) we derive a remarkably simple set of invariant quantities which remain unchanged when the system is driven. These new nonequilibrium relations are both exact and valid arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Furthermore, they enable the systematic calculation of transition rates in driven systems with state spaces of arbitrary connectivity.

  4. A dynamic jamming point for shear thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2008-11-01

    Densely packed suspensions can shear thicken, in which the viscosity increases with shear rate. We performed rheometry measurements on two model systems: corn starch in water and glass spheres in oils. In both systems we observed shear thickening up to a critical packing fraction φc (=0.55 for spherical grains) above which the flow abruptly transitions to shear thinning. The viscosity and yield stress diverge as power laws at φc. Extrapolating the dynamic ranges of shear rate and stress in the shear thickening regime up to φc suggests a finite change in shear stress with zero change in shear rate. This is a dynamic analog to the jamming point with a yield stress at zero shear rate.

  5. Shear dynamics of an inverted nematic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Tiribocchi, A; Da Re, M; Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E

    2016-10-04

    Here we study theoretically the dynamics of a 2D and a 3D isotropic droplet in a nematic liquid crystal under a shear flow. We find a large repertoire of possible nonequilibrium steady states as a function of the shear rate and of the anchoring of the nematic director field at the droplet surface. We first discuss homeotropic anchoring. For weak anchoring, we recover the typical behaviour of a sheared isotropic droplet in a binary fluid, which rotates, stretches and can be broken by the applied flow. For intermediate anchoring, new possibilities arise due to elastic effects in the nematic fluid. We find that in this regime the 2D droplet can tilt and move in the flow, or tumble incessantly at the centre of the channel. For sufficiently strong anchoring, finally, one or both of the topological defects which form close to the surface of the isotropic droplet in equilibrium detach from it and get dragged deep into the nematic state by the flow. In 3D, instead, the Saturn ring associated with the normal anchoring disclination line can be deformed and shifted downstream by the flow, but remains always localized in the proximity of the droplet, at least for the parameter range we explored. Tangential anchoring in 2D leads to a different dynamic response, as the boojum defects characteristic of this situation can unbind from the droplet under a weaker shear with respect to the normal anchoring case. Our results should stimulate further experiments with inverted liquid crystal emulsions under shear, as most of the predictions can be testable in principle by monitoring the evolution of liquid crystalline orientation patterns or by tracking the position and shape of the droplet over time.

  6. Organized motions underlying turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waleffe, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the nature and significance of the organized motions underlying turbulent shear flow. There is considerable experimental evidence for the existence of such motions. In particular, one consistently observes longitudinal streaks with a spacing of about 100 in wall units in the near-wall region of wall-bounded shear flows. Recently, an analysis based on the direct resonance mechanism has predicted the appearance of streaks with precisely such a spacing. Also, the minimum channel simulations of Jimenez and Moin have given a strong dynamical significance to that spanwise length scale. They have shown that turbulent-like flows can not be maintained when the spanwise wavelength of the motion is constrained to be less than about that critical number. A critical review of the direct resonance ideas and the non-linear theory of Benney and Gustavsson is presented first. It is shown how this leads to the later mean flow-first harmonic theory of Benney. Finally, we note that a different type of analysis has led to the prediction streaks with a similar spacing. This latter approach consists of looking for optimum fields and directly provides deep insights into why a particular structure or a particular scale should be preferred.

  7. Dynamic bulk and shear moduli due to grain-scale local fluid flow in fluid-saturated cracked poroelastic rocks: Theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.

  8. Vortex simulation of reacting shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    Issues involved in the vortex simulation of reacting shear flow are discussed. It is shown that maintaining accuracy in the vortex methods requires the application of elaborate vorticity-updating schemes as vortex elements are moved along particle trajectories when shear or a strong strain field is represented. Solutions using 2D and 3D methods are discussed to illustrate some of the most common instabilities encountered in nonreacting and reacting shear flows and to reveal the mechanisms by which the maturation of these instabilities enhance mixing and hence burning in a reacting flow. The transport element method is developed and its application to compute scalar mixing in a shear layer is reviewed. The method is then combined with the vortex method to solve the problem of nonuniform-density shear flow. The results of incompressible reacting flow models are used to examine reaction extinction due to the formation of localized regions of strong strains as instabilities grow into their nonlinear range.

  9. Shear banding in nematogenic fluids with oscillating orientational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Frias, R; Reinken, H; Klapp, S H L

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the occurrence of shear banding in nematogenic fluids under planar Couette flow, based on mesoscopic dynamical equations for the orientational order parameter and the shear stress. We focus on parameter values where the sheared homogeneous system exhibits regular oscillatory orientational dynamics, whereas the equilibrium system is either isotropic (albeit close to the isotropic-nematic transition) or deep in its nematic phase. The numerical calculations are restricted to spatial variations in shear gradient direction. We find several new types of shear-banded states characterized by regions with regular oscillatory orientational dynamics. In all cases shear banding is accompanied by a non-monotonicity of the flow curve of the homogeneous system; however, only in the case of the initially isotropic system this curve has the typical S-like shape. We also analyze the influence of different orientational boundary conditions and of the spatial correlation length.

  10. Time accurate simulations of compressible shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givi, Peyman; Steinberger, Craig J.; Vidoni, Thomas J.; Madnia, Cyrus K.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to employ direct numerical simulation (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing (or lack thereof) in compressible free shear flows and to suggest new means of enhancing mixing in such flows. The shear flow configurations under investigation are those of parallel mixing layers and planar jets under both non-reacting and reacting nonpremixed conditions. During the three-years of this research program, several important issues regarding mixing and chemical reactions in compressible shear flows were investigated.

  11. Coexistence and transition between shear zones in slow granular flows.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Robabeh; Shaebani, M Reza; Maleki, Maniya; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    We report experiments on slow granular flows in a split-bottom Couette cell that show novel strain localization features. Nontrivial flow profiles have been observed which are shown to be the consequence of simultaneous formation of shear zones in the bulk and at the boundaries. The fluctuating band model based on a minimization principle can be fitted to the experiments over a large variation of morphology and filling height with one single fit parameter, the relative friction coefficient μ(rel) between wall and bulk. The possibility of multiple shear zone formation is controlled by μ(rel). Moreover, we observe that the symmetry of an initial state, with coexisting shear zones at both side walls, breaks spontaneously below a threshold value of the shear velocity. A dynamical transition between two asymmetric flow states happens over a characteristic time scale which depends on the shear strength.

  12. Sheared Rotation Effects on Kinetic Stability in Enhanced Confinement Tokamak Plasmas, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Fluctuations and Flows in Axisymmetric Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-11-01

    Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry.

  13. Sheared Rotation Effects on Kinetic Stability in Enhanced Confinement Tokamak Plasmas, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Fluctuations and Flows in Axisymmetric Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.; Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-12-01

    Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have significant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry.

  14. Steady shear flow thermodynamics based on a canonical distribution approach.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Tooru; Morriss, Gary P

    2004-11-01

    A nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamics to describe shear flow is developed using a canonical distribution approach. We construct a canonical distribution for shear flow based on the energy in the moving frame using the Lagrangian formalism of the classical mechanics. From this distribution, we derive the Evans-Hanley shear flow thermodynamics, which is characterized by the first law of thermodynamics dE=TdS-Qdgamma relating infinitesimal changes in energy E, entropy S, and shear rate gamma with kinetic temperature T. Our central result is that the coefficient Q is given by Helfand's moment for viscosity. This approach leads to thermodynamic stability conditions for shear flow, one of which is equivalent to the positivity of the correlation function for Q. We show the consistency of this approach with the Kawasaki distribution function for shear flow, from which a response formula for viscosity is derived in the form of a correlation function for the time-derivative of Q. We emphasize the role of the external work required to sustain the steady shear flow in this approach, and show theoretically that the ensemble average of its power W must be non-negative. A nonequilibrium entropy, increasing in time, is introduced, so that the amount of heat based on this entropy is equal to the average of W. Numerical results from nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation of two-dimensional many-particle systems with soft-core interactions are presented which support our interpretation.

  15. Coherent motion in excited free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wygnanski, Israel J.; Petersen, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the inviscid instability approach to externally excited turbulent free shear flows at high Reynolds numbers is explored. Attention is given to the cases of a small-deficit plane turbulent wake, a plane turbulent jet, an axisymmetric jet, the nonlinear evolution of instabilities in free shear flows, the concept of the 'preferred mode', vortex pairing in turbulent mixing layers, and experimental results for the control of free turbulent shear layers. The special features often attributed to pairing or to the preferred mode are found to be difficult to comprehend; the concept of feedback requires further substantiation in the case of incompressible flow.

  16. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    characterize the transition region in an earth-bound experiment. In the DE modeling, we analyze dynamics of a sheared granular system in Couette geometry in two (2D) and three (3D) space dimensions. Here, the idea is to both better understand what we might encounter in a reduced-g environment, and at a deeper level to deduce the physics of sheared systems in a density regime that has not been addressed by past experiments or simulations. One aspect of the simulations addresses sheared 2D system in zero-g environment. For low volume fractions, the expected dynamics of this type of system is relatively well understood. However, as the volume fraction is increased, the system undergoes a phase transition, as explained above. The DES concentrate on the evolution of the system as the solid volume fraction is slowly increased, and in particular on the behavior of very dense systems. For these configurations, the simulations show that polydispersity of the sheared particles is a crucial factor that determines the system response. Figures 1 and 2 below, that present the total force on each grain, show that even relatively small (10 %) nonuniformity of the size of the grains (expected in typical experiments) may lead to significant modifications of the system properties, such as velocity profiles, temperature, force propagation, and formation shear bands. The simulations are extended in a few other directions, in order to provide additional insight to the experimental system analyzed above. In one direction, both gravity, and driving due to vibrations are included. These simulations allow for predictions on the driving regime that is required in the experiments in order to analyze the jamming transition. Furthermore, direct comparison of experiments and DES will allow for verification of the modeling assumptions. We have also extended our modeling efforts to 3D. The (preliminary) results of these simulations of an annular system in zero-g environment will conclude the presentation.

  17. Application of Population Dynamics to Study Heterotypic Cell Aggregations in the Near-Wall Region of a Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanping; Wang, Jiakou; Liang, Shile; Dong, Cheng; Du, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Our research focused on the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) tethering to the vascular endothelial cells (EC) and the subsequent melanoma cell emboli formation in a shear flow, an important process of tumor cell extravasation from the circulation during metastasis. We applied population balance model based on Smoluchowski coagulation equation to study the heterotypic aggregation between PMNs and melanoma cells in the near-wall region of an in vitro parallel-plate flow chamber, which simulates in vivo cell-substrate adhesion from the vasculatures by combining mathematical modeling and numerical simulations with experimental observations. To the best of our knowledge, a multiscale near-wall aggregation model was developed, for the first time, which incorporated the effects of both cell deformation and general ratios of heterotypic cells on the cell aggregation process. Quantitative agreement was found between numerical predictions and in vitro experiments. The effects of factors, including: intrinsic binding molecule properties, near-wall heterotypic cell concentrations, and cell deformations on the coagulation process, are discussed. Several parameter identification approaches are proposed and validated which, in turn, demonstrate the importance of the reaction coefficient and the critical bond number on the aggregation process. PMID:20428326

  18. Dynamics of the longitudinal and transverse modes in presence of equilibrium shear flow in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Garai, S.; Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2014-02-11

    In strongly coupled limit the general hydrodynamic (GH) model shows that the dusty plasma, acquiring significant rigidity, is able to support the 'shear' like mode [P. K. Kaw and A. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 5, 3552 (1998)]. In presence of velocity shear, this shear like mode is coupled with the dust acoustic mode which is generated by the compressibility effect of the dust fluid due to the finite temperature of the dust, electron and ion fluids. Local dispersion shows the velocity shear is also responsible for the instabilities of the shear mode, acoustic mode, as well as the shear-acoustic coupled mode. The present work, carried out in GH visco-elastic formalism, also gives the clear insight of the instabilities of the coupled mode in non local regime with a hyperbolic tangent velocity shear profile over a finite width.

  19. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  20. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurements in intracranial aneurysms in vivo of flow patterns, velocity fields, and wall shear stress: comparison with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Boussel, Loic; Rayz, Vitaliy; Martin, Alastair; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Lawton, Michael T; Higashida, Randall; Smith, Wade S; Young, William L; Saloner, David

    2009-02-01

    Evolution of intracranial aneurysms is known to be related to hemodynamic forces such as wall shear stress (WSS) and maximum shear stress (MSS). Estimation of these parameters can be performed using numerical simulations with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), but can also be directly measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a time-dependent 3D phase-contrast sequence with encoding of each of the three components of the velocity vectors (7D-MRV). To study the accuracy of 7D-MRV in estimating these parameters in vivo, in comparison with CFD, 7D-MRV and patient-specific CFD modeling was performed for 3 patients who had intracranial aneurysms. Visual and quantitative analyses of the flow pattern and distribution of velocities, MSS, and WSS were performed using the two techniques. Spearman's coefficients of correlation between the two techniques were 0.56 for the velocity field, 0.48 for MSS, and 0.59 for WSS. Visual analysis and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for flow pattern and velocities but large discrepancies for MSS and WSS. These results indicate that 7D-MRV can be used in vivo to measure velocity flow fields and for estimating MSS and WSS. Currently, however, this method cannot accurately quantify the latter two parameters.

  1. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  2. Shear Fractures of Extreme Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-10-01

    Natural and laboratory observations show that shear ruptures (faults) can propagate with extreme dynamics (up to intersonic rupture velocities) through intact materials and along pre-existing faults with frictional and coherent (bonded) interfaces. The rupture propagation is accompanied by significant fault strength weakening in the rupture head. Although essential for understanding earthquakes, rock mechanics, tribology and fractures, the question of what physical processes determine how that weakening occurs is still unresolved. The general approach today to explain the fault weakening is based upon the strong velocity-weakening friction law according to which the fault strength drops rapidly with slip velocity. Different mechanisms of strength weakening caused by slip velocity have been proposed including thermal effect, high-frequency compressional waves, expansion of pore fluid, macroscopic melting and gel formation. This paper proposes that shear ruptures of extreme dynamics propagating in intact materials and in pre-existing frictional and coherent interfaces are governed by the same recently identified mechanism which is associated with an intensive microcracking process in the rupture tip observed for all types of extreme ruptures. The microcracking process creates, in certain conditions, a special fan-like microstructure shear resistance of which is extremely low (up to an order of magnitude less than the frictional strength). The fan-structure representing the rupture head provides strong interface weakening and causes high slip and rupture velocities. In contrast with the velocity-weakening dependency, this mechanism provides the opposite weakening-velocity effect. The fan-mechanism differs remarkably from all reported earlier mechanisms, and it can provide such important features observed in extreme ruptures as: extreme slip and rupture velocities, high slip velocity without heating, off-fault tensile cracking, transition from crack-like to pulse

  3. Shear and Pressure Driven Flow in Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaluria, Yogesh

    2013-11-01

    In many important circumstances, microchannel flows driven by moving surfaces that impart shear to the fluid and by an imposed pressure difference across the channel are of interest. The pressure may aid or oppose the flow due to the moving surface. One such problem is the optical fiber coating process, where the entrance of the moving fiber into a reservoir of fluid, as well as its exit, results in shear driven flow in microchannels. An additional aiding or opposing pressure head is also usually applied. The transport processes influence the resulting coating very substantially. This paper discusses the basic considerations that arise in such processes, particularly the resulting flow and the menisci that are observed at the inlet and outlet regions of the two microchannels. Visualization has been an important approach to the basic understanding of these flows. Detailed flow and thermal transport results are often obtained by numerical modeling. Another important circumstance is the pressure rise in the channel for narrowing flow domains, such as those employed in dies and extruders. It is found that, in practical problems, high pressures are generated that oppose the shear effects. Then the resulting transport is affected by both shear and pressure. On the other hand, cooling of electronic systems often employs pressure-driven microchannel flows. Comparisons between the results obtained for these different flow situations indicate many interesting features, which are discussed in terms of the basic mechanisms.

  4. Nonmonotonic flow curves of shear thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Denn, Morton M.

    2015-05-01

    The discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions is a remarkable phenomenon in which the viscosity can increase by several orders of magnitude at a critical shear rate. It has the appearance of a first-order phase transition between two hypothetical "states" that we have recently identified as Stokes flows with lubricated or frictional contacts, respectively. Here we extend the analogy further by means of stress-controlled simulations and show the existence of a nonmonotonic steady-state flow curve analogous to a nonmonotonic equation of state. While we associate DST with an S -shaped flow curve, at volume fractions above the shear jamming transition the frictional state loses flowability and the flow curve reduces to an arch, permitting the system to flow only at small stresses. Whereas a thermodynamic transition leads to phase separation in the coexistence region, we observe a uniform shear flow all along the thickening transition. A stability analysis suggests that uniform shear may be mechanically stable for the small Reynolds numbers and system sizes in a rheometer.

  5. Nonmonotonic flow curves of shear thickening suspensions.

    PubMed

    Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F; Denn, Morton M

    2015-05-01

    The discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions is a remarkable phenomenon in which the viscosity can increase by several orders of magnitude at a critical shear rate. It has the appearance of a first-order phase transition between two hypothetical "states" that we have recently identified as Stokes flows with lubricated or frictional contacts, respectively. Here we extend the analogy further by means of stress-controlled simulations and show the existence of a nonmonotonic steady-state flow curve analogous to a nonmonotonic equation of state. While we associate DST with an S-shaped flow curve, at volume fractions above the shear jamming transition the frictional state loses flowability and the flow curve reduces to an arch, permitting the system to flow only at small stresses. Whereas a thermodynamic transition leads to phase separation in the coexistence region, we observe a uniform shear flow all along the thickening transition. A stability analysis suggests that uniform shear may be mechanically stable for the small Reynolds numbers and system sizes in a rheometer.

  6. Enhanced reaction kinetics and reactive mixing scale dynamics in mixing fronts under shear flow for arbitrary Damköhler numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Méheust, Yves; Dentz, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Mixing fronts, where fluids of different chemical compositions mix with each other, are known to represent hotspots of chemical reaction in hydrological systems. These fronts are typically subjected to velocity gradients, ranging from the pore scale due to no slip boundary conditions at fluid solid interfaces, to the catchment scale due to permeability variations and complex geometry of the Darcy velocity streamlines. A common trait of these processes is that the mixing interface is strained by shear. Depending on the Péclet number Pe , which represents the ratio of the characteristic diffusion time to the characteristic shear time, and the Damköhler number Da , which represents the ratio of the characteristic diffusion time to the characteristic reaction time, the local reaction rates can be strongly impacted by the dynamics of the mixing interface. So far, this impact has been characterized mostly either in kinetics-limited or in mixing-limited conditions, that is, for either low or high Da. Here the coupling of shear flow and chemical reactivity is investigated for arbitrary Damköhler numbers, for a bimolecular reaction and an initial interface with separated reactants. Approximate analytical expressions for the global production rate and reactive mixing scale are derived based on a reactive lamella approach that allows for a general coupling between stretching enhanced mixing and chemical reactions. While for Pe < Da , reaction kinetics and stretching effects are decoupled, a scenario which we name "weak stretching", for Pe > Da , we uncover a "strong stretching" scenario where new scaling laws emerge from the interplay between reaction kinetics, diffusion, and stretching. The analytical results are validated against numerical simulations. These findings shed light on the effect of flow heterogeneity on the enhancement of chemical reaction and the creation of spatially localized hotspots of reactivity for a broad range of systems ranging from kinetic limited

  7. Shear-flow Effects in Open Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Beklemishev, A. D.

    2008-11-01

    Interaction between shear flows and plasma instabilities and turbulence in open traps can lead to improved confinement both in experiments and in simulations. Shear flows, driven by biasing end-plates and limiters or by off-axis electron heating, in combination with the finite-larmor-radius (FLR) effects are shown to be efficient in confining plasmas even with unstable flute modes. Interpretation of the observed effects as the ''vortex confinement,'' i.e., confinement of the plasma core in the dead-flow zone of the driven vortex, is shown to agree well with simulations.

  8. Aeroacoustics of subsonic turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    1987-01-01

    Sound generation in turbulent shear flows is examined. The emphasis is on simultaneous calculation of the turbulent flow along with the resulting sound generation rather than the alternative acoustic analogy approach. The first part of the paper is concerned with solid surface interaction. The second part concentrates on the sound generated by turbulence interacting with itself.

  9. Particle Distribution in Suspension Shear Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    An earlier proposed constitutive relation for normal stresses originated by random particle fluctuations is used to describe a joint effect of thermal and shear-induced fluctuations on concentrational distributions in suspension flow. Averaged products of components of the fluctuation velocity are evaluated on a basis of the rational mechanics approach combined with a simple kinematic consideration. The equation of momentum conservation of the dispersed phase of a suspension closed with this constitutive relation is applied to unidirectional shear flow in the gravity field and to rotational Couette flow. Coupling of the thermal and shear-induced fluctuations results in that the ability of shear flow to suspend particles has a minimum at a certain particle size, all other things being equal. The developed model provides also for a reasonable explanation of particle distributions observed in Couette flow. The approach based on the consideration of momentum balance for the dispersed phase is proved to lead to an effective equation of convective diffusion of the suspended particles. Coefficients of mutual diffusion due to both thermal and shear-induced fluctuations are drastically different from corresponding self-diffusivities as regards both their scaling and their concentrational dependence.

  10. Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.

  11. Low-dimensional representation of near-wall dynamics in shear flows, with implications to wall-models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, P. J.; Sayadi, T.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of coherent structures near the wall of a turbulent boundary layer is investigated with the aim of a low-dimensional representation of its essential features. Based on a triple decomposition into mean, coherent and incoherent motion and a dynamic mode decomposition to recover statistical information about the incoherent part of the flow field, a driven linear system coupling first- and second-order moments of the coherent structures is derived and analysed. The transfer function for this system, evaluated for a wall-parallel plane, confirms a strong bias towards streamwise elongated structures, and is proposed as an `impedance' boundary condition which replaces the bulk of the transport between the coherent velocity field and the coherent Reynolds stresses, thus acting as a wall model for large-eddy simulations (LES). It is interesting to note that the boundary condition is non-local in space and time. The extracted model is capable of reproducing the principal Reynolds stress components for the pretransitional, transitional and fully turbulent boundary layer.

  12. Dispersion of flocculated particles in simple shear flow and elongational flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueliang

    Experimental studies on the dispersion process of fine flocculated particles in different flows are carried out through visual image analyses and particle size measurements. The flows investigated include a cone-plate shear flow, a cylindrical Couette flow, an orifice contractile flow, and a hyperbolic flow. Visual studies on the mechanisms of floc breakup in different flows are first conducted through a video image acquisition and analysis system. A variety of dynamic processes of the deformation and breakup of fine flocs of size from 3mm to 30mm in the contractile flow, hyperbolic flow, and simple shear flow are visualized. The breakup and erosion process of flocs subjected to a constant shear stress in the cone-plate flow is analyzed based on the changes of floc mass, size, and shape with shear stress and shearing time through the image analysis. A significant portion of the breakup, or size reduction, of the fine flocs takes place upon the application of the shear stress. Floc size continues to decrease through erosion mechanism. The erosion rate depends on the applied shear stress, the floc size, and the floc shape. An orifice flow is applied to break flocs and determine floc strength. The flow field before an orifice of high area ratio is first numerically simulated and analyzed in order to characterize the flow and stress field. The dependence of the maximum centerline velocity gradient on orifice area ratio and Reynolds number is obtained and its asymptotic behavior in high Reynolds number regime is analyzed. The dispersion of flocs in the orifice flow is analyzed based on the floc size distribution measured using a particle size analyzer. Due to the rapid rise of the axial velocity gradient near the orifice entrance, the floc breakup in the orifice flow is instantaneous and the floc erosion mechanism can be excluded. The centerline maximum shear stress in the orifice flow thus gives the floc strength of the resulting flocs whose average size is

  13. Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; DeBonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicolas J.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling of turbulent free shear flows is crucial to the simulation of many aerospace applications, yet often receives less attention than the modeling of wall boundary layers. Thus, while turbulence model development in general has proceeded very slowly in the past twenty years, progress for free shear flows has been even more so. This paper highlights some of the fundamental issues in modeling free shear flows for propulsion applications, presents a review of past modeling efforts, and identifies areas where further research is needed. Among the topics discussed are differences between planar and axisymmetric flows, development versus self-similar regions, the effect of compressibility and the evolution of compressibility corrections, the effect of temperature on jets, and the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for reacting shear flows. Large eddy simulation greatly reduces the amount of empiricism in the physical modeling, but is sensitive to a number of numerical issues. This paper includes an overview of the importance of numerical scheme, mesh resolution, boundary treatment, sub-grid modeling, and filtering in conducting a successful simulation.

  14. Shear flow induced unfolding of collapsed polymers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Netz, Roland

    2006-03-01

    In the process of clotting in small vessels, platelets form a plug in an injured zone only in the presence of a protein known as the von Willebrand Factor (vWF). The absence or malfunction of the vWF leads to a bleeding disorder, the so-called von Willebrand disease. It is believed that the protein is collapsed (or globular) when released into the blood flow, and that it undergoes a transition at high shear rates that allows it to bind platelets. Using hydrodynamic simulations of a simple model of the vWF in shear flow, we show that a globular polymer undergoes a globule-stretch transition at a critical shear rate. Below this threshold shear rate the polymer remains collapsed and slightly deformed, while above it the chain displays strong elongations in the direction of the flow. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results in the case of blood flow, and compare them to the physiological values present in the body.

  15. Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.

  16. Buoyancy Driven Shear Flows of Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. L.; Hill, R. J.; Chellppannair, T.; Zenit, R.; Zenit, R.; Spelt, P. D. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the gas volume fraction and the root-mean-squared fluid velocity are measured in buoyancy driven shear flows of bubble suspensions in a tall, inclined, rectangular channel. The experiments are performed under conditions where We << 1a nd Re >> 1, for which comparisons are made with kinetic theory and numerical simulations. Here Re = gamma(a(exp 2)/nu is the Reynolds number and We = rho(gamma(exp 2))a(exp 3)/sigma is the Weber number; gamma is the shear rate, a is the bubble radius, nu is the kinematic viscosity of the liquid, rho is the density of the liquid, and sigma is the surface tension of the gas/liquid interface. Kang et al. calculated the bubble phase pressure and velocity variance of sheared bubble suspensions under conditions where the bubbles are spherical and the liquid phase velocity field can be approximated using potential flow theory, i.e. We= 0 and Re >> 1. Such conditions can be achieved in an experiment using gas bubbles, with a radius of O(0.5mm), in water. The theory requires that there be no average relative motion of the gas and liquid phases, hence the motivation for an experimental program in microgravity. The necessity of performing preliminary, Earth based experiments, however, requires performing experiments where the gas phase rises in the liquid, which significantly complicates the comparison of experiments with theory. Rather than comparing experimental results with theory for a uniform, homogeneous shear flow, experiments can be compared directly with solutions of the averaged equations of motion for bubble suspensions. This requires accounting for the significant lift force acting on the gas phase when the bubbles rise parallel to the average velocity of the sheared suspension. Shear flows can be produced in which the bubble phase pressure gradient, arising from shear induced collisions amongst the bubbles, balances a body force (centrifugal or gravitational) on the gas phase. A steady, non-uniform gas volume fraction

  17. Buoyancy Driven Shear Flows of Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. J.; Zenit, R.; Chellppannair, T.; Koch, D. L.; Spelt, P. D. M.; Sangani, A.

    1998-11-01

    In this work the gas volume fraction and the root-mean-squared fluid velocity are measured in buoyancy driven shear flows of bubble suspensions in a tall, inclined, rectangular channel. The experiments are performed under conditions where We << 1 and Re >> 1 , so that the bubbles are relatively undeformed and the flow is inviscid and approximately irrotational. Nitrogen is introduced through an array of capillaries at the base of a .2x.02x2 m channel filled with an aqueous electrolyte solution (0.06 molL-1 MgSO_4). The rising bubbles generate a unidirectional shear flow, where the denser suspension at the lower surface of the channel falls, while the less dense suspension at the upper surface rises. Hot-film anemometry is used to measure the resulting gas volume fraction and fluid velocity profiles. The bubble collision rate with the sensor is related to the gas volume fraction and the mean and variance of the bubble velocity using an experimentally measured collision surface area for the sensor. Bubble collisions with the sensor are identified by the characteristic slope of the hot-film anemometer signal when bubbles collide with the sensor. It is observed that the steady shear flow develops a bubble phase pressure gradient across the channel gap as the bubbles interchange momentum through direct collisions. The discrete phase presssure gradient balances the buoyancy force driving bubbles toward the upper surface resulting in a steady void fraction profile across the gap width. The strength of the shear flow is controlled by the extent of bubble segregation and by the effective viscosity of the bubble phase. The measurements are compared with solutions of the averaged equations of motion (Kang et al. 1997; Spelt and Sangani, 1998), for a range of gas volume fractions and channel inclination angles.

  18. Dynamic shear deformation in high purity Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Cerreta, Ellen K; Bingert, John F; Trujillo, Carl P; Lopez, Mike F; Gray, George T

    2009-01-01

    The forced shear test specimen, first developed by Meyer et al. [Meyer L. et al., Critical Adiabatic Shear Strength of Low Alloyed Steel Under Compressive Loading, Metallurgical Applications of Shock Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena (Marcel Decker, 1986), 657; Hartmann K. et al., Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials, Shock Waves and High Strain rate Phenomena in Metals (Plenum, 1981), 325-337.], has been utilized in a number of studies. While the geometry of this specimen does not allow for the microstructure to exactly define the location of shear band formation and the overall mechanical response of a specimen is highly sensitive to the geometry utilized, the forced shear specimen is useful for characterizing the influence of parameters such as strain rate, temperature, strain, and load on the microstructural evolution within a shear band. Additionally, many studies have utilized this geometry to advance the understanding of shear band development. In this study, by varying the geometry, specifically the ratio of the inner hole to the outer hat diameter, the dynamic shear localization response of high purity Fe was examined. Post mortem characterization was performed to quantify the width of the localizations and examine the microstructural and textural evolution of shear deformation in a bcc metal. Increased instability in mechanical response is strongly linked with development of enhanced intergranular misorientations, high angle boundaries, and classical shear textures characterized through orientation distribution functions.

  19. Propagation of sound through a sheared flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolley, J. P.; Smith, C. A.; Karamcheti, K.

    1978-01-01

    Sound generated in a moving fluid must propagate through a shear layer in order to be measured by a fixed instrument. These propagation effects were evaluated for noise sources typically associated with single and co-flowing subsonic jets and for subcritical flow over airfoils in such jets. The techniques for describing acoustic propagation fall into two categories: geometric acoustics and wave acoustics. Geometric acoustics is most convenient and accurate for high frequency sound. In the frequency range of interest to the present study (greater than 150 Hz), the geometric acoustics approach was determined to be most useful and practical.

  20. Waves in Turbulent Stably Stratified Shear Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobitz, F. G.; Rogers, M. M.; Ferziger, J. H.; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Two approaches for the identification of internal gravity waves in sheared and unsheared homogeneous stratified turbulence are investigated. First, the phase angle between the vertical velocity and density fluctuations is considered. It was found, however, that a continuous distribution of the phase angle is present in weakly and strongly stratified flow. Second, a projection onto the solution of the linearized inviscid equations of motion of unsheared stratified flow is investigated. It was found that a solution of the fully nonlinear viscous Navier-Stokes equations can be represented by the linearized inviscid solution. The projection yields a decomposition into vertical wave modes and horizontal vortical modes.

  1. Transport of micro-bubbles in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, P.; Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of micro-bubbles, which are typical in many industrial applications, is addressed by means the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of two prototypal flows, namely a homogeneous shear flow and a fully developed pipe flows. This preliminary study has a two-fold purpose. The homogenous turbulent shear flow is useful to characterize the bubble dynamics in terms of their eventual clustering properties which is expected to be controlled by the Stokes number. The time history of the fluid pressure experienced by the bubbles during their evolution is recorded and successively employed to force the Rayleigh-Plesset equation [1]. The ensuing data are used to address a posteriori the bubble diameter statistics in view of bubble collapse induced by strong and intermittent turbulent pressure fluctuations. The turbulent pipe flow simulations serve to address the bubble dynamics in wall bounded flows. Here the bubbles are observed to accumulate in the near-wall region with different intensity depending on the bubble dimensions.

  2. Atomic mechanism of flow in simple liquids under shear

    SciTech Connect

    Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Atomic correlations in a simple liquid in steady-state flow under shear stress are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The local atomic level strain is determined through the anisotropic pair-density function. The atomic level strain has a limited spatial extension whose range is dependent on the strain rate and extrapolates to zero at the critical strain rate. A failure event is identified with altering the local topology of atomic connectivity by exchanging bonds among neighboring atoms.

  3. Shear-thinning of molecular fluids in Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Bharath V.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2017-02-01

    We use non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the Boltzmann equation, and continuum thermomechanics to investigate and characterize the shear-thinning behavior of molecular fluids undergoing Couette flow, interacting via a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. In particular, we study the shear-stress under steady-state conditions and its dependency on fluid density and applied shear-strain rate. Motivated by kinetic theory, we propose a rheological equation of state that fits observed system responses exceptionally well and captures the extreme shear-thinning effect. We notice that beyond a particular strain-rate threshold, the fluid exhibits shear-thinning, the degree of which is dependent on the density and temperature of the system. In addition, we obtain a shear-rate dependent model for the viscosity which matches the well established Cross viscosity model. We demonstrate how this model arises naturally from the Boltzmann equation and possesses an inherent scaling parameter that unifies the rheological properties of the LJ fluid. We compare our model with those in the literature. Finally, we formulate a dissipation function modeling the LJ fluid as a quasilinear fluid.

  4. Particle Segregation in Collisional Shearing Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. T.; Louge, M. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The size segregation of flowing or shaken grains is a commonly observed phenomenon in industrial processes and in nature. In systems that do not involve much agitation of the grains, several mechanisms that involve gravity have been identified as leading to such segregation. In highly agitated flows, there is a mechanism independent of gravity that is available to drive separation of different grains. This is associated with spatial gradients in the energy of their velocity fluctuations. Because collisions between grains inevitably dissipate energy, collisional granular shear flows are usually of limited extent in the direction transverse to the flow. One consequence of this is that shear flows are strongly influenced by their boundaries. Because grains, on average, slip relative to boundaries, a bumpy or frictional boundary can convert slip energy into fluctuation energy. However, because each collision between a grain and the boundary dissipates fluctuation energy, there is a competition between production and dissipation. In principle, it is possible to design the geometry of the boundary - for example, the size and spacing of the bumps - so that the boundary either produces or dissipates fluctuation energy. This permits the control of the component of the spatial gradient of the fluctuation energy that is normal to the boundary. The gradients in fluctuation energy established by such boundaries may be exploited to drive the separation by size or other properties in a binary mixture of spherical grains. Microgravity makes the visual observations possible by permitting us to employ moderate rates of shear. On earth, the effects of gravity can be minimized by shearing so rapidly that the particle pressure overwhelms gravity. However, in this event, separation takes place too rapidly for visual observation, buoyancy and/or condensation associated with the centripetal acceleration must be accounted for, and the particles can be severely damaged. Because, in the

  5. Effects of dynamic shear and transmural pressure on wall shear stress sensitivity in collecting lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Gasheva, Olga Y; Mukherjee, Anish; Zawieja, David C; Dixon, J Brandon

    2015-11-01

    Given the known mechanosensitivity of the lymphatic vasculature, we sought to investigate the effects of dynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on collecting lymphatic vessels while controlling for transmural pressure. Using a previously developed ex vivo lymphatic perfusion system (ELPS) capable of independently controlling both transaxial pressure gradient and average transmural pressure on an isolated lymphatic vessel, we imposed a multitude of flow conditions on rat thoracic ducts, while controlling for transmural pressure and measuring diameter changes. By gradually increasing the imposed flow through a vessel, we determined the WSS at which the vessel first shows sign of contraction inhibition, defining this point as the shear stress sensitivity of the vessel. The shear stress threshold that triggered a contractile response was significantly greater at a transmural pressure of 5 cmH2O (0.97 dyne/cm(2)) than at 3 cmH2O (0.64 dyne/cm(2)). While contraction frequency was reduced when a steady WSS was applied, this inhibition was reversed when the applied WSS oscillated, even though the mean wall shear stresses between the conditions were not significantly different. When the applied oscillatory WSS was large enough, flow itself synchronized the lymphatic contractions to the exact frequency of the applied waveform. Both transmural pressure and the rate of change of WSS have significant impacts on the contractile response of lymphatic vessels to flow. Specifically, time-varying shear stress can alter the inhibition of phasic contraction frequency and even coordinate contractions, providing evidence that dynamic shear could play an important role in the contractile function of collecting lymphatic vessels.

  6. Effects of dynamic shear and transmural pressure on wall shear stress sensitivity in collecting lymphatic vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Gasheva, Olga Y.; Mukherjee, Anish; Zawieja, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Given the known mechanosensitivity of the lymphatic vasculature, we sought to investigate the effects of dynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on collecting lymphatic vessels while controlling for transmural pressure. Using a previously developed ex vivo lymphatic perfusion system (ELPS) capable of independently controlling both transaxial pressure gradient and average transmural pressure on an isolated lymphatic vessel, we imposed a multitude of flow conditions on rat thoracic ducts, while controlling for transmural pressure and measuring diameter changes. By gradually increasing the imposed flow through a vessel, we determined the WSS at which the vessel first shows sign of contraction inhibition, defining this point as the shear stress sensitivity of the vessel. The shear stress threshold that triggered a contractile response was significantly greater at a transmural pressure of 5 cmH2O (0.97 dyne/cm2) than at 3 cmH2O (0.64 dyne/cm2). While contraction frequency was reduced when a steady WSS was applied, this inhibition was reversed when the applied WSS oscillated, even though the mean wall shear stresses between the conditions were not significantly different. When the applied oscillatory WSS was large enough, flow itself synchronized the lymphatic contractions to the exact frequency of the applied waveform. Both transmural pressure and the rate of change of WSS have significant impacts on the contractile response of lymphatic vessels to flow. Specifically, time-varying shear stress can alter the inhibition of phasic contraction frequency and even coordinate contractions, providing evidence that dynamic shear could play an important role in the contractile function of collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:26333787

  7. Tank-treading of swollen erythrocytes in shear flows.

    PubMed

    Dodson, W R; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate computationally the oscillatory tank-treading motion of healthy swollen human erythrocytes (owing to lower than physiological plasma osmolarity) in shear flows with capillary number Ca=O(1) and small to moderate viscosity ratios 0.01≤λ≤2.75. Swollen cells show similar shear flow dynamics with normal cells but with significantly higher inclination and tank-treading speed owing to the higher cell thickness. For a given viscosity ratio, as the flow rate increases, the steady-state erythrocyte length L (in the shear plane) increases logarithmically while its depth W (normal to the shear plane) decreases logarithmically; increase of the viscosity ratio results in lower cell deformation. The erythrocyte width S, which exists in the shear plane, is practically invariant in time, flow rate, and viscosity ratio and corresponds to a real cell thickness of about 2.5 μm at physiological osmolarity (300 mO) and 3.4 μm at an osmolarity of 217 mO. The erythrocyte inclination decreases as the flow rate increases or as the surrounding fluid viscosity decreases, owing to the increased inner rotational flow which tends to align the cell toward the flow direction. The ektacytometry deformation of swollen cells increases logarithmically with the shear stress but with a slower slope than that for normal cells owing mainly to the higher orientation of the more swollen cells. As the cell swelling increases, the tank-treading period decreases owing to the higher thickness of the actual cell which overcomes the opposite action of the reduced shape-memory effects (i.e., the more spherical-like erythrocyte's reference shape of shearing resistance). The local area incompressibility tensions from the lipid bilayer increase with the cell swelling and cause a higher cytoskeleton prestress; this increased prestress results in smaller, but still measurable, local area changes on the spectrin skeleton of the more swollen erythrocytes. Our work provides insight on

  8. Tank-treading of swollen erythrocytes in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, W. R., III; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate computationally the oscillatory tank-treading motion of healthy swollen human erythrocytes (owing to lower than physiological plasma osmolarity) in shear flows with capillary number Ca=O(1) and small to moderate viscosity ratios 0.01≤λ≤2.75. Swollen cells show similar shear flow dynamics with normal cells but with significantly higher inclination and tank-treading speed owing to the higher cell thickness. For a given viscosity ratio, as the flow rate increases, the steady-state erythrocyte length L (in the shear plane) increases logarithmically while its depth W (normal to the shear plane) decreases logarithmically; increase of the viscosity ratio results in lower cell deformation. The erythrocyte width S, which exists in the shear plane, is practically invariant in time, flow rate, and viscosity ratio and corresponds to a real cell thickness of about 2.5μm at physiological osmolarity (300mO) and 3.4μm at an osmolarity of 217 mO. The erythrocyte inclination decreases as the flow rate increases or as the surrounding fluid viscosity decreases, owing to the increased inner rotational flow which tends to align the cell toward the flow direction. The ektacytometry deformation of swollen cells increases logarithmically with the shear stress but with a slower slope than that for normal cells owing mainly to the higher orientation of the more swollen cells. As the cell swelling increases, the tank-treading period decreases owing to the higher thickness of the actual cell which overcomes the opposite action of the reduced shape-memory effects (i.e., the more spherical-like erythrocyte's reference shape of shearing resistance). The local area incompressibility tensions from the lipid bilayer increase with the cell swelling and cause a higher cytoskeleton prestress; this increased prestress results in smaller, but still measurable, local area changes on the spectrin skeleton of the more swollen erythrocytes. Our work provides insight on

  9. Predicting bed shear stress and its role in sediment dynamics and restoration potential of the Everglades and other vegetated flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, L.G.; Harvey, J.W.; Crimaldi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Entrainment of sediment by flowing water affects topography, habitat suitability, and nutrient cycling in vegetated floodplains and wetlands, impacting ecosystem evolution and the success of restoration projects. Nonetheless, restoration managers lack simple decision-support tools for predicting shear stresses and sediment redistribution potential in different vegetation communities. Using a field-validated numerical model, we developed state-space diagrams that provide these predictions over a range of water-surface slopes, depths, and associated velocities in Everglades ridge and slough vegetation communities. Diminished bed shear stresses and a consequent decrease in bed sediment redistribution are hypothesized causes of a recent reduction in the topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of this ecosystem. Results confirmed the inability of present-day flows to entrain bed sediment. Further, our diagrams showed bed shear stresses to be highly sensitive to emergent vegetation density and water-surface slope but less sensitive to water depth and periphyton or floating vegetation abundance. These findings suggested that instituting a pulsing flow regime could be the most effective means to restore sediment redistribution to the Everglades. However, pulsing flows will not be sufficient to erode sediment from sloughs with abundant spikerush, unless spikerush density first decreases by natural or managed processes. Our methods provide a novel tool for identifying restoration parameters and performance measures in many types of vegetated aquatic environments where sediment erosion and deposition are involved.

  10. Coupling a mechanosensitive channel with a vesicle under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan Nan; Veerapaneni, Shravan; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Mechanosensitive channels enable cells to respond to their local environment. Continuum mechanical models have been proposed to describe how bilayer deformation induced by the transmembrane protein and the membrane tension influence the free energy of channel gating under static conditions. The dynamics of mechanosensitive channels under flow conditions however remains largely unexplored. Cells under flow display interesting features not observed under static environments. Here we present a model coupling a mechanosensitive channel with the dynamics of a vesicle under shear flow to investigate how the channel gating responds to hydrodynamic stress. The model could be used to investigate the release of signaling molecules, transport of ions or drugs across cell membranes under flow in biological systems, as well as the design and control of channel gating in synthetic cells.

  11. Direct observation of dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Majumdar, Sayantan; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-04-01

    Liquid-like at rest, dense suspensions of hard particles can undergo striking transformations in behaviour when agitated or sheared. These phenomena include solidification during rapid impact, as well as strong shear thickening characterized by discontinuous, orders-of-magnitude increases in suspension viscosity. Much of this highly non-Newtonian behaviour has recently been interpreted within the framework of a jamming transition. However, although jamming indeed induces solid-like rigidity, even a strongly shear-thickened state still flows and thus cannot be fully jammed. Furthermore, although suspensions are incompressible, the onset of rigidity in the standard jamming scenario requires an increase in particle density. Finally, whereas shear thickening occurs in the steady state, impact-induced solidification is transient. As a result, it has remained unclear how these dense suspension phenomena are related and how they are connected to jamming. Here we resolve this by systematically exploring both the steady-state and transient regimes with the same experimental system. We demonstrate that a fully jammed, solid-like state can be reached without compression and instead purely with shear, as recently proposed for dry granular systems. This state is created by transient shear-jamming fronts, which we track directly. We also show that shear stress, rather than shear rate, is the key control parameter. From these findings we map out a state diagram with particle density and shear stress as variables. We identify discontinuous shear thickening with a marginally jammed regime just below the onset of full, solid-like jamming. This state diagram provides a unifying framework, compatible with prior experimental and simulation results on dense suspensions, that connects steady-state and transient behaviour in terms of a dynamic shear-jamming process.

  12. Dynamics of Discontinuous Shear Thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Concentrated suspensions of hard particles such as cornstarch in water exhibit Discontinuous Shear Thickening, in which an increasing shear rate drives a transition from liquid- to solid-like mechanical behavior. In steady-state shear this phenomena is a result of a dynamic version of jamming in which forces are transmitted along particle contact networks that span to system boundaries and repeatedly form and break up. Several dynamic phenomena observed in such suspensions have long been assumed to be a consequence of this shear thickening, but cannot be explained as a direct result of shear thickening; for example a uniquely strong impact response which allows a person to run on the fluid surface. We perform experiments in which a concentrated suspension is subjected to transient impact. We find that the strong impact response is due a short-lived jammed contact network spanning to the boundaries and a delay time required for this dynamically jammed region to propagate to the boundary. The resulting ability of this system-spanning solid-like region to support loads can explain the ability of a person to run on the surface of these fluids. This delay before a solid-like response may also explain several other dynamic phenomena observed in these fluids.

  13. Shear flow effects on the nonlinear evolution of thermal instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, J.; Charlton, L.A.; Carreras, B.A. )

    1993-08-01

    In the weak radiation drive regime, the coupling between the thermal instability driven by impurity radiation and the self-consistent flow profile modification leads to a simple dynamical system that can be approximated by the Volterra--Lotka equations. In this system the shear flow acts as a predator and the temperature fluctuations act as prey. The solutions are oscillatory, and their behavior resembles that of edge-localized modes (ELM's). The solutions of the simplified model are compared with the three-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear numerical results for this instability.

  14. Identification of separate flow features in the shear layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulleners, Karen; Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    Analyzing unsteady flow fields primarily involves the identification of dynamically significant regions of vorticity in the flow. Detection of all the flow features is essential for an accurate description of the physics of the flow, which eventually helps in improving flow modeling and predictions. Eulerian criteria such as λ2 and Γ2 successfully identify large scale structures based on local velocity gradients and topology but do not detect the coherent vortices with the concentrated vorticity in a shear layer. The identification of these smaller structures within the shear layer is important when predicting the overall circulatory contribution to the aerodynamic forces produced, in applications such as flapping wing design. In order to detect the smaller flow features along with the prominent large scale vortices, an alternative method of vortex identification is proposed in which the flow structures are detected based on the vorticity contours. This method is applied to numerical and experimental data of a pitching panel to highlight its robustness. In addition, the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) is calculated to show that the boundaries of the material lines and identified vorticity contours coincide.

  15. Dynamics of a microorganism in a sheared viscoelastic liquid.

    PubMed

    De Corato, Marco; D'Avino, Gaetano

    2016-12-21

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a model spherical microorganism, called squirmer, suspended in a viscoelastic fluid undergoing unconfined shear flow. The effect of the interplay of shear flow, fluid viscoelasticity, and self-propulsion on the orientational dynamics is addressed. In the limit of weak viscoelasticity, quantified by the Deborah number, an analytical expression for the squirmer angular velocity is derived by means of the generalized reciprocity theorem. Direct finite element simulations are carried out to study the squirmer dynamics at larger Deborah numbers. Our results show that the orientational dynamics of active microorganisms in a sheared viscoelastic fluid greatly differs from that observed in Newtonian suspensions. Fluid viscoelasticity leads to a drift of the particle orientation vector towards the vorticity axis or the flow-gradient plane depending on the Deborah number, the relative weight between the self-propulsion velocity and the flow characteristic velocity, and the type of swimming. Generally, pullers and pushers show an opposite equilibrium orientation. The results reported in the present paper could be helpful in designing devices where separation of microorganisms, based on their self-propulsion mechanism, is obtained.

  16. Dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo; Majumdar, Sayantan; Jaeger, Heinrich

    Shear a dense suspension of cornstarch and water hard enough, and the system seems to solidify as a result. Indeed, previous studies have shown that a jamming front propagates through these systems until, after interaction with boundaries, a jammed solid spans across the system. Because these fully jammed states are only observed if the deformation is fast enough, a natural question to ask is how this phenomenon is related to the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) behavior of these suspensions. We present a single experimental setup in which we on the one hand can measure the rheological flow curves, but on the other hand also determine if the suspension is in a jammed state. This we do by using a large-gap cylindrical Couette cell, where we control the applied shear stress using a rheometer. Because our setup only applies shear, the jammed states we observe are shear-jammed, and cannot be a result of an overall increase in packing fraction. We probe for jammed states by dropping small steel spheres on the surface of the suspension, and identify elastic responses. Our experiments reveal a clear distinction between the onset of DST and Shear-Jammed states, which have qualitatively different trends with packing fraction close to the isotropic jamming point.

  17. Shear-stress-controlled dynamics of nematic complex fluids.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Sabine H L; Hess, Siegfried

    2010-05-01

    Based on a mesoscopic theory we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sheared nematic liquid, with the control parameter being the shear stress σ xy (rather than the usual shear rate, γ). To this end we supplement the equations of motion for the orientational order parameters by an equation for γ, which then becomes time dependent. Shearing the system from an isotropic state, the stress-controlled flow properties turn out to be essentially identical to those at fixed γ. Pronounced differences occur when the equilibrium state is nematic. Here, shearing at controlled γ yields several nonequilibrium transitions between different dynamic states, including chaotic regimes. The corresponding stress-controlled system has only one transition from a regular periodic into a stationary (shear-aligned) state. The position of this transition in the σ xy-γ plane turns out to be tunable by the delay time entering our control scheme for σ xy. Moreover, a sudden change in the control method can stabilize the chaotic states appearing at fixed γ.

  18. The Formation of Packets of Hairpins in Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Jacob; Karp, Michael; Shukhman, Ilia

    2009-11-01

    In the present work we utilize a recently developed new method in an attempt to understand the generation of packets of hairpin vortices from a pair of counter rotating streamwise vortices embedded in uniform shear flow. This analytical-based solution method is capable of following (numerically) the evolution of finite-amplitude localized vortical disturbances embedded in shear flows. Due to their localization in space, the surrounding base flow is assumed to have homogeneous shear to leading order. The method can solve in a novel way the interaction between a general family of unbounded planar homogeneous shear flows and any localized disturbance. The solution is carried out using Lagrangian variables in Fourier space which is convenient and enables fast computations. The revealed mechanism for generation of packets of hairpins seems to be universal and has been observed in the past both in fully developed wall-bounded shear flows as well as in wall-bounded transitional shear flows.

  19. Flow Instability and Wall Shear Stress Ocillation in Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyoungsu; Jayamaran, Mahesh; Richardson, Peter; Karniadakis, George

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the flow dynamics and oscillatory behavior of wall shear stress (WSS) vectors in intracranial aneurysms using high-order spectral/hp simulations. We analyze four patient- specific internal carotid arteries laden with aneurysms of different characteristics : a wide-necked saccular aneurysm, a hemisphere-shaped aneurysm, a narrower-necked saccular aneurysm, and a case with two adjacent saccular aneurysms. Simulations show that the pulsatile flow in aneurysms may be subject to a hydrodynamic instability during the decelerating systolic phase resulting in a high-frequency oscillation in the range of 30-50 Hz. When the aneurysmal flow becomes unstable, both the magnitude and the directions of WSS vectors fluctuate. In particular, the WSS vectors around the flow impingement region exhibit significant spatial and temporal changes in direction as well as in magnitude.

  20. Evolution of hairpin vortices in a shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hon, T.-L.; Walker, J. D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that the hairpin vortex plays an important (and perhaps dominant) role in the dynamics of turbulent flows near walls. In this study, a numerical procedure is developed to allow the accurate computation of the trajectory of a 3D vortex having a small core radius. For hairpin vortices which are convected in a shear flow above a wall, the calculated results show that a 2D vortex containing a small 3D disturbance distorts into a complex shape with subsidiary hairpin vortices forming outboard of the original hairpin vortex. As the vortex moves above the wall, it induces unsteady motion in the viscous flow near the wall: numerical solutions suggest that the boundary-layer flow near the wall will ultimately erupt in response to the motion of the hairpin vortex and in the process a secondary hairpin vortex will be created. The computer results agree with recent experimental investigations.

  1. Evolution of hairpin vortices in a shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hon, T.-L.; Walker, J. D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that the hairpin vortex plays an important (and perhaps dominant) role in the dynamics of turbulent flows near walls. In this study a numerical procedure is developed to allow the accurate computation of the trajectory of a 3-D vortex having a small core radius. For hairpin vortices which are convected in a shear flow above a wall, the calculated results show that a 2-D vortex containing a small 3-D disturbance distorts into a complex shape with subsidiary hairpin vortices forming outboard of the original hairpin vortex. As the vortex moves above the wall, it induces unsteady motion in the viscous flow near the wall: numerical solutions suggest that the boundary-layer flow near the wall will ultimately erupt in response to the motion of the hairpin vortex and in the process a secondary hairpin vortex will be created. The computer results agree with recent experimental investigations.

  2. Secondary instability of wall-bounded shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    The present analysis of a secondary instability in a wide class of wall-bounded parallel shear flows indicates that two-dimensional, finite amplitude waves are exponentially unstable to infinitessimal three-dimensional disturbances. The instability appears to be the prototype of transitional instability in such flows as Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, and flat plate boundary layers, in that it has the convective time scales observed in the typical transitions. The energetics and vorticity dynamics of the instability are discussed, and it is shown that the two-dimensional perturbation without directly providing energy to the disturbance. The three-dimensional instability requires that a threshold two-dimensional amplitude be achieved. It is found possible to identify experimental features of transitional spot structure with aspects of the nonlinear two-dimensional/linear three-dimensional instability.

  3. Tearing Mode Stability with Sheared Toroidal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ryan; Coppi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Toroidal plasma flow induced by neutral beam heating has been found to increase the stability of tearing modes in tokamak plasmas. The need to extrapolate current (experimentally-based) knowledge of tearing mode onset to future machines, requiresa better understanding of the essential physics. We consider the physics of flow near the rational surfaces. For realistic flow profiles, the velocity shear near the rational surface can be treated as a perturbation, and is found to amplify the dominant stabilizing effect of magnetic curvature. This effect can be seen using a cylindrical model if large-aspect-ratio corrections to the magnetic curvature are incorporated. On the other hand, the physical effects of toroidal rotation are completely absent in a cylinder, and require a fully-toroidal calculation to study. The toroidal rotation near the rational surface is found to couple to a geometrical parameter which vanishes for up-down symmetric profiles. Physically, the dominant effects of rotation arise from a Coriolis force, leading to flow directional dependence. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  4. Modeling and analysis of electrorheological suspensions in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok

    2012-02-14

    A model capable of describing the flow behavior of electrorheological (ER) suspensions under different electric field strengths and over the full range of shear rates is proposed. Structural reformation in the low shear rate region is investigated where parts of a material are in an undeformed state, while aligned structures reform under the shear force. The model's predictions were compared with the experimental data of some ER fluids as well as the CCJ (Cho-Choi-Jhon) model. This simple model's predictions of suspension flow behavior with subsequent aligned structure reformation agreed well with the experimental data, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The proposed model plausibly predicted the static yield stress, whereas the CCJ model and the Bingham model predicted only the dynamic yield stress. The master curve describing the apparent viscosity was obtained by appropriate scaling both axes, which showed that a combination of dimensional analysis and flow curve analysis using the proposed model yielded a quantitatively and qualitatively precise description of ER fluid rheological behavior based on relatively few experimental measurements.

  5. Sustained shear flows in Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Tayler; Anders, Evan; Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Zonal shear flows play important roles in both the solar and geo dynamos. In two dimensional simulations, and at relatively narrow aspect ratios, Rayleigh-Bénard convection naturally achieves zonal shear flows. These zonal flows are driven by the convection and modify it, significantly altering the heat transport and convective structures. Here we study shear flows in two and three-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using the Dedalus pseudospectral framework. At small aspect ratios and at Prandtl number 1, a large horizontal shear naturally occurs. At larger aspect ratios, we find that shearing is naturally prevented unless manually induced; there is a bistability between states dominated by "flywheel" modes and states dominated by large scale shear. We explore these states and the possibilities of sustained large scale shear in 3-D simulations.

  6. Vortex Formation in a High Speed Dust Flow with Large Velocity Shear in RF Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, Satoru; Gohda, Takuma

    2008-09-07

    We have investigated a rotation of a dust cloud disc with strong velocity shear in a radio frequency (RF) plasma. The flow pattern of the dusts was evaluated by the Navier Stokes Equation with shear viscosity due to the Coulomb interactions. We have clarified dynamic behaviors of the dusts and observed generation of micro-vortices around rotational center, when the velocity shear is enhanced.

  7. Dynamics of micelle-nanoparticle systems undergoing shear. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, Bryan A.; Chun, Jaehun; Joo, Yong L.

    2013-09-05

    Recent experimental work has shown that polymeric micelles can template nanoparticles via interstitial sites in shear-ordered micelle solutions. In the current study, we report simulation results based on a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model of a solvent/polymer/nanoparticle system. Our results demonstrate the importance of polymer concentration and the micelle corona length in 2D shear-ordering of neat block copolymer solutions. Although our results do not show strong 3D ordering during shear, we find that cessation of shear allows the system to relax into a 3D configuration of greater order than without shear. It is further shown that this post-shear relaxation is strongly dependent on the length of the micelle corona. For the first time, we demonstrate the presence and importance of a flow disturbance surrounding micelles in simple shear flow at moderate Péclet numbers. This disturbance is similar to what is observed around simulated star polymers and ellipsoids. The extent of the flow disturbance increases as expected with a longer micelle corona length. It is further suggested that without proper consideration of these dynamics, a stable nanoparticle configuration would be difficult to obtain.

  8. The microchannel flow model under shear stress and higher frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-04-01

    The microchannel flow model provides a framework for considering the effect of the vascular bed on the time domain and frequency domain response of soft tissues. The derivation originates with a single small fluid-filled vessel in an elastic medium under uniaxial compression. A fractal branching vasculature is also assumed to be present in the tissue under consideration. This note considers two closely related issues. First, the response of the element under compression or shear as a function of the orientation of the fluid-filled vessel is considered. Second, the transition from quasistatic (Poiseuille’s Law) to dynamic (Womersley equations) fluid flow is examined to better predict the evolution of behavior at higher frequencies. These considerations expand the conceptual framework of the microchannel flow model, particularly the range and limits of validity.

  9. The microchannel flow model under shear stress and higher frequencies.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kevin J

    2017-02-24

    The microchannel flow model provides a framework for considering the effect of the vascular bed on the time domain and frequency domain response of soft tissues. The derivation originates with a single small fluid filled vessel in an elastic medium under uniaxial compression. A fractal branching vasculature is also assumed to be present in the tissue under consideration. This short technical note considers two closely related issues. First, the response of the element under compression or shear as a function of the orientation of the fluid-filled vessel is considered. Second, the transition from quasistatic (Poiseuille's Law) to dynamic (Womersley equations) fluid flow is examined to better predict the evolution of behavior at higher frequencies. These considerations expand the conceptual framework of the microchannel flow model, particularly the range and limits of validity.

  10. Interaction of monopoles, dipoles, and turbulence with a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Rosas Fernandes, V. H.; Kamp, L. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.

    2016-09-01

    Direct numerical simulations have been conducted to examine the evolution of eddies in the presence of large-scale shear flows. The numerical experiments consist of initial-value-problems in which monopolar and dipolar vortices as well as driven turbulence are superposed on a plane Couette or Poiseuille flow in a periodic two-dimensional channel. The evolution of the flow has been examined for different shear rates of the background flow and different widths of the channel. Results found for retro-grade and pro-grade monopolar vortices are consistent with those found in the literature. Boundary layer vorticity, however, can significantly modify the straining and erosion of monopolar vortices normally seen for unbounded domains. Dipolar vortices are shown to be much more robust coherent structures in a large-scale shear flow than monopolar eddies. An analytical model for their trajectories, which are determined by self-advection and advection and rotation by the shear flow, is presented. Turbulent kinetic energy is effectively suppressed by the shearing action of the background flow provided that the shear is linear (Couette flow) and of sufficient strength. Nonlinear shear as present in the Poiseuille flow seems to even increase the turbulence strength especially for high shear rates.

  11. Microalga propels along vorticity direction in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengala, Anwar; Hondzo, Miki; Sheng, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Using high-speed digital holographic microscopy and microfluidics, we discover that, when encountering fluid flow shear above a threshold, unicellular green alga Dunaliella primolecta migrates unambiguously in the cross-stream direction that is normal to the plane of shear and coincides with the local fluid flow vorticity. The flow shear drives motile microalgae to collectively migrate in a thin two-dimensional horizontal plane and consequently alters the spatial distribution of microalgal cells within a given suspension. This shear-induced algal migration differs substantially from periodic rotational motion of passive ellipsoids, known as Jeffery orbits, as well as gyrotaxis by bottom-heavy swimming microalgae in a shear flow due to the subtle interplay between torques generated by gravity and viscous shear. Our findings could facilitate mechanistic solutions for modeling planktonic thin layers and sustainable cultivation of microalgae for human nutrition and bioenergy feedstock.

  12. Microalga propels along vorticity direction in a shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chengala, Anwar; Hondzo, Miki; Sheng, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Using high-speed digital holographic microscopy and microfluidics, we discover that, when encountering fluid flow shear above a threshold, unicellular green alga Dunaliella primolecta migrates unambiguously in the cross-stream direction that is normal to the plane of shear and coincides with the local fluid flow vorticity. The flow shear drives motile microalgae to collectively migrate in a thin two-dimensional horizontal plane and consequently alters the spatial distribution of microalgal cells within a given suspension. This shear-induced algal migration differs substantially from periodic rotational motion of passive ellipsoids, known as Jeffery orbits, as well as gyrotaxis by bottom-heavy swimming microalgae in a shear flow due to the subtle interplay between torques generated by gravity and viscous shear. Our findings could facilitate mechanistic solutions for modeling planktonic thin layers and sustainable cultivation of microalgae for human nutrition and bioenergy feedstock.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence.

    PubMed

    Salhi, A; Jacobitz, F G; Schneider, K; Cambon, C

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, A.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Schneider, K.; Cambon, C.

    2014-01-01

    Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations.

  15. Oscillatory tank-treading motion of erythrocytes in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, W. R., III; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the oscillatory dynamics of the tank-treading motion of healthy human erythrocytes in shear flows with capillary number Ca=O(1) and small to moderate viscosity ratios 0.01⩽⩽1.5. These conditions correspond to a wide range of surrounding medium viscosities (4-600 m Pa s) and shear flow rates (2-560s-1), and match those used in ektacytometry systems. For a given viscosity ratio, as the flow rate increases, the steady-state erythrocyte length L (in the shear plane) increases logarithmically while its depth W (normal to the shear plane) decreases logarithmically. In addition, the flow rate increase dampens the oscillatory erythrocyte inclination but not its length oscillations (which show relative variations of about 5-8%). For a given flow rate, as the viscosity ratio increases, the erythrocyte length L contracts while its depth W increases (i.e., the cell becomes less deformed) with a small decrease in the length variations. The average orientation angle of the erythrocyte shows a significant decrease with the viscosity ratio as does the angle oscillation while the oscillation period increases. These trends continue in higher viscosity ratios resulting eventually in the transition from a (weakly oscillatory) tank-treading motion to a tumbling motion. Our computations show that the erythrocyte width S, which exists in the shear plane, is practically invariant in time, capillary number, and viscosity ratio, and corresponds to a real cell thickness of about 2.5μm. Comparison of our computational results with the predictions of (low degree-of-freedom) theoretical models and experimental findings, suggests that the energy dissipation due to the shape-memory effects is more significant than the energy dissipation due to the membrane viscosity. Our work shows that the oscillatory tank-treading motion can account for more than 50% of the variations found in ektacytometry systems; thus, researchers who wish to study inherent differences

  16. Free turbulent shear flows. Volume 2: Summary of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on free turbulent shear flows are presented. Objectives of the conference are as follows: (1) collect and process data for a variety of free mixing problems, (2) assess present theoretical capability for predicting mean velocity, concentration, and temperature distributions in free turbulent flows, (3) identify and recommend experimental studies to advance knowledge of free shear flows, and (4) increase understanding of basic turbulent mixing process for application to free shear flows. Examples of specific cases of jet flow are included.

  17. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Mojola, O.O.; Onasanya, O.E.

    1981-08-01

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteadiness on the power-producing performance of a Savonius windmill rotor are discussed. Measurements were made, in two statistically steady shear flows and in the natural wind, of the speed, torque and (hence) power of the rotor at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the bucket overlap ratio. 8 refs.

  18. Pattern formation induced by a differential shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucchi, L.; Vasquez, Desiderio A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid flow advecting one substance while others are immobilized can generate an instability in a homogeneous steady state of a reaction-diffusion-advection system. This differential-flow instability leads to the formation of steady spatial patterns in a moving reference frame. We study the effects of shear flow on this instability by considering two layers of fluid moving independently from each other, but allowing the substances to diffuse along and across the layers. We find that shear flow can generate instabilities even if the average flow velocity is zero for both substances. These instabilities are strongly dependent on which substance is advected by the shear flow. We explain these effects using the results of Taylor dispersion, where an effective diffusivity is enhanced by shear flow.

  19. Hydrodynamic interaction of two deformable drops in confined shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongping; Wang, Chengyao

    2014-09-01

    We investigate hydrodynamic interaction between two neutrally buoyant circular drops in a confined shear flow based on a computational fluid dynamics simulation using the volume-of-fluid method. The rheological behaviors of interactive drops and the flow regimes are explored with a focus on elucidation of underlying physical mechanisms. We find that two types of drop behaviors during interaction occur, including passing-over motion and reversing motion, which are governed by the competition between the drag of passing flow and the entrainment of reversing flow in matrix fluid. With the increasing confinement, the drop behavior transits from the passing-over motion to reversing motion, because the entrainment of the reversing-flow matrix fluid turns to play the dominant role. The drag of the ambient passing flow is increased by enlarging the initial lateral separation due to the departure of the drop from the reversing flow in matrix fluid, resulting in the emergence of passing-over motion. In particular, a corresponding phase diagram is plotted to quantitatively illustrate the dependence of drop morphologies during interaction on confinement and initial lateral separation.

  20. Feedback control of flow alignment in sheared liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Strehober, David A; Schöll, Eckehard; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2013-12-01

    Based on a continuum theory, we investigate the manipulation of the nonequilibrium behavior of a sheared liquid crystal via closed-loop feedback control. Our goal is to stabilize a specific dynamical state, that is, the stationary "flow alignment," under conditions where the uncontrolled system displays oscillatory director dynamics with in-plane symmetry. To this end we employ time-delayed feedback control (TDFC), where the equation of motion for the ith component q(i)(t) of the order parameter tensor is supplemented by a control term involving the difference q(i)(t)-q(i)(t-τ). In this diagonal scheme, τ is the delay time. We demonstrate that the TDFC method successfully stabilizes flow alignment for suitable values of the control strength K and τ; these values are determined by solving an exact eigenvalue equation. Moreover, our results show that only small values of K are needed when the system is sheared from an isotropic equilibrium state, contrary to the case where the equilibrium state is nematic.

  1. Spontaneous formation of permanent shear bands in a mesoscopic model of flowing disordered matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bocquet, Lydéric; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2012-02-01

    In this presentation we propose a coherent scenario of the formation of permanent shear bands in the flow of yield stress materials. Within a minimalistic mesoscopic model we investigate the spatial organisation of plasticity. The most important parameter is the typical time needed to regain the original structure after a local rearrangement. In agreement with a recent mean field study [Coussot et al., Eur. Phys. J. E, 2010, 33, 183] we observe a spontaneous formation of permanent shear bands, when this restructuring time is large compared to the typical stress release time in a rearrangement. This heterogeneous flow behaviour is different in nature from the transient dynamical heterogeneities that one observes in the small shear rate limit in flow without shear-banding [Martens et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2011, 106, 156001]. We analyse the dependence of the shear bands on system size, shear rate and restructuring time. Further we rationalise the scenario within a mean field version of the model, that explains the instability of the homogeneous flow below a critical shear rate. Our study therefore strongly supports the idea that the characteristic time scales involved in the local dynamics are at the physical origin of permanent shear bands.

  2. Investigation of Compressibility Effect for Aeropropulsive Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engines operate within a wide range of Mach numbers and altitudes. Fundamental fluid dynamic mechanisms involve complex choking, mass entrainment, stream mixing and wall interactions. The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville is involved in an on- going experimental and numerical modeling study of non-axisymmetric ejector-based combined cycle propulsion systems. This paper attempts to address the modeling issues related to mixing, shear layer/wall interaction in a supersonic Strutjet/ejector flow field. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solutions incorporating turbulence models are sought and compared to experimental measurements to characterize detailed flow dynamics. The effect of compressibility on fluids mixing and wall interactions were investigated using an existing CFD methodology. The compressibility correction to conventional incompressible two- equation models is found to be necessary for the supersonic mixing aspect of the ejector flows based on 2-D simulation results. 3-D strut-base flows involving flow separations were also investigated.

  3. Molecularly based criteria for shear banding in transient flow of entangled polymeric fluids.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Mouge; Khomami, Bamin

    2016-06-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics simulations of polymeric melts in a start-up of shear flow as a function of ramp time to its steady state value is studied. Herein, we report the molecular findings showing the effect of ramp time on the formation of shear banded structures and chain relaxation behavior. Specifically, it is shown that shear banding emerges at a rapid start-up; however, homogeneous shear prevails when the deformation rate ramp time is sufficiently slow. This finding is in full consistency with prior continuum level linear stability analysis of shear banding in start-up of shear flows as well as experimental observations of entangled DNA and polymer solutions. Further, it has been revealed that the ratio of the longest chain orientation relaxation time to that of the time for the imposed deformation rate to reach its steady state value plays a central role in determining whether local strain inhomogeneities that lead to the formation of shear banded flow structures are created. In addition, we have shown that the gradient of the number of entanglements along the velocity gradient direction should reach a critical value for the creation of localized strain inhomogeneity. Moreover, the relation between the local process leading to shear banded flows and the relaxation mechanism of the chain is discussed. Overall, a molecular picture for the interrelation between the longest chain orientation and stress relaxation time, local inhomogeneities, and shear banding has been proposed and corroborated with extensive analysis.

  4. Bistability of cell adhesion in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Artem; Cao, Jianshu

    2011-09-07

    Cell adhesion plays a central role in multicellular organisms helping to maintain their integrity and homeostasis. This complex process involves many different types of adhesion proteins, and synergetic behavior of these proteins during cell adhesion is frequently observed in experiments. A well-known example is the cooperation of rolling and stationary adhesion proteins during the leukocytes extravasation. Despite the fact that such cooperation is vital for proper functioning of the immune system, its origin is not fully understood. In this study we constructed a simple analytic model of the interaction between a leukocyte and the blood vessel wall in shear flow. The model predicts existence of cell adhesion bistability, which results from a tug-of-war between two kinetic processes taking place in the cell-wall contact area-bond formation and rupture. Based on the model results, we suggest an interpretation of several cytoadhesion experiments and propose a simple explanation of the existing synergy between rolling and stationary adhesion proteins, which is vital for effective cell adherence to the blood vessel walls in living organisms.

  5. Chirality-specific lift forces of helix under shear flows: Helix perpendicular to shear plane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Chiral objects in shear flow experience a chirality-specific lift force. Shear flows past helices in a low Reynolds number regime were studied using slender-body theory. The chirality-specific lift forces in the vorticity direction experienced by helices are dominated by a set of helix geometry parameters: helix radius, pitch length, number of turns, and helix phase angle. Its analytical formula is given. The chirality-specific forces are the physical reasons for the chiral separation of helices in shear flow. Our results are well supported by the latest experimental observations.

  6. Collisionless Zonal Flow Saturation for Weak Magnetic Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhixin; Wang, Weixing; Diamond, Patrick; Ashourvan, Arash; Tynan, George

    2015-11-01

    The damping of the zonal flow, either collisional or collisionless, plays an important role in regulating the drift wave-zonal flow system, and can affect the transport and confinement. The tertiary instability, e.g., a generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by flow shear, has been suggested theoretically as a possible damping mechanism [Rogers 2000 PRL, Diamond 2005 PPCF]. The sensitivity of the tertiary mode to magnetic shear has not been quantified, especially in weak magnetic shear regimes. In this work, parametric scans using gyrokinetic simulation demonstrate that the zonal electric field energy normalized by the turbulence electric field energy decreases as magnetic shear decreases. With ITG drive artificially eliminated, the time evolution of the zonal structure indicates that the zonal electric field damps more rapidly at weak shear. This suggests larger collisionless zonal flow damping or larger effective turbulent viscosity at weak magnetic shear. The effects of the zonal components of specific variables, e.g., the parallel shear flow and the radial electric field, on tertiary instability, are also studied. Quantitative studies on the magnetic shear scaling of tertiary instability excitation and the collisionless zonal flow saturation are ongoing.

  7. Flow instability and wall shear stress variation in intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Baek, H.; Jayaraman, M. V.; Richardson, P. D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the flow dynamics and oscillatory behaviour of wall shear stress (WSS) vectors in intracranial aneurysms using high resolution numerical simulations. We analyse three representative patient-specific internal carotid arteries laden with aneurysms of different characteristics: (i) a wide-necked saccular aneurysm, (ii) a narrower-necked saccular aneurysm, and (iii) a case with two adjacent saccular aneurysms. Our simulations show that the pulsatile flow in aneurysms can be subject to a hydrodynamic instability during the decelerating systolic phase resulting in a high-frequency oscillation in the range of 20–50 Hz, even when the blood flow rate in the parent vessel is as low as 150 and 250 ml min−1 for cases (iii) and (i), respectively. The flow returns to its original laminar pulsatile state near the end of diastole. When the aneurysmal flow becomes unstable, both the magnitude and the directions of WSS vectors fluctuate at the aforementioned high frequencies. In particular, the WSS vectors around the flow impingement region exhibit significant spatio-temporal changes in direction as well as in magnitude. PMID:20022896

  8. Spatiotemporal stress and structure evolution in dynamically sheared polymer-like micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Gurnon, A Kate; Lopez-Barron, Carlos R; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J

    2014-04-28

    The complex, nonlinear flow behavior of soft materials transcends industrial applications, smart material design and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A long-standing, fundamental challenge in soft-matter science is establishing a quantitative connection between the deformation field, local microstructure and macroscopic dynamic flow properties i.e., the rheology. Here, a new experimental method is developed using simultaneous small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and nonlinear oscillatory shear rheometry to investigate the spatiotemporal microstructure evolution of a polymer-like micellar (PLM) solution. We demonstrate the novelty of nonlinear oscillatory shear experimental methods to create and interrogate metastable material states. These include a precursory state to the shear banded condition as well as a disentangled, low viscosity state with an inhomogeneous supra-molecular microstructure flowing at high shear rates. This new experimental evidence provides insight into the complexities of the shear banding phenomenon often observed in sheared complex fluids and provides valuable data for quantitatively testing non-equilibrium theory.

  9. Dynamics of Vorticity Defects in Stratified Shear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-19

    Balmforth, and R. V. Craster, Dynamics of defects in visco-elastic shear. J. Non - Newtonian Fluids, 72 (1997), pp. 281-304. [5] N. J. Balmforth, and W. R...vorticity being swept into nodes like B. Thus, accumulation of vorticity at points like B takes place unboundedly in the linear, non -dissipative...buoyancy formulation, in the Bousinessq approximation can be written in the following non -dimensional form, ∂ω ∂t + ∂(Ψ, ω) ∂(x, y) = ∂B ∂x + 1 Re ∇2ω

  10. Aspects of turbulent-shear-layer dynamics and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slessor, Michael David

    Experiments have been conducted in the GALCIT Supersonic Shear Layer Facility to investigate some aspects of high-Reynolds-number, turbulent, shearlayer flows in both incompressible- and compressible-flow regimes. Experiments designed to address several issues were performed; effects of inflow boundary conditions, freestream conditions (supersonic/subsonic flow), and compressibility, on both large-scale dynamics and small-scale mixing, are described. Chemically-reacting and non-reacting flows were investigated, the former relying on the (H2 + NO/F2) chemical system, in the fast-kinetic regime, to infer the structure and amount of molecular-scale mixing through use of "flip" experiments. A variety of experimental techniques, including a color-schlieren visualization system developed as part of this work, were used to study the flows. Both inflow conditions and compressibility are found to have significant effects on the flow. In particular, inflow conditions are "remembered" for long distances downstream, a sensitivity similar to that observed in low-dimensionality, non-linear (chaotic) systems. The global flowfields (freestreams coupled by the shear layer) of transonic flows exhibit a sensitivity to imposed boundary conditions, i. e., local area ratios. A previously-proposed mode-selection rule for turbulent-structure convection speeds, based on the presence of a lab-frame subsonic freestream, was experimentally demonstrated to be incorrect. Compressibility, when decoupled from all other parameters, e.g., Reynolds number, velocity and density ratios, etc., reduces laxge-scale entrainment and turbulent growth, but slightly enhances smallscale mixing, with an associated change in the structure of the molecularly-mixed fluid. This reduction in shear-layer growth rate is examined and a new parameter that interprets compressibility as an energy-exchange mechanism is proposed. The parameter reconciles and collapses experimentally-observed growth rates.

  11. Application of Photon Correlation Spectroscopy to Uniform Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk K.; Sur, Jeanman; Lee, Sangjun; Kim, Kipom

    1996-11-01

    We study the application of photon correlation spectroscopy to a system of randomly diffusing particles suspended in a uniform shear flow fluid. Unifrom shear flow is generated in Zimm viscometer type Taylor Couette cell. Detecting the scattered intensity from the diffusing particles through a single slit or multiple slit, one can not only study the uniform shear nature of Taylor-Couette flow but also transform the spatial information of the scattering volume into the time information using a photon correlation technique. We discuss useful applications of this technique.

  12. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  13. Effects of Shape on Diffusion and Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Robert; Packard, Norman

    2010-03-01

    Diffusion of point particles is well-understood, likewise the motion of simple particles under shear flow. However if the particles are extended objects with shape, more complicated behavior can occur. For example, objects might enter a shaped channel in a configuration that requires them to back up a finite distance in order to proceed further. A configuration that blocks flow through the channel might be statistically preferred, an attracting metastable state of the system. In the bulk, the configuration space of a set of closely packed rigid objects can become convoluted, with many dead-end alleys. If such a system is subjected to a shear, it may naturally tend to settle in such a dead-end, and have to retrace its path in order to continue further, a configuration can become locally locked. The requirement that the system backtrack to unlock distinguishes this process from ordinary jamming, there need be no dissipation or friction per se. We have a number of computer simulations of the motions of closely packed shaped objects, under both Hamiltonian and Monte Carlo dynamics. In addition we will present a simple analytic model, describing the entry and escape of the system from the attracting locked metastable states.

  14. DYNAMIC SHEAR-INFLUENCED COLLAGEN SELF-ASSEMBLY

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Nima; Sander, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to influence the direction of polymerization of a self-assembling biomolecular system has the potential to generate materials with extremely high anisotropy. In biological systems where highly-oriented cellular populations give rise to aligned and often load-bearing tissue such organized molecular scaffolds could aid in the contact guidance of cells for engineered tissue constructs (e.g cornea and tendon). In this investigation we examine the detailed dynamics of pepsin-extracted type I bovine collagen assembly on a glass surface under the influence of flow between two plates. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) imaging (60x-1.4NA) with focal plane stabilization was used to resolve and track the growth of collagen aggregates on borosilicate glass for 4 different shear rates (500, 80, 20, and 9 s-1). The detailed morphology of the collagen fibrils/aggregates was examined using Quick Freeze Deep Etch electron microscopy. Nucleation of fibrils on the glass was observed to occur rapidly (~2 min) followed by continued growth of the fibrils. The growth rates were dependent on flow in a complex manner with the highest rate of axial growth (0.1 microns/sec) occurring at a shear rate of 9 s-1. The lowest growth rate occurred at the highest shear. Fibrils were observed to both branch and join during the experiments. The best alignment of fibrils was observed at intermediate shear rates of 20 and 80s-1. However, the investigation revealed that fibril directional growth was not stable. At high shear rates, fibrils would often turn downstream forming what we term “hooks” which are likely the combined result of monomer interaction with the initial collagen layer or “mat” and the high shear rate. Further, QFDE examination of fibril morphology demonstrated that the assembled fibrillar structure did not possess native D-periodicity. Instead, fibrils comprised a collection of generally aligned, monomers which were self-assembled to form a fibril

  15. Inhomogeneous shear flows in soft jammed materials with tunable attractive forces.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Berthier, Ludovic; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-02-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the occurrence of inhomogeneous shear flows in soft jammed materials. We use rough walls to impose a simple shear flow and study the athermal motion of jammed assemblies of soft particles in two spatial dimensions, both for purely repulsive interactions and in the presence of an additional short-range attraction of varying strength. In steady state, pronounced flow inhomogeneities emerge for all systems when the shear rate becomes small. Deviations from linear flow are stronger in magnitude and become very long lived when the strength of the attraction increases, but differ from permanent shear bands. Flow inhomogeneities occur in a stress window bounded by the dynamic and static yield stress values. Attractive forces enhance the flow heterogeneities because they accelerate stress relaxation, thus effectively moving the system closer to the yield stress regime where inhomogeneities are most pronounced. The present scenario for understanding the effect of particle adhesion on shear localization, which is based on detailed molecular dynamics simulations with realistic particle interactions, differs qualitatively from previous qualitative explanations and ad hoc theoretical modeling.

  16. Traction Forces of Endothelial Cells under Slow Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Cecile M.; Brugues, Agusti; Bazellieres, Elsa; Ricco, Pierre; Lacroix, Damien; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells are constantly exposed to fluid shear stresses that regulate vascular morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease. The mechanical responses of endothelial cells to relatively high shear flow such as that characteristic of arterial circulation has been extensively studied. Much less is known about the responses of endothelial cells to slow shear flow such as that characteristic of venous circulation, early angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, intracranial aneurysm, or interstitial flow. Here we used a novel, to our knowledge, microfluidic technique to measure traction forces exerted by confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayers under slow shear flow. We found that cells respond to flow with rapid and pronounced increases in traction forces and cell-cell stresses. These responses are reversible in time and do not involve reorientation of the cell body. Traction maps reveal that local cell responses to slow shear flow are highly heterogeneous in magnitude and sign. Our findings unveil a low-flow regime in which endothelial cell mechanics is acutely responsive to shear stress. PMID:26488643

  17. Conditional Second Order Closure for Turbulent Shear Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-22

    measurements in several shear flows and satisfactory agreement between calculation and experiment is obtained. S Ps *s ~ J j~~- p .’* % LX- W-Vvw.n W...which allows calculation of the intermittency factor and statistical moments characterizing the fluctuations in the individual zones. The closure model...The resulting model is then compared with measurements in several shear flows and satisfactory agreement between calculation and experiment is

  18. Dynamics of edge dislocations in a sheared lamellar mesophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, V.

    2013-10-01

    The dynamics and interactions of edge dislocations in a nearly aligned sheared lamellar mesophase is analysed to provide insights into the relationship between disorder and rheology. First, the mesoscale permeation and momentum equations for the displacement field in the presence of external forces are derived from the model H equations for the concentration and momentum field. The secondary flow generated due to the mean shear around an isolated defect is calculated, and the excess viscosity due to the presence of the defect is determined from the excess energy dissipation due to the secondary flow. The excess viscosity for an isolated defect is found to increase with system size in the cross-stream direction as L3/2 for an isolated defect, though this divergence is cut-off due to interactions in a defect suspension. As the defects are sheared past each other due to the mean flow, the Peach-Koehler force due to elastic interaction between pairs of defects is found to cause no net displacement relative to each other as they approach from large separation to the distance of closest approach. The equivalent force due to viscous interactions is found to increase the separation for defects of opposite sign, and decrease the separation for defects of same sign. During defect interactions, we find that there is no buckling instability due to dilation of layers for systems of realistic size. However, there is another mechanism, which is the velocity difference generated across a slightly deformed bilayer due to the mean shear, which could result in the creation of new defects.

  19. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteady behavior on the power generation capability of a Savonius wind turbine rotor are assessed in view of measurements conducted, both in two statistically steady shear flows and in the wind, of rotor tip speed and torque at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the rotor bucket overlap ratio. It is found that, even in the absence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius wind turbine rotor is most strongly dependent on tip speed ratio.

  20. Particle cage dynamics in flowing colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenne, Stephanie; Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2016-11-01

    The idea of the particle in a suspension at rest being trapped in a cage formed by its neighbors, widely used to understand glassy suspensions, has been applied to freely flowing suspensions. Stokesian Dynamics, a discrete particle simulation, is used to simulate the flow of monodisperse colloidal hard sphere suspensions. The cage analogy is useful to study the nonlinear stress in the material during start-up of shear flow, where the neighbor cage deforms and breaks, and during oscillatory shear flow where, depending on the amplitude of oscillation, the particle is trapped inside the cage or escapes during the oscillation cycle. A precise statistical definition of the cage in terms of the nearest neighbor ring in the pair distribution function is developed. We examine the dependence of the cage dynamics on the volume fraction of particles and the Peclet number Pe , the ratio between shear and Brownian forces. Under flow, the cage is found to break at quite definite positions, and the structural distortion is found to be clearly related to the shear and normal stress response. The shear strain needed to break the neighbor cage depends on Pe as Brownian motion enhances the total deformation. A simple model captures the strain at the stress overshoot for start-up of steady shear.

  1. Segregation dynamics in debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Fei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Debris flows are massive flows consisting of mixtures of particles of different sizes and interstitial fluids such as water and mud. In sheared mixtures of different-sized (same density) particles, it is well known that larger particles tend to go up (toward the free surface), and the smaller particles, down, commonly referred to as the "Brazil-nut problem" or "kinetic sieving". When kinetic sieving fluxes are combined with advection in flows, they can give rise to a spectacular range of segregation patterns. These segregation / advection dynamics are recognized as playing a role in the coarsening of a debris flow front (its "snout") and the coarsening of the self-formed channel sides or levees. Since particle size distribution influences the flow dynamics including entrainment of bed materials, modeling segregation dynamics in debris flows is important for modeling the debris flows themselves. In sparser systems, the Brazil-nut segregation is well-modeled using kinetic theory applied to dissipative systems, where an underlying assumption involves random, uncorrelated collisions. In denser systems, where kinetic theory breaks down we have recently developed a new mixture model that demonstrates the segregation fluxes are driven by two effects associated with the kinetic stress or granular temperature (the kinetic energy associated with velocity fluctuations): (1) the difference between the partitioning of kinetic and contact stresses among the species in the mixture and (2) a kinetic stress gradient. Both model frameworks involve the temperature gradient as a driving force for segregation, but kinetic theory sends larger particles toward lower temperatures, and our mixture model sends larger particles away from lower temperatures. Which framework works under what conditions appears to depend on correlations in the flow such as those manifested in clusters and force chains. We discuss the application of each theoretical framework to representing segregation dynamics

  2. Memory effects for a trapped Brownian particle in viscoelastic shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, Romi; Laas, Katrin; Lumi, Neeme

    2013-10-01

    The long-time limit behavior of the positional distribution for an underdamped Brownian particle in a fluctuating harmonic potential well, which is simultaneously exposed to an oscillatory viscoelastic shear flow is investigated using the generalized Langevin equation with a power-law-type memory kernel. The influence of a fluctuating environment is modeled by a multiplicative white noise (fluctuations of the stiffness of the trapping potential) and by an additive internal fractional Gaussian noise. The exact expressions of the second-order moments of the fluctuating position for the Brownian particle in the shear plane have been calculated. Also, shear-induced cross correlation between particle fluctuations along orthogonal directions as well as the angular momentum are found. It is shown that interplay of shear flow, memory, and multiplicative noise can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as energetic instability, multiresonance versus the shear frequency, and memory-induced anomalous diffusion in the direction of the shear flow. Particularly, two different critical memory exponents have been found, which mark dynamical transitions from a stationary regime to a subdiffusive (or superdiffusive) regime of the system. Similarities and differences between the behaviors of the models with oscillatory and nonoscillatory shear flow are also discussed.

  3. An integral turbulent kinetic energy analysis of free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. E.; Phares, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Mixing of coaxial streams is analyzed by application of integral techniques. An integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is solved simultaneously with the integral equations for the mean flow. Normalized TKE profile shapes are obtained from incompressible jet and shear layer experiments and are assumed to be applicable to all free turbulent flows. The shear stress at the midpoint of the mixing zone is assumed to be directly proportional to the local TKE, and dissipation is treated with a generalization of the model developed for isotropic turbulence. Although the analysis was developed for ducted flows, constant-pressure flows were approximated with the duct much larger than the jet. The axisymmetric flows under consideration were predicted with reasonable accuracy. Fairly good results were also obtained for the fully developed two-dimensional shear layers, which were computed as thin layers at the boundary of a large circular jet.

  4. Microstructure from simulated Brownian suspension flows at large shear rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Katyal, Bhavana

    2002-06-01

    Pair microstructure of concentrated Brownian suspensions in simple-shear flow is studied by sampling of configurations from dynamic simulations by the Stokesian Dynamics technique. Simulated motions are three dimensional with periodic boundary conditions to mimic an infinitely extended suspension. Hydrodynamic interactions through Newtonian fluid and Brownian motion are the only physical influences upon the motion of the monodisperse hard-sphere particles. The dimensionless parameters characterizing the suspension are the particle volume fraction and Péclet number, defined, respectively, as φ=(4π/3)na3 with n the number density and a the sphere radius, and Pe=6πηγ˙a3/kT with η the fluid viscosity, γ˙ the shear rate, and kT the thermal energy. The majority of the results reported are from simulations at Pe=1000; results of simulations at Pe=1, 25, and 100 are also reported for φ=0.3 and φ=0.45. The pair structure is characterized by the pair distribution function, g(r)=P1|1(r)/n, where P1|1(r) is the conditional probability of finding a pair at a separation vector r. The structure under strong shearing exhibits an accumulation of pair probability at contact, and angular distortion (from spherical symmetry at Pe=0), with both effects increasing with Pe. Flow simulations were performed at Pe=1000 for eight volume fractions in the range 0.2⩽φ⩽0.585. For φ=0.2-0.3, the pair structure at contact, g(|r|=2)≡g(2), is found to exhibit a single region of strong correlation, g(2)≫1, at points around the axis of compression, with a particle-deficient wake in the extensional zones. A qualitative change in microstructure is observed between φ=0.3 and φ=0.37. For φ⩾0.37, the maximum g(2) lies at points in the shear plane nearly on the x axis of the bulk simple shear flow Ux=γ˙y, while at smaller φ, the maximum g(2) lies near the compressional axis; long-range string ordering is not observed. For φ=0.3 and φ=0.45, g(2)˜Pe0.7 for 1⩽Pe⩽1000, a

  5. Characterizations and Correlations of Wall Shear Stress in Aneurysmal Flow

    PubMed Central

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2016-01-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most studied hemodynamic parameters, used in correlating blood flow to various diseases. The pulsatile nature of blood flow, along with the complex geometries of diseased arteries, produces complicated temporal and spatial WSS patterns. Moreover, WSS is a vector, which further complicates its quantification and interpretation. The goal of this study is to investigate WSS magnitude, angle, and vector changes in space and time in complex blood flow. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was chosen as a setting to explore WSS quantification. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in six AAAs. New WSS parameters are introduced, and the pointwise correlation among these, and more traditional WSS parameters, was explored. WSS magnitude had positive correlation with spatial/temporal gradients of WSS magnitude. This motivated the definition of relative WSS gradients. WSS vectorial gradients were highly correlated with magnitude gradients. A mix WSS spatial gradient and a mix WSS temporal gradient are proposed to equally account for variations in the WSS angle and magnitude in single measures. The important role that WSS plays in regulating near wall transport, and the high correlation among some of the WSS parameters motivates further attention in revisiting the traditional approaches used in WSS characterizations. PMID:26592536

  6. Shear-induced orientational dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in suspensions of motile phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael T; Rusconi, Roberto; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Stocker, Roman

    2015-11-06

    Fluid flow, ubiquitous in natural and man-made environments, has the potential to profoundly impact the transport of microorganisms, including phytoplankton in aquatic habitats and bioreactors. Yet, the effect of ambient flow on the swimming behaviour of phytoplankton has remained poorly understood, largely owing to the difficulty of observing cell-flow interactions at the microscale. Here, we present microfluidic experiments where we tracked individual cells for four species of motile phytoplankton exposed to a spatially non-uniform fluid shear rate, characteristic of many flows in natural and artificial environments. We observed that medium-to-high mean shear rates (1-25 s(-1)) produce heterogeneous cell concentrations in the form of regions of accumulation and regions of depletion. The location of these regions relative to the flow depends on the cells' propulsion mechanism, body shape and flagellar arrangement, as captured by an effective aspect ratio. Species having a large effective aspect ratio accumulated in the high-shear regions, owing to shear-induced alignment of the swimming orientation with the fluid streamlines. Species having an effective aspect ratio close to unity exhibited little preferential accumulation at low-to-moderate flow rates, but strongly accumulated in the low-shear regions under high flow conditions, potentially owing to an active, behavioural response of cells to shear. These observations demonstrate that ambient fluid flow can strongly affect the motility and spatial distribution of phytoplankton and highlight the rich dynamics emerging from the interaction between motility, morphology and flow.

  7. Shear-induced orientational dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in suspensions of motile phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Michael T.; Rusconi, Roberto; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Fluid flow, ubiquitous in natural and man-made environments, has the potential to profoundly impact the transport of microorganisms, including phytoplankton in aquatic habitats and bioreactors. Yet, the effect of ambient flow on the swimming behaviour of phytoplankton has remained poorly understood, largely owing to the difficulty of observing cell–flow interactions at the microscale. Here, we present microfluidic experiments where we tracked individual cells for four species of motile phytoplankton exposed to a spatially non-uniform fluid shear rate, characteristic of many flows in natural and artificial environments. We observed that medium-to-high mean shear rates (1–25 s−1) produce heterogeneous cell concentrations in the form of regions of accumulation and regions of depletion. The location of these regions relative to the flow depends on the cells' propulsion mechanism, body shape and flagellar arrangement, as captured by an effective aspect ratio. Species having a large effective aspect ratio accumulated in the high-shear regions, owing to shear-induced alignment of the swimming orientation with the fluid streamlines. Species having an effective aspect ratio close to unity exhibited little preferential accumulation at low-to-moderate flow rates, but strongly accumulated in the low-shear regions under high flow conditions, potentially owing to an active, behavioural response of cells to shear. These observations demonstrate that ambient fluid flow can strongly affect the motility and spatial distribution of phytoplankton and highlight the rich dynamics emerging from the interaction between motility, morphology and flow. PMID:26538558

  8. E. coli in a wall bounded shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    Understanding bacteria motility over a wall in a shear flow is critical to determine those crucial biophysical processes involved in the biofilm formation and the shear erosion. Using digital holographic microscopy combined with microfluidics we capture three-dimensional swimming patterns of wild-type E. coli bacteria in a straight micro-channel subjecting to a carefully controlled flow shear. Three-dimensional locations and orientations of bacterial are extracted with a resolution of 0.185 μm in lateral directions and 0.5 μm in the wall normal direction. Robust statistics based on thousands of trajectories allow us to characterize bacteria swimming over a surface under flow shear. These characteristics, including swimming velocity, tumbling frequencies, cellular attachment, and suspension dispersion, will be used to elucidate the cell wall interactions in shear flows. Current analysis will focus on the hydrodynamic mechanisms other than near field interfacial forces on cell migration and orientation near a sheared surface. Preliminary data on bacteria over a chemically modified surface will also be presented. National Institution of Health.

  9. Resonant alignment of microswimmer trajectories in oscillatory shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Alexander; Croze, Ottavio A.; Poon, Wilson C. K.; Bees, Martin A.; Haw, Mark D.

    2016-09-01

    Oscillatory flows are commonly experienced by swimming micro-organisms in the environment, industrial applications, and rheological investigations. We characterize experimentally the response of the alga Dunaliella salina to oscillatory shear flows and report the surprising discovery that algal swimming trajectories orient perpendicular to the flow-shear plane. The ordering has the characteristics of a resonance in the driving parameter space. The behavior is qualitatively reproduced by a simple model and simulations accounting for helical swimming, suggesting a mechanism for ordering and criteria for the resonant amplitude and frequency. The implications of this work for active oscillatory rheology and industrial algal processing are discussed.

  10. Solution of the complete Curtiss-Bird model for polymeric liquids subjected to simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanou, Pavlos S.; Kröger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The complete kinetic theory model for concentrated polymer solutions and melts proposed by Curtiss and Bird is solved for shear flow: (a) analytically by providing a solution for the single-link (or configurational) distribution function as a real basis spherical harmonics expansion and then calculating the materials functions in shear flow up to second order in the dimensionless shear rate and, (b) numerically via the execution of Brownian dynamics simulations. These two methods are actually complementary to each other as the former is accurate only for small dimensionless shear rates where the latter produces results with increasingly large uncertainties. The analytical expansions of the material functions with respect to the dimensionless shear rate reduce to those of the extensively studied, simplified Curtiss-Bird model when ɛ' = 0, and to the rigid rod when ɛ' = 1. It is known that the power-law behavior at high shear rates is very different for these two extremal cases. We employ Brownian dynamics simulation to not only recover the limiting cases but to find a gradual variation of the power-law behaviors at large dimensionless shear rates upon varying ɛ'. The fact that experimental data are usually located between these two extremes strongly advocates the significance of studying the solution of the Curtiss-Bird model. This is exemplified in this work by comparing the solution of this model with available rheological data for semiflexible biological systems that are clearly not captured by the original Doi-Edwards or simplified Curtiss-Bird models.

  11. Multi-Scale Investigation of Sheared Flows In Magnetized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Edward, Jr., Thomas

    2014-09-19

    Flows parallel and perpendicular to magnetic fields in a plasma are important phenomena in many areas of plasma science research. The presence of these spatially inhomogeneous flows is often associated with the stability of the plasma. In fusion plasmas, these sheared flows can be stabilizing while in space plasmas, these sheared flows can be destabilizing. Because of this, there is broad interest in understanding the coupling between plasma stability and plasma flows. This research project has engaged in a study of the plasma response to spatially inhomogeneous plasma flows using three different experimental devices: the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) and the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) stellarator devices at Auburn University, and the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber (SPSC) at the Naval Research Laboratory. This work has shown that there is a commonality of the plasma response to sheared flows across a wide range of plasma parameters and magnetic field geometries. The goal of this multi-device, multi-scale project is to understand how sheared flows established by the same underlying physical mechanisms lead to different plasma responses in fusion, laboratory, and space plasmas.

  12. Tests Of Shear-Flow Model For Acoustic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrot, Tony L.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Tests described in report conducted to validate two-dimensional shear-flow analytical model for determination of acoustic impedance of acoustic liner in grazing-incidence, grazing-flow environment by use of infinite-waveguide method. Tests successful for both upstream and downstream propagations. Work has potential for utility in testing of engine ducts in commercial aircraft.

  13. Molecular origins of higher harmonics in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow: Shear stress response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, P. H.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Recent work has focused on deepening our understanding of the molecular origins of the higher harmonics that arise in the shear stress response of polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. For instance, these higher harmonics have been explained by just considering the orientation distribution of rigid dumbbells suspended in a Newtonian solvent. These dumbbells, when in dilute suspension, form the simplest relevant molecular model of polymer viscoelasticity, and this model specifically neglects interactions between the polymer molecules [R. B. Bird et al., "Dilute rigid dumbbell suspensions in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow: Shear stress response," J. Chem. Phys. 140, 074904 (2014)]. In this paper, we explore these interactions by examining the Curtiss-Bird model, a kinetic molecular theory designed specifically to account for the restricted motions that arise when polymer chains are concentrated, thus interacting and specifically, entangled. We begin our comparison using a heretofore ignored explicit analytical solution [X.-J. Fan and R. B. Bird, "A kinetic theory for polymer melts. VI. Calculation of additional material functions," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 15, 341 (1984)]. For concentrated systems, the chain motion transverse to the chain axis is more restricted than along the axis. This anisotropy is described by the link tension coefficient, ɛ, for which several special cases arise: ɛ = 0 corresponds to reptation, ɛ > 1/8 to rod-climbing, 1/5 ≤ ɛ ≤ 3/4 to reasonable predictions for shear-thinning in steady simple shear flow, and ɛ = 1 to the dilute solution without hydrodynamic interaction. In this paper, we examine the shapes of the shear stress versus shear rate loops for the special cases ɛ = (" separators=" 0 , 1 / 8 , 3 / 8 , 1 ) , and we compare these with those of rigid dumbbell and reptation model predictions.

  14. Evolution of forced shear flows in polytropic atmospheres: a comparison of forcing methods and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzke, V.; Silvers, L. J.; Favier, B.

    2016-11-01

    Shear flows are ubiquitous in astrophysical objects including planetary and stellar interiors, where their dynamics can have significant impact on thermochemical processes. Investigating the complex dynamics of shear flows requires numerical calculations that provide a long-time evolution of the system. To achieve a sufficiently long lifetime in a local numerical model, the system has to be forced externally. However, at present, there exist several different forcing methods to sustain large-scale shear flows in local models. In this paper, we examine and compare various methods used in the literature in order to resolve their respective applicability and limitations. These techniques are compared during the exponential growth phase of a shear flow instability, such as the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, and some are examined during the subsequent non-linear evolution. A linear stability analysis provides reference for the growth rate of the most unstable modes in the system and a detailed analysis of the energetics provides a comprehensive understanding of the energy exchange during the system's evolution. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of each forcing method and their relation with natural mechanisms generating shear flows.

  15. Aeroacoustic prediction of turbulent free shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodony, Daniel Joseph

    2005-12-01

    For many people living in the immediate vicinity of an active airport the noise of jet aircraft flying overhead can be a nuisance, if not worse. Airports, which are held accountable for the noise they produce, and upcoming international noise limits are pressuring the major airframe and jet engine manufacturers to bring quieter aircraft into service. However, component designers need a predictive tool that can estimate the sound generated by a new configuration. Current noise prediction techniques are almost entirely based on previously collected experimental data and are applicable only to evolutionary, not revolutionary, changes in the basic design. Physical models of final candidate designs must still be built and tested before a single design is selected. By focusing on the noise produced in the jet engine exhaust at take-off conditions, the prediction of sound generated by turbulent flows is addressed. The technique of large-eddy simulation is used to calculate directly the radiated sound produced by jets at different operating conditions. Predicted noise spectra agree with measurements for frequencies up to, and slightly beyond, the peak frequency. Higher frequencies are missed, however, due to the limited resolution of the simulations. Two methods of estimating the 'missing' noise are discussed. In the first a subgrid scale noise model, analogous to a subgrid scale closure model, is proposed. In the second method the governing equations are expressed in a wavelet basis from which simplified time-dependent equations for the subgrid scale fluctuations can be derived. These equations are inexpensively integrated to yield estimates of the subgrid scale fluctuations with proper space-time dynamics.

  16. Unsteady turbulent shear flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, Toulouse, France, May 5-8, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R.; Cousteix, J.; Houdeville, R.

    The papers contained in this volume summarized recent theoretical and experimental work in the field of unsteady turbulent shear flows. Topics discussed include the dynamic behavior of an unsteady turbulent boundary layer, turbulence modulated by a coherent shear wave in a wall boundary layer, measurements of the periodic velocity oscillations near the wall in unsteady turbulent channel flow, and the development of vortices in a mixing layer. Papers are also presented on the response of a turbulent boundary layer to a pulsation of the external flow with and without an adverse pressure gradient, numerical experiments on transition triggering off in a two-dimensional shear flow, and an experimental analysis of the wake behind an isolated cambered airfoil. For individual items see A83-46427 to A83-46453

  17. A Rotary Flow Channel for Shear Stress Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Scott, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed shear sensor calibrator consists of a rotating wheel with the sensor mounted tangential to the rim and positioned in close proximity to the rim. The shear stress generated by the flow at the sensor position is simply tau(sub omega) = (mu)r(omega)/h, where mu is the viscosity of the ambient gas, r the wheel radius, omega the angular velocity of the wheel, and h the width of the gap between the wheel rim and the sensor. With numerical values of mu = 31 (mu)Pa s (neon at room temperature), r = 0.5 m, omega = 754 /s (7200 rpm), and h = 50.8 m, a shear stress of tau(sub omega) = 231 Pa can be generated. An analysis based on one-dimensional flow, with the flow velocity having only an angular component as a function of the axial and radial coordinates, yields corrections to the above simple formula for the curvature of the wheel, flatness of the sensor, and finite width of the wheel. It is assumed that the sensor mount contains a trough (sidewalls) to render a velocity release boundary condition at the edges of the rim. The Taylor number under maximum flow conditions is found to be 62.3, sufficiently low to obviate flow instability. The fact that the parameters entering into the evaluation of the shear stress can be measured to high accuracy with well-defined uncertainties makes the proposed calibrator suitable for a physical standard for shear stress calibration.

  18. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    SciTech Connect

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S.; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H.

    1997-08-01

    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  19. A hybrid molecular dynamics study on the non-Newtonian rheological behaviors of shear thickening fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaihui; Wang, Yu; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural evolution dependency on the apparent viscosity in shear-thickening fluids (STFs), a hybrid mesoscale model combined with stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) and molecular dynamics (MD) is used. Muller-Plathe reverse perturbation method is adopted to analyze the viscosities of STFs in a two-dimensional model. The characteristic of microstructural evolution of the colloidal suspensions under different shear rate is studied. The effect of diameter of colloidal particles and the phase volume fraction on the shear thickening behavior is investigated. Under low shear rate, the two-atom structure is formed, because of the strong particle attractions in adjacent layers. At higher shear rate, the synergetic pair structure extends to layered structure along flow direction because of the increasing hydrodynamics action. As the shear rate rises continuously, the layered structure rotates and collides with other particles, then turned to be individual particles under extension or curve string structure under compression. Finally, at the highest shear rate, the strings curve more severely and get into two-dimensional cluster. The apparent viscosity of the system changes from shear-thinning behavior to the shear-thickening behavior. This work presents valuable information for further understanding the shear thickening mechanism.

  20. Shearing flow from transient bubble oscillations in narrow gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Milad; Li, Fenfang; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The flow driven by a rapidly expanding and collapsing cavitation bubble in a narrow cylindrical gap is studied with the volume of fluid method. The simulations reveal a developing plug flow during the early expansion followed by flow reversal at later stages. An adverse pressure gradient leads to boundary layer separation and flow reversal, causing large shear stress near the boundaries. Analytical solution to a planar pulsating flow shows qualitative agreement with the CFD results. The shear stress close to boundaries has implications to deformable objects located near the bubble: Experiments reveal that thin, flat biological cells entrained in the boundary layer become stretched, while cells with a larger cross section are mainly transported with the flow.

  1. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  2. Effect of spanwise shear on flow past a square cylinder at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, M. G.; Saha, Arun K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow past a square cylinder with linear spanwise shear has been performed in the Reynolds numbers range of 165-250. Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using second order central differencing for both advection and diffusion terms, explicitly marching in time using the second order Adams-Bashforth scheme. The solution methodology used is the Simplified Marker and Cell algorithm. Spanwise shear is simulated by providing a linear variation in the inlet velocity profile along the spanwise direction and the resulting wake characteristics are compared with uniform inflow. Presence of mode-A, mode-B, and large scale vortical irregularities of two-sided symmetrical vortex dislocations is detected when the inflow is uniform. With shear, oblique and cellular vortex shedding are identified for the square cylinder. Shedding frequency of the vortices varies in a stepwise manner along the span, giving rise to local cells of constant frequency. Constant frequency cell sizes are found to be longer for a square cylinder in shear flow as compared to the circular one. Spanwise shear leads to vortex splitting and one-sided vortex dislocation, contrary to the naturally occurring two-sided vortex dislocation for uniform flow. Reynolds number dependence of spanwise shear flow is studied by comparing wake dynamics at three mid-span Reynolds numbers of 165, 200, and 250 with a shear parameter of 0.025. With an increase in the average Reynolds number, cell sizes decrease and dislocations become irregular in space and time. Simulations with three different shear parameters of 0.0125, 0.025, and 0.05 have been carried out for an average Reynolds number of 250. With an increase in the shear parameter, the frequency of occurrence of vortex dislocations increases in the wake. In addition, obliqueness of the primary vortices and the number of cells also show an increase.

  3. Origin of intermittent plastic flow and instability of shear band sliding in bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sun, B A; Pauly, S; Hu, J; Wang, W H; Kühn, U; Eckert, J

    2013-05-31

    Intermittent or serrated plastic flow is widely observed in the deformation of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) or other disordered solids at low temperatures. However, the underlying physical process responsible for the phenomena is still poorly understood. Here, we give an interpretation of the serrated flow behavior in BMGs by relating the atomic-scale deformation with the macroscopic shear band behavior. Our theoretical analysis shows that serrated flow in fact arises from an intrinsic dynamic instability of the shear band sliding, which is determined by a critical stiffness parameter in stick-slip dynamics. Based on this, the transition from serrated to nonserrated flow with the strain rate or the temperature is well predicted and the effects of various extrinsic and intrinsic factors on shear band stability can be quantitatively analyzed in BMGs. Our results, which are verified by a series of compression tests on various BMGs, provide key ingredients to fundamentally understand serrated flow and may bridge the gap between the atomic-scale physics and the larger-scale shear band dynamics governing the deformation of BMGs.

  4. Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S

    1997-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.

  5. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  6. Generalized transport coefficients for inelastic Maxwell mixtures under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Garzó, Vicente; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    The Boltzmann equation framework for inelastic Maxwell models is considered to determine the transport coefficients associated with the mass, momentum, and heat fluxes of a granular binary mixture in spatially inhomogeneous states close to the simple shear flow. The Boltzmann equation is solved by means of a Chapman-Enskog-type expansion around the (local) shear flow distributions f(r)(0) for each species that retain all the hydrodynamic orders in the shear rate. Due to the anisotropy induced by the shear flow, tensorial quantities are required to describe the transport processes instead of the conventional scalar coefficients. These tensors are given in terms of the solutions of a set of coupled equations, which can be analytically solved as functions of the shear rate a, the coefficients of restitution α(rs), and the parameters of the mixture (masses, diameters, and composition). Since the reference distribution functions f(r)(0) apply for arbitrary values of the shear rate and are not restricted to weak dissipation, the corresponding generalized coefficients turn out to be nonlinear functions of both a and α(rs). The dependence of the relevant elements of the three diffusion tensors on both the shear rate and dissipation is illustrated in the tracer limit case, the results showing that the deviation of the generalized transport coefficients from their forms for vanishing shear rates is in general significant. A comparison with the previous results obtained analytically for inelastic hard spheres by using Grad's moment method is carried out, showing a good agreement over a wide range of values for the coefficients of restitution. Finally, as an application of the theoretical expressions derived here for the transport coefficients, thermal diffusion segregation of an intruder immersed in a granular gas is also studied.

  7. High shear flow induces migration of adherent human platelets.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Bjoern F; Schmidt, Christine; Urban, Benjamin; Bigalke, Boris; Schwanitz, Laura; Koch, Miriam; Seizer, Peter; Schaller, Martin; Gawaz, Meinrad; Lindemann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Shear forces are generated in all parts of the vascular system and contribute directly and indirectly to vascular disease progression. Endothelial cells are able to adapt to flow conditions, and are known to polarize and migrate in response to shear forces. Platelets exposed to shear stress are activated and release bioactive molecules from their alpha granules. So far, platelets have been considered to be static cells that do not leave the site of tight adhesion. However, we have recently been able to demonstrate the capacity of platelets to migrate in response to stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1). In this project, we have demonstrated that platelets accumulate in areas with a high concentration of SDF-1 under flow conditions and respond to high shear stress by cellular polarization, cytoskeletal reorganisation, and flow-directed migration. In this context, we have shown increased Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) phosphorylation and intracellular redistribution of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) under high-shear stress conditions. The effect of flow-induced platelet migration has not previously been recognized and offers a new role for platelets as mobile cells. Their migratory potential may enable platelets to cover intimal lesions and contribute to vascular repair.

  8. Chain extension of a confined polymer in steady shear flow.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Pinaki; Cherayil, Binny J

    2012-11-21

    The growing importance of microfluidic and nanofluidic devices to the study of biological processes has highlighted the need to better understand how confinement affects the behavior of polymers in flow. In this paper we explore one aspect of this question by calculating the steady-state extension of a long polymer chain in a narrow capillary tube in the presence of simple shear. The calculation is carried out within the framework of the Rouse-Zimm approach to chain dynamics, using a variant of a nonlinear elastic model to enforce finite extensibility of the chain, and assuming that the only effect of the confining surface is to modify the pre-averaged hydrodynamic interaction. The results, along with results from the corresponding calculations of finitely extensible versions of both the Rouse and Rouse-Zimm models, are compared with data from experiments on the flow-induced stretching of λ-phage DNA near a non-adsorbing glass surface [L. Fang, H. Hu, and R. G. Larson, J. Rheol. 49, 127 (2005)]. The comparison suggests that close to a surface hydrodynamic screening is significant, and causes the chains to become effectively free-draining.

  9. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang-Bao

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid). In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule) dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values.

  10. Morphologies and flow patterns in quenching of lamellar systems with shear.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aiguo; Gonnella, G; Lamura, A

    2006-07-01

    We study the behavior of a fluid quenched from the disordered into the lamellar phase under the action of a shear flow. The dynamics of the system is described by Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations with the pressure tensor and the chemical potential derived by the Brazovskii free energy. Our simulations are based on a mixed numerical method with the lattice Boltzmann equation and a finite difference scheme for Navier-Stokes and order parameter equations, respectively. We focus on cases where banded flows are observed with two different slopes for the component of velocity in the direction of the applied flow. Close to the walls the system reaches a lamellar order with very few defects, and the slope of the horizontal velocity is higher than the imposed shear rate. In the middle of the system the local shear rate is lower than the imposed one, and the system looks like a mixture of tilted lamellae, droplets, and small elongated domains. We refer to this as a region with a shear-induced structures (SIS) configuration. The local behavior of the stress shows that the system with the coexisting lamellar and SIS regions is in mechanical equilibrium. This phenomenon occurs, at fixed viscosity, for shear rates under a certain threshold; when the imposed shear rate is sufficiently large, lamellar order develops in the whole system. Effects of different viscosities have been also considered. The SIS region is observed only at low enough viscosity. We compare the above scenario with the usual one of shear banding. In particular, we do not find evidence for a plateau of the stress at varying imposed shear rates in the region with banded flow. We interpret our results as due to a tendency of the lamellar system to oppose the presence of the applied flow.

  11. Visualization of conformational changes of linear short-chain polyethylenes under shear and elongational flows.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Edwards, B J; Keffer, D J

    2008-04-01

    We have performed nonequilibrium molecular dynamic simulations of the linear short-chain polyethylene liquids C(24)H(50), C(50)H(102), C(78)H(158), and C(128)H(258) under homogenous shear and elongational flows. We present visualizations of the molecular structure of each of the four liquids under shear and elongation, and compare them with their equilibrium static structures. These graphics provide a structural understanding of the various statistical measures that have been used in the literature to characterize the change in chain conformation as a function of strain rate and chain length. Moreover, these graphics allow a visualization of the inherent chain dynamics and orientation induced by shear and elongational flows. We discuss the molecular-level mechanisms apparent in the graphics.

  12. Energy dissipation in sheared granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Karion, A.; Hunt, M.L.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material flows describe flows of solid particles in which the interstitial fluid plays a negligible role in the flow mechanics. Examples include the transport of coal, food products, detergents, pharmaceutical tablets, and toner particles in high-speed printers. Using a two-dimensional discrete element computer simulation of a bounded, gravity-free Couette flow of particles, the heat dissipation rate per unit area is calculated as a function of position in the flow as well as overall solid fraction. The computation results compare favorably with the kinetic theory analysis for rough disks. The heat dissipation rate is also measured for binary mixtures of particles for different small to large solid fraction ratios, and for diameter ratios of ten, five, and two. The dissipation rates increase significantly with overall solid fraction as well as local strain rates and granular temperatures. The thermal energy equation is solved for a Couette flow with one adiabatic wall and one at constant temperature. Solutions use the simulation measurements of the heat dissipation rate, solid fraction, and granular temperature to show that the thermodynamic temperature increases with solid fraction and decreases with particle conductivity. In mixtures, both the dissipation rate and the thermodynamic temperature increase with size ratio and with decreasing ratio of small to large particles.

  13. Asymptotic persistence of collective modes in shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M. |; Rogava, A.D. |

    1998-03-31

    A new nonasymptotic method is presented that reveals an unexpected richness in the spectrum of fluctuations sustained by a shear flow with nontrivial arbitrary mean kinematics. The vigor of the method is illustrated by analyzing a two-dimensional, compressible hydrodynamic shear flow. The temporal evolution of perturbations spans a wide range of nonexponential behavior from growth-cum oscillations to monotonic growth. The principal characteristic of the revealed exotic collective modes in their asymptotic persistence. {open_quotes}Echoing{close_quotes} as well as unstable (including parametrically-driven) solutions are displayed. Further areas of application, for both the method and the new physics, are outlined.

  14. Colloidal binary mixtures at fluid-fluid interfaces under steady shear: structural, dynamical and mechanical response†

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Zachary A.; Squires, Todd M.; Isa, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the link between structure, dynamics and mechanical response of two-dimensional (2D) binary mixtures of colloidal microparticles spread at water/oil interfaces. The particles are driven into steady shear by a microdisk forced to rotate at a controlled angular velocity. The flow causes particles to layer into alternating concentric rings of small and big colloids. The formation of such layers is linked to the local, position-dependent shear rate, which triggers two distinct dynamical regimes: particles either move continuously (“Flowing”) close to the microdisk, or exhibit intermittent “Hopping” between local energy minima farther away. The shear-rate-dependent surface viscosity of the monolayers can be extracted from a local interfacial stress balance, giving “macroscopic” flow curves whose behavior corresponds to the distinct microscopic regimes of particle motion. Hopping Regions reveal a higher resistance to flow compared to the Flowing Regions, where spatial organization into layers reduces dissipation. PMID:26347409

  15. Role of magnetic shear in dynamics of large-scale structures in electron temperature gradient turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.; Miyato, N.; Matsumoto, T.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate how the magnetic shear governs the dynamics of large-scale structures, such as zonal flows and streamers, in electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence. Based on the well-known 2D Hasegawa-Mima turbulence modeling, which is the inviscid version of fluid (or gyrofluid) ETG turbulence [1], we derive a general dispersion relation of secondary fluctuations through modulation instability analysis. The results show that the formation of different large-scale structures including zonal flow, streamer and so-called generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) mode in ETG turbulence depends on the spectral anisotropy of turbulent fluctuation. In a slab geometry, the magnetic shear closely relates to the ETG mode structures so that it may determine the pattern selection in the quasi-steady ETG turbulence. 3D gyrofluid slab ETG simulations show that turbulent ETG fluctuation energy condenses to the zonal flows in the weak shear plasmas and to the streamer component for the high shears. 2D ETG simulations with rather high resolution not only exhibits the global spectral distribution of zonal flows, but also further confirm a mechanism: enhanced zonal flow in weak shear ETG turbulence is limited by exciting a KH mode [1]. Furthermore, in toroidal ETG simulations, streamer structures are observed at around good curvature region along the flux tube in the quasisteady state in some medium shear regime. Related streamer dynamics are also investigated. [1] Jiquan Li and Y. Kishimoto, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1493(2004)

  16. Discontinuous shear thickening in Brownian suspensions by dynamic simulation

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Denn, Morton M.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic particle-scale numerical simulations are used to show that the shear thickening observed in dense colloidal, or Brownian, suspensions is of a similar nature to that observed in noncolloidal suspensions, i.e., a stress-induced transition from a flow of lubricated near-contacting particles to a flow of a frictionally contacting network of particles. Abrupt (or discontinuous) shear thickening is found to be a geometric rather than hydrodynamic phenomenon; it stems from the strong sensitivity of the jamming volume fraction to the nature of contact forces between suspended particles. The thickening obtained in a colloidal suspension of purely hard frictional spheres is qualitatively similar to experimental observations. However, the agreement cannot be made quantitative with only hydrodynamics, frictional contacts, and Brownian forces. Therefore, the role of a short-range repulsive potential mimicking the stabilization of actual suspensions on the thickening is studied. The effects of Brownian and repulsive forces on the onset stress can be combined in an additive manner. The simulations including Brownian and stabilizing forces show excellent agreement with experimental data for the viscosity η and the second normal stress difference N2. PMID:26621744

  17. Comminution of Ceramic Materials Under High-Shear Dynamic Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homel, Michael; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Herbold, Eric; Hogan, Jamie

    The post-failure ``granular flow'' response of high-strength lightweight ceramics has important implications on the materials' effectiveness for ballistic protection. We study the dynamic compaction and shear flow of ceramic fragments and powders using computational and experimental analysis of a collapsing thick-walled cylinder geometry. Using newly developed tools for mesoscale simulation of brittle materials, we study the effect of fracture, comminution, shear-enhanced dilatation, and frictional contact on the continuum compaction response. Simulations are directly validated through particle Doppler velocimetry measurements at the inner surface of the cylindrical powder bed. We characterize the size distribution and morphologies of the initial and compacted material fragments to both validate the computational model and to elucidate the dominant failure processes. A portion of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-678862.

  18. Discontinuous shear thickening in Brownian suspensions by dynamic simulation.

    PubMed

    Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F; Denn, Morton M

    2015-12-15

    Dynamic particle-scale numerical simulations are used to show that the shear thickening observed in dense colloidal, or Brownian, suspensions is of a similar nature to that observed in noncolloidal suspensions, i.e., a stress-induced transition from a flow of lubricated near-contacting particles to a flow of a frictionally contacting network of particles. Abrupt (or discontinuous) shear thickening is found to be a geometric rather than hydrodynamic phenomenon; it stems from the strong sensitivity of the jamming volume fraction to the nature of contact forces between suspended particles. The thickening obtained in a colloidal suspension of purely hard frictional spheres is qualitatively similar to experimental observations. However, the agreement cannot be made quantitative with only hydrodynamics, frictional contacts, and Brownian forces. Therefore, the role of a short-range repulsive potential mimicking the stabilization of actual suspensions on the thickening is studied. The effects of Brownian and repulsive forces on the onset stress can be combined in an additive manner. The simulations including Brownian and stabilizing forces show excellent agreement with experimental data for the viscosity η and the second normal stress difference N2.

  19. Nonlinear Reynolds stress model for turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. Michael; Rubinstein, R.; Kirtley, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear algebraic Reynolds stress model, derived using the renormalization group, is applied to equilibrium homogeneous shear flow and fully developed flow in a square duct. The model, which is quadratically nonlinear in the velocity gradients, successfully captures the large-scale inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the flows studied. The ratios of normal stresses, as well as the actual magnitudes of the stresses are correctly predicted for equilibrium homogeneous shear flow. Reynolds normal stress anisotropy and attendant turbulence driven secondary flow are predicted for a square duct. Profiles of mean velocity and normal stresses are in good agreement with measurements. Very close to walls, agreement with measurements diminishes. The model has the benefit of containing no arbitrary constants; all values are determined directly from the theory. It seems that near wall behavior is influenced by more than the large scale anisotropy accommodated in the current model. More accurate near wall calculations may well require a model for anisotropic dissipation.

  20. Modeling the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under externally imposed oscillatory shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Niu, Li-Sha; Shi, Hui-Ji

    2008-09-01

    By adding external velocity terms, the two-dimensional time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are modified. Based on this, the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under externally imposed oscillatory shear flow is numerically modeled employing the Cell Dynamical System (CDS) approach. Considering shear flows with different frequencies and amplitudes, several aspects of such a phase evolving process are studied. Firstly, visualized results are shown via snapshot figures of the membrane shape. And then, the simulated scattering patterns at typical moments are presented. Furthermore, in order to more quantitatively discuss this phase-separation process, the time growth laws of the characteristic domain sizes in both directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow are investigated for each case. Finally, the peculiar rheological properties of such binary lipid membrane system have been discussed, mainly the normal stress difference and the viscoelastic complex shear moduli.

  1. Elongation and migration of single DNA molecules in microchannels using oscillatory shear flows.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kyubong; Chen, Yeng-Long; de Pablo, Juan J; Schwartz, David C

    2009-08-21

    Much of modern biology relies on the strategic manipulation of molecules for creating ordered arrays prior to high throughput molecular analysis. Normally, DNA arrays involve deposition on surfaces, or confinement in nanochannels; however, we show that microfluidic devices can present stretched molecules within a controlled flow in ways complementing surface modalities, or extreme confinement conditions. Here we utilize pressure-driven oscillatory shear flows generated in microchannels as a new way of stretching DNA molecules for imaging "arrays" of individual DNA molecules. Fluid shear effects both stretch DNA molecules and cause them to migrate away from the walls becoming focused in the centerline of a channel. We show experimental findings confirming simulations using Brownian dynamics accounting for hydrodynamic interactions between molecules and channel-flow boundary conditions. Our findings characterize DNA elongation and migration phenomena as a function of molecular size, shear rate, oscillatory frequency with comparisons to computer simulation studies.

  2. Structure formation of surfactant membranes under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Hayato; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Shear-flow-induced structure formation in surfactant-water mixtures is investigated numerically using a meshless-membrane model in combination with a particle-based hydrodynamics simulation approach for the solvent. At low shear rates, uni-lamellar vesicles and planar lamellae structures are formed at small and large membrane volume fractions, respectively. At high shear rates, lamellar states exhibit an undulation instability, leading to rolled or cylindrical membrane shapes oriented in the flow direction. The spatial symmetry and structure factor of this rolled state agree with those of intermediate states during lamellar-to-onion transition measured by time-resolved scatting experiments. Structural evolution in time exhibits a moderate dependence on the initial condition.

  3. Flows induced by exponential stretching and shearing plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidman, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Boundary-layer solutions for the flow induced by an exponentially stretching surface also sheared in its own plane are given. Prior to this study no similarity solutions have been reported for flows generated by exponentially sheared surfaces concomitant with surface stretching in any form. The method of solution is self-similarity. The results found here are intimately related to those of Magyari and Keller ["Heat and mass transfer in the boundary layers on an exponentially stretching continuous surface," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32, 577-585 (1999)] who studied the motion and heat transfer induced by an exponentially stretching plate. In addition to two particular cases reported here, a third situation is found where an exponentially stretching surface admits a concomitant arbitrary streamwise shearing motion.

  4. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T. P.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.

    2014-04-01

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow vi, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow ve can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J ×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×ve×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δBz. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  5. Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T. P. Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.

    2014-04-15

    Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.

  6. Fractally Fourier decimated homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fathali, Mani; Khoei, Saber

    2017-02-01

    Time evolution of the fully resolved incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger Fourier dimensions is numerically investigated. The Fourier dimension of the flow field is extended from the integer value 3 to the noninteger values by projecting the Navier-Stokes equation on the fractal set of the active Fourier modes with dimensions 2.7≤d≤3.0. The results of this study revealed that the dynamics of both large and small scale structures are nontrivially influenced by changing the Fourier dimension d. While both turbulent production and dissipation are significantly hampered as d decreases, the evolution of their ratio is almost independent of the Fourier dimension. The mechanism of the energy distribution among different spatial directions is also impeded by decreasing d. Due to this deficient energy distribution, turbulent field shows a higher level of the large-scale anisotropy in lower Fourier dimensions. In addition, the persistence of the vortex stretching mechanism and the forward spectral energy transfer, which are three-dimensional turbulence characteristics, are examined at changing d, from the standard case d=3.0 to the strongly decimated flow field for d=2.7. As the Fourier dimension decreases, these forward energy transfer mechanisms are strongly suppressed, which in turn reduces both the small-scale intermittency and the deviation from Gaussianity. Besides the energy exchange intensity, the variations of d considerably modify the relative weights of local to nonlocal triadic interactions. It is found that the contribution of the nonlocal triads to the total turbulent kinetic energy exchange increases as the Fourier dimension increases.

  7. Fractally Fourier decimated homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathali, Mani; Khoei, Saber

    2017-02-01

    Time evolution of the fully resolved incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger Fourier dimensions is numerically investigated. The Fourier dimension of the flow field is extended from the integer value 3 to the noninteger values by projecting the Navier-Stokes equation on the fractal set of the active Fourier modes with dimensions 2.7 ≤d ≤3.0 . The results of this study revealed that the dynamics of both large and small scale structures are nontrivially influenced by changing the Fourier dimension d . While both turbulent production and dissipation are significantly hampered as d decreases, the evolution of their ratio is almost independent of the Fourier dimension. The mechanism of the energy distribution among different spatial directions is also impeded by decreasing d . Due to this deficient energy distribution, turbulent field shows a higher level of the large-scale anisotropy in lower Fourier dimensions. In addition, the persistence of the vortex stretching mechanism and the forward spectral energy transfer, which are three-dimensional turbulence characteristics, are examined at changing d , from the standard case d =3.0 to the strongly decimated flow field for d =2.7 . As the Fourier dimension decreases, these forward energy transfer mechanisms are strongly suppressed, which in turn reduces both the small-scale intermittency and the deviation from Gaussianity. Besides the energy exchange intensity, the variations of d considerably modify the relative weights of local to nonlocal triadic interactions. It is found that the contribution of the nonlocal triads to the total turbulent kinetic energy exchange increases as the Fourier dimension increases.

  8. Working Principle Simulations of a Dynamic ResonantWall Shear Stress Sensor Concept.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Naughton, Jonathan W; Lindberg, William R

    2008-04-17

    This paper discusses a novel dynamic resonant wall shear stress sensor concept based on an oscillating sensor operating near resonance. The interaction between the oscillating sensor surface and the fluid above it is modelled using the unsteady laminar boundary layer equations. The numerical experiment shows that the effect of the oscillating shear stress is well correlated by the Hummer number, the ratio of the steady shear force caused by the outside flow to the oscillating viscous force created by the sensor motion. The oscillating shear stress predicted by the fluid model is used in a mechanical model of the sensor to predict the sensor's dynamic motion. Static calibration curves for amplitude and frequency influences are predicted. These results agree with experimental results on some extent, and shows some expectation for further development of the dynamic resonant sensor concept.

  9. Control of Spatially Inhomogeneous Shear Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-27

    control approach, that minimises an objective function which measures the perturbation energy , was formulated where the Orr- Sommerfeld and Squire...hydrodynamic stability analysis by considering a finite-time horizon over which energy amplification, driven by a specific input (disturbances/actuator) and...layers subject to free-stream turbulence. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(3):841–855, 2008. [14] B. Moore. Principal component analysis in linear systems

  10. Shear-induced alignment and dynamics of elongated granular particles.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Szabó, Balázs; Wegner, Sandra; Harth, Kirsten; Török, János; Somfai, Ellák; Bien, Tomasz; Stannarius, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The alignment, ordering, and rotation of elongated granular particles was studied in shear flow. The time evolution of the orientation of a large number of particles was monitored in laboratory experiments by particle tracking using optical imaging and x-ray computed tomography. The experiments were complemented by discrete element simulations. The particles develop an orientational order. In the steady state the time- and ensemble-averaged direction of the main axis of the particles encloses a small angle with the streamlines. This shear alignment angle is independent of the applied shear rate, and it decreases with increasing grain aspect ratio. At the grain level the steady state is characterized by a net rotation of the particles, as dictated by the shear flow. The distribution of particle rotational velocities was measured both in the steady state and also during the initial transients. The average rotation speed of particles with their long axis perpendicular to the shear alignment angle is larger, while shear aligned particles rotate slower. The ratio of this fast/slow rotation increases with particle aspect ratio. During the initial transient starting from an unaligned initial condition, particles having an orientation just beyond the shear alignment angle rotate opposite to the direction dictated by the shear flow.

  11. Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in nonrotating shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-03-01

    From numerical simulations, we show that nonrotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers.

  12. Similarity of organized structures in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moin, Parviz

    1990-01-01

    Recent analysis of databases generated by direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulent shear flows have revealed the presence of coherent structures similar to those in turbulent boundary layers. In this paper these findings and tentative conclusions on their significance are discussed.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Asymmetric Mixing in Planar Shear Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    unsteady shear flows with periodic boundary conditions (Riley & Metcalfe 1980), or in previous simulations of the splitter-plate geometry using either...Soloukhin, AIMA. Riley, 3.3. & Metcalfe , R.W. 1980, Direct Numerical simulation or a Perturbed, Turbulent Mixing Layer, AIAA paper 80-02741, Pasadena

  14. Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.

  15. Flow properties of particles in a model annular shear cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.

    2012-05-01

    In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and rheological properties of solid flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell, we performed a series of discrete particle simulations of slightly polydispersed spheres from quasi-static to intermediate flow regimes. It is shown that the average values of stress tensor components are uniformly distributed in the cell space away from the stationary walls; however, some degree of inhomogeneity in their spatial distributions does exist. A linear relationship between the (internal/external) shear and normal stresses prevails in the shear cell and the internal and external friction coefficients can compare well with each other. It is confirmed that annular shear cells are reasonably effective as a method of measuring particle flow properties. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is rigorously tested in this cell system. The results unambiguously display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime with a high correlation coefficient. However, significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime, which corresponds to very small values of inertial number.

  16. Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.

  17. Studies of compressible shear flows and turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-04-01

    Compressible shear flows and drag reduction were examined and three methods are addressed: (1) the analytical and numerical aspects of conformal mapping were summarized and a new method for computation of these maps is presented; (2) the computer code SPECFD for solution of the three dimensional time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flow on the CYBER 203 computer is described; (3) results of two equation turbulence modeling of turbulent flow over wavy walls are presented. A modified Jones-Launder model is used in two dimensional spectral code for flow in general wavy geometries.

  18. The importance of flow history in mixed shear and extensional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    Many complex fluid flows of experimental and academic interest exhibit mixed kinematics with regions of shear and elongation. Examples include flows through planar hyperbolic contractions in microfluidic devices and through porous media or geometric arrays. Through the introduction of a ``flow-type parameter'' α which varies between 0 in pure shear and 1 in pure elongation, the local velocity fields of all such mixed flows can be concisely characterized. It is tempting to then consider the local stress field and interpret the local state of stress in a complex fluid in terms of shearing or extensional material functions. However, the material response of such fluids exhibit a fading memory of the entire deformation history. We consider a dilute solution of Hookean dumbbells and solve the Oldroyd-B model to obtain analytic expressions for the entire stress field in any arbitrary mixed flow of constant strain rate and flow-type parameter α. We then consider a more complex flow for which the shear rate is constant but the flow-type parameter α varies periodically in time (reminiscent of flow through a periodic array or through repeated contractions and expansions). We show that the flow history and kinematic sequencing (in terms of whether the flow was initialized as shearing or extensional) is extremely important in determining the ensuing stress field and rate of dissipated energy in the flow, and can only be ignored in the limit of infinitely slow flow variations.

  19. Shear flow of dense granular materials near smooth walls. I. Shear localization and constitutive laws in the boundary region.

    PubMed

    Shojaaee, Zahra; Roux, Jean-Noël; Chevoir, François; Wolf, Dietrich E

    2012-07-01

    We report on a numerical study of the shear flow of a simple two-dimensional model of a granular material under controlled normal stress between two parallel smooth frictional walls moving with opposite velocities ± V. Discrete simulations, which are carried out with the contact dynamics method in dense assemblies of disks, reveal that, unlike rough walls made of strands of particles, smooth ones can lead to shear strain localization in the boundary layer. Specifically, we observe, for decreasing V, first a fluidlike regime (A), in which the whole granular layer is sheared, with a homogeneous strain rate except near the walls, then (B) a symmetric velocity profile with a solid block in the middle and strain localized near the walls, and finally (C) a state with broken symmetry in which the shear rate is confined to one boundary layer, while the bulk of the material moves together with the opposite wall. Both transitions are independent of system size and occur for specific values of V. Transient times are discussed. We show that the first transition, between regimes A and B, can be deduced from constitutive laws identified for the bulk material and the boundary layer, while the second one could be associated with an instability in the behavior of the boundary layer. The boundary zone constitutive law, however, is observed to depend on the state of the bulk material nearby.

  20. The Micro-Pillar Shear-Stress Sensor MPS3 for Turbulent Flow

    PubMed Central

    Große, Sebastian; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Wall-shear stress results from the relative motion of a fluid over a body surface as a consequence of the no-slip condition of the fluid in the vicinity of the wall. To determine the two-dimensional wall-shear stress distribution is of utter importance in theoretical and applied turbulence research. In this article, characteristics of the Micro-Pillar Shear-Stress Sensor MPS3, which has been shown to offer the potential to measure the two-directional dynamic wall-shear stress distribution in turbulent flows, will be summarized. After a brief general description of the sensor concept, material characteristics, possible sensor-structure related error sources, various sensitivity and distinct sensor performance aspects will be addressed. Especially, pressure-sensitivity related aspects will be discussed. This discussion will serve as ‘design rules’ for possible new fields of applications of the sensor technology. PMID:22574010

  1. Flow induced protein nucleation: Insulin oligomerization under shear.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Andrew; Azadani, Ali; Sorci, Mirco; Belfort, Georges; Hirsa, Amir

    2007-11-01

    A large number of diseases are associated with protein aggregation and misfolding, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and human prion diseases such as Creutzveld-Jakob disease. Characteristic of these diseases is the presence of amyloid fibrils and their precursors, oligomers and protofibrils. Considerable evidence exists that a shearing flow strongly influences amyloid formation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the stability of protein-based pharmaceuticals is essential for conventional therapeutic preparations and drug delivery systems. By studying the nucleation and growth of insulin fibrils in a well-defined flow system, we expect to identify the flow conditions that impact protein aggregation kinetics and which lead to protein destabilization. The present flow system consists of an annular region bounded by stationary inner and outer cylinders and is driven by rotation of the floor. Preliminary results indicate that a continuous shearing flow can accelerate the aggregation process. The interfacial shear viscosity was found to drastically increase during aggregation and appears to be a useful parameter to probe protein oligomerization and the effects of flow.

  2. The shear flow processing of controlled DNA tethering and stretching for organic molecular electronics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guihua; Kushwaha, Amit; Lee, Jungkyu K; Shaqfeh, Eric S G; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-01-25

    DNA has been recently explored as a powerful tool for developing molecular scaffolds for making reproducible and reliable metal contacts to single organic semiconducting molecules. A critical step in the process of exploiting DNA-organic molecule-DNA (DOD) array structures is the controlled tethering and stretching of DNA molecules. Here we report the development of reproducible surface chemistry for tethering DNA molecules at tunable density and demonstrate shear flow processing as a rationally controlled approach for stretching/aligning DNA molecules of various lengths. Through enzymatic cleavage of λ-phage DNA to yield a series of DNA chains of various lengths from 17.3 μm down to 4.2 μm, we have investigated the flow/extension behavior of these tethered DNA molecules under different flow strengths in the flow-gradient plane. We compared Brownian dynamic simulations for the flow dynamics of tethered λ-DNA in shear, and found our flow-gradient plane experimental results matched well with our bead-spring simulations. The shear flow processing demonstrated in our studies represents a controllable approach for tethering and stretching DNA molecules of various lengths. Together with further metallization of DNA chains within DOD structures, this bottom-up approach can potentially enable efficient and reliable fabrication of large-scale nanoelectronic devices based on single organic molecules, therefore opening opportunities in both fundamental understanding of charge transport at the single molecular level and many exciting applications for ever-shrinking molecular circuits.

  3. Do proteins really unfold in a shear flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaspe, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Many protein structures unfold (denature) when subjected to extremes of heat, cold, pH, solvent composition, or mechanical stress. One might expect that shearing forces induced by a nonuniform fluid flow would also destabilize proteins, as when a protein solution flows rapidly through a narrow channel. However, although we find many references to shear denaturation in the protein literature, we find no quantitative demonstration of the phenomenon. Therefore we have investigated whether a high shear can destabilize a protein to any measureable extent. We study a small globular protein (horse cytochrome c, 104 amino acids) whose fluorescence increases sharply upon unfolding. We pump the sample through a silica capillary (180 μm ID) at speeds ˜ 10 m/s to create a simple shear dvz/dx ˜ 5 x 10^5 s-1, under UV laser illumination. We can detect unfolding of as little as 1% of the sample, or (under favorable conditions) a reduction of ˜0.05 kJ/mol in the protein's stability. We will discuss preliminary results along with a simple theoretical perspective on shear denaturation.

  4. Molecular Simulations of Shear-Induced Dynamics in Nitromethane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    the shear response of single-crystal and bicrystal nitromethane (NM) are simulated using molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic interactions are...compressed to 28 GPa and then sheared, Raman studies show that the decomposition is sudden and explosive.5 In addition, structural modifications are...Molecular dynamics simulations are performed using the LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic /Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) simulation package.9 The

  5. The stabilizing effect of compressibility in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of turbulent homogeneous shear flow is performed in order to clarify compressibility effects on the turbulence growth in the flow. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number M(t) and the gradient Mach number M(g). Two series of simulations are performed where the initial values of M(g) and M(t) are increased separately. The growth rate of turbulent kinetic energy is observed to decrease in both series of simulations. This 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulent energy growth rate is observed to be substantially larger in the DNS series where the initial value of M(g) is changed. A systematic companion of the different DNS cues shows that the compressibility effect of reduced turbulent energy growth rate is primarily due to the reduced level of turbulence production and not due to explicit dilatational effects. The reduced turbulence production is not a mean density effect since the mean density remains constant in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The stabilizing effect of compressibility on the turbulence growth is observed to increase with the gradient Mach number M(g) in the homogeneous shear flow DNS. Estimates of M(g) for the mixing and the boundary layer are obtained. These estimates show that the parameter M(g) becomes much larger in the high-speed mixing layer relative to the high-speed boundary layer even though the mean flow Mach numbers are the same in the two flows. Therefore, the inhibition of turbulent energy production and consequent 'stabilizing' effect of compressibility on the turbulence (over and above that due to the mean density variation) is expected to be larger in the mixing layer relative to the boundary layer in agreement with experimental observations.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moin, P.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The conceptual foundation underlying Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is summarized, and the numerical methods developed for simulation of the time-developing turbulent mixing layer and turbulent plane Poiseuille flow are discussed. Computational results show that the average Reynolds stress profile nearly attains the equilibrium shape which balances the downstream mean pressure gradient in the regions away from the walls. In the vicinity of the walls, viscous stresses are shown to be significant; together with the Reynolds stresses, these stresses balance the mean pressure gradient. It is stressed that the subgrid scale contribution to the total Reynolds stress is significant only in the vicinity of the walls. The continued development of LES is urged.

  7. Shear-induced diffusion in dilute curved fiber suspensions in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianghui; Graham, Michael D.; Klingenberg, Daniel J.

    2014-03-01

    Shear-induced self-diffusion of fibers suspended in an incompressible Newtonian fluid in simple shear flow at low Reynolds number is studied by simulation. Two models are employed: a linked rigid rod model and a bead chain model. Hydrodynamic interactions are neglected in both models. The shear-induced diffusivity of suspensions of fibers increases with increasing concentration and increasing static friction between contacts. The diffusivities in both the gradient and vorticity directions are larger for suspensions of curved fibers than for suspensions of straight fibers. For suspensions of curved fibers, significant enhancements in the diffusivity in the gradient direction are observed. The enhanced diffusivities are attributed to fiber drift observed in prior work for isolated curved fibers [J. Wang, E. J. Tozzi, M. D. Graham, and D. J. Klingenberg, "Flipping, scooping, and spinning: Drift of rigid curved nonchiral fibers in simple shear flow," Phys. Fluids 24, 123304 (2012)]. Here, for some initial orientations, curved fibers will drift in the positive or negative gradient direction with nearly constant speed. In dilute suspensions, this drift occurs for a fraction of the fibers, which increases the mean-squared displacement in the gradient direction, and thus increases the diffusivity in the gradient direction.

  8. Lamellae orientation in dynamically sheared diblock copolymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppi, Kurt A.; Tirrell, Matthew; Bates, Frank S.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Colby, Ralph H.

    1992-11-01

    Two distinct lamellae orientaitons have been identified by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) in dynamically sheared poly(ethylene-propylene)-poly(ethylethylene) (PEP-PEE) diblock copolymer melts. Near the order-disorder transition temperature, Tto T_ODT, and at low shear frequencies, the lamellae arrange with unit normal perpendicular to the flow direction and parallel to the velocity gradient direction (parallel orientation). Higher frequency processing leads to lamellae with unit normal permendicular to both the flow and velocity gradient directions (perpendicular orientation). The crossover from low to high frequency behavior occurs at ω≈tau^{-1} where tau is the relaxation time for local domain deformations. At temperatures further from the ODT, T<shearing frequencies. Based on dynamic and steady shear rheological measurements we propose two mechanisms to account for these results. The perpendicular orientation is proposed to arise from shear-induced disordering, followed by reordering in the perpendicular direction due to the effect of vorticity. Parallel lamellae are believed to be a manifestation of defect mediated stress relaxation. These findings are supported by additional experiments on various other shear-oriented polyolefin diblock copolymers. Nous avons identifié, par diffusion de neutrons aux petits angles, deux orientation différentes des lamelles dans des échantillons de copolymères séquencés poly(éthylène-propylène)- poly(éthylétylène) (PEP-PEE) qui ont été cisaillés dynamiquement. A des températures proches de la transition ordre-désordre et aux fréquences de cisaillement faibles, la normale aux couches est perpendiculaire à la direction d'écoulement et parallèle au gradient de vitesse (orientation parllèle). Aux fréquences plus élevées, la normale est perpendiculaire à la direction d'écoulement et au gradient de vitesse (orientation perpendiculaire). Le

  9. Mean-field dynamo action in renovating shearing flows.

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Sanved; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Sridhar, S

    2012-08-01

    We study mean-field dynamo action in renovating flows with finite and nonzero correlation time (τ) in the presence of shear. Previous results obtained when shear was absent are generalized to the case with shear. The question of whether the mean magnetic field can grow in the presence of shear and nonhelical turbulence, as seen in numerical simulations, is examined. We show in a general manner that, if the motions are strictly nonhelical, then such mean-field dynamo action is not possible. This result is not limited to low (fluid or magnetic) Reynolds numbers nor does it use any closure approximation; it only assumes that the flow renovates itself after each time interval τ. Specifying to a particular form of the renovating flow with helicity, we recover the standard dispersion relation of the α(2)Ω dynamo, in the small τ or large wavelength limit. Thus mean fields grow even in the presence of rapidly growing fluctuations, surprisingly, in a manner predicted by the standard quasilinear closure, even though such a closure is not strictly justified. Our work also suggests the possibility of obtaining mean-field dynamo growth in the presence of helicity fluctuations, although having a coherent helicity will be more efficient.

  10. Optical propagation through a homogeneous turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truman, C. Randall; Lee, Moon J.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of organized turbulent structures on the propagation of an optical beam in a homogeneous shear flow were studied. A passive-scalar field in a computed turbulent shear flow is used to represent index-of-refraction fluctuations, and phase errors induced in a coherent optical beam by turbulent fluctuations are computed. The organized vortical structures produce a scalar distribution with elongated regions of intense fluctuations which have an inclination with respect to the mean flow similar to that of the characteristic hairpin eddies. It is found that r.m.s. phase error is minimized by propagating approximately normal to the inclined vortical structures. Two-point correlations of vorticity and scalar fluctuation suggest that the regions of intense scalar fluctuation are produced primarily by the hairpin eddies.

  11. Relativistic thermal electron scale instabilities in sheared flow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Evan D.; Rogers, Barrett N.

    2016-04-01

    > The linear dispersion relation obeyed by finite-temperature, non-magnetized, relativistic two-fluid plasmas is presented, in the special case of a discontinuous bulk velocity profile and parallel wave vectors. It is found that such flows become universally unstable at the collisionless electron skin-depth scale. Further analyses are performed in the limits of either free-streaming ions or ultra-hot plasmas. In these limits, the system is highly unstable in the parameter regimes associated with either the electron scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (ESKHI) or the relativistic electron scale sheared flow instability (RESI) recently highlighted by Gruzinov. Coupling between these modes provides further instability throughout the remaining parameter space, provided both shear flow and temperature are finite. An explicit parameter space bound on the highly unstable region is found.

  12. Magnetic field generation from shear flow in flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Gao, K.; Klarenbeek, J.; Yoo, C.

    2012-10-01

    In the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) we have measured out of plane quadrupole magnetic field structure in situations where magnetic reconnection was minimal. This quadrupole out of plane magnetic signature has historically been presumed to be the smoking gun harbinger of reconnection. On the other hand, we showed that when flux ropes bounced instead of merging and reconnecting, this signature could evolve. This can follow from sheared fluid flows in the context of a generalized Ohms Law. We reconstruct a shear flow model from experimental data for flux ropes that have been experimentally well characterized in RSX as screw pinch equilibria, including plasma ion and electron flow, with self consistent profiles for magnetic field, pressure, and current density. The data can account for the quadrupole field structure.

  13. Simulation of erythrocyte deformation in a high shear flow.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Deformation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a high-shear flow was investigated. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The simulation of RBC in a parallel shear flow showed deformation parameters of RBC were well agreed with experimental results. The simulation of RBC behavior in various flow fields demonstrated that the shape was determined not only by instantaneous fluid force acting on it but also its deformation history. No consistency was found between the maximum of the first principal strain and conventionally used hemolysis index. Those results addressed the importance of considering an RBC deformation for accurately predicting hemolysis.

  14. Motion of spheroidal particles in vertical shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broday, David; Fichman, Mati; Shapiro, Michael; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1998-01-01

    The motion of non-neutrally buoyant prolate spheroidal particles in vertical shear flows is investigated. Using the generalized Faxen law, we calculate the hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on such inertial and inertialess particles, and their trajectories. The calculations are done for (i) freely rotating particles, and (ii) particles with orientations fixed by means of an external torque exerted by a strong orienting field. Inertial particles are found to migrate across the streamlines, and their trajectories differ considerably from those calculated for inertialess particles. Neutrally buoyant spheroids, inertial or not, which either freely rotate or have fixed orientations in shear flows, translate along the streamlines. Non-neutrally buoyant inertialess spheroids freely moving in simple shear flow translate along periodic trajectories with no net lateral drift. In contrast, inertial particles under similar flow conditions drift laterally toward locations characterized by higher local velocities in a direction opposing gravity. The motion of non-neutrally buoyant inertial particles with fixed orientations may be unstable with the drift velocity growing exponentially with time. Conditions for the occurrence of this unstable motion are formulated analytically in terms of particle and flow parameters. In general, the rate of drift depends on particle shape, via its aspect ratio, and its inertia.

  15. Langevin dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional colloidal crystal under confinement and shear.

    PubMed

    Wilms, D; Virnau, P; Sengupta, S; Binder, K

    2012-06-01

    Langevin dynamics simulations are used to study the effect of shear on a two-dimensional colloidal crystal (with implicit solvent) confined by structured parallel walls. When walls are sheared very slowly, only two or three crystalline layers next to the walls move along with them, while the inner layers of the crystal are only slightly tilted. At higher shear velocities, this inner part of the crystal breaks into several pieces with different orientations. The velocity profile across the slit is reminiscent of shear banding in flowing soft materials, where liquid and solid regions coexist; the difference, however, is that in the latter case the solid regions are glassy while here they are crystalline. At even higher shear velocities, the effect of the shearing becomes smaller again. Also the effective temperature near the walls (deduced from the velocity distributions of the particles) decreases again when the wall velocity gets very large. When the walls are placed closer together, thereby introducing an incommensurability between the periodicity of the confined crystal and the walls, a structure containing a soliton staircase arises in simulations without shear. Introducing shear increases the disorder in these systems until no solitons are visible anymore. Instead, similar structures like in the case without mismatch result. At high shear rates, configurations where the incommensurability of the crystalline structure is compensated by the creation of holes become relevant.

  16. Modeling the behavior of confined colloidal particles under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Mackay, F E; Pastor, K; Karttunen, M; Denniston, C

    2014-11-21

    We investigate the behavior of colloidal suspensions with different volume fractions confined between parallel walls under a range of steady shears. We model the particles using molecular dynamics (MD) with full hydrodynamic interactions implemented through the use of a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) fluid. A quasi-2d ordering occurs in systems characterized by a coexistence of coupled layers with different densities, order, and granular temperature. We present a phase diagram in terms of shear and volume fraction for each layer, and demonstrate that particle exchange between layers is required for entering the disordered phase.

  17. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of shear flow: invariant quantities and current relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2010-03-01

    In modeling nonequilibrium systems one usually starts with a definition of the microscopic dynamics, e.g., in terms of transition rates, and then derives the resulting macroscopic behavior. We address the inverse question for a class of steady state systems, namely complex fluids under continuous shear flow: how does an externally imposed shear current affect the microscopic dynamics of the fluid? The answer can be formulated in the form of invariant quantities, exact relations for the transition rates in the nonequilibrium steady state, as discussed in a recent letter (Baule and Evans, 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 240601). Here, we present a more pedagogical account of the invariant quantities and the theory underlying them, known as the nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB). Furthermore, we investigate the relationship between the transition rates and the shear current in the steady state. We show that a fluctuation relation of the Gallavotti-Cohen type holds for systems satisfying NCDB.

  18. Transient Shear Flow of Model Lithium Lubricating Greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behaviour of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of lithium grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying lithium 12-hydroxystearate concentration and base oil viscosity. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. Moreover, an asymptotic tendency has been found for the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of this parameter have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  19. Vortical dissipation in two-dimensional shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1986-01-01

    An exact expression is derived for the viscous dissipation function of a real homogeneous and isotropic fluid, which has terms associated with the square of vorticity, wave radiation, and dilatation. The implications of the principle of maximal dissipation rate, are explored by means of this equation for a parallel channel flow and a cylindrical vortex flow. The consequences of a condition of maximum dissipation rate on the growth of disturbances in an unsteady, laminar shear layer are apparently consistent with predictions and observations of maximum growth rate of vortical disturbances. Finally, estimates of the magnitudes of several dissipative components of an unsteady vortex flow are obtained from measurements of a periodic wall jet.

  20. Anisotropic Developments for Homogeneous Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambon, Claude; Rubinstein, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The general decomposition of the spectral correlation tensor R(sub ij)(k) by Cambon et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 202, 295; J. Fluid Mech., 337, 303) into directional and polarization components is applied to the representation of R(sub ij)(k) by spherically averaged quantities. The decomposition splits the deviatoric part H(sub ij)(k) of the spherical average of R(sub ij)(k) into directional and polarization components H(sub ij)(sup e)(k) and H(sub ij)(sup z)(k). A self-consistent representation of the spectral tensor in the limit of weak anisotropy is constructed in terms of these spherically averaged quantities. The directional polarization components must be treated independently: models that attempt the same representation of the spectral tensor using the spherical average H(sub ij)(k) alone prove to be inconsistent with Navier-Stokes dynamics. In particular, a spectral tensor consistent with a prescribed Reynolds stress is not unique. The degree of anisotropy permitted by this theory is restricted by realizability requirements. Since these requirements will be less severe in a more accurate theory, a preliminary account is given of how to generalize the formalism of spherical averages to higher expansion of the spectral tensor. Directionality is described by a conventional expansion in spherical harmonics, but polarization requires an expansion in tensorial spherical harmonics generated by irreducible representations of the spatial rotation group SO(exp 3). These expansions are considered in more detail in the special case of axial symmetry.

  1. Unsteady Shear Disturbances Within a Two Dimensional Stratified Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The origin and evolution of shear disturbances within a stratified, inviscid, incompressible flow are investigated numerically by a Clebsch/Weber decomposition based scheme. In contrast to homogeneous flows, within which vorticity can be redistributed but not generated, the presence of a density stratification can render an otherwise irrotational flow vortical. In this work, a kinematic decomposition of the unsteady Euler equations separates the unsteady velocity field into rotational and irrotational components. The subsequent evolution of these components is used to study the influence various velocity disturbances have on both stratified and homogeneous flows. In particular, the flow within a two-dimensional channel is used to investigate the evolution of rotational disturbances, generated or convected, downstream from an unsteady inflow condition. Contrasting simulations of both stratified and homogeneous flows are used to distinguish between redistributed inflow vorticity and that which is generated by a density stratification.

  2. Lava Flow Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1996-01-01

    This grant originally had four major tasks, all of which were addressed to varying extents during the course of the research: (1) Measure the fractal dimensions of lava flows as a function of topography, substrate, and rheology; (2) The nature of lava tube systems and their relation to flow fields; (3) A quantitative assessment of lava flow dynamics in light of the fractal nature of lava flow margins; and (4) Development and application of a new remote sensing tool based on fractal properties. During the course of the research, the project expanded to include the following projects: (1) A comparison of what we can-learn from remote sensing studies of lava flow morphology and from studies of samples of lava flows; (2) Study of a terrestrial analog of the nakhlites, one of the groups of meteorites from Mars; and (3) Study of the textures of Hawaiian basalts as an aid in understanding the dynamics (flow rates, inflation rates, thermal history) of flow interiors. In addition, during the first year an educational task (development and writing of a teacher's guide and activity set to accompany the lunar sample disk when it is sent to schools) was included.

  3. Scaling laws for homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Mhuiris, Nessan Macgiolla

    1988-01-01

    The scaling properties of plane homogeneous turbulent shear flows in a rotating frame are examined mathematically by a direct analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. It is proved that two such shear flows are dynamically similar if and only if their initial dimensionless energy spectrum E star (k star, 0), initial dimensionless shear rate SK sub 0/epsilon sub 0, initial Reynolds number K squared sub 0/nu epsilon sub 0, and the ration of the rotation rate to the shear rate omega/S are identical. Consequently, if universal equilibrium states exist, at high Reynolds numbers, they will only depend on the single parameter omega/S. The commonly assumed dependence of such equilibrium states on omega/S through the Richardson number Ri=-2(omega/S)(1-2 omega/S) is proven to be inconsistent with the full Navier-Stokes equations and to constitute no more than a weak approximation. To be more specific, Richardson number similarity is shown to only rigorously apply to certain low-order truncations of the Navier-Stokes equations (i.e., to certain second-order closure models) wherein closure is achieved at the second-moment level by assuming that the higher-order moments are a small perturbation of their isotropic states. The physical dependence of rotating turbulent shear flows on omega/S is discussed in detail along with the implications for turbulence modeling.

  4. Assembly of vorticity-aligned hard-sphere colloidal strings in a simple shear flow.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Xu, Xinliang; Rice, Stuart A; Dinner, Aaron R; Cohen, Itai

    2012-01-03

    Colloidal suspensions self-assemble into equilibrium structures ranging from face- and body-centered cubic crystals to binary ionic crystals, and even kagome lattices. When driven out of equilibrium by hydrodynamic interactions, even more diverse structures can be accessed. However, mechanisms underlying out-of-equilibrium assembly are much less understood, though such processes are clearly relevant in many natural and industrial systems. Even in the simple case of hard-sphere colloidal particles under shear, there are conflicting predictions about whether particles link up into string-like structures along the shear flow direction. Here, using confocal microscopy, we measure the shear-induced suspension structure. Surprisingly, rather than flow-aligned strings, we observe log-rolling strings of particles normal to the plane of shear. By employing Stokesian dynamics simulations, we address the mechanism leading to this out-of-equilibrium structure and show that it emerges from a delicate balance between hydrodynamic and interparticle interactions. These results demonstrate a method for assembling large-scale particle structures using shear flows.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Entrainment Rate by Debris Flows: from Shear Stress to Granular Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Longjas, A.; Moberly, D.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows - flows of boulders, gravel, sand, fine particles, and fluids - erode sediment from steep hillsides and deposit them at lower slopes. Current model frameworks for erosion by debris flow vary significantly and include those that consider macroscopic fields such as excess shear stresses, similar to traditional models of bedload transport, to those that consider the "granular" physics, from force chains (related to bed fabric) to granular temperatures (related to random kinetic energy of the flow). We perform experiments to investigate the underlying mechanics associated with entrainment of bed materials by overlying flows in an instrumented laboratory debris flow flume. In particular, we investigate how the erosion rate of a flowing mass impinging on an erodible bed of particles depends on boundary conditions, dynamics of the flow, and the state of the bed. Using high speed imaging to capture average and instantaneous particle dynamics simultaneously with bed stress measurements, we investigate the effectiveness of a variety of model frameworks for capturing the relationships between flow dynamics and erosion rates. We find no correlation between the bed shear stress associated with the mass of the flow and erosion rate. Similarly, we found no correlation between the erosion rate and a Reynolds stress, that is, the stress associated with correlations between downstream and vertical velocity fluctuations. On the other hand, we found that granular temperature is well-correlated with entrainment rate during particular phases of our experimental debris flow. In particular, we found the instantaneous entrainment rate ɛ is linearly dependent on the ratio of the granular temperature Tg to the kinetic energy associated with the average flow velocity u: ɛ ~ (Tg / ρm u2) where ρm is the local instantaneous density of the flow. We present these results and discuss how they vary with the state of the flow, boundary conditions, and particle mixtures.

  6. Stability of inviscid shear flow over a flexible boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, John

    2001-05-01

    The stability of an inviscid flow that comprises a thin shear layer and a uniform outer flow over a flexible boundary is investigated. It is shown that the flow is temporally unstable for all wavenumbers. This instability is either Kelvin Helmholtz-like or induced by the phase shift across the critical layer. The threshold of absolute instability is determined in the form F = F[low asterisk](1 + C[epsilon]n) for [epsilon] [double less-than sign] 1, where F (a Froude number) and [epsilon] are, respectively, dimensionless measures of the flow speed and the shear-layer thickness, F[low asterisk] is the limiting value of F for a uniform flow, C < 0 and n = 1 in the absence (as for a broken-line velocity profile) of a phase shift across the critical layer, and C > 0 and n = 2/3 in the presence of such a phase shift. Explicit results are determined for an elastic plate (and, in an Appendix, for a membrane) with a broken-line, parabolic, or Blasius boundary-layer profile. The predicted threshold for the broken-line profile agrees with Lingwood & Peake's (1999) result for [epsilon] [double less-than sign] 1, but that for the Blasius profile contradicts their conclusion that the threshold for [epsilon] [downward arrow] 0 is a ‘singular and unattainable limit’.

  7. Depth resolved granular transport driven by shearing fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Benjamin; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2017-02-01

    We investigate granular transport by a fluid flow under steady-state driving conditions, from the bed-load regime to the suspension regime, with an experimental system based on a conical rheometer. The mean granular volume fraction ϕg, the mean granular velocity ug, and the fluid velocity uf are obtained as a function of depth inside the bed using refractive index matching and particle-tracking techniques. A torque sensor is utilized to measure the applied shear stress to complement estimates obtained from measured strain rates high above the bed where ϕg≈0 . The flow is found to be transitional at the onset of transport and the shear stress required to transport grains rises sharply as grains are increasingly entrained by the fluid flow. A significant slip velocity between the fluid and the granular phases is observed at the bed surface before the onset of transport as well as in the bed-load transport regime. We show that ug decays exponentially deep into the bed for ϕg>0.45 with a decay constant which is described by a nonlocal rheology model of granular flow that neglects fluid stress. Further, we show that uf and ug can be described using the applied shear stress and the Krieger-Dougherty model for the effective viscosity in the suspension regime, where 0 <ϕg<0.45 and where ug≈uf .

  8. Heterogeneous flow kinematics of cellulose nanofibril suspensions under shear.

    PubMed

    Martoïa, F; Perge, C; Dumont, P J J; Orgéas, L; Fardin, M A; Manneville, S; Belgacem, M N

    2015-06-28

    The rheology of NFC suspensions that exhibited different microstructures and colloidal stability, namely TEMPO and enzymatic NFC suspensions, was investigated at the macro and mesoscales using a transparent Couette rheometer combined with optical observations and ultrasonic speckle velocimetry (USV). Both NFC suspensions showed a complex rheology, which was typical of yield stress, non-linear and thixotropic fluids. Hysteresis loops and erratic evolutions of the macroscale shear stress were also observed, thereby suggesting important mesostructural changes and/or inhomogeneous flow conditions. The in situ optical observations revealed drastic mesostructural changes for the enzymatic NFC suspensions, whereas the TEMPO NFC suspensions did not exhibit mesoscale heterogeneities. However, for both suspensions, USV measurements showed that the flow was heterogeneous and exhibited complex situations with the coexistence of multiple flow bands, wall slippage and possibly multidimensional effects. Using USV measurements, we also showed that the fluidization of these suspensions could presumably be attributed to a progressive and spatially heterogeneous transition from a solid-like to a liquid-like behavior. As the shear rate was increased, the multiple coexisting shear bands progressively enlarged and nearly completely spanned over the rheometer gap, whereas the plug-like flow bands were eroded.

  9. Basal shear stress of debris flow in the runout phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.

  10. Investigation of Ultrasound-Measured Flow Velocity, Flow Rate and Wall Shear Rate in Radial and Ulnar Arteries Using Simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Xia, Chunming; Stephen, Gandy; Khan, Faisel; Corner, George A; Hoskins, Peter R; Huang, Zhihong

    2017-02-21

    Parameters of blood flow measured by ultrasound in radial and ulnar arteries, such as flow velocity, flow rate and wall shear rate, are widely used in clinical practice and clinical research. Investigation of these measurements is useful for evaluating accuracy and providing knowledge of error sources. A method for simulating the spectral Doppler ultrasound measurement process was developed with computational fluid dynamics providing flow-field data. Specific scanning factors were adjusted to investigate their influence on estimation of the maximum velocity waveform, and flow rate and wall shear rate were derived using the Womersley equation. The overestimation in maximum velocity increases greatly (peak systolic from about 10% to 30%, time-averaged from about 30% to 50%) when the beam-vessel angle is changed from 30° to 70°. The Womersley equation was able to estimate flow rate in both arteries with less than 3% error, but performed better in the radial artery (2.3% overestimation) than the ulnar artery (15.4% underestimation) in estimating wall shear rate. It is concluded that measurements of flow parameters in the radial and ulnar arteries with clinical ultrasound scanners are prone to clinically significant errors.

  11. Transverse electron-scale instability in relativistic shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. P.; Grismayer, T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2015-08-01

    Electron-scale surface waves are shown to be unstable in the transverse plane of a sheared flow in an initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma, not captured by (magneto)hydrodynamics. It is found that these unstable modes have a higher growth rate than the closely related electron-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in relativistic shears. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations verify the analytic results and further reveal the emergence of mushroomlike electron density structures in the nonlinear phase of the instability, similar to those observed in the Rayleigh Taylor instability despite the great disparity in scales and different underlying physics. This transverse electron-scale instability may play an important role in relativistic and supersonic sheared flow scenarios, which are stable at the (magneto)hydrodynamic level. Macroscopic (≫c /ωp e ) fields are shown to be generated by this microscopic shear instability, which are relevant for particle acceleration, radiation emission, and to seed magnetohydrodynamic processes at long time scales.

  12. On the nature of magnetic turbulence in rotating, shearing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Justin; Lesur, Geoffroy; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2016-03-01

    The local properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in rotating, shearing flows are studied in the framework of a shearing-box model. Based on numerical simulations, we propose that the MRI-driven turbulence comprises two components: the large-scale shear-aligned strong magnetic field and the small-scale fluctuations resembling magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The energy spectrum of the large-scale component is close to k-2, whereas the spectrum of the small-scale component agrees with the spectrum of strong MHD turbulence k-3/2. While the spectrum of the fluctuations is universal, the outer-scale characteristics of the turbulence are not; they depend on the parameters of the system, such as the net magnetic flux. However, there is remarkable universality among the allowed turbulent states - their intensity v0 and their outer scale λ0 satisfy the balance condition v0/λ0 ˜ dΩ/dln r, where dΩ/dln r is the local orbital shearing rate of the flow. Finally, we find no sustained dynamo action in the Pm = 1 zero net-flux case for Reynolds numbers as high as 45 000, casting doubts on the existence of an MRI dynamo in the Pm ≤ 1 regime.

  13. Direct simulation of compressible turbulence in a shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Compressibility effects on the turbulence in homogeneous shear flow are investigated. The growth of the turbulent kinetic energy was found to decrease with increasing Mach number: a phenomenon which is similar to the reduction of turbulent velocity intensities observed in experiments on supersonic free shear layers. An examination of the turbulent energy budget shows that both the compressible dissipation and the pressure-dilatation contribute to the decrease in the growth of kinetic energy. The pressure-dilatation is predominantly negative in homogeneous shear flow, in contrast to its predominantly positive behavior in isotropic turbulence. The different signs of the pressure-dilatation are explained by theoretical consideration of the equations for the pressure variance and density variance. Previously, the following results were obtained for isotropic turbulence: (1) the normalized compressible dissipation is of O(M(sub t)(exp 2)); and (2) there is approximate equipartition between the kinetic and potential energies associated with the fluctuating compressible mode. Both of these results were substantiated in the case of homogeneous shear. The dilatation field is significantly more skewed and intermittent than the vorticity field. Strong compressions seem to be more likely than strong expansions.

  14. Transport barriers with and without shear flows in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Martinell, Julio J.

    2014-01-14

    Different ways of producing a transport barrier in a toroidal magnetized plasma are discussed and the properties of the barriers are analyzed. The first mechanism is associated with the presence of a sheared plasma flow that is present in a limited region of the plasma, which creates a zonal flow. In contrast to the usual paradigm stating that the sheared flow reduces the turbulence correlation length and leads to suppression of the fluctuation driven transport in the region of highest shear, it is shown that from the perspective of chaotic transport of plasma particles in the fluctuation fields, the transport barrier is formed in the region of zero shear and it can be destroyed when the fluctuation level is high enough. It is also shown that finite gyroradius effects modify the dynamics and introduces new conditions for barrier formation. The second mechanism considers a method in which radio-frequency waves injected into the plasma can stabilize the drift waves and therefore the anomalous transport is reduced, creating a barrier. This process does not involve the presence of sheared flows and depends only on the effect of the RF wave field on the drift waves. The stabilizing effect in this case is due to the nonlinear ponderomotive force which acts in a way that offsets the pressure gradient destabilization. Finally, a mechanism based on the ponderomotive force of RF waves is described which produces poloidal plasma rotation around the resonant surface due to the asymmetry of induced transport; it creates a transport barrier by shear flow stabilization of turbulence.

  15. Dynamic pressure-shear loading of materials using anisotropic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabildas, L. C.; Swegle, J. W.

    1980-09-01

    An experimental technique is described which uses anisotropic crystals to generate dynamic pressure-shear loading in materials. The coupled longitudinal and shear motion generated upon planar impact of the anisotropic crystal can be transmitted into a specimen bonded to the rear surface of the crystal, and monitored using velocity interferometer techniques. Test results using y-cut quartz generators and x-cut quartz and y-cut quartz samples indicate that shear stresses up to 0.35 GPa can be transmitted across epoxy-bonded interfaces. The technique has been successfully used to detect a 0.2 GPa shear wave in 6061-T6 aluminum at 0.7 GPa longitudinal stress. The shear wave velocity profiles have an accuracy of ±12%. The use of longer delay legs in the interferometer is suggested to improve the accuracy. Results obtained in this investigation are compared with numerical solutions obtained using the finite-difference wave propagation code TOODY.

  16. Observations of subsonic and supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, E. C.

    2009-11-01

    Shear layers containing strong velocity gradients appear in many high-energy-density (HED) systems and play important roles in mixing and the transition to turbulence. Yet few laboratory experiments have been carried out to study their detailed evolution in this extreme environment where plasmas are compressible, actively ionizing, often involve strong shock waves and have complex material properties. Many shear flows produce the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which initiates the mixing at a fluid interface. We present results from two dedicated shear flow experiments that produced overall subsonic and supersonic flows using novel target designs. In the subsonic case, the Omega laser was used to drive a blast wave along a rippled interface between plastic and foam, shocking both the materials to produce two fluids separated by a sharp shear layer. The interface subsequently rolled-upped into large KH vortices that were accompanied by bubble-like structures of unknown origin. This was the first time the evolution of a well-resolved KH instability was observed in a HED plasma in the laboratory. We have analyzed the properties and dynamics of the plasma based on the data and fundamental models, without resorting to simulated values. In the second, supersonic experiment the Nike laser was used to drive a supersonic flow of Al plasma along a rippled, low-density foam surface. Here again the flowing plasma drove a shock into the second material, so that two fluids were separated by a shear layer. In contrast to the subsonic case, the flow developed shocks around the ripples in response to the supersonic flow of Al. Collaborators: R.P. Drake, O.A. Hurricane, J.F. Hansen, Y. Aglitskiy, T. Plewa, B.A. Remington, H.F. Robey, J.L. Weaver, A.L. Velikovich, R.S. Gillespie, M.J. Bono, M.J. Grosskopf, C.C. Kuranz, A. Visco.

  17. Flow heterogeneity and correlations in a sheared hard sphere glass: Insight from computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Suvendu; Gross, Markus; Raabe, Dierk; Varnik, Fathollah

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the origin of flow heterogeneity in glassy systems is of high interest both due to its importance from theoretical standpoint as well as due to its occurrence in a large number of practical situations such as the flow of the so-called soft-glassy materials (foams, colloidal suspensions, granular media, etc). Detailed experimental investigations do indeed confirm that the flow of driven amorphous solids is not homogeneous, even if the macroscopic stress is constant across the system. We study this issue via large scale event driven molecular dynamics simulations of a hard sphere glass. We observe significant fluctuations of the velocity profile with a time scale of the order of a few hundreds percent strain. Furthermore, there appears to be a correlation between the fluctuations of the local volume fraction and the fluctuations of the local shear rate. The time scales of the fluctuations of density and shear rate are practically identical. These observations motivate an interpretation of our results via the shear concentration coupling (SCC) theory. A detailed comparison, however, reveals serious inconsistencies. In particular, the amplitude of the fluctuations of the shear rate seems to be decoupled from that of density, a feature which is rather unexpected within the SCC picture. An alternative interpretation of our observations is also discussed invoking dynamic heterogeneity.

  18. Effect of wall shear rate on biofilm deposition and grazing in drinking water flow chambers.

    PubMed

    Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-15

    The effect of four-wall shear rates (34.9, 74.8, 142.5, and 194.5 s(-1)) on bacterial deposition on glass slides in drinking water flow chambers was studied. Biofilm image acquisition was performed over a 50-day period. Bacterial accumulation and surface coverage curves were obtained. Microscopic observations allowed us to obtain information about the dynamics and spatial distribution of the biofilm. During the first stage of biofilm formation (210-518 h), bacterial accumulation was a function of the wall shear rate: the higher the wall shear rate, the faster the bacterial deposition (1.1 and 1.9 x 10(4) bacterial cells . cm(-2) for wall shear rates of 34.9 and 142.5 s(-1), respectively). A new similarity relationship characteristic of a non-dimensional time and function of the wall shear rate was proposed to describe initial bacterial deposition. After 50 days of exposure to drinking water, surface coverage was more or less identical under the entire wall shear rates (7.44 +/- 0.9%), suggesting that biofilm bacterial density cannot be controlled using hydrodynamics. However, the spatial distribution of the biofilm was clearly different. Under low wall shear rate, aggregates were composed of bacterial cells able to "vibrate" independently on the surface, whereas, under a high wall shear rate, aggregates were more cohesive. Therefore, susceptibility to the hydraulic discontinuities occurring in drinking water system may not be similar. In all the flow chambers, significant decreases in bacterial biomass (up to 77%) were associated with the presence of amoebae. This grazing preferentially targeted small, isolated cells.

  19. A review of Reynolds stress models for turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed review of recent developments in Reynolds stress modeling for incompressible turbulent shear flows is provided. The mathematical foundations of both two-equation models and full second-order closures are explored in depth. It is shown how these models can be systematically derived for two-dimensional mean turbulent flows that are close to equilibrium. A variety of examples are provided to demonstrate how well properly calibrated versions of these models perform for such flows. However, substantial problems remain for the description of more complex turbulent flows where there are large departures from equilibrium. Recent efforts to extend Reynolds stress models to nonequilibrium turbulent flows are discussed briefly along with the major modeling issues relevant to practical naval hydrodynamics applications.

  20. Inertial effects on fibre motion in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, G.; Koch, Donald L.

    2005-07-01

    The motion of a torque-free slender axisymmetric fibre in simple shear flow is examined theoretically for small but finite Re, where Re is the Reynolds number based on the fibre length, and is a measure of the inertial forces in the fluid. In the limit of zero inertia, an axisymmetric particle in simple shear is known to rotate indefinitely in any of an infinite single-parameter family of periodic orbits, originally found by Jeffery (1922) - a degenerate situation wherein the particular choice of orbit is dictated by the initial orientation of the particle. We use a generalization of the well-known reciprocal theorem for Stokes flow to derive the orbit equations, to O(Re), for the slender fibre. The structure of the equations bears some resemblance to those previously derived by Leal (1975) for a neutrally buoyant fibre in a viscoelastic (second-order) fluid. It is thereby shown that fluid inertia, for small Re, leads to a slow O({Re) drift of the rotating fibre toward the shearing plane, thereby eliminating the aforementioned degeneracy. For Reynolds numbers above a critical value, Re_c {=} ({15}/{4 π})(ln κ/β κ)sin^{-2}θ, the fibre ceases to rotate, however, instead drifting monotonically towards the shearing plane. The limiting stationary orientation in the flow-gradient plane makes an angle φ_f with the flow direction, where φ_f = 4π Re/(15 ln κ) + {16 π Re^2/(225(ln κ)^2-1/(β^2κ^2)}^{1/2} is an increasing function of Re. Here, κ is the fibre aspect ratio, θ is the angle made by the fibre with the vorticity axis, and β is an O(1) coefficient related to the Jeffery period of the rotating fibre.

  1. Entrainment-Zone Restratification and Flow Structures in Stratified Shear Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reif, B. Anders Pettersson; Werne, Joseph; Andreassen, Oyvind; Meyer, Christian; Davis-Mansour, Melissa

    2002-01-01

    Late-time dynamics and morphology of a stratified turbulent shear layer are examined using 1) Reynolds-stress and heat-flux budgets, 2) the single-point structure tensors introduced by Kassinos et al. (2001), and 3) flow visualization via 3D volume rendering. Flux reversal is observed during restratification in the edges of the turbulent layer. We present a first attempt to quantify the turbulence-mean-flow interaction and to characterize the predominant flow structures. Future work will extend this analysis to earlier times and different values of the Reynolds and Richardson numbers.

  2. Effect of the salt-induced micellar microstructure on the nonlinear shear flow behavior of ionic cetylpyridinium chloride surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudino, D.; Pasquino, R.; Kriegs, H.; Szekely, N.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Lettinga, M. P.; Grizzuti, N.

    2017-03-01

    The shear flow dynamics of linear and branched wormlike micellar systems based on cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate in brine solution is investigated through rheometric and scattering techniques. In particular, the flow and the structural flow response are explored via velocimetry measurements and rheological and rheometric small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments, respectively. Although all micellar solutions display a similar shear thinning behavior in the nonlinear regime, the experimental results show that shear banding sets in only when the micelle contour length L ¯ is sufficiently long, independent of the nature of the micellar connections (either linear or branched micelles). Using rheometric SANS, we observe that the shear banding systems both show very similar orientational ordering as a function of Weissenberg number, while the short branched micelles manifest an unexpected increase of ordering at very low Weissenberg numbers. This suggests the presence of an additional flow-induced relaxation process that is peculiar for branched systems.

  3. Decoupling of double-tearing resonant layers by sheared flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Stephen; Germaschewski, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Double-tearing modes consist of two resonant, reconnecting layers of the same mode number coupled together by an ideal MHD outer region. Linearly this interaction can result in faster growth as the two layers drive each other. Nonlinearly it may lead to explosive releases of energy, and is a possible driver for off-axis sawtooth crashes in advanced tokamaks. Recent work has shown that differential rotation effects, such as equilibrium sheared flows or diamagnetic drifts, can decouple the DTM layers leaving two drifting, single tearing modes. These isolated tearing layers are slower growing and easier to stabilize. Understanding and producing this decoupling is thus an important element of preventing disruptive DTM activity. In this work we present progress on developing an analytic theory of DTM decoupling. We show that the application of equilibrium sheared flows mixes the symmetric and antisymmetric DTM eigenmode solutions, reducing the growth rate. This representation predicts a linear relationship between the growth rate and the amplitude of differential sheared flow needed to decouple the layers, which we confirm with linear MHD simulations. Through numerical scaling studies we examine the relationship between mode decoupling and the slab-kink mode underlying DTM growth.

  4. Structural analysis of red blood cell aggregates under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chesnutt, J K W; Marshall, J S

    2010-03-01

    A set of measures of red blood cell (RBC) aggregates are developed and applied to examine the aggregate structure under plane shear and channel flows. Some of these measures are based on averages over the set of red blood cells which are in contact with each other at a given time. Other measures are developed by first fitting an ellipse to the planar projection of the aggregate, and then examining the area and aspect ratio of the fit ellipse as well as the orientations of constituent RBCs with respect to the fit ellipse axes. The aggregate structural measures are illustrated using a new mesoscale computational model for blood cell transport, collision and adhesion. The sensitivity of this model to change in adhesive surface energy density and shear rate on the aggregate structure is examined. It is found that the mesoscale model predictions exhibit reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical data for blood flow in plane shear and channel flows. The new structural measures are used to examine the differences between predictions of two- and three-dimensional computations of the aggregate formation, showing that two-dimensional computations retain some of the important aspects of three-dimensional computations.

  5. Anisotropy of Shear Strength of Silica: a Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.; Luo, S.; Tschauner, O.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the shear strengths of silica glass, alpha-quartz, coesite, and stishovite using classical molecular dynamics simulations with a modified van Beest-Kramer-van Santen potential. Shear strengths along different crystallographic orientations are studied. We also explore the effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and defects on the shear strength. *Work partly performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. W-7405-ENG-36 and NNSA Cooperative Agreement DE-FC88-01NV14049

  6. Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, τ max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  7. Molecular Origins of Higher Harmonics in Large-Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Flow: Shear Stress Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Peter; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey; Schmalzer, Andrew; Bird, R. B.

    Recent work has focused on understanding the molecular origins of higher harmonics that arise in the shear stress response of polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. These higher harmonics have been explained using only the orientation distribution of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells in a Newtonian fluid, which neglects molecular interactions and is the simplest relevant molecular model of polymer viscoelasticity [R.B. Bird et al., J Chem Phys, 140, 074904 (2014)]. We explore these molecular interactions by examining the Curtiss-Bird model, a kinetic molecular theory that accounts for restricted polymer motions arising when chains are concentrated [Fan and Bird, JNNFM, 15, 341 (1984)]. For concentrated systems, the chain motion transverse to the chain axis is more restricted than along the axis. This anisotropy is described by the link tension coefficient, ɛ, for which several special cases arise: ɛ =0 corresponds to reptation, ɛ > 1 1 8 8 to rod-climbing, 1 1 2 2 >= ɛ >= 3 3 4 4 to reasonable shear-thinning predictions in steady simple shear flow, and ɛ =1 to a dilute solution of chains. We examine the shapes of the shear stress versus shear rate loops for the special cases, ɛ = 0 , 1 0 , 1 8 , 3 3 8 8 8 , 3 3 8 8 , 1 , of the Curtiss-Bird model, and we compare these with those

  8. A dilation-driven vortex flow in sheared granular materials explains a rheometric anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaraj, K. P.; Nott, Prabhu R.

    2016-01-01

    Granular flows occur widely in nature and industry, yet a continuum description that captures their important features is yet not at hand. Recent experiments on granular materials sheared in a cylindrical Couette device revealed a puzzling anomaly, wherein all components of the stress rise nearly exponentially with depth. Here we show, using particle dynamics simulations and imaging experiments, that the stress anomaly arises from a remarkable vortex flow. For the entire range of fill heights explored, we observe a single toroidal vortex that spans the entire Couette cell and whose sense is opposite to the uppermost Taylor vortex in a fluid. We show that the vortex is driven by a combination of shear-induced dilation, a phenomenon that has no analogue in fluids, and gravity flow. Dilatancy is an important feature of granular mechanics, but not adequately incorporated in existing models. PMID:26864086

  9. Magnetic Field Generation and Particle Energization in Relativistic Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus; Smith, Ian

    2012-10-01

    We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of magnetic field generation by relativistic shear flows in collisionless electron-ion (e-ion) and electron-positron (e+e-) plasmas. In the e+e- case, small current filaments are first generated at the shear interface due to streaming instabilities of the interpenetrating particles from boundary perturbations. Such current filaments create transverse magnetic fields which coalesce into larger and larger flux tubes with alternating polarity, eventually forming ordered flux ropes across the entire shear boundary layer. Particles are accelerated across field lines to form power-law tails by semi-coherent electric fields sustained by oblique Langmuir waves. In the e-ion case, a single laminar slab of transverse flux rope is formed at the shear boundary, sustained by thin current sheets on both sides due to different drift velocities of electrons and ions. The magnetic field has a single polarity for the entire boundary layer. Electrons are heated to a fraction of the ion energy, but there is no evidence of power-law tail forming in this case.

  10. Dynamic Shear Band Development in Plane Strain,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    dicular to the initial propagation direction slows (town and further straining occurs inl a hand. The ul1timlate course of events is essentially...pr scribed velocita oal ysiave e n/sec. lie order of ilacint fiie V1 = -3 I/seecorrspon i toean avera elcirt of -300/etersos(i setal *" increase inl ...Spitzig, WV.A., 1980, *Initiation of Localized Shear Bands inl Plane Siraiii..1. .1lcch. Phys. Solids. \\Vol. 28, pp. 113-128. Asaro. R.J., 1983

  11. Deformation of a Capsule in a Power-Law Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is developed for fluid-structure interactions involving non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., power-law fluid). In this method, the flexible structure (e.g., capsule) dynamics and the fluid dynamics are coupled by using the immersed boundary method. The incompressible viscous power-law fluid motion is obtained by solving the lattice Boltzmann equation. The non-Newtonian rheology is achieved by using a shear rate-dependant relaxation time in the lattice Boltzmann method. The non-Newtonian flow solver is then validated by considering a power-law flow in a straight channel which is one of the benchmark problems to validate an in-house solver. The numerical results present a good agreement with the analytical solutions for various values of power-law index. Finally, we apply this method to study the deformation of a capsule in a power-law shear flow by varying the Reynolds number from 0.025 to 0.1, dimensionless shear rate from 0.004 to 0.1, and power-law index from 0.2 to 1.8. It is found that the deformation of the capsule increases with the power-law index for different Reynolds numbers and nondimensional shear rates. In addition, the Reynolds number does not have significant effect on the capsule deformation in the flow regime considered. Moreover, the power-law index effect is stronger for larger dimensionless shear rate compared to smaller values. PMID:27840656

  12. Flow in the well: computational fluid dynamics is essential in flow chamber construction.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Markus; Franke, Jörg; Frank, Wolfram; Schroten, Horst

    2007-09-01

    A perfusion system was developed to generate well defined flow conditions within a well of a standard multidish. Human vein endothelial cells were cultured under flow conditions and cell response was analyzed by microscopy. Endothelial cells became elongated and spindle shaped. As demonstrated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD), cells were cultured under well defined but time varying shear stress conditions. A damper system was introduced which reduced pulsatile flow when using volumetric pumps. The flow and the wall shear stress distribution were analyzed by CFD for the steady and unsteady flow field. Usage of the volumetric pump caused variations of the wall shear stresses despite the controlled fluid environment and introduction of a damper system. Therefore the use of CFD analysis and experimental validation is critical in developing flow chambers and studying cell response to shear stress. The system presented gives an effortless flow chamber setup within a 6-well standard multidish.

  13. Stochastic estimation of organized turbulent structure - Homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Ronald J.; Moin, Parviz

    1988-01-01

    A generalization of the conditional-eddy concept is proposed in which the conditional event specifies the local kinematic state in terms of the velocity and the deformation. Results are presented for stochastically estimated conditional eddies given the local kinematics. The equation governing the probability density function of a kinematic state has been derived for constant-property incompressible flow, providing a link between coherent flow structures corresponding to the conditional eddies and the modelling of turbulent transport. The primary contributions to the second-quadrant and fourth-quadrant Reynolds-stress events in homogeneous shear flow are shown to come from flow induced through the 'legs' and close to the 'heads' of upright and inverted 'hairpins', respectively.

  14. Prediction of Anomalous Blood Viscosity in Confined Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiébaud, Marine; Shen, Zaiyi; Harting, Jens; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-06-01

    Red blood cells play a major role in body metabolism by supplying oxygen from the microvasculature to different organs and tissues. Understanding blood flow properties in microcirculation is an essential step towards elucidating fundamental and practical issues. Numerical simulations of a blood model under a confined linear shear flow reveal that confinement markedly modifies the properties of blood flow. A nontrivial spatiotemporal organization of blood elements is shown to trigger hitherto unrevealed flow properties regarding the viscosity η, namely ample oscillations of its normalized value [η]=(η-η0)/(η0ϕ) as a function of hematocrit ϕ (η0=solvent viscosity). A scaling law for the viscosity as a function of hematocrit and confinement is proposed. This finding can contribute to the conception of new strategies to efficiently detect blood disorders, via in vitro diagnosis based on confined blood rheology. It also constitutes a contribution for a fundamental understanding of rheology of confined complex fluids.

  15. Breakup dynamics and dripping-to-jetting transition in a Newtonian/shear-thinning multiphase microsystem.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Liu, Zhou; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2015-01-07

    The breakup dynamics in non-Newtonian multiphase microsystems is associated with a variety of industrial applications such as food production and biomedical engineering. In this study, we numerically and experimentally characterize the dripping-to-jetting transition under various flow conditions in a Newtonian/shear-thinning multiphase microsystem. Our work can help to predict the formation of undesirable satellite droplets, which is one of the challenges in dispensing non-Newtonian fluids. We also demonstrate the variations in breakup dynamics between shear-thinning and Newtonian fluids under the same flow conditions. For shear-thinning fluids, the droplet size increases when the capillary number is smaller than a critical value, while it decreases when the capillary number is beyond the critical value. The variations highlight the importance of rheological effects in flows with a non-Newtonian fluid. The viscosity of shear-thinning fluids significantly affects the control over the droplet size, therefore necessitating the manipulation of the shear rate through adjusting the flow rate and the dimensions of the nozzle. Consequently, the droplet size can be tuned in a controlled manner. Our findings can guide the design of novel microdevices for generating droplets of shear-thinning fluids with a predetermined droplet size. This enhances the ability to fabricate functional particles using an emulsion-templated approach. Moreover, elastic effects are also investigated experimentally using a model shear-thinning fluid that also exhibits elastic behaviors: droplets are increasingly deformed with increasing elasticity of the continuous phase. The overall understanding in the model multiphase microsystem will facilitate the use of a droplet-based approach for non-Newtonian multiphase applications ranging from energy to biomedical sciences.

  16. Numerical simulation of non-Newtonian free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homsy, G. M.; Azaiez, J.

    1993-01-01

    Free shear flows, like those of mixing layers, are encountered in aerodynamics, in the atmosphere, and in the ocean as well as in many industrial applications such as flow reactors or combustion chambers. It is, therefore, crucial to understand the mechanisms governing the process of transition to turbulence in order to predict and control the evolution of the flow. Delaying transition to turbulence as far downstream as possible allows a gain in energy expenditure while accelerating the transition can be of interest in processes where high mixing is desired. Various methods, including the use of polymer additives, can be effective in controlling fluid flows. The drag reduction obtained by the addition of small amounts of high polymers has been an active area of research for the last three decades. It is now widely believed that polymer additives can affect the stability of a large variety of flows and that dilute solutions of these polymers have been shown to produce drag reductions of over 80 percent in internal flows and over 60 percent in external flows under a wide range of conditions. The major thrust of this work is to study the effects of polymer additives on the stability of the incompressible mixing layer through large scale numerical simulations. In particular, we focus on the two dimensional flow and examine how the presence of viscoelasticity may affect the typical structures of the flow, namely roll-up and pairing of vortices.

  17. An improved turbulence model for rotating shear flows*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yasutaka; Hattori, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we construct a turbulence model based on a low-Reynolds-number non-linear k e model for turbulent flows in a rotating channel. Two-equation models, in particular the non-linear k e model, are very effective for solving various flow problems encountered in technological applications. In channel flows with rotation, however, the explicit effects of rotation only appear in the Reynolds stress components. The exact equations for k and e do not have any explicit terms concerned with the rotation effects. Moreover, the Coriolis force vanishes in the momentum equation for a fully developed channel flow with spanwise rotation. Consequently, in order to predict rotating channel flows, after proper revision the Reynolds stress equation model or the non-linear eddy viscosity model should be used. In this study, we improve the non-linear k e model so as to predict rotating channel flows. In the modelling, the wall-limiting behaviour of turbulence is also considered. First, we evaluated the non-linear k e model using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) database for a fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. Next, we assessed the non-linear k e model at various rotation numbers. Finally, on the basis of these assessments, we reconstruct the non-linear k e model to calculate rotating shear flows, and the proposed model is tested on various rotation number channel flows. The agreement with DNS and experiment data is quite satisfactory.

  18. CORONAL RAIN IN MAGNETIC ARCADES: REBOUND SHOCKS, LIMIT CYCLES, AND SHEAR FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Doorsselaere, T. Van

    2015-07-10

    We extend our earlier multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal rain occurring in magnetic arcades with higher resolution, grid-adaptive computations covering a much longer (>6 hr) time span. We quantify how blob-like condensations forming in situ grow along and across field lines and show that rain showers can occur in limit cycles, here demonstrated for the first time in 2.5D setups. We discuss dynamical, multi-dimensional aspects of the rebound shocks generated by the siphon inflows and quantify the thermodynamics of a prominence–corona transition-region-like structure surrounding the blobs. We point out the correlation between condensation rates and the cross-sectional size of loop systems where catastrophic cooling takes place. We also study the variations of the typical number density, kinetic energy, and temperature while blobs descend, impact, and sink into the transition region. In addition, we explain the mechanisms leading to concurrent upflows while the blobs descend. As a result, there are plenty of shear flows generated with relative velocity difference around 80 km s{sup −1} in our simulations. These shear flows are siphon flows set up by multiple blob dynamics and they in turn affect the deformation of the falling blobs. In particular, we show how shear flows can break apart blobs into smaller fragments, within minutes.

  19. A generic model for transport in turbulent shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-Jin

    2011-05-15

    Turbulence regulation by large-scale shear flows is crucial for a predictive modeling of transport in plasma. In this paper the suppression of turbulent transport by large-scale flows is studied numerically by measuring the turbulent diffusion D{sub t} and scalar amplitude of decaying passive scalar fields n{sup '} advected by various turbulent flows. Both uniform flows and shear flows are shown to suppress turbulence causing the quenching in transport and turbulence amplitude. The uniform flows U{sub 0}={Lambda}y with the advection rate {Lambda} in the case of a finite correlated forcing with {tau}{sub F}=1 gives rise to the advection/sweeping effect which suppresses D{sub t}, and as {proportional_to}{Lambda}{sup -2} for {Lambda}>>{tau}{sub F}{sup -1}. In contrast, no influence of the uniform flow is found in the case of a short correlated forcing {tau}{sub F}{yields}0 due to Galilean invariance. For the shear flow U{sub 0}={Omega}sinxy ({Omega}= constant shearing rate) with the appropriate choice of the forcing ({tau}{sub F}{yields}0) the nature of transport suppression is shown to crucially depend on the properties of the turbulence. Specifically, for prescribed turbulence with a short correlation time {tau}{sub c}={tau}{sub F}<<{Omega}{sup -1}, the turbulence statistics scale as D{sub t{proportional_to}{Omega}}{sup -0.02}, {proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -0.62} and cross-phase cos{theta}{proportional_to}{Omega}{sup 0.29}. For consistently evolved turbulence with a finite correlation time {tau}{sub c{>=}{Omega}}{sup -1}, turbulence statistics are suppressed more strongly as D{sub t{proportional_to}{Omega}}{sup -1.75}, {proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -2.41}, {proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -0.65} and <{omega}{sup '2}>{proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -0.50}. A novel renormalization scheme is then introduced to rescale our results into the regime within which the kinetic energy and enstrophy are unchanged by

  20. Fluctuating hydrodynamics simulations of coarse-grained lipid membranes under steady-state conditions and in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Erik G

    2013-07-01

    The stochastic Eulerian-Lagrangian method (SELM) is used to simulate coarse-grained lipid membrane models under steady-state conditions and in shear flow. SELM is an immersed boundary method which combines the efficiency of particle-based simulations with the realistic solvent dynamics provided by fluctuating hydrodynamics. Membrane simulations in SELM are shown to give structural properties in accordance with equilibrium statistical mechanics and dynamic properties in agreement with previous simulations of highly detailed membrane models in explicit solvent. Simulations of sheared membranes are used to calculate surface shear viscosities and inter-monolayer friction coefficients. The membrane models are shown to be shear thinning under a wide range of applied shear rates.

  1. Mechanical picture of the linear transient growth of vortical perturbations in incompressible smooth shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagelishvili, George; Hau, Jan-Niklas; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The linear dynamics of perturbations in smooth shear flows covers the transient exchange of energies between (1) the perturbations and the basic flow and (2) different perturbations modes. Canonically, the linear exchange of energies between the perturbations and the basic flow can be described in terms of the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms, correspondingly for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) perturbations. In this paper the mechanical basis of the linear transient dynamics is introduced and analyzed for incompressible plane constant shear flows, where we consider the dynamics of virtual fluid particles in the framework of plane perturbations (i.e., perturbations with plane surfaces of constant phase) for the 2D and 3D case. It is shown that (1) the formation of a pressure perturbation field is the result of countermoving neighboring sets of incompressible fluid particles in the flow, (2) the keystone of the energy exchange mechanism between the basic flow and perturbations is the collision of fluid particles with the planes of constant pressure in accordance with the classical theory of elastic collision of particles with a rigid wall, making the pressure field the key player in this process, (3) the interplay of the collision process and the shear flow kinematics describes the transient growth of plane perturbations and captures the physics of the growth, and (4) the proposed mechanical picture allows us to reconstruct the linearized Euler equations in spectral space with a time-dependent shearwise wave number, the linearized Euler equations for Kelvin modes. This confirms the rigor of the presented analysis, which, moreover, yields a natural generalization of the proposed mechanical picture of the transient growth to the well-established linear phenomenon of vortex-wave-mode coupling.

  2. On the self-heating phenomenon in nonmodal shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.W.; Chen, Y.; Li, Z.Y.

    2006-04-15

    In this article, the nonmodal self-heating phenomenon of linear shear flow [A. D. Rogava, Astrophys. Space Sci. 293, 189 (2004)] is investigated with an initially excited Alfvenic perturbation focusing on the factors determining the efficiency of the heating process. It is found that to get an efficient self-heating process, the initial Alfven wave must be at least partially transformed into the fast mode. This is because only the fast mode, among the three types of magnetohydrodynamic modes, can get amplified significantly by the shear flow. This requires the initial wave number along the shear to be positive so that the Spatial Fourier Harmonics can pass through the degeneration region, and also puts constraints on the plasma parameter {beta} [{beta}=C{sub S}{sup 2}/V{sub A}{sup 2}, where C{sub S} (V{sub A}) is the sound (Alfvenic) velocity]. It is shown that the self-heating function, which represents the total energy dissipated at a certain time, decreases monotonically with increasing {beta}. In addition, to get efficient heating the viscous coefficient should be in an appropriate range. A smaller viscosity results in an insufficient thermalization of the perturbation energy, while a larger one corresponds to a suppressed nonmodal amplification.

  3. Predicting equilibrium states with Reynolds stress closures in channel flow and homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abid, R.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Turbulent channel flow and homogeneous shear flow have served as basic building block flows for the testing and calibration of Reynolds stress models. A direct theoretical connection is made between homogeneous shear flow in equilibrium and the log-layer of fully-developed turbulent channel flow. It is shown that if a second-order closure model is calibrated to yield good equilibrium values for homogeneous shear flow it will also yield good results for the log-layer of channel flow provided that the Rotta coefficient is not too far removed from one. Most of the commonly used second-order closure models introduce an ad hoc wall reflection term in order to mask deficient predictions for the log-layer of channel flow that arise either from an inaccurate calibration of homogeneous shear flow or from the use of a Rotta coefficient that is too large. Illustrative model calculations are presented to demonstrate this point which has important implications for turbulence modeling.

  4. Fourier decomposition of polymer orientation in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    DOE PAGES

    Giacomin, A. J.; Gilbert, P. H.; Schmalzer, A. M.

    2015-03-19

    In our previous work, we explored the dynamics of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells as a model for polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow, a flow experiment that has gained a significant following in recent years. We chose rigid dumbbells since these are the simplest molecular model to give higher harmonics in the components of the stress response. We derived the expression for the dumbbell orientation distribution, and then we used this function to calculate the shear stress response, and normal stress difference responses in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. In this paper, we deepen our understanding of themore » polymer motion underlying large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow by decomposing the orientation distribution function into its first five Fourier components (the zeroth, first, second, third, and fourth harmonics). We use three-dimensional images to explore each harmonic of the polymer motion. Our analysis includes the three most important cases: (i) nonlinear steady shear flow (where the Deborah number λω is zero and the Weissenberg number λγ 0 is above unity), (ii) nonlinear viscoelasticity (where both λω and λγ 0 exceed unity), and (iii) linear viscoelasticity (where λω exceeds unity and where λγ 0 approaches zero). We learn that the polymer orientation distribution is spherical in the linear viscoelastic regime, and otherwise tilted and peanut-shaped. We find that the peanut-shaping is mainly caused by the zeroth harmonic, and the tilting, by the second. The first, third, and fourth harmonics of the orientation distribution make only slight contributions to the overall polymer motion.« less

  5. Fourier decomposition of polymer orientation in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomin, A. J.; Gilbert, P. H.; Schmalzer, A. M.

    2015-03-19

    In our previous work, we explored the dynamics of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells as a model for polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow, a flow experiment that has gained a significant following in recent years. We chose rigid dumbbells since these are the simplest molecular model to give higher harmonics in the components of the stress response. We derived the expression for the dumbbell orientation distribution, and then we used this function to calculate the shear stress response, and normal stress difference responses in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. In this paper, we deepen our understanding of the polymer motion underlying large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow by decomposing the orientation distribution function into its first five Fourier components (the zeroth, first, second, third, and fourth harmonics). We use three-dimensional images to explore each harmonic of the polymer motion. Our analysis includes the three most important cases: (i) nonlinear steady shear flow (where the Deborah number λω is zero and the Weissenberg number λγ 0 is above unity), (ii) nonlinear viscoelasticity (where both λω and λγ 0 exceed unity), and (iii) linear viscoelasticity (where λω exceeds unity and where λγ 0 approaches zero). We learn that the polymer orientation distribution is spherical in the linear viscoelastic regime, and otherwise tilted and peanut-shaped. We find that the peanut-shaping is mainly caused by the zeroth harmonic, and the tilting, by the second. The first, third, and fourth harmonics of the orientation distribution make only slight contributions to the overall polymer motion.

  6. Laboratory Observation of Magnetic Field Growth Driven by Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, Thomas; Dorf, L.; Sun, X.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Feng, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We have measured in the laboratory profiles of magnetic flux ropes, that include ion flow, magnetic field, current density, and plasma pressure. The electron flows v_e can therefore be inferred, and we use this information to evaluate the Hall J × B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm’s Law. Mutually attracted and compressed flux ropes break the cylindrical symmetry. This simple and coherent example of shear flow supports magnetic field growth corresponding to non vanishing curl × v_e × B. In the absence of magnetic reconnection we measure and predict a quadrupole out of plane magnetic field δBz, even though this has historically been invoked to be the signature of Hall magnetic reconnection. This provides a natural and general mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence. *Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369, NASA Geospace NNHIOA044I, Basic

  7. Reduced description of exact coherent states in parallel shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaume, Cédric; Chini, Gregory P.; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2015-04-01

    A reduced description of exact coherent structures in the transition regime of plane parallel shear flows is developed, based on the Reynolds number scaling of streamwise-averaged (mean) and streamwise-varying (fluctuation) velocities observed in numerical simulations. The resulting system is characterized by an effective unit Reynolds number mean equation coupled to linear equations for the fluctuations, regularized by formally higher-order diffusion. Stationary coherent states are computed by solving the resulting equations simultaneously using a robust numerical algorithm developed for this purpose. The algorithm determines self-consistently the amplitude of the fluctuations for which the associated mean flow is just such that the fluctuations neither grow nor decay. The procedure is used to compute exact coherent states of a flow introduced by Drazin and Reid [Hydrodynamic Stability (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1981)] and studied by Waleffe [Phys. Fluids 9, 883 (1997), 10.1063/1.869185]: a linearly stable, plane parallel shear flow confined between stationary stress-free walls and driven by a sinusoidal body force. Numerical continuation of the lower-branch states to lower Reynolds numbers reveals the presence of a saddle node; the saddle node allows access to upper-branch states that are, like the lower-branch states, self-consistently described by the reduced equations. Both lower- and upper-branch states are characterized in detail.

  8. Reduced description of exact coherent states in parallel shear flows.

    PubMed

    Beaume, Cédric; Chini, Gregory P; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2015-04-01

    A reduced description of exact coherent structures in the transition regime of plane parallel shear flows is developed, based on the Reynolds number scaling of streamwise-averaged (mean) and streamwise-varying (fluctuation) velocities observed in numerical simulations. The resulting system is characterized by an effective unit Reynolds number mean equation coupled to linear equations for the fluctuations, regularized by formally higher-order diffusion. Stationary coherent states are computed by solving the resulting equations simultaneously using a robust numerical algorithm developed for this purpose. The algorithm determines self-consistently the amplitude of the fluctuations for which the associated mean flow is just such that the fluctuations neither grow nor decay. The procedure is used to compute exact coherent states of a flow introduced by Drazin and Reid [Hydrodynamic Stability (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1981)] and studied by Waleffe [Phys. Fluids 9, 883 (1997)]: a linearly stable, plane parallel shear flow confined between stationary stress-free walls and driven by a sinusoidal body force. Numerical continuation of the lower-branch states to lower Reynolds numbers reveals the presence of a saddle node; the saddle node allows access to upper-branch states that are, like the lower-branch states, self-consistently described by the reduced equations. Both lower- and upper-branch states are characterized in detail.

  9. Direct numerical simulations of agglomeration of circular colloidal particles in two-dimensional shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-15

    Colloidal agglomeration of nanoparticles in shear flow is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions in a 2D system. We use an extended finite element method in which the dynamics of the particles is solved in a fully coupled manner with the flow, allowing an accurate description of the fluid-particle interfaces without the need of boundary-fitted meshes or of empirical correlations to account for the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. Adaptive local mesh refinement using a grid deformation method is incorporated with the fluid-structure interaction algorithm, and the particle-particle interaction at the microscopic level is modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential. Motivated by the process used in fabricating fuel cell catalysts from a colloidal ink, the model is applied to investigate agglomeration of colloidal particles under external shear flow in a sliding bi-periodic Lees-Edwards frame with varying shear rates and particle fraction ratios. Both external shear and particle fraction are found to have a crucial impact on the structure formation of colloidal particles in a suspension. Segregation intensity and graph theory are used to analyze the underlying agglomeration patterns and structures, and three agglomeration regimes are identified.

  10. Off-plane motion of an oblate capsule in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Dupont, Claire; Delahaye, Fabien; Barthes-Biesel, Dominique; Biomechanics; Bioengineering Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    As biomimetic models of red blood cells, non-spherical liquid-core capsules have received great attention to understand their dynamics in simple shear flow. They are also of interest for drug delivery applications having higher diffusion properties than spherical ones. Most studies have modeled the capsule motion placing the revolution axis in the shear plane, which is an equilibrium configuration in Stokes flow conditions and thus a special case. The present objective is to determine the stability of the equilibrium configurations of oblate capsules and investigate the effects of the capillary number Ca, inner-to-outer viscosity ratio λ and initial orientation. To solve the fluid-structure interaction problem, we use a numerical model coupling a finite element method for the capsule deformation with a boundary integral method for the internal and external flows. The equilibrium motions are found to be independent of the capsule initial inclination and to depend only on Ca. The tumbling and swinging regimes (characterized by the revolution axis in the shear plane) are found to be stable only until Ca ~ 0.9. Above, the capsule takes a rolling motion with its revolution axis normal to the shear plane. For λ >4, only tumbling is stable at low Ca and rolling at higher Ca.

  11. Rate-dependent extensional "dynamic ligaments" using shear thickening fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenno, Paul T.; Wetzel, Eric D.

    2014-04-01

    A novel "dynamic ligament" smart material that exhibits a strongly rate-dependent response in extension is developed and characterized. The devices, based on elastomeric polymers and shear thickening fluids, exhibit low resistance to extension at rates below 10 mm/s, but when stretched at 100 mm/s or higher resist with up to 7 × higher force. A link between the shear thickening fluid's rheology and the dynamic ligament's tensile performance is presented to explain the rate-dependent response. Future recommendations for improving device performance are presented, along with a host of different potential application areas including safety equipment, adaptive braces, sporting goods, and military equipment.

  12. On the initiation of surface waves by turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, M. A. C.; Belcher, S. E.

    2006-02-01

    An analytical model is developed for the initial stage of surface wave generation at an air-water interface by a turbulent shear flow in either the air or in the water. The model treats the problem of wave growth departing from a flat interface and is relevant for small waves whose forcing is dominated by turbulent pressure fluctuations. The wave growth is predicted using the linearised and inviscid equations of motion, essentially following Phillips [Phillips, O.M., 1957. On the generation of waves by turbulent wind. J. Fluid Mech. 2, 417-445], but the pressure fluctuations that generate the waves are treated as unsteady and related to the turbulent velocity field using the rapid-distortion treatment of Durbin [Durbin, P.A., 1978. Rapid distortion theory of turbulent flows. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge]. This model, which assumes a constant mean shear rate Γ, can be viewed as the simplest representation of an oceanic or atmospheric boundary layer. For turbulent flows in the air and in the water producing pressure fluctuations of similar magnitude, the waves generated by turbulence in the water are found to be considerably steeper than those generated by turbulence in the air. For resonant waves, this is shown to be due to the shorter decorrelation time of turbulent pressure in the air (estimated as ∝ 1/ Γ), because of the higher shear rate existing in the air flow, and due to the smaller length scale of the turbulence in the water. Non-resonant waves generated by turbulence in the water, although being somewhat gentler, are still steeper than resonant waves generated by turbulence in the air. Hence, it is suggested that turbulence in the water may have a more important role than previously thought in the initiation of the surface waves that are subsequently amplified by feedback instability mechanisms.

  13. Breakup modes of fluid drops in confined shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Nilkamal; Mandal, Nibir

    2016-07-01

    Using a conservative level set method we investigate the deformation behavior of isolated spherical fluid drops in a fluid channel subjected to simple shear flows, accounting the following three non-dimensional parameters: (1) degree of confinement (Wc = 2a/h, where a is the drop radius and h is the channel thickness); (2) viscosity ratio between the two fluids (λ = μd/μm, where μd is the drop viscosity and μm is the matrix viscosity); and (3) capillary number (Ca). For a given Wc, a drop steadily deforms to attain a stable geometry (Taylor number and inclination of its long axis to the shear direction) when Ca < 0.3. For Ca > 0.3, the deformation behavior turns to be unsteady, leading to oscillatory variations of both its shape and orientation with progressive shear. This kind of unsteady deformation also occurs in a condition of high viscosity ratios (λ > 2). Here we present a detailed parametric analysis of the drop geometry with increasing shear as a function of Wc, Ca, and λ. Under a threshold condition, deforming drops become unstable, resulting in their breakup into smaller droplets. We recognize three principal modes of breakup: Mode I (mid-point pinching), Mode II (edge breakup), and Mode III (homogeneous breakup). Each of these modes is shown to be most effective in the specific field defined by Ca and λ. Our study also demonstrates the role of channel confinement (Wc) in controlling the transition of Mode I to III. Finally, we discuss implications of the three modes in determining characteristic drop size distributions in multiphase flows.

  14. Dynamics of Polymers in Colloidal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsieh; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    This research is motivated by recent studies on the von Willebrand factor (vWF), a large multimeric protein that plays an essential role in the initial stages of blood clotting in blood vessels. Recent experiments substantiated the hypothesis that the vWF is activated by shear stress in blood flow that causes its shape to transform from a compact globule to an extended state, and biological function is obtained only in the extended state. Simple simulations (which only consider a single polymer in bulk shear flow) have successfully reproduced the observed dynamics of the vWF. However, a more refined model is still demanding for the better understanding of the behaviors of this biomolecule in the physiological environments. Here we refine the existing model by adding the drifting colloids into the flows to mimic the presence of the blood cells in the bloodstream. Preliminary result shows that colloids greatly influence the dynamics of the polymers. It is observed that the average extensions of polymers along and perpendicular to the shear flow direction are both increased with the presence of the colloids.

  15. Generation of electrostatic drift zonal flows under the action of mean sheared flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Kharshiladze, O.

    2016-12-01

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by the small-scale electrostatic drift wave turbulence in the magnetized plasma under the action of mean poloidal sheared flow is considered. Attention to large-scale (compared to the ion Larmor radius) drift structures is paid. To this end, the generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and scalar nonlinearities is derived, and the appropriate eigenvalue problem is solved numerically. Destabilizing role of the small amplitude mean shear flow and spatial inhomogeneity of electron temperature is shown.

  16. Experimental measurement of dynamic fluid shear stress on the ventricular surface of the aortic valve leaflet

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan

    2015-01-01

    Aortic valve (AV) calcification is a highly prevalent disease with serious impact on mortality and morbidity. The exact causes and mechanisms of AV calcification are unclear, although previous studies suggest that mechanical forces play a role. It has been clinically demonstrated that calcification preferentially occurs on the aortic surface of the AV. This is hypothesized to be due to differences in the mechanical environments on the two sides of the valve. It is thus necessary to characterize fluid shear forces acting on both sides of the leaflet to test this hypothesis. The current study is one of two studies characterizing dynamic shear stress on both sides of the AV leaflets. In the current study, shear stresses on the ventricular surface of the AV leaflets were measured experimentally on two prosthetic AV models with transparent leaflets in an in vitro pulsatile flow loop using two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Experimental measurements were utilized to validate a theoretical model of AV ventricular surface shear stress based on the Womersley profile in a straight tube, with corrections for the opening angle of the valve leaflets. This theoretical model was applied to in vivo data based on MRI-derived volumetric flow rates and valve dimension obtained from the literature. Experimental results showed that ventricular surface shear stress was dominated by the streamwise component. The systolic shear stress waveform resembled a half-sinusoid during systole and peaks at 64–71 dyn/cm2, and reversed in direction at the end of systole for 15–25 ms, and reached a significant negative magnitude of 40–51 dyn/cm2. Shear stresses from the theoretical model applied to in vivo data showed that shear stresses peaked at 77–92 dyn/cm2 and reversed in direction for substantial period of time (108–110 ms) during late systole with peak negative shear stress of 35–38 dyn/cm2. PMID:21465260

  17. Probing the dynamics of high-viscosity entangled polymers under shear using Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawecki, M.; Gutfreund, P.; Adlmann, F. A.; Lindholm, E.; Longeville, S.; Lapp, A.; Wolff, M.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy provides unique insight into molecular and submolecular dynamics as well as intra- and inter-molecular interactions in soft matter. These dynamics may change drastically under shear flow. In particular in polymer physics a stress plateau is observed, which might be explained by an entanglement-disentanglement transition. However, such a transition is difficult to identify directly by experiments. Neutron Spin Echo has been proven to provide information about entanglement length and degree by probing the local dynamics of the polymer chains. Combining shear experiments and neutron spin echo is challenging since, first the beam polarisation has to be preserved during scattering and second, Doppler scattered neutrons may cause inelastic scattering. In this paper we present a new shear device adapted for these needs. We demonstrate that a high beam polarisation can be preserved and present first data on an entangled polymer solution under shear. To complement the experiments on the dynamics we present novel SANS data revealing shear- induced conformational changes in highly entangled polymers.

  18. Steady axisymmetric vortex flows with swirl and shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcrat, Alan R.; Fornberg, Bengt; Miller, Kenneth G.

    A general procedure is presented for computing axisymmetric swirling vortices which are steady with respect to an inviscid flow that is either uniform at infinity or includes shear. We consider cases both with and without a spherical obstacle. Choices of numerical parameters are given which yield vortex rings with swirl, attached vortices with swirl analogous to spherical vortices found by Moffatt, tubes of vorticity extending to infinity and Beltrami flows. When there is a spherical obstacle we have found multiple solutions for each set of parameters. Flows are found by numerically solving the Bragg-Hawthorne equation using a non-Newton-based iterative procedure which is robust in its dependence on an initial guess.

  19. Numerical investigation of granular flow in a shear cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.; Luding, S.

    2013-06-01

    Granular flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell is investigated based on the results obtained by using the Discrete Element Method. The distributions of porosity and coordination number are studied, and the relationship of these variables is established. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is tested. The results display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime, whereas significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime. The correlations between stresses and packing fraction are examined and the packing fraction values for the quasi-static/intermediate and intermediate/inertial regime transitions are identified. The force networks/structures for different scaled stiffness are analyzed to further understand the regime-transitions for the granular flow.

  20. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.-W.

    1992-01-01

    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  1. Role of pressure diffusion in non-homogeneous shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.; Lele, S. K.; Durbin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A non-local model is presented for approximating the pressure diffusion in calculations of turbulent free shear and boundary layer flows. It is based on the solution of an elliptic relaxation equation which enables local diffusion sources to be distributed over lengths of the order of the integral scale. The pressure diffusion model was implemented in a boundary layer code within the framework of turbulence models based on both the kappa-epsilon-(bar)upsilon(exp 2) system of equations and the full Reynolds stress equations. Model computations were performed for mixing layers and boundary layer flows. In each case, the pressure diffusion model enabled the well-known free-stream edge singularity problem to be eliminated. There was little effect on near-wall properties. Computed results agreed very well with experimental and DNS data for the mean flow velocity, the turbulent kinetic energy, and the skin-friction coefficient.

  2. Simulation of 3D Chaotic Electroconvection in Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Scott; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Electroconvection, a microscale electrohydrodynamic phenomenon with chaotic features reminiscent of turbulence, provides the dominant transport mechanism in many electrochemical processes where ions are driven through ion-selective surfaces under large applied voltages. Electrodialysis, for example, desalinates water by flowing it between layers of ion-selective membranes with alternating selectivity while an electric field is applied normal to the membranes. This process leads to alternating channels becoming enriched and depleted of ions. Despite its key importance, much about how electroconvection enhances ion transport, particularly in the presence of crossflow, remains a mystery. We present results of 3D direct numerical simulations of electroconvection in a canonical geometry of an electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir with periodic sides subject to applied shear flow. We analyze the effects of crossflow on both flow statistics and qualitative structures in the fully chaotic regime. Stanford Graduate Fellowship, NSF GRFP.

  3. A simple model to understand the role of membrane shear elasticity and stress-free shape on the motion of red blood cells in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallat, Annie; Abkarian, Manouk; Dupire, Jules

    2015-11-01

    The analytical model presented by Keller and Skalak on the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow described the cell as a fluid ellipsoid of fixed shape. It was extended to introduce shear elasticity of the cell membrane. We further extend the model when the cell discoid physiological shape is not a stress-free shape. We show that spheroid stress-free shapes enables fitting experimental data with values of shear elasticity typical to that found with micropipettes and optical tweezers. For moderate shear rates (when RBCs keep their discoid shape) this model enables to quantitatively determine an effective cell viscosity, that combines membrane and hemoglobin viscosities and an effective shear modulus of the membrane that combines shear modulus and stress-free shape. This model allows determining RBC mechanical parameters both in the tanktreading regime for cells suspended in a high viscosity medium, and in the tumbling regime for cells suspended in a low viscosity medium. In this regime,a transition is predicted between a rigid-like tumbling motion and a fluid-like tumbling motion above a critical shear rate, which is directly related to the mechanical parameters of the cell. A*MIDEX (n ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the ''Investissements d'Avenir'', Region Languedoc-Roussillon, Labex NUMEV (ANR-10-LABX-20), BPI France project DataDiag.

  4. Fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution in an interfacial shearing flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaraj, Vignesh; McBride, Samantha; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Although the association of fibril plaques with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's is well established, in-depth understanding of the roles played by various physical factors in seeding and growth of fibrils is far from well known. Of the numerous factors affecting this complex phenomenon, the effect of fluid flow and shear at interfaces is paramount as it is ubiquitous and the most varying factor in vivo. Many amyloidogenic proteins have been found to denature upon contact at hydrophobic interfaces due to the self-assembling nature of protein in its monomeric state. Here, fibrillization kinetics of insulin solution is studied in an interfacial shearing flow. The transient surface rheological response of the insulin solution to the flow and its effect on the bulk fibrillization process has been quantified. Minute differences in hydrophobic characteristics between two variants of insulin- Human recombinant and Bovine insulin are found to result in very different responses. Results presented will be in the form of fibrillization assays, images of fibril plaques formed, and changes in surface rheological properties of the insulin solution. The interfacial velocity field, measured from images (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), is compared with computations. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Suppression of repeated adiabatic shear banding by dynamic large strain extrusion machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S. L.; Dai, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is an advanced production technology with great future potential. Chip serration or segmentation is a commonly observed phenomenon during high speed machining of metals, which is found to be ascribed to a repeated shear band formation fueled by thermo-plastic instability occurring within the primary shear zone. The occurrence of serrated chips leads to the cutting force fluctuation, decreased tool life, degradation of the surface finish and less accuracy in machine parts during high speed machining. Hence, understanding and controlling serrated chip formation in HSM are extremely important. In this work, a novel dynamic large strain extrusion machining (DLSEM) technique is developed for suppressing formation of serrated chips. The systematic DLSEM experiments of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 alloy with varying degrees of imposed extrusion constraint were carried out. It is found that there is a prominent chip morphology transition from serrated to continuous state and shear band spacing decreases with the constraint degree increasing. In order to uncover underlying mechanism of the imposed extrusion constraint suppressing repeated adiabatic shear banding in DLSEM, new theoretical models are developed where the effects of extrusion constraint, material convection due to chip flow and momentum diffusion during shear band propagation are included. The analytical expressions for the onset criterion of adiabatic shear band and shear band spacing in DLSEM are obtained. The theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Contributions to the understanding of large-scale coherent structures in developing free turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J. T. C.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in the mechanics of boundary layer flow are reported. The physical problems of large scale coherent structures in real, developing free turbulent shear flows, from the nonlinear aspects of hydrodynamic stability are addressed. The presence of fine grained turbulence in the problem, and its absence, lacks a small parameter. The problem is presented on the basis of conservation principles, which are the dynamics of the problem directed towards extracting the most physical information, however, it is emphasized that it must also involve approximations.

  7. Investigation of particle-laden turbulent flow in free shear turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Ellzey, J.; Daily, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Explicit numerical mixed phase simulations are described which couple random gasdynamic motions to inertiallly interactive gas borne particles. Theses simulations are numerical experiments intended to provide data for investigating the interaction between a developing turbulent free shear layer and gas borne solid particles it entrains. The simulations predict most probable distributions of dispersed phase trajectories, standard deviations, and gas phase mixing dynamics which include the concomitant back-influences of the particle phase on the carrier gas flow. Data for refinement of the computational scheme and physical verification are provided by experiment. The experimental evidence is developed in a splitter plate divided, two-channel free shear mixing combustion tube. A variety of particle concentrations and particle size distributions are admitted into non-combusting or combusting flows with selected heat release levels. The computations, in turn, provide guidance on design and selection of new experiments.

  8. Vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder under linear shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Dai; Tu, Jiahuang; Han, Zhaolong

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the numerical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a square cylinder which is connected to a 2-DOF mass-spring system and is immersed in the planar shear flow by employing a characteristic-based split (CBS) finite element method (FEM). The reduced mass of the square cylinder is M r = 2, while the reduced velocity, U r, is changed from 3 to 12 with an increment of ΔU r = 1. The effects of some key parameters on the cylinder dynamic responses, vibrating frequencies, the flow patterns as well as the energy transferred between the fluid and cylinder are revealed. In this study, the key parameters are selected as follows: shear ratio (k = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 80 and 160). Numerical results demonstrate that the X-Y trajectories of the cylinder mainly appear as a symmetrical figure ‘8’ in uniform flow (k = 0) and an unsymmetrical figure ‘8’ and ‘O’ in shear flows (k = 0.05 and 0.1). The maximum oscillation amplitudes of the square cylinder in both the inline and transverse directions have distinct characteristics compared to that of a circular cylinder. Two kinds of flow patterns, ‘2S’ and ‘P + S’, are mainly observed under the shear flow. Also, the mean values of the energy of the cylinder system increase with the reduced velocity, while the root mean square (rms) of the energy reaches its peak value at reduced velocity U r = 5.

  9. Non-Newtonian hydrodynamics for a dilute granular suspension under uniform shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Moisés G; Reyes, Francisco Vega; Garzó, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    We study in this work a steady shearing laminar flow with null heat flux (usually called "uniform shear flow") in a gas-solid suspension at low density. The solid particles are modeled as a gas of smooth hard spheres with inelastic collisions while the influence of the surrounding interstitial fluid on the dynamics of grains is modeled by means of a volume drag force, in the context of a rheological model for suspensions. The model is solved by means of three different but complementary routes, two of them being theoretical (Grad's moment method applied to the corresponding Boltzmann equation and an exact solution of a kinetic model adapted to granular suspensions) and the other being computational (Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation). Unlike in previous studies on granular sheared suspensions, the collisional moment associated with the momentum transfer is determined in Grad's solution by including all the quadratic terms in the stress tensor. This theoretical enhancement allows for the detection and evaluation of the normal stress differences in the plane normal to the laminar flow. In addition, the exact solution of the kinetic model gives the explicit form of the velocity moments of the velocity distribution function. Comparison between our theoretical and numerical results shows in general a good agreement for the non-Newtonian rheological properties, the kurtosis (fourth velocity moment of the distribution function), and the velocity distribution of the kinetic model for quite strong inelasticity and not too large values of the (scaled) friction coefficient characterizing the viscous drag force. This shows the accuracy of our analytical results that allows us to describe in detail the flow dynamics of the granular sheared suspension.

  10. Undulatory Swimming in Shear-Thinning Fluids: Flow Fields & Power Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, David; Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas; Lauga, Eric; Arratia, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    In this talk, we investigate the flow and dynamics of the undulatory swimmer Caenorhabditis elegans in shear-thinning fluids. Recent theoretical and numerical studies have shown that the cost of swimming, or mechanical power, for a 2D waving sheet is reduced in shear-thinning fluids. Here, we use velocimetry and tracking techniques to experimentally investigate this hypothesis using two methods: (i) an estimate of the mechanical power of the swimmer and (ii) the viscous dissipation rate of the flow field. We find the cost of swimming for C. elegans in shear-thinning fluids is reduced when compared to the cost of swimming in Newtonian fluids, scales with a fluid's effective viscosity, and can be predicted using fluid rheology and simple swimming kinematics. These results, however, have a caveat: only a planar (2D) slice of the 3D flow field around swimmer is accessible for analysis. In order to better interpret our flow measurements, we compare our planar velocimetry to a full 3D boundary element method simulation. We find that nearly all deviations between experiments and simulations can be accounted for by a simple correction factor involving the out-of-plane velocity gradient, which can be computed directly from planar experimental data using incompressibility.

  11. Shear flow of angular grains: acoustic effects and nonmonotonic rate dependence of volume.

    PubMed

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M

    2014-09-01

    Naturally occurring granular materials often consist of angular particles whose shape and frictional characteristics may have important implications on macroscopic flow rheology. In this paper, we provide a theoretical account for the peculiar phenomenon of autoacoustic compaction-nonmonotonic variation of shear band volume with shear rate in angular particles-recently observed in experiments. Our approach is based on the notion that the volume of a granular material is determined by an effective-disorder temperature known as the compactivity. Noise sources in a driven granular material couple its various degrees of freedom and the environment, causing the flow of entropy between them. The grain-scale dynamics is described by the shear-transformation-zone theory of granular flow, which accounts for irreversible plastic deformation in terms of localized flow defects whose density is governed by the state of configurational disorder. To model the effects of grain shape and frictional characteristics, we propose an Ising-like internal variable to account for nearest-neighbor grain interlocking and geometric frustration and interpret the effect of friction as an acoustic noise strength. We show quantitative agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions and propose additional experiments that provide stringent tests on the new theoretical elements.

  12. Bubble Dynamics in Polymer Solutions Undergoing Shear.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    20D 23 REYNOLDS NUMBER *10’ FIGURE 1-1. The effect of dilute polymer solutes on hydraulic cavitation inception (Ellis &Ting, 1974). (a) ( b ) FIGURE 1-2...Comparison of cavitation appearance in (a) water and ( b ) dilute aqueous Polyox solution (Ting, 1978). 3 cavitation is significantly altered (Figure...research fall into two distinct (but related) areas. These are (a) Newtonian (or viscous) flow-induced cavitation bubble deformation and ( b ) non

  13. Eddy genesis and manipulation in plane laminar shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholle, M.; Haas, A.; Aksel, N.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Thompson, H. M.; Gaskell, P. H.

    2009-07-01

    Eddy formation and presence in a plane laminar shear flow configuration consisting of two infinitely long plates orientated parallel to each other is investigated theoretically. The upper plate, which is planar, drives the flow; the lower one has a sinusoidal profile and is fixed. The governing equations are solved via a full finite element formulation for the general case and semianalytically at the Stokes flow limit. The effects of varying geometry (involving changes in the mean plate separation or the amplitude and wavelength of the lower plate) and inertia are explored separately. For Stokes flow and varying geometry, excellent agreement between the two methods of solution is found. Of particular interest with regard to the flow structure is the importance of the clearance that exists between the upper plate and the tops of the corrugations forming the lower one. When the clearance is large, an eddy is only present at sufficiently large amplitudes or small wavelengths. However, as the plate clearance is reduced, a critical value is found, which triggers the formation of an eddy in an otherwise fully attached flow for any finite amplitude and arbitrarily large wavelength. This is a precursor to the primary eddy to be expected in the lid-driven cavity flow, which is formed in the limit of zero clearance between the plates. The influence of the flow driving mechanism is assessed by comparison with corresponding solutions for the case of gravity-driven fluid films flowing over an undulating substrate. When inertia is present, the flow generally becomes asymmetrical. However, it is found that for large mean plate separations the flow local to the lower plate becomes effectively decoupled from the inertia dominated overlying flow if the wavelength of the lower plate is sufficiently small. In such cases the local flow retains its symmetry. A local Reynolds number based on the wavelength is shown to be useful in characterizing these large-gap flows. As the mean plate

  14. Experimental investigations of the time and flow-direction responses of shear-stress-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Muratore, Joseph J., Jr.; Heineck, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Time and flow-direction responses of shearstress-sensitive liquid crystal coatings were explored experimentally. For the time-response experiments, coatings were exposed to transient, compressible flows created during the startup and off-design operation of an injector-driven supersonic wind tunnel. Flow transients were visualized with a focusing Schlieren system and recorded with a 1000 frame/sec color video camera. Liquid crystal responses to these changing-shear environments were then recorded with the same video system, documenting color-play response times equal to, or faster than, the time interval between sequential frames (i.e., 1 millisecond). For the flow-direction experiments, a planar test surface was exposed to equal-magnitude and known-direction surface shear stresses generated by both normal and tangential subsonic jet-impingement flows. Under shear, the sense of the angular displacement of the liquid crystal dispersed (reflected) spectrum was found to be a function of the instantaneous direction of the applied shear. This technique thus renders dynamic flow reversals or flow divergences visible over entire test surfaces at image recording rates up to 1 KHz. Extensions of the technique to visualize relatively small changes in surface shear stress direction appear feasible.

  15. Shear flow induced wave couplings in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Poedts, S.; Rogava, A.D. |; Mahajan, S.M. |

    1998-01-01

    A sheared background flow in a plasma induces coupling between different MHD wave modes, resulting in their mutual transformations with corresponding energy redistributing between the modes. In this way, the energy can be transfered from one wave mode to the other, but energy can also be added to or extracted from the background flow. In the present paper it is investigated whether the wave coupling and energy transfer mechanisms can operate under solar wind conditions. It is shown that this is indeed the case. Hence, the long-period waves observed in the solar wind at r > 0.3 AU might be generated by much faster periodic oscillations in the photosphere of the Sun. Other possible consequences for observable beat phenomena in the wind and the acceleration of the solar wind particles are also discussed.

  16. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-11-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment.

  17. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-07-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment.

  18. Influence of initial mean helicity on homogeneous turbulent shear flow.

    PubMed

    Jacobitz, Frank G; Schneider, Kai; Bos, Wouter J T; Farge, Marie

    2011-11-01

    Helicity statistics are studied in homogeneous turbulent shear flow. Initial mean helicity is imposed on an isotropic turbulence field using a decomposition of the flow into complex-valued helical waves. The initial decay of the turbulent kinetic energy is weakened in the presence of strong mean helicity, consistent with an analytic analysis of the spectral tensor of velocity correlations. While exponential growth of the mean turbulent kinetic energy is obtained, the mean helicity decays. Probability distribution functions (PDFs) of helicity are skewed and show that the imposed mean helicity prevails throughout the simulations. A wavelet-based scale-dependent analysis shows a trend to two dimensionalization for large scales of motion and a preference for helical motion at small scales. The magnitude of the skewness of the PDFs decreases for smaller scales. Joint PDFs indicate a strong correlation of the signs of both, helicity and superhelicity, for all cases. This correlation supports the conjecture that superhelicity dissipates helicity.

  19. Viscosity and Shear Flows in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Rivera, W. F.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetized dusty plasma experiments are planned at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), to investigate E x B rotation with dust of at least 500 nm in diameter. At this size, individual particles can be tracked and viscosity, shear flow, and temperature can be measured directly using a methodology similar to that used for linear shear flow configurations [Feng et al. PRL 109, 185002 (2012)]. The experiments are planned with a specially designed Bitter-type magnet that can be configured to achieve up to 10 T for at least 10 seconds, to minutes, with much longer operation times at lower fields also possible. At the highest field, the dust will be fully magnetized and thus we aim to achieve direct E x B rotation of the dust (and not just by ion drag). The motivation for these experiments comes from observations of electron and ion temperatures in excess of 100 eV in E x B rotating plasmas [R. Reid et al. Phys. Plasmas 21, 063305 (2014)]. The experimental setup and planned diagnostics for the magnetized dusty plasma are presented.

  20. Stratified shear flow in an inclined square duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Colin; Linden, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We present results of experiments on stratified shear flow in an inclined duct. The duct connects two reservoirs of fluid with different densities, which drives a counterflow with a dense layer flowing beneath a less-dense layer moving in the opposite direction. Depending on the dimensionless Atwood number A and duct angle θ, we identify four flow states: a laminar L state, a Holmboe wavemode H state, a spatio-temporally intermittent I state, and a fully developed turbulent T state. We map a state diagram of these flows in the Atwood number - θ plane and examine the force balances that determine each of these states. We find the L and H states to be hydraulically controlled at the ends of the duct and the flow is determined by the pressure difference associated with the density difference between the reservoirs. The I and T states are associated with increasing dissipation within the duct. We replot the state-space in the Grashof number - θ phase plane and find the transition to the T -state is governed by a critical Grashof number. We then evaluate the level of turbulence by examining scalings for the thickness of interfacial region between the two layers. NSF GRF No. DGE1144152.

  1. Dynamics of finite-symmetry and general-shaped objects under shear and shear alignment of uniaxial objects at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peilong

    2013-12-01

    We prove that, for an object with a finitefold rotational symmetry (except for a twofold one) around an axis and mirror symmetries (such as a square rod or pentagonal slab, etc.), dynamics of the symmetry axis in low Reynolds number shear flow exactly follows the same form as that of a uniaxial object (e.g., a circular rod or symmetric ellipsoid) as the so-called Jeffery orbits. We use the formulation in which the dynamics of the rigid body follows first-order ordinary differential equations in time [Phys. Rev. EPRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.056309 84, 056309 (2011)]. Interaction between the object and the shear flow enters through a set of scalar coefficients, and the flow field does not need to be solved dynamically. Results of numerical simulations for general-shaped objects also are discussed. In the second part, Brownian dynamics of a uniaxial object is studied numerically. With D as the rotational diffusion constant, α as a parameter characterizing the aspect ratio, and γ as the shear rate, the object starts to align with the flow when the value of D/(γα) decreases near 1. At large α (the long object limit), the results suggest much lower flow alignment when D/(γα)>1.

  2. Landau-type order parameter equation for shear banding in granular Couette flow.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Priyanka; Alam, Meheboob

    2009-08-07

    We show that a Landau-type "order-parameter" equation describes the onset of shear-band formation in granular plane Couette flow wherein the flow undergoes an ordering transition into alternate layers of dense and dilute regions of low and high shear rates, respectively, parallel to the flow direction. Even though the linear theory predicts the stability of the homogeneous shear solution in dilute flows, our analytical bifurcation theory suggests that there is a subcritical finite-amplitude instability that is likely to lead to shear-band formation in dilute flows, which is in agreement with previous numerical simulations.

  3. Atomic hydrodynamics of DNA: coil-uncoil-coil transitions in a wall-bounded shear flow.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, William C; Wang, Guan M

    2008-12-01

    Extensive experimental work on the response of DNA molecules to externally applied forces and on the dynamics of DNA molecules flowing in microchannels and nanochannels has been carried out over the past two decades, however, there has not been available, until now, any atomic-scale means of analyzing nonequilibrium DNA response dynamics. There has not therefore been any way to investigate how the backbone and side-chain atoms along the length of a DNA molecule interact with the molecules and ions of the flowing solvent and with the atoms of passing boundary surfaces. We report here on the application of the nonequilibrium biomolecular dynamics simulation method that we developed [G. M. Wang and W. C. Sandberg, Nanotechnology 18, 4819 (2007)] to analyze, at the atomic interaction force level, the conformational dynamics of short-chain single-stranded DNA molecules in a shear flow near a surface. This is a direct atomic computational analysis of the hydrodynamic interaction between a biomolecule and a flowing solvent. The DNA molecules are observed to exhibit conformational behaviors including coils, hairpin loops, and figure-eight shapes that have neither been previously measured experimentally nor observed computationally, as far as we know. We relate the conformational dynamics to the atomic interaction forces experienced throughout the length of a molecule as it moves in the flowing solvent past the surface boundary. We show that the DNA conformational dynamics is related to the asymmetry in the molecular environment induced by the motion of the surrounding molecules and the atoms of the passing surface. We also show that while the asymmetry in the environment is necessary, it is not sufficient to produce the observed conformational dynamics. A time variation in the asymmetry, due in our case to a shear flow, must also exist. In order to contrast these results with the usual experimental situation of purely diffusive motion in thermal equilibrium we have also

  4. Azimuthal instability of the interface in a shear banded flow by direct visual observation.

    PubMed

    Decruppe, J P; Bécu, L; Greffier, O; Fazel, N

    2010-12-17

    The stability of the shear banded flow of a Maxwellian fluid is studied from an experimental point of view using rheology and flow visualization with polarized light. We show that the one-layer homogeneous flow cannot sustain shear rates corresponding to the end of the stress plateau. The high shear rate branch is not found and the shear stress oscillates at the end of the plateau. An azimuthal instability appears: the shear induced band becomes unstable and the interface between the two bands undulates in time and space with a period τ, a wavelength λ and a wave vector k parallel to the direction of the tangential velocity.

  5. Multiscale modeling of mechanosensing channels on vesicles and cell membranes in 3D constricted flows and shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.

  6. Dynamically Jammed Fronts under impact in shear thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopdhyay, Shomeek; Allen, Benjamin; Korpas, Lucia; Brown, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Shear thickening fluids such as cornstarch and water show remarkable impact response allowing, for example, a person to run on the surface but sinking at lower velocities. We perform constant velocity impact experiments and imaging in shear thickening fluids at velocities lower than 500 mm/s and suspension heights of a few cm. In this regime where inertial effects are insignificant, we discover the existence of two dynamically jammed fronts which reach the opposite boundary to support large stresses like a solid. These stresses are large enough to support the weight of a running person. We also find a shear thickening transition under impact which is due to collision of the fronts with the boundary. The jammed front show similarities to granular materials like localization of stress. There is a critical velocity required to generate these impact activated fronts.

  7. A new parallel plate shear cell for in situ real-space measurements of complex fluids under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu Ling; Brand, Joost H J; van Gemert, Josephus L A; Verkerk, Jaap; Wisman, Hans; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout

    2007-10-01

    We developed and tested a parallel plate shear cell that can be mounted on top of an inverted microscope to perform confocal real-space measurements on complex fluids under shear. To follow structural changes in time, a plane of zero velocity is created by letting the plates move in opposite directions. The location of this plane is varied by changing the relative velocities of the plates. The gap width is variable between 20 and 200 microm with parallelism better than 1 microm. Such a small gap width enables us to examine the total sample thickness using high numerical aperture objective lenses. The achieved shear rates cover the range of 0.02-10(3) s(-1). This shear cell can apply an oscillatory shear with adjustable amplitude and frequency. The maximum travel of each plate equals 1 cm, so that strains up to 500 can be applied. For most complex fluids, an oscillatory shear with such a large amplitude can be regarded as a continuous shear. We measured the flow profile of a suspension of silica colloids in this shear cell. It was linear except for a small deviation caused by sedimentation. To demonstrate the excellent performance and capabilities of this new setup we examined shear induced crystallization and melting of concentrated suspensions of 1 microm diameter silica colloids.

  8. Evaluation of the time dependent surface shear stress in turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandborn, V. A.

    1979-01-01

    The time dependent surface shear stress has been evaluated using surface heat transfer measurements. For fully developed turbulent pipe and open channel water flows, and incompressible and compressible turbulent boundary layer air flows the measurements indicate the absolute magnitude of the surface shear stress fluctuations will be greater than two times the mean values. The root-mean-square shear stress fluctuations were of the order of 0.2 to 0.4 times the mean surface shear values. Due to these large surface shear stress fluctuations and the nonlinear relation between heat transfer and shear stress, a special technique has been developed to evaluate the measurements. It was found that the non-linear averaging errors for a hot film-surface shear stress gauge in a fully developed pipe flow was of the order of 10 percent at low velocities. A hot wire-surface shear stress gauge was employed for measurements of turbulent boundary layers in air.

  9. Influence of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning instability and edge localized mode crash

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, P. W.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, X. G.; Xia, T. Y.

    2012-09-15

    The E Multiplication-Sign B shear flow plays a dual role on peeling-ballooning modes and their subsequently triggered edge localized mode (ELM) crashes. On one hand, the flow shear can stabilize high-n modes and twist the mode in the poloidal direction, constraining the mode's radial extent and reducing the size of the corresponding ELM. On the other hand, the shear flow also introduces the Kelvin-Helmholtz drive, which can destabilize peeling-ballooning modes. The overall effect of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning modes and ELM crashes depends on the competition between these two effects. When the flow shear is either small or very large, it can reduce ELM size. However, for moderate values of flow shear, the destabilizing effect from the Kelvin-Helmholtz term is dominant and leads to larger ELM crashes.

  10. Laboratory Observation Of Magnetic Field Growth Driven By Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Dorf, L.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Lapenta, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have measured in the laboratory profiles of magnetic flux ropes, that include ion flow, magnetic field, current density, and plasma pressure. These data allow a complete screw pinch equilibrium with guide magnetic field to be reconstructed, and the electron flows to be inferred. We use this information to evaluate the Hall JxB term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohms Law. The difference between ion and electron flows allows us to show experimentally and theoretically that the sheared electron flows can account for the generation of magnetic field. For example we show a measured quadrupole out of plane magnetic field B_z structure that occurs even in the absence of magnetic reconnection. This out of plane quadrupole pattern has historically been used as a signature of magnetic reconnection, especially with small to vanishing guide field. Recent theoretical analyses have pointed out that this presumption need not be true. *Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369, NASA Geospace NNHIOA044I, Basic

  11. Effect of confinement on droplet coalescence in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongju; Cardinaels, Ruth; Moldenaers, Paula

    2009-11-17

    The effect of confinement on the coalescence of Newtonian (polydimethylsiloxane) droplets in a Newtonian (polyisobutylene) matrix is investigated experimentally. A counter rotating parallel plate device, equipped with a microscopy setup, is used to visualize two interacting droplets during shear flow. The ratio of droplet-to-matrix viscosity is kept constant at 1.1. Droplet collisions are studied for a range of droplet sizes, both in bulk conditions and for gap spacings that are comparable to the droplet size. As a result, we present the first quantitative experimental data set for the coalescence of two equal-sized droplets in a pure shear flow with varying degrees of confinement. Compared to bulk conditions, for droplets smaller than roughly 0.2 times the gap spacing, a slight degree of confinement only decreases the orientation angle at which the droplets coalesce whereas the critical conditions for coalescence remain unaltered. For more confined conditions, the critical capillary number up to which coalescence can occur, increases. Therefore, confinement clearly promotes coalescence. In addition, the droplet trajectories, the time-dependent orientation angle of the droplet pair, and the droplet deformation prior to the coalescence event are systematically studied, and a comparison between the confined and the unconfined situation is provided. It is shown that the presence of two parallel walls can induce changes in the flow field around the droplet pair, which cause an increase of the interaction time between the droplets. Moreover, for sufficiently confined droplets, the additional force originating from the presence of the walls becomes comparable to the hydrodynamic force on the droplet pair, thus influencing the drainage of the matrix film between the droplet surfaces.

  12. Flow visualization and wall shear stress of a flapping model hummingbird wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanton, Erik W. M.; Vanier, Blake A.; Mohseni, Kamran

    2010-09-01

    The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics of flapping flight was investigated experimentally through flow visualization by suspended particle imagery and wall shear stress measurement from micro-array hot-film anemometry. In conjunction, a mechanism was developed to create a flapping motion with three degrees of freedom and adjustable flapping frequency. The flapping kinematics and wing shape were selected for dynamic similarity to a hummingbird during hovering flight. Flow visualization was used to validate the anemometry observations of leading edge vortex (LEV) characteristics and to investigate the necessity of spanwise flow in LEV stability. The shear sensors determined LEV characteristics throughout the translation section of the stroke period for various wing speeds. It was observed that a minimum frequency between 2 and 3.5 Hz is required for the formation and stabilization of a LEV. The vortex strength peaked around 30% of the flapping cycle (corresponding to just past the translation midpoint), which agrees with results from previous studies conducted by others. The shear sensors also indicated a mild growth in LEV size during translation sections of the wing’s motion. This growth magnitude was nearly constant through a range of operating frequencies.

  13. Estimation of wall shear stress in bypass grafts with computational fluid dynamics method.

    PubMed

    Goubergrits, L; Affeld, K; Wellnhofer, E; ZurbrüggR; Holmer, T

    2001-03-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation for coronary artery disease with different types of grafts has a large clinical application world wide. Immediately after this operation patients are usually relieved of their chest pain and have improved cardiac function. However, after a while, these bypass grafts may fail due to for example, neointimal hyperplasia or thrombosis. One of the causes for this bypass graft failure is assumed to be the blood flow with low wall shear stress. The aim of this research is to estimate the wall shear stress in a graft and thus to locate areas were wall shear stress is low. This was done with the help of a blood flow computer model. Post-operative biplane angiograms of the graft were recorded, and from these the three-dimensional geometry of the graft was reconstructed and imported into the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program FLUENT. The stationary diastolic flow through the grafts was calculated, and the wall shear stress distribution was estimated. This procedure was carried out for one native vessel and two different types of bypass grafts. One bypass graft was a saphenous vein and the other one was a varicose saphenous vein encased in a fine, flexible metal mesh. The mesh was attached to give the graft a defined diameter. The computational results show that each graft has distinct areas of low wall shear stress. The graft with the metal mesh has an area of low wall shear stress (< 1 Pa, stationary flow), which is four times smaller than the respective areas in the other graft and in the native vessel. This is thought to be caused by the smaller and more uniform diameter of the metal mesh-reinforced graft.

  14. Cells in 3D matrices under interstitial flow: effects of extracellular matrix alignment on cell shear stress and drag forces.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, John A; Lichter, Seth; Swartz, Melody A

    2010-03-22

    Interstitial flow is an important regulator of various cell behaviors both in vitro and in vivo, yet the forces that fluid flow imposes on cells embedded in a 3D extracellular matrix (ECM), and the effects of matrix architecture on those forces, are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate how fiber alignment can affect the shear and pressure forces on the cell and ECM. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations, we show that while the solutions of the Brinkman equation accurately estimate the average fluid shear stress and the drag forces on a cell within a 3D fibrous medium, the distribution of shear stress on the cellular surface as well as the peak shear stresses remain intimately related to the pericellular fiber architecture and cannot be estimated using bulk-averaged properties. We demonstrate that perpendicular fiber alignment of the ECM yields lower shear stress and pressure forces on the cells and higher stresses on the ECM, leading to decreased permeability, while parallel fiber alignment leads to higher stresses on cells and increased permeability, as compared to a cubic lattice arrangement. The Spielman-Goren permeability relationships for fibrous media agreed well with CFD simulations of flow with explicitly considered fibers. These results suggest that the experimentally observed active remodeling of ECM fibers by fibroblasts under interstitial flow to a perpendicular alignment could serve to decrease the shear and drag forces on the cell.

  15. Performance characterization of a cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine in sheared inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Forbush, Dominic; Polagye, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Donegan, James; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-12-01

    A method for constructing a non-dimensional performance curve for a cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine in sheared flow is developed for a natural river site. The river flow characteristics are quasi-steady, with negligible vertical shear, persistent lateral shear, and synoptic changes dominated by long time scales (days to weeks). Performance curves developed from inflow velocities measured at individual points (randomly sampled) yield inconclusive turbine performance characteristics because of the spatial variation in mean flow. Performance curves using temporally- and spatially-averaged inflow velocities are more conclusive. The implications of sheared inflow are considered in terms of resource assessment and turbine control.

  16. High-Energy-Density Shear Flow and Instability Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, F. W.; Flippo, K. A.; Merritt, E. C.; di Stefano, C. A.; Devolder, B. G.; Kurien, S.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    High-energy-density shear experiments have been performed by LANL at the OMEGA Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments have been simulated using the LANL radiation-hydrocode RAGE and have been used to assess turbulence models' ability to function in the high-energy-density, inertial-fusion-relevant regime. Beginning with the basic configuration of two counter-oriented shock-driven flows of > 100 km/s, which initiate a strong shear instability across an initially solid-density, 20 μm thick Al plate, variations of the experiment to details of the initial conditions have been performed. These variations have included increasing the fluid densities (by modifying the plate material from Al to Ti and Cu), imposing sinusoidal seed perturbations on the plate, and directly modifying the plate's intrinsic surface roughness. Radiography of the unseeded layer has revealed the presence of emergent Kelvin-Helmholtz structures which may be analyzed to infer fluid-mechanical properties including turbulent energy density. This work is conducted by the US DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  17. Fluid dynamics of rivulet flow between plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenckhan, W.; Ritacco, H.; Saint-Jalmes, A.; Saugey, A.; McGuinness, P.; van der Net, A.; Langevin, D.; Weaire, D.

    2007-10-01

    We present computational and experimental investigations into the fluid dynamics of a narrow stream of surfactant solutions, which descends under gravity between two narrowly spaced, vertical glass plates. Such a "rivulet" is bounded by two liquid/solid and two mobile liquid/gas interfaces, posing fluid dynamic problems of direct relevance to local fluid flow in liquid foams and recently reported meandering phenomena. The rivulet presents a system in which the coupling between the bulk flow and the rheological properties of the gas/liquid interface can be systematically investigated. In particular, it carries the promise of providing an alternative measuring technique for interfacial shear viscosities. We present finite element simulations in conjunction with experiments in order to describe the relationship between the rivulet geometry, the flow field, and the interfacial shear viscosities. We also report on the role of the boundary condition between the liquid-carrying channels (surface Plateau borders) and the thin soap film, which spans the two plates at low flow rates.

  18. Non-canonical Wnt signalling modulates the endothelial shear stress flow sensor in vascular remodelling.

    PubMed

    Franco, Claudio A; Jones, Martin L; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Vion, Anne-Clemence; Barbacena, Pedro; Fan, Jieqing; Mathivet, Thomas; Fonseca, Catarina G; Ragab, Anan; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Coveney, Peter V; Lang, Richard A; Gerhardt, Holger

    2016-02-04

    Endothelial cells respond to molecular and physical forces in development and vascular homeostasis. Deregulation of endothelial responses to flow-induced shear is believed to contribute to many aspects of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. However, how molecular signals and shear-mediated physical forces integrate to regulate vascular patterning is poorly understood. Here we show that endothelial non-canonical Wnt signalling regulates endothelial sensitivity to shear forces. Loss of Wnt5a/Wnt11 renders endothelial cells more sensitive to shear, resulting in axial polarization and migration against flow at lower shear levels. Integration of flow modelling and polarity analysis in entire vascular networks demonstrates that polarization against flow is achieved differentially in artery, vein, capillaries and the primitive sprouting front. Collectively our data suggest that non-canonical Wnt signalling stabilizes forming vascular networks by reducing endothelial shear sensitivity, thus keeping vessels open under low flow conditions that prevail in the primitive plexus.

  19. Linear and nonlinear effect of sheared plasma flow on resistive tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiming Hu, Xiwei; Yu, Q.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of sheared plasma flow on the m/n = 2/1 tearing mode is studied numerically (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). It is found that in the linear phase the plasma flow with a weak or moderate shear plays a stabilizing effect on tearing mode. However, the mode is driven to be more unstable by sufficiently strong sheared flow when approaching the shear Alfvén resonance (AR). In the nonlinear phase, a moderate (strong) sheared flow leads to a smaller (larger) saturated island width. The stabilization of tearing modes by moderate shear plasma flow is enhanced for a larger plasma viscosity and a lower Alfvén velocity. It is also found that in the nonlinear phase AR accelerates the plasma rotation around the 2/1 rational surface but decelerates it at the AR location, and the radial location satisfying AR spreads inwards towards the magnetic axis.

  20. Effect of a sheared flow on iceberg motion and melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzMaurice, A.; Straneo, F.; Cenedese, C.; Andres, M.

    2016-12-01

    Icebergs account for approximately half the freshwater flux into the ocean from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and play a major role in the distribution of meltwater into the ocean. Global climate models distribute this freshwater by parameterizing iceberg motion and melt, but these parameterizations are presently informed by limited observations. Here we present a record of speed and draft for 90 icebergs from Sermilik Fjord, southeastern Greenland, collected in conjunction with wind and ocean velocity data over an 8 month period. It is shown that icebergs subject to strongly sheared flows predominantly move with the vertical average of the ocean currents. If, as typical in iceberg parameterizations, only the surface ocean velocity is taken into account, iceberg speed and basal melt may have errors in excess of 60%. These results emphasize the need for parameterizations to consider ocean properties over the entire iceberg draft.

  1. New instability modes for bounded, free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macaraeg, Michele G.; Streett, Craig L.

    1989-01-01

    A class of highly amplified supersonic disturbances are found for high-speed, bounded mixing layers at high values of streamwise wavenumber. Their amplification is an order of magnitude greater than the most amplified modes, which occur at 60-65 deg at low streamwise wavenumber. These disturbances are stabilized by increasing Mach number, viscosity, and sweep; however, the effect of sweep on the most amplified mode is not significant until the wave propagation angle reaches 30 deg. The maximum growth rate of the unstable disturbances decreases as the temperature of the higher Mach number stream is increased. The structure of these disturbances is such that the phase speed with respect to the mean flow is subsonic in a small region in the center of the shear layer, and supersonic on either side of this region.

  2. Vlasov tokamak equilibria with sheared toroidal flow and anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiroukidis, Ap; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.; Tasso, H.

    2015-08-15

    By choosing appropriate deformed Maxwellian ion and electron distribution functions depending on the two particle constants of motion, i.e., the energy and toroidal angular momentum, we reduce the Vlasov axisymmetric equilibrium problem for quasineutral plasmas to a transcendental Grad-Shafranov-like equation. This equation is then solved numerically under the Dirichlet boundary condition for an analytically prescribed boundary possessing a lower X-point to construct tokamak equilibria with toroidal sheared ion flow and anisotropic pressure. Depending on the deformation of the distribution functions, these steady states can have toroidal current densities either peaked on the magnetic axis or hollow. These two kinds of equilibria may be regarded as a bifurcation in connection with symmetry properties of the distribution functions on the magnetic axis.

  3. Variational necessary and sufficient stability conditions for inviscid shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, M.; Morrison, P. J.; Hattori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for linear stability of inviscid parallel shear flow is formulated by developing a novel variational principle, where the velocity profile is assumed to be monotonic and analytic. It is shown that unstable eigenvalues of Rayleigh's equation (which is a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem) can be associated with positive eigenvalues of a certain self-adjoint operator. The stability is therefore determined by maximizing a quadratic form, which is theoretically and numerically more tractable than directly solving Rayleigh's equation. This variational stability criterion is based on the understanding of Kreĭn signature for continuous spectra and is applicable to other stability problems of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. PMID:25484600

  4. Clustering and turbulence modulation in particle laden shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, P.; Picano, F.; Sardina, G.; Casciola, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent fluctuations induce the commonplace phenomenology on the transport of small inertial particles known as clustering. Particles spread disuniformly and form aggregates where their local concentration is much higher than it is in nearby rarefaction regions, the voids, where in extreme cases not even a single particle can be found. The underlying physics has been exhaustively analyzed in statistically homogeneous and isotropic flows under the so called oneway coupling regime, i.e. in conditions where the momentum exchange between the carrier fluid and the disperse phase is negligible. Recently it has been shown that the addition of a mean flow might have dramatic effects on the disperse phase, i.e. the mean flow, through its large scale anisotropy, induces a preferential orientation of the clusters. Due to inertial effects, their directionality can even increase in the smallest scales, contrary to the expectation based on the isotropy recovery behavior of velocity fluctuations. This finding opens new issues in presence of large mass loads, when the momentum exchange between the two phases becomes significant and the back-reaction of the particles on the carrier flow cannot be neglected. These aspects are discussed here by addressing direct numerical simulation data of particle laden homogeneous shear flow in the two-way coupling regime. Consistently with previous findings we observe an overall depletion of turbulent fluctuations. In particular, particles with order Kolmogorov scale relaxation time induce the energy depletion of the classical inertial scales and the amplitude increase of the smallest ones where the particle back-reaction pumps energy into the turbulent eddies increasing their energy content. We find that increased mass loads result in the substantial broadening of the energy co-spectrum thereby extending the range of scales driven by anisotropic production mechanisms. This is due to the clusters which form the spatial support of the back

  5. Velocity and shear rate estimates of some non-Newtonian oscillatory flows in tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutev, N.; Tabakova, S.; Radev, S.

    2016-10-01

    The two-dimensional Newtonian and non-Newtonian (Carreau viscosity model used) oscillatory flows in straight tubes are studied theoretically and numerically. The corresponding analytical solution of the Newtonian flow and the numerical solution of the Carreau viscosity model flow show differences in velocity and shear rate. Some estimates for the velocity and shear rate differences are theoretically proved. As numerical examples the blood flow in different type of arteries and the polymer flow in pipes are considered.

  6. Numerical simulation of the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under the effect of stationary shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Niu, Li-Sha; Shi, Hui-Ji

    2008-06-01

    A numerical simulation of the phase separation in binary lipid membrane under the effect of stationary shear flow is performed. We numerically solved the modified two-dimensional time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations with an external velocity term, employing the CDS (i.e., Cell Dynamical System) technique. In the present simulation, stationary shear flows with different shear rates are taken into account. The evolution process of the phase separation is illustrated macroscopically via the snapshot figures and simulated scattering patterns at several typical moments. For each case, the growth exponents of the characteristic domain sizes in both directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow are studied, and the domain area as well. Also, the behavior of the excess viscosity has been investigated, which is a peculiar rheological indicator of such a membrane system with domain structures.

  7. Stick-Slip Dynamics in Sheared Granular Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, K.

    2002-12-01

    The dynamics of sheared granular materials have wide application to faulting and earthquake mechanics. Despite much interest, their complex behaviour is not well understood. Detailed laboratory experiments can reveal how specific granular processes may influence macroscopic strength. Here I demonstrate how loading rate and grain rearrangements affect stick slip in simulated faults. Granular layers (3 mm thick) composed of spherical particles (100μm) were sheared under constant normal stress (5MPa) at a range of loading rates (0.1μm/s to 1 mm/s) in a direct shear apparatus. Changes in layer thickness were monitored to reveal particle dynamics during shear. Tests were conducted in a non-fracture load regime to minimise gouge evolution with accumulated slip. This provides a vital link between geophysical experiments involving pervasive grain fracture and numerical simulations where fracture is absent. During tests, I observe highly repetitive stick-slip events, characterized by a quasi-linear increase in stress, a stage of inelastic rollover then rapid dynamic stress drop correlating to stick, premonitory slip (creep) and rapid (coseismic) slip in the layer. Stress drop amplitudes are 0.2-0.7MPa (15-30% of failure stress). Analysis of many stick-slip cycles reveals a power law relation between stress drop amplitude and recurrence time, indicating a healing rate of 0.1MPa per decade. The yield in frictional strength prior to failure is directly associated with the onset of premonitory slip (5-75μm) in the granular layer. Also, layer dilation rate is enhanced at the onset of premonitory slip (dilation <5μm). Conversely, granular layers compact rapidly at the point of coseismic slip. These observations imply direct links between gouge dynamics and frictional strength. Importantly, I see a direct correlation between the stress drop amplitude and premonitory slip. This indicates that micro-mechanical rearrangements prior to coseismic slip control the characteristics of

  8. Flipping, scooping, and spinning: Drift of rigid curved nonchiral fibers in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianghui; Tozzi, Emilio J.; Graham, Michael D.; Klingenberg, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    The motion of isolated, rigid, neutrally-buoyant, non-Brownian, curved, nonchiral fibers in simple shear flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number is studied by computer simulation. For some initial orientations, fibers with small curvature drift steadily in the gradient direction without external forces or torques. The average drift velocity and direction depend on the fiber aspect ratio, curvature, and initial orientation. The drift results from the coupling of rotational and translational dynamics, and the combined effects of flipping, scooping, and spinning motions of the fiber.

  9. Analysis of temporal shear stress gradients during the onset phase of flow over a backward-facing step.

    PubMed

    Haidekker, M A; White, C R; Frangos, J A

    2001-10-01

    Endothelial cells in blood vessels are exposed to bloodflow and thus fluid shear stress. In arterial bifurcations and stenoses, disturbed flow causes zones of recirculation and stagnation, which are associated with both spatial and temporal gradients of shear stress. Such gradients have been linked to the generation of atherosclerotic plaques. For in-vitro studies of endothelial cell responses, the sudden-expansion flow chamber has been widely used and described. A two-dimensional numerical simulation of the onset phase of flow through the chamber was performed. The wall shear stress action on the bottom plate was computed as a function of time and distance from the sudden expansion. The results showed that depending on the time for the flow to be established, significant temporal gradients occurred close to the second stagnation point of flow. Slowly ramping the flow over 15 s instead of 200 ms reduces the temporal gradients by a factor of 300, while spatial gradients are reduced by 23 percent. Thus, the effects of spatial and temporal gradients can be observed separately. In experiments on endothelial cells, disturbed flow stimulated cell proliferation only when flow onset was sudden. The spatial patterns of proliferation rate match the exposure to temporal gradients. This study provides information on the dynamics of spatial and temporal gradients to which the cells are exposed in a sudden-expansion flow chamber and relates them to changes in the onset phase of flow.

  10. Simulations of granular bed erosion due to laminar shear flow near the critical Shields number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, J. J.

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of granular beds consisting of uniformly sized spherical particles being eroded by a shear flow of Newtonian liquid have been performed. The lattice-Boltzmann method has been used for resolving the flow of the interstitial liquid. Fluid and solid dynamics are fully coupled with the particles having finite size and undergoing hard-sphere collisions. Only laminar flow has been considered with particle-based Reynolds numbers in the range 0.02 to 0.6. The parameter range of the simulations covers the transition between static and mobilized beds. The transition occurs for 0.10<θ<0.15 with θ the Shields number. The transition is insensitive of the Reynolds number and the solid-over-liquid density ratio. Incipient bed motion has been interpreted in terms of the probability density functions of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the spheres in the upper layer of the bed.

  11. Influence of the poloidal equilibrium flow and flow shear on the tearing mode instabilities in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yue; Zhou, Deng

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the poloidal equilibrium flow and flow shear on the tearing mode instabilities for tokamak plasmas is investigated. The vorticity equation is derived and approximately solved for large poloidal mode numbers (m). Asymptotic matching of the inner solution to the outer solution can approximately give the classical tearing mode stability index Δ' . For typical plasma parameters with positive flow shear, we notice that the poloidal mean flows have a beneficial effect on the classical tearing mode and vice versa. To study the modes with arbitrary poloidal mode numbers, we numerically solve the vorticity equation for delta prime ( Δ' ) for typical plasma parameters with positive flow shear at the rational surface and the resulting Δ' with large m also decreases with increasing poloidal flow velocity, consistent with the approximate analytical large m results. Our numerical calculations indicate that the poloidal mean flow with positive flow shear has beneficial influence on the stabilization of classical tearing modes in tokamak plasmas.

  12. Pressure-strain-rate events in homogeneous turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, James G.; Lee, Moon J.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the intercomponent energy transfer processes by the pressure-strain-rate in homogeneous turbulent shear flow is presented. Probability density functions (pdf's) and contour plots of the rapid and slow pressure-strain-rate show that the energy transfer processes are extremely peaky, with high-magnitude events dominating low-magnitude fluctuations, as reflected by very high flatness factors of the pressure-strain-rate. A concept of the energy transfer class was applied to investigate details of the direction as well as magnitude of the energy transfer processes. In incompressible flow, six disjoint energy transfer classes exist. Examination of contours in instantaneous fields, pdf's and weighted pdf's of the pressure-strain-rate indicates that in the low magnitude regions all six classes play an important role, but in the high magnitude regions four classes of transfer processes, dominate. The contribution to the average slow pressure-strain-rate from the high magnitude fluctuations is only 50 percent or less. The relative significance of high and low magnitude transfer events is discussed.

  13. Review of passive shear-flow control research for improved subsonic and supersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Gutmark, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shear-flow investigations have been conducted in the high-Re, turbulent initial-condition combustion regime representative of flow configurations encountered in ramjets and in supersonic plumes. Large-scale vortical structures were identified and characterized in both nonreacting and combustion-reaction experimental conditions; attention was given to these structures' role in mixing, and their breakup into fine-scale turbulence. Shear-flow/combustion control was obtained by actively enlisting duct acoustics and passively employing noncircular flow cross-sections. The investigations were extended to supersonic shear flows, yielding improved mixing for supersonic combustion. 44 refs.

  14. Shear stress partitioning of overland flow on disturbed and undisturbed rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physically-based hillslope erosion models commonly estimate soil detachment and transport capacity based on overland flow shear stress applied to soil aggregates. However, vegetation and rock cover counteract the shear stress of overland flow where they occur. Accordingly, partitioning of total sh...

  15. Numerical study of acoustic modes in ducted shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenski, Gregory G.; Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    2007-11-01

    The propagation of small-amplitude modes in an inviscid but sheared mean flow inside a duct is studied numerically. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl and constant mean flow density the pressure modes are described in terms of the eigenvalue problem for the Pridmore-Brown equation. Since for sufficiently high Helmholtz and wavenumbers, which are of great interest for applications, the field equation is inherently stiff, special care is taken to insure the stability of the numerical algorithm designed to tackle this problem. The accuracy of the method is checked against the well-known analytical solution for uniform flow. The numerical method is shown to be consistent with the analytical predictions at least for Helmholtz numbers up to 100 and circumferential wavenumbers as large as 50, typical Mach numbers being up to 0.65. In order to gain further insight into the possible structure of the modal solutions and to obtain an independent verification of the robustness of the numerical scheme, comparison to the asymptotic solution of the problem based on the WKB method is performed. The asymptotic solution is also used as a benchmark for computations with high Helmholtz numbers, where numerical solutions of other authors are not available. The bulk of the analysis concentrates on the influence of the wall lining. The proposed numerical procedure is adapted in order to include Ingard-Myers boundary conditions. In parallel with this, the WKB solution is used to check the numerical predictions of the typical behaviour of the axial wavenumber in the complex plane, when the wall impedance varies in the complex plane. Numerical analysis of the problem with zero mean flow at the wall and acoustic lining shows that the use of Ingard-Myers condition in combination with an appropriate slip-stream approximation instead of the actual no-slip mean flow profile gives valid results in the limit of vanishing boundary-layer thickness, although the boundary layer

  16. Generalized stability of a shear flow with a free surface with respect to three-dimensional perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Christos; Bakas, Nikolaos A.

    2017-02-01

    Modal and nonmodal growth of three-dimensional perturbations in a shear flow with a free surface are examined for a wide range of Froude numbers. By approximating the mean flow with a piecewise linear profile, the modal instabilities are shown to arise from the interaction of three-dimensional edge waves supported at the interfaces of density discontinuity at the surface and mean vorticity discontinuity at the edges of the shear layer. The mechanism and properties of the instability are explained in terms of the dynamics of the edge-wave interactions. Previously reported modal stability analysis restricted to two-dimensional perturbations in the plane of the flow accurately predicts the fastest growing perturbations but underestimates the range of length scales for the unstable structures. Robust nonmodal transient growth of perturbations within a few advective time units is found. For low Froude numbers or low values of the shear, three-dimensional perturbations with small horizontal scales exhibit the largest growth through a synergy between the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms and produce large streamwise streaks in the shear flow without an effect on the free surface. For large Froude numbers or large values of the shear, planar perturbations with larger horizontal scales exhibit the largest energy growth by effectively instigating the modal instability and excite surface waves at large amplitude.

  17. Electrical percolation networks of carbon nanotubes in a shear flow.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gyemin; Heo, Youhee; Shin, Kwanwoo; Sung, Bong June

    2012-01-01

    The effect of shear on the electrical percolation network of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites is investigated using computer simulations. Configurations of CNTs in a simple shear, obtained by using Monte Carlo simulations, are used to locate the electrical percolation network of CNTs and calculate the electric conductivity. When exposed to the shear, CNTs align parallel to the shear direction and the electrical percolation threshold CNT concentration decreases. Meanwhile, after a certain period of the shear imposition above a critical shear rate, CNTs begin to form an aggregate and the percolating network of CNTs is broken, thus decreasing the electric conductivity significantly. We also construct quasiphase diagrams for the aggregate formation and the electrical percolation network formation to investigate the effect of the shear rate and CNT concentration.

  18. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayer membranes in water.

    PubMed

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Walther, Jens H; Kawano, Satoyuki; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We study shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayers immersed in water using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The shear imposed by the flow of the water induces initially microscopic structural changes of the membrane, starting with tilting of the molecules in the direction of the shear. The tilting propagates in the spanwise direction when the shear rate exceeds a critical value and the membrane undergoes a bucklinglike deformation in the direction perpendicular to the shear. The bucklinglike undulation continues until a localized Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability leads to membrane rupture. We study the different modes of membrane undulation using membranes of different geometries and quantify the relative importance of the bucklinglike bending and the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability of the membrane.

  19. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayer membranes in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Walther, Jens H.; Kawano, Satoyuki; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We study shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayers immersed in water using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The shear imposed by the flow of the water induces initially microscopic structural changes of the membrane, starting with tilting of the molecules in the direction of the shear. The tilting propagates in the spanwise direction when the shear rate exceeds a critical value and the membrane undergoes a bucklinglike deformation in the direction perpendicular to the shear. The bucklinglike undulation continues until a localized Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability leads to membrane rupture. We study the different modes of membrane undulation using membranes of different geometries and quantify the relative importance of the bucklinglike bending and the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability of the membrane.

  20. Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Sutlej section: structural geology and extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear and channel flow in shifting modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Koyi, Hemin A.

    2010-09-01

    The Higher Himalayan Shear Zone (HHSZ) in the Sutlej section reveals (1) top-to-SW ductile shearing, (2) top-to-NE ductile shearing in the upper- and the lower strands of the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDSU, STDSL), and (3) top-to-SW brittle shearing corroborated by trapezoid-shaped minerals in micro-scale. In the proposed extrusion model of the HHSZ, the E1-phase during 25-19 Ma is marked by simple shearing of the upper sub-channel defined by the upper strand of the Main Central Thrust (MCTU) and the top of STDSU as the lower- and the upper boundaries, respectively. Subsequently, the E2a-pulse during 15-14 Ma was characterized by simple shear, pure shear, and channel flow of the entire HHSZ. Finally, the E2b-pulse during 14-12 Ma observed simple shearing and channel flow of the lower sub-channel defined by the lower strand of the Main Central Thrust (MCTL) and the top of the STDSL as the lower- and the upper boundaries, respectively. The model explains the constraints of thicknesses of the STDSU and the STDSL along with spatially variable extrusion rate and the inverted metamorphism of the HHSZ. The model predicts (1) shear strain after ductile extrusion to be maximum at the boundaries of the HHSZ, which crudely matches with the existing data. The other speculations that cannot be checked are (2) uniform shear strain from the MCTU to the top of the HHSZ in the E1-phase; (3) fastest rates of extrusion of the lower boundaries of the STDSU and the STDSL during the E2a- and E2b-pulses, respectively; and (4) variable thickness of the STDSL and rare absence of the STDSU. Non-parabolic shear fabrics of the HHSZ possibly indicate heterogeneous strain. The top-to-SW brittle shearing around 12 Ma augmented the ductile extruded rocks to arrive a shallower depth. The brittle-ductile extension leading to boudinage possibly did not enhance the extrusion.

  1. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Jan-Niklas Oberlack, Martin; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Tevzadze, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, “Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, “Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, “Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, “Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow,” Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber

  2. Succeed escape: Flow shear promotes tumbling of Escherichia colinear a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Understanding how bacteria move close to a surface under various stimuli is crucial for a broad range of microbial processes including biofilm formation, bacterial transport and migration. While prior studies focus on interactions between single stimulus and bacterial suspension, we emphasize on compounding effects of flow shear and solid surfaces on bacterial motility, especially reorientation and tumble. We have applied microfluidics and digital holographic microscopy to capture a large number (>105) of 3D Escherichia coli trajectories near a surface under various flow shear. We find that near-surface flow shear promotes cell reorientation and mitigates the tumble suppression and re-orientation confinement found in a quiescent flow, and consequently enhances surface normal bacterial dispersion. Conditional sampling suggests that two complimentary hydrodynamic mechanisms, Jeffrey Orbit and shear-induced flagella unbundling, are responsible for the enhancement in bacterial tumble motility. These findings imply that flow shear may mitigate cell trapping and prevent biofilm initiation.

  3. Succeed escape: Flow shear promotes tumbling of Escherichia colinear a solid surface

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how bacteria move close to a surface under various stimuli is crucial for a broad range of microbial processes including biofilm formation, bacterial transport and migration. While prior studies focus on interactions between single stimulus and bacterial suspension, we emphasize on compounding effects of flow shear and solid surfaces on bacterial motility, especially reorientation and tumble. We have applied microfluidics and digital holographic microscopy to capture a large number (>105) of 3D Escherichia coli trajectories near a surface under various flow shear. We find that near-surface flow shear promotes cell reorientation and mitigates the tumble suppression and re-orientation confinement found in a quiescent flow, and consequently enhances surface normal bacterial dispersion. Conditional sampling suggests that two complimentary hydrodynamic mechanisms, Jeffrey Orbit and shear-induced flagella unbundling, are responsible for the enhancement in bacterial tumble motility. These findings imply that flow shear may mitigate cell trapping and prevent biofilm initiation. PMID:27752062

  4. Experimental Studies of the Interaction Between a Parallel Shear Flow and a Directionally-Solidifying Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Meng; Maxworthy, Tony

    1999-01-01

    It has long been recognized that flow in the melt can have a profound influence on the dynamics of a solidifying interface and hence the quality of the solid material. In particular, flow affects the heat and mass transfer, and causes spatial and temporal variations in the flow and melt composition. This results in a crystal with nonuniform physical properties. Flow can be generated by buoyancy, expansion or contraction upon phase change, and thermo-soluto capillary effects. In general, these flows can not be avoided and can have an adverse effect on the stability of the crystal structures. This motivates crystal growth experiments in a microgravity environment, where buoyancy-driven convection is significantly suppressed. However, transient accelerations (g-jitter) caused by the acceleration of the spacecraft can affect the melt, while convection generated from the effects other than buoyancy remain important. Rather than bemoan the presence of convection as a source of interfacial instability, Hurle in the 1960s suggested that flow in the melt, either forced or natural convection, might be used to stabilize the interface. Delves considered the imposition of both a parabolic velocity profile and a Blasius boundary layer flow over the interface. He concluded that fast stirring could stabilize the interface to perturbations whose wave vector is in the direction of the fluid velocity. Forth and Wheeler considered the effect of the asymptotic suction boundary layer profile. They showed that the effect of the shear flow was to generate travelling waves parallel to the flow with a speed proportional to the Reynolds number. There have been few quantitative, experimental works reporting on the coupling effect of fluid flow and morphological instabilities. Huang studied plane Couette flow over cells and dendrites. It was found that this flow could greatly enhance the planar stability and even induce the cell-planar transition. A rotating impeller was buried inside the

  5. Lubrication analysis of interacting rigid cylindrical particles in confined shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinaels, R.; Stone, H. A.

    2015-07-15

    Lubrication analysis is used to determine analytical expressions for the elements of the resistance matrix describing the interaction of two rigid cylindrical particles in two-dimensional shear flow in a symmetrically confined channel geometry. The developed model is valid for non-Brownian particles in a low-Reynolds-number flow between two sliding plates with thin gaps between the two particles and also between the particles and the walls. Using this analytical model, a comprehensive overview of the dynamics of interacting cylindrical particles in shear flow is presented. With only hydrodynamic interactions, rigid particles undergo a reversible interaction with no cross-streamline migration, irrespective of the confinement value. However, the interaction time of the particle pair substantially increases with confinement, and at the same time, the minimum distance between the particle surfaces during the interaction substantially decreases with confinement. By combining our purely hydrodynamic model with a simple on/off non-hydrodynamic attractive particle interaction force, the effects of confinement on particle aggregation are qualitatively mapped out in an aggregation diagram. The latter shows that the range of initial relative particle positions for which aggregation occurs is increased substantially due to geometrical confinement. The interacting particle pair exhibits tangential and normal lubrication forces on the sliding plates, which will contribute to the rheology of confined suspensions in shear flow. Due to the combined effects of the confining walls and the particle interaction, the particle velocities and resulting forces both tangential and perpendicular to the walls exhibit a non-monotonic evolution as a function of the orientation angle of the particle pair. However, by incorporating appropriate scalings of the forces, velocities, and doublet orientation angle with the minimum free fraction of the gap height and the plate speed, master curves for

  6. Theory to predict shear stress on cells in turbulent blood flow.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Khandakar Niaz; Bark, David; Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Shear stress on blood cells and platelets transported in a turbulent flow dictates the fate and biological activity of these cells. We present a theoretical link between energy dissipation in turbulent flows to the shear stress that cells experience and show that for the case of physiological turbulent blood flow: (a) the Newtonian assumption is valid, (b) turbulent eddies are universal for the most complex of blood flow problems, and (c) shear stress distribution on turbulent blood flows is possibly universal. Further we resolve a long standing inconsistency in hemolysis between laminar and turbulent flow using the theoretical framework. This work demonstrates that energy dissipation as opposed to bulk shear stress in laminar or turbulent blood flow dictates local mechanical environment of blood cells and platelets universally.

  7. A global view of shear wave splitting and mantle flow in subduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Maureen; Silver, Paul; Hanna, Jenny; Wirth, Erin; Kincaid, Chris; Montesi, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    The character of the mantle flow field in subduction zone regions remains poorly understood, despite its importance for our understanding of subduction dynamics. Observations of seismic anisotropy, which manifests itself in shear wave splitting, can shed light on the geometry of mantle flow in subduction zones, but placing constraints on anisotropy in various parts of the subduction system (including the overriding plate, the mantle wedge, the subducting slab, and the sub-slab mantle) remains challenging from an observational point of view. In order to identify dynamic processes that make first-order contributions to the pattern of mantle flow in subduction zones, we analyze a global compilation of shear wave splitting measurements for a variety of ray paths, including SK(K)S and teleseismic S phases as well as local S and source-side splitting from slab earthquakes. Key challenges associated with assembling such a compilation include correctly assessing and accounting for any dependence of local S splitting parameters on frequency and correctly characterizing any contribution to SKS splitting measurements from anisotropy within the subducting slab that is unrelated to active mantle flow. We present local case studies from the Japan and Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zones that explore frequency-dependent splitting due to heterogeneous anisotropy in the mantle wedge and that use a variety of raypath combinations to isolate the contribution from anisotropy within the slab. Keeping these results in mind, we have compiled shear wave splitting measurements from subduction zones globally from the literature and from our own work to produce estimates of average shear wave splitting parameters - and their spatial variation - for the mantle wedge and the sub-wedge region for individual subduction segments. These estimates are then compared to other parameters that describe subduction. The sub-wedge splitting signal is relatively simple and is dominated by trench

  8. Dynamical Modes of Deformed Red Blood Cells and Lipid Vesicles in Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, H.

    Red blood cells and lipid vesicles exhibit rich behaivor in flows.Their dynamics were studied using a particle-based hydrodynamic simulation method, multi-particle collision dynamics. Rupture of lipid vesicles in simple shear flow was simulated by meshless membrane model. Several shape transitions of lipid vesicles and red blood cells are induced by flows. Transition of a lipid vesicle from budded to prolate shapes with increasing shear rate and ordered alignments of deformed elastic vesicles in high density are presented.

  9. Red blood cell: from its mechanics to its motion in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Viallat, A; Abkarian, M

    2014-06-01

    There is a number of publications on red blood cell deformability, that is, on the remarkable cell ability to change its shape in response to an external force and to pass through the narrowest blood capillaries and splenic sinuses. Cell deformability is postulated to be a major determinant of impaired perfusion, increase of blood viscosity, and occlusion in microvessels. Current deformability tests like ektacytometry measure global parameters, related to shape changes at the whole cell scale. Despite strong advances in our understanding of the molecular organization of red blood cells, the relationships between the rheology of each element of the cell composite structure, the global deformability tests, and the cell behavior in microflows are still not elucidated. This review describes recent advances in the description of the dynamics of red blood cells in shear flow and in the mechanistic understanding of this dynamics at the scale of the constitutive rheological and structural elements of the cell. These developments could open up new horizons for the determination of red blood cell mechanical parameters by analyzing their motion under low shear flows.

  10. Analysis of the fluctuations of a single-tethered, quantum-dot labeled DNA molecule in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Laube, K; Günther, K; Mertig, M

    2011-05-11

    A novel technique for analyzing the conformational fluctuations of a single, surface-tethered DNA molecule by fluorescence microscopy is reported. Attaching a nanometer-sized fluorescent quantum dot to the free end of a λ-phage DNA molecule allows us to study the fluctuations of a native DNA molecule without the mechanical properties being altered by fluorescent dye staining. We report on the investigation of single-tethered DNA in both the unperturbed and the shear flow induced stretched state. The dependence of the observed fractional extension and the magnitude of fluctuations on the shear rate can be qualitatively interpreted by Brochard's stem-and-flower model. The cyclic dynamics of a DNA molecule is directly observed in the shear flow experiment.

  11. Shear flows of dense suspensions: flow modification by particle clustering and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vowinckel, Bernhard; Carmi, Meital; Biegert, Edward; Meiburg, Eckart

    2016-11-01

    We investigate numerically the behavior of sheared, dense suspensions of neutrally buoyant particles, for finite Reynolds number values. This type of problem is of particular interest for multiple applications in environmental, mechanical as well as process engineering such as debris flows, slurries, and pneumatic conveying in pipelines. Controlling channel flows laden with dense suspensions is very important as it can result in jamming of the channel, hence, lowering the efficiency of a hydraulic facility. It was observed that there exists a regime for which a small increase in shear force can cause a drastic, discontinuous increase of the effective viscosity of the mixture. This abrupt transition is commonly referred to as discontinuous shear thickening. We carry out phase-resolved numerical simulations to understand the modification of the flow on the grain scale in full detail allowing for improved definitions of threshold conditions. As the properties of the carrier fluid remain unchanged during the simulation, the thickening must be caused by the disperse phase, for example, by effects of changes in spatial particle distribution, clustering, and mixing. We provide a detailed statistical analysis to answer this question.

  12. Binary mixtures of rod-like colloids under shear: microscopically-based equilibrium theory and order-parameter dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Frías, Rodrigo; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2016-06-22

    This paper is concerned with the dynamics of a binary mixture of rod-like, repulsive colloidal particles driven out of equilibrium by means of a steady shear flow (Couette geometry). To this end we first derive, starting from a microscopic density functional in Parsons-Lee approximation, a mesoscopic free energy functional whose main variables are the orientational order parameter tensors. Based on this mesoscopic functional we then explore the stability of isotropic and nematic equilibrium phases in terms of composition and rod lengths. Second, by combining the equilibrium theory with the Doi-Hess approach for the order parameter dynamics under shear, we investigate the orientational dynamics of binary mixtures for a range of shear rates and coupling parameters. We find a variety of dynamical states, including synchronized oscillatory states of the two components, but also symmetry breaking behavior where the components display different in-plane oscillatory states.

  13. Asymmetric magnetic reconnection with out-of-plane shear flows in a two dimensional hybrid model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xian-Qu; Liu, Yue

    2015-05-15

    Effects of out-of-plane shear flows on asymmetric magnetic reconnect are investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid model with an initial Harris sheet equilibrium. It is found that the out-of-plane flow with an in-plane shear can significantly change the asymmetric reconnection process as well as the related geometry. The magnetic flux, out-of-plane magnetic field, in-plane flow vorticity, plasma density, and the reconnection rate are discussed in detail. The results are in comparison with the cases without the shear flows to further understand the effect.

  14. Disturbed flow mediated modulation of shear forces on endothelial plane: A proposed model for studying endothelium around atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-01-01

    Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events. PMID:27255968

  15. Disturbed flow mediated modulation of shear forces on endothelial plane: A proposed model for studying endothelium around atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Sundaresan, Lakshmikirupa; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Majunathan, Reji; Mani, Krishnapriya; Swaminathan, Akila; Venkatesan, Saravanakumar; Kasiviswanathan, Dharanibalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-06-01

    Disturbed fluid flow or modulated shear stress is associated with vascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and aneurysm. In vitro simulation of the fluid flow around the plaque micro-environment remains a challenging approach. Currently available models have limitations such as complications in protocols, high cost, incompetence of co-culture and not being suitable for massive expression studies. Hence, the present study aimed to develop a simple, versatile model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Current observations of CFD have shown the regions of modulated shear stress by the disturbed fluid flow. To execute and validate the model in real sense, cell morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) profile, nitric oxide production and disturbed flow markers under the above condition were assessed. Endothelium at disturbed flow region which had been exposed to low shear stress and swirling flow pattern showed morphological and expression similarities with the pathological disturbed flow environment reported previously. Altogether, the proposed model can serve as a platform to simulate the real time micro-environment of disturbed flow associated with eccentric plaque shapes and the possibilities of studying its downstream events.

  16. Off-plane motion of a non-spherical capsule in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Dynamics of a capsule and a biological cell in fluid flow is now of great interest in chemical engineering and bioengineering. In this study, we numerically investigated the motion of a spheroid capsule in simple shear flow including a red blood cell type biconcave disk. The membrane of a capsule was modeled by a two-dimensional hyperelastic material, and its large deformation was solved by a finite element method. The motion of internal and external liquids was estimated as a Stokes flow and solved by a boundary element method. The results showed that the orientation of a spheroid capsule is variant under time reversal, though that of a rigid spheroid is invariant. The final orientation of a spheroid capsule over a long time duration tends to converge to a certain direction depending on the shear rate despite initial placement with random orientation. These results can be utilized for a particle alignment technique and form a fundamental basis of the suspension mechanics of capsules and biological cells.

  17. Effect of shear-thinning behaviour on liquid-liquid plug flow in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumpea, Evangelia; Chinaud, Maxime; Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Angeli, Panagiota; Kahouadji, Lyes; Matar, Omar K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work investigates the dynamics of plug formation of shear-thinning solutions in a 200 μm microchannel using a two-colour micro-PIV system. Measurements, including phase-averaged velocity fields, have been conducted both at the T-junction inlet and the main channel to enhance understanding of non-Newtonian liquid-liquid flows. Two aqueous glycerol solutions containing xanthan gum are used as the non-Newtonian fluids while 5 cSt silicone oil is the Newtonian phase. The current experimental results revealed a pronounced impact of the xanthan gum (shear-thinning behaviour) on the flow pattern transition boundaries, and enhance the fluid flowrates where plug flow occurred. The addition of polymer resulted also in different hydrodynamic characteristics such as a bullet-shaped plug and an increased film thickness between the plug and the wall. In the present work, the technique allows to capture the velocity field of both phases simultaneously. Experimental results are compared with the numerical simulations provided by the code BLUE. Project funded under the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Programme Grant MEMPHIS.

  18. Turbulence and mixing in a stratified shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, P. W.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    The characteristics of turbulence in the upper mixed layer and the nature of the sheared density interface of a two-fluid system, with a driven upper layer and a stagnant lower layer, were studied experimentally. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water channel and the mean flow in the upper layer was generated using a disk pump. A laser-Doppler velocimeter (with refractive-index matching) was used for velocity measurements and the techniques of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and plunging conductivity probes were used for concentration measurements. A number of turbulent length scales, and r.m.s. and mean velocity distributions in the upper mixed layer were measured. Images obtained using LIF were used to visualize the interfacial mixing events and to measure the thickness of the interfacial layer, the amplitude of the interfacial distortions, and the velocity fluctuations at the entrainment interface. The functional dependencies of measured parameters on the interfacial bulk Richardson number were also evaluated.

  19. Dynamic jamming under impact in shear thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening fluids such as cornstarch and water show remarkable impact response allowing, for example, a person to run on the surface. We perform constant velocity impact experiments and imaging in shear thickening fluids at velocities lower than 500 mm/s and suspension heights of a few cm. In this regime where inertial effects are insignificant, we find that fronts with a dynamically jammed (DJ) region behind it are generated under impact. When this front and the DJ region reaches the opposite boundary it is able to support large stresses like a solid. These stresses are sufficient to support the weight of a running person. In addition we find a shear thickening transition under impact due to collision of the fronts with the boundary. There is a critical velocity required to generate these impact activated fronts. Using the observations on fronts, DJ region and using energy balance arguments we construct a model to explain the phenomena of running on the surface of cornstarch suspensions. The model shows quantitative agreement with our measurements using high-speed video of running on cornstarch and water suspensions. Supported by NSF DMR 1410157.

  20. Drift and pseudomomentum in bounded turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. R. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of two Lagrangian measures which arise in oscillatory or fluctuating shear flows when the fluctuating field is rotational and the spectrum of wave numbers which comprise it is continuous. The measures are the drift and pseudomomentum. Phillips [J. Fluid Mech. 430, 209 (2001), 10.1017/S0022112000002858] has shown that the measures are, in such instances, succinctly expressed in terms of Lagrangian integrals of Eulerian space-time correlations. But they are difficult to interpret, and the present work begins by expressing them in a more insightful form. This is achieved by assuming the space-time correlations are separable as magnitude, determined by one-point velocity correlations, and spatial diminution. The measures then parse into terms comprised of the mean Eulerian velocity, one-point velocity correlations, and a family of integrals of spatial diminution, which in turn define a series of Lagrangian time and velocity scales. The pseudomomentum is seen to be strictly negative and related to the turbulence kinetic energy, while the drift is mixed and strongly influenced by the Reynolds stress. Both are calculated for turbulent channel flow for a range of Reynolds numbers and appear, as the Reynolds number increases, to approach a terminal form. At all Reynolds numbers studied, the pseudomomentum has a sole peak located in wall units in the low teens, while at the highest Reynolds number studied, Reτ=5200 , the drift is negative in the vicinity of that peak, positive elsewhere, and largest near the rigid boundary. In contrast, the time and velocity scales grow almost logarithmically over much of the layer. Finally, the drift and pseudomomentum are discussed in the context of coherent wall layer structures with which they are intricately linked.

  1. Interfacial shear stress in stratified flow in a horizontal rectangular duct

    SciTech Connect

    Lorencez, C.; Kawaji, M.; Murao, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Interfacial shear stress has been experimentally examined for both cocurrent and countercurrent stratified wavy flows in a horizontal interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress from the measurements were examined and the results have been compared with existing correlations. Some differences were found in the estimated interfacial shear stress values at high gas flow rates which could be attributed to the assumptions and procedures involved in each method. The interfacial waves and secondary motions were also found to have significant effects on the accuracy of Reynolds stress and turbulence kinetic energy extrapolation methods.

  2. Evolution of finite-amplitude localized vortices in planar homogeneous shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Michael; Shukhman, Ilia G.; Cohen, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    An analytical-based method is utilized to follow the evolution of localized initially Gaussian disturbances in flows with homogeneous shear, in which the base velocity components are at most linear functions of the coordinates, including hyperbolic, elliptic, and simple shear. Coherent structures, including counterrotating vortex pairs (CVPs) and hairpin vortices, are formed for the cases where the streamlines of the base flow are open (hyperbolic and simple shear). For hyperbolic base flows, the dominance of shear over rotation leads to elongation of the localized disturbance along the outlet asymptote and formation of CVPs. For simple shear CVPs are formed from linear and nonlinear disturbances, whereas hairpins are observed only for highly nonlinear disturbances. For elliptic base flows CVPs, hairpins and vortex loops form initially, however they do not last and break into various vortical structures that spread in the spanwise direction. The effect of the disturbance's initial amplitude and orientation is examined and the optimal orientation achieving maximal growth is identified.

  3. Measurements of Shear Lift Force on a Bubble in Channel Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Motil, Brian J.; Skor, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Under microgravity conditions, the shear lift force acting on bubbles, droplets or solid particles in multiphase flows becomes important because under normal gravity, this hydrodynamic force is masked by buoyancy. This force plays an important role in furnishing the detachment process of bubbles in a setting where a bubble suspension is needed in microgravity. In this work, measurements of the shear lift force acting on a bubble in channel flow are performed. The shear lift force is deduced from the bubble kinematics using scaling and then compared with predictions from models in literature that address different asymptotic and numerical solutions. Basic trajectory calculations are then performed and the results are compared with experimental data of position of the bubble in the channel. A direct comparison of the lateral velocity of the bubbles is also made with the lateral velocity prediction from investigators, whose work addressed the shear lift on a sphere in different two-dimensional shear flows including Poiseuille flow.

  4. Effect of cytoskeleton stress-free state on red blood cell responses in low shear rate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Peng, Zhangli; Mashayekh, Adel

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the recent experiment on erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs) in weak shear flows (Dupire et al. 2012), we conduct a numerical investigation to study the dynamics of RBCs in low shear rate flows by applying a multiscale fluid-structure interaction model. By employing a spheroidal stress-free state in the cytoskeleton we are able to numerically predict an important feature that the cell maintains its biconcave shape during tank treading motions. This has not been achieved by any existing models. Furthermore, we numerically confirm the hypothesis that as the stress-free state approaches a sphere, the threshold shear rates corresponding to the establishment of tank treading decrease. By comparing with the experimental measurements, our study suggests that the stress-free state of RBCs is a spheroid which is close to a sphere, rather than a biconcave shape applied in existing models (the implication is that the RBC skeleton is prestressed in its natural biconcave state). It also suggests that the response of RBCs in low shear rate flows may provide a measure to quantitatively determine the distribution of shear stress in RBC cytoskeleton at the natural state.

  5. Self-sustaining processes at all scales in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Carlo; Hwang, Yongyun

    2017-03-01

    We collect and discuss the results of our recent studies which show evidence of the existence of a whole family of self-sustaining motions in wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with scales ranging from those of buffer-layer streaks to those of large-scale and very-large-scale motions in the outer layer. The statistical and dynamical features of this family of self-sustaining motions, which are associated with streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices, are consistent with those of Townsend's attached eddies. Motions at each relevant scale are able to sustain themselves in the absence of forcing from larger- or smaller-scale motions by extracting energy from the mean flow via a coherent lift-up effect. The coherent self-sustaining process is embedded in a set of invariant solutions of the filtered Navier-Stokes equations which take into full account the Reynolds stresses associated with the residual smaller-scale motions.

  6. Sheared E×B flow and plasma turbulence viscosity in a Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Regnoli, G.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-11-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic turbulence and sheared plasma flow in Reversed Field Pinch configuration is addressed. The momentum balance equation for a compressible plasma is considered and the terms involved are measured in the outer region of Extrap-T2R RFP device. It results that electrostatic fluctuations determine the plasma flow through the electrostatic component of Reynolds Stress tensor. This term involves spatial and temporal scales comparable to those of MHD activity. The derived experimental perpendicular viscosity is consistent with anomalous diffusion, the latter being discussed in terms of electrostatic turbulence background and coherent structures emerging from fluctuations. The results indicate a dynamical interplay between turbulence, anomalous transport and mean E×B profiles. The momentum balance has been studied also in non-stationary condition during the application of Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive, which is known to reduce the amplitude of MHD modes.

  7. Stratified shear flow in an inclined duct: coherent structures and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefauve, Adrien; Partridge, Jamie; Dalziel, Stuart; Linden, Paul

    2016-11-01

    We present laboratory experiments on the exchange flow in an inclined square duct connecting two reservoirs at different densities. This system generates and maintains a stratified shear flow, which can be laminar, wavy or turbulent depending on the density difference and inclination angle. It is believed that the mean dissipation is set by the angle, and that high buoyancy Reynolds numbers (i.e. turbulent intensity) can be maintained, making this system suited for the study of continuously forced stratified turbulence. The talk will focus on the analysis of time-resolved, near-instantaneous 3D velocity and density data obtained by stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). This data allow for the visualisation of 3D coherent structures as well as turbulent mixing properties, which are key in understanding the dynamics of stratified turbulence. Supported by EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K034529/1 entitled "Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence".

  8. The origin of granular convection in vertically vibrated particle beds: The differential shear flow field.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kun; Zheng, Yixin; Fan, Baolong; Li, Fangfang; Bai, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the particle scale dynamics of granular convection in vertically vibrated granular beds. The onset of the convection is found to coincide with the noticeable particle transverse migrations from the side walls towards the centre of the bed, which only take place in the wake of the gravity wave front dividing the upward moving particles and the falling ones. The mechanism driving the particle inward flows and thus sustaining the complete convection rolls can be understood in light of a convection model based on void penetration. This stochastic convection model reveals that the underlying driving force is a distinctive differential shear flow field arising from the combined effect of frictional holdback by the walls and the downward pull of gravity. The changes of the convection pattern with inceasing acceleration amplitude, in terms of the convection strength and the thickness of the bottom of the convection rolls, can be accounted for by this model.

  9. Flow Dynamics and HSPC Homing in Bone Marrow Microvessels.

    PubMed

    Bixel, M Gabriele; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Sivaraj, Kishor K; Butz, Stefan; Vestweber, Dietmar; Adams, Ralf H

    2017-02-14

    Measurements of flow velocities at the level of individual arterial vessels and sinusoidal capillaries are crucial for understanding the dynamics of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell homing in the bone marrow vasculature. We have developed two complementary intravital two-photon imaging approaches to determine blood flow dynamics and velocities in multiple vessel segments by capturing the motion of red blood cells. High-resolution spatiotemporal measurements through a cranial window to determine short-time dynamics of flowing blood cells and repetitive centerline scans were used to obtain a detailed flow-profile map with hemodynamic parameters. In addition, we observed the homing of individual hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and obtained detailed information on their homing behavior. With our imaging setup, we determined flow patterns at cellular resolution, blood flow velocities and wall shear stress in small arterial vessels and highly branched sinusoidal capillaries, and the cellular dynamics of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell homing.

  10. Shear modulation of intercellular contact area between two deformable cells colliding under flow

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Sameer; Chan, Kit Yan; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    Shear rate has been shown to critically affect the kinetics and receptor specificity of cell-cell interactions. In this study, the collision process between two modeled cells interacting in a linear shear flow is numerically investigated. The two identical biological or artificial cells are modeled as deformable capsules composed of an elastic membrane. The cell deformation and trajectories are computed using the Immersed Boundary Method for shear rates of 100–400 s−1. As the two cells collide under hydrodynamic shear, large local cell deformations develop. The effective contact area between the two cells is modulated by the shear rate, and reaches a maximum value at intermediate levels of shear. At relatively low shear rate, the contact area is an enclosed region. As the shear rate increases, dimples form on the membrane surface, and the contact region becomes annular. The non-monotonic increase of the contact area with the increase of shear rate from computational results implies that there is a maximum effective receptor-ligand binding area for cell adhesion. This finding suggests the existence of possible hydrodynamic mechanism that could be used to interpret the observed maximum leukocyte aggregation in shear flow. The critical shear rate for maximum intercellular contact area is shown to vary with cell properties such as radius and membrane elastic modulus. PMID:17467716

  11. Optimization of MR phase-contrast-based flow velocimetry and shear stress measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeho; Seo, Ji-Hyea; Bang, Seong-Sik; Choi, Hyeon-Woo; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jongmin

    2010-02-01

    This study was designed to measure the pixel-by-pixel flow velocity and shear stress from phase-contrast MR images. An optimized method was suggested and the use of the method was confirmed. A self-developed, straight steady flow model system was scanned by MRI with a velocity-encoded phase-contrast sequence. In-house developed software was used for the pixel-by-pixel flow velocity and shear stress measurements and the measurements were compared with physically measured mean velocity and shear stress. A comparison between the use of the in-house velocimetry software and a commercial velocimetry system was also performed. Curved steady flow models were scanned by phase-contrast MRI. Subsequently, velocity and shear stress were measured to confirm the shifted peak flow velocity and shear stress toward the outer side of the lumen. Peak velocity and shear stress were calculated for both the inner and outer half of the lumen and were statistically compared. The mean velocity measured with the use of in-house software had a significant correlation with the physical measurements of mean velocity; in addition, the measurement was more precise compared to the commercial system (R(2) = 0.85 vs. 0.75, respectively). The calculated mean shear stress had a significant correlation with the physical measurements of mean shear stress (R(2) = 0.95). The curved flow model showed a significantly shifted peak velocity and shear stress zones toward the outside of the flow (P < 0.0001). The technique to measure pixel-by-pixel velocity and shear stress of steady flow from velocity-encoded phase-contrast MRI was optimized. This technique had a good correlation with physical measurements and was superior to a commercially available system.

  12. Modification of turbulent transport with continuous variation of flow shear in the large plasma device.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, D A; Carter, T A; Rossi, G D; Guice, D S; Maggs, J E; Vincena, S; Friedman, B

    2012-09-28

    Continuous control over azimuthal flow and shear in the edge of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) has been achieved using a biasable limiter which has allowed a careful study of the effect of flow shear on pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and transport in the LAPD. The LAPD rotates spontaneously in the ion diamagnetic direction; positive limiter bias first reduces, then minimizes (producing a near-zero shear state), and finally reverses the flow into the electron diamagnetic direction. Degradation of particle confinement is observed in the minimum shearing state and a reduction in the turbulent particle flux is observed with increasing shearing in both flow directions. Near-complete suppression of the turbulent particle flux is observed for shearing rates comparable to the turbulent autocorrelation rate measured in the minimum shear state. Turbulent flux suppression is dominated by amplitude reduction in low-frequency (<10 kHz) density fluctuations. An increase in fluctuations for the highest shearing states is observed with the emergence of a coherent mode which does not lead to net particle transport. The variations of density fluctuations are fit well with power laws and compare favorably to simple models of shear suppression of transport.

  13. Non-Darcian flow experiments of shear-thinning fluids through rough-walled rock fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez de Castro, Antonio; Radilla, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Understanding non-Darcian flow of shear-thinning fluids through rough-walled rock fractures is of vital importance in a number of industrial applications such as hydrogeology or petroleum engineering. Different laws are available to express the deviations from linear Darcy law due to inertial pressure losses. In particular, Darcy's law is often extended through addition of quadratic and cubic terms weighted by two inertial coefficients depending on the strength of the inertia regime. The relations between the effective shear viscosity of the fluid and the apparent viscosity in porous media when inertial deviations are negligible were extensively studied in the past. However, only recent numerical works have investigated the superposition of both inertial and shear-thinning effects, finding that the same inertial coefficients obtained for non-Darcian Newtonian flow applied in the case of shear-thinning fluids. The objective of this work is to experimentally validate these results, extending their applicability to the case of rough-walled rock fractures. To do so, flow experiments with aqueous polymer solutions have been conducted using replicas of natural fractures, and the effects of polymer concentration, which determine the shear rheology of the injected fluid, have been evaluated. Our findings show that the experimental pressure loss-flow rate data for inertial flow of shear-thinning fluids can be successfully predicted from the empirical parameters obtained during non-Darcian Newtonian flow and Darcian shear-thinning flow in a given porous medium.

  14. The Dynamics of Flowing Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a series of activities designed to help students understand the dynamics of flowing water. Includes investigations into determining water discharge, calculating variable velocities, utilizing flood formulas, graphing stream profiles, and learning about the water cycle. (TW)

  15. Dynamic transverse shear modulus for a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.; Duan, Yunda

    2016-09-01

    An exact analytical solution is presented for the effective dynamic transverse shear modulus in a heterogeneous fluid-filled porous solid containing cylindrical inclusions. The complex and frequency-dependent properties of the dynamic shear modulus are caused by the physical mechanism of mesoscopic-scale wave-induced fluid flow whose scale is smaller than wavelength but larger than the size of pores. Our model consists of three phases: a long cylindrical inclusion, a cylindrical shell of poroelastic matrix material with different mechanical and/or hydraulic properties than the inclusion and an outer region of effective homogeneous medium of laterally infinite extent. The behavior of both the inclusion and the matrix is described by Biot's consolidation equations, whereas the surrounding effective medium which is used to describe the effective transverse shear properties of the inner poroelastic composite is assumed to be a viscoelastic solid whose complex transverse shear modulus needs to be determined. The determined effective transverse shear modulus is used to quantify the S-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in heterogeneous fluid-filled poroelastic rocks. The calculation shows the relaxation frequency and relative position of various fluid saturation dispersion curves predicted by this study exhibit very good agreement with those of a previous 2-D finite-element simulation. For the double-porosity model (inclusions having a different solid frame than the matrix but the same pore fluid as the matrix) the effective shear modulus also exhibits a size-dependent characteristic that the relaxation frequency moves to lower frequencies by two orders of magnitude if the radius of the cylindrical poroelastic composite increases by one order of magnitude. For the patchy-saturation model (inclusions having the same solid frame as the matrix but with a different pore fluid from the matrix), the heterogeneity in pore fluid cannot cause any attenuation in the

  16. RELATIVISTIC POSITRON-ELECTRON-ION SHEAR FLOWS AND APPLICATION TO GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Smith, Ian; Roustazadeh, Parisa; Boettcher, Markus

    2013-12-20

    We present particle-in-cell simulation results of relativistic shear flows for hybrid positron-electron-ion plasmas and compare to those for pure e {sup +} e {sup –} and pure e {sup –} ion plasmas. Among the three types of relativistic shear flows, we find that only hybrid shear flow is able to energize the electrons to form a high-energy spectral peak plus a hard power law tail. Such electron spectra are needed to model the observational properties of gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Stability boundaries and sufficient stability conditions for stably stratified, monotonic shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.

  18. Nonlinear evolution of resistive tearing mode instability with shear flow and viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Morrison, P. J.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of shear flow on the nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is investigated via numerical solutions of the resistive MHD equations in slab geometry, using a finite-difference alternative-direction implicit method. It was found that, when the shear flow is small (V less than 0.3), the tearing mode saturates within one resistive time, whereas for larger flows the nonlinear saturation develops on longer time scales. The magnetic energy release decreases and the saturation time increases with increasing values of V for both small and large resistivity. Shear flow was found to decrease the saturated magnetic island width and to generate currents far from the tearing layer. Results suggest that equilibrium shear flow may improve the confinement of tokamak plasma.

  19. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  20. On Markov modelling of near-wall turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    1999-11-01

    The role of Reynolds number in determining particle trajectories in near-wall turbulent shear flow is investigated in numerical simulations using a second-order Lagrangian stochastic (LS) model (Reynolds, A.M. 1999: A second-order Lagrangian stochastic model for particle trajectories in inhomogeneous turbulence. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. (In Press)). In such models, it is the acceleration, velocity and position of a particle rather than just its velocity and position which are assumed to evolve jointly as a continuous Markov process. It is found that Reynolds number effects are significant in determining simulated particle trajectories in the viscous sub-layer and the buffer zone. These effects are due almost entirely to the change in the Lagrangian integral timescale and are shown to be well represented in a first-order LS model by Sawford's correction footnote Sawford, B.L. 1991: Reynolds number effects in Lagrangian stochastic models of turbulent dispersion. Phys Fluids, 3, 1577-1586). This is found to remain true even when the Taylor-Reynolds number R_λ ~ O(0.1). This is somewhat surprising because the assumption of a Markovian evolution for velocity and position is strictly applicable only in the large Reynolds number limit because then the Lagrangian acceleration autocorrelation function approaches a delta function at the origin, corresponding to an uncorrelated component in the acceleration, and hence a Markov process footnote Borgas, M.S. and Sawford, B.L. 1991: The small-scale structure of acceleration correlations and its role in the statistical theory of turbulent dispersion. J. Fluid Mech. 288, 295-320.

  1. Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Whitney O.; Jantzen, Alexandra E.; Carlon, Tim A.; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Grenet, Justin E.; Ley, Melissa M.; Haseltine, Justin M.; Galinat, Lauren J.; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Allen, Jason D.; Truskey, George A.; Achneck, Hardean E.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses1. Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C), and after flow (Fig. 11D). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs2,3. This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts. The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E), or scanning electron microscopy5. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12)6. PMID:22297325

  2. Parallel-plate flow chamber and continuous flow circuit to evaluate endothelial progenitor cells under laminar flow shear stress.

    PubMed

    Lane, Whitney O; Jantzen, Alexandra E; Carlon, Tim A; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Grenet, Justin E; Ley, Melissa M; Haseltine, Justin M; Galinat, Lauren J; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Allen, Jason D; Truskey, George A; Achneck, Hardean E

    2012-01-17

    The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses. Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C), and after flow (Fig. 11D). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs. This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts. The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E), or scanning electron microscopy. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12).

  3. Analysis of hydrodynamic fluctuations in heterogeneous adjacent multidomains in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xin; Deng, Mingge; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-03-01

    We analyze hydrodynamic fluctuations of a hybrid simulation under shear flow. The hybrid simulation is based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on one domain and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) on the other. The two domains overlap, and there is an artificial boundary for each one within the overlapping region. To impose the artificial boundary of the NS solver, a simple spatial-temporal averaging is performed on the DPD simulation. In the artificial boundary of the particle simulation, four popular strategies of constraint dynamics are implemented, namely the Maxwell buffer [Hadjiconstantinou and Patera, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 08, 967 (1997), 10.1142/S0129183197000837], the relaxation dynamics [O'Connell and Thompson, Phys. Rev. E 52, R5792 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevE.52.R5792], the least constraint dynamics [Nie et al., J. Fluid Mech. 500, 55 (2004), 10.1017/S0022112003007225; Werder et al., J. Comput. Phys. 205, 373 (2005), 10.1016/j.jcp.2004.11.019], and the flux imposition [Flekkøy et al., Europhys. Lett. 52, 271 (2000), 10.1209/epl/i2000-00434-8], to achieve a target mean value given by the NS solver. Going beyond the mean flow field of the hybrid simulations, we investigate the hydrodynamic fluctuations in the DPD domain. Toward that end, we calculate the transversal autocorrelation functions of the fluctuating variables in k space to evaluate the generation, transport, and dissipation of fluctuations in the presence of a hybrid interface. We quantify the unavoidable errors in the fluctuations, due to both the truncation of the domain and the constraint dynamics performed in the artificial boundary. Furthermore, we compare the four methods of constraint dynamics and demonstrate how to reduce the errors in fluctuations. The analysis and findings of this work are directly applicable to other hybrid simulations of fluid flow with thermal fluctuations.

  4. Surface-enhanced unfolding of collapsed polymers in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander-Katz, A.; Netz, R. R.

    2007-10-01

    Using hydrodynamic simulations we study the shear-induced unfolding of a collapsed polymer near a planar wall. Above a well-defined threshold shear rate \\dot{\\gamma}^* , the globule becomes unstable and displays stretching-refolding events. With decreasing distance from the surface, the critical shear rate \\dot{\\gamma}^* goes down, which is rationalized within a scaling analysis in terms of increased hydrodynamic stress due to a surface-induced slowing-down of globule rotation and translation. Our results are relevant for protein-assisted blood clotting in capillary vessels.

  5. Drift-Alfven instabilities of a finite beta plasma shear flow along a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailenko, V. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Lee, Hae June

    2016-02-01

    It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows.

  6. Response of hot element wall shear stress gages in laminar oscillating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Murphy, J. D.; Giddings, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the time-dependent response of hot element wall shear stress gages in unsteady periodic air flows is reported. The study has focused on wall shear stress in laminar oscillating flows produced on a flat plate by a free stream velocity composed of a mean component and a superposed sinusoidal variation. Two types of hot element gages, platinum film and flush wire, were tested for values of reduced frequency ranging from 0.14 to 2.36. Values of the phase angle of the wall shear stress variation relative to the free stream velocity, as indicated by the hot element gages, are compared with numerical prediction. The comparisons show that the gages indicate a wall shear stress variation that lags the true variation, and that the gages will also not indicate the correct wall shear stress variation in periodic turbulent flows.

  7. Fluid Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Shear Flows and Transition: Conference Proceedings of the Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel Held in Cesme (Turkey) on 3-6 October 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Analyse des essais effectues - Etude de l’influence du nombre de Reynolds. RTS 8:3072 AY 002 Meyer, W. D., Jennett, L . A. 1985. In flight surface oil flow...Fig. 26 Distributions do nombre do MACH sur 1e corps 4.2. Effets des riblets sur l 𔄀coulement tine premid re analyse de 1’effet des riblets est...26 1989 -. DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY TFSAE~ o ON BACK COVER A A l AGARD-CP-438 NORTH ATLANTIC" TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE

  8. Calculation of wall and free turbulent-shear flows at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, O.; Srinivasan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Supersonic turbulent flows are simulated numerically by solving the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations by an implicit finite-volume method. This flux-vector-split upwind scheme uses approximate factorization followed by line-Gauss-Seidel relaxations. The effects of turbulence are modeled by two eddy viscosity models. High-Reynolds-number form of the k-epsilon model is coupled with a wall-function to avoid excessive refinement of the grid in the low-Reynolds number regions. The k-epsilon equations are solved by the explicit-implicit MacCormack method. The algebraic Baldwin-Lomax model is also being used as an inexpensive alternative for the cases which do not experience massive separation. Several examples of two-dimensional solutions are given to illustrate both wall and free turbulent shear flows which include fluid dynamic phenomena, such as shocks, boundary layers, shear layers, wakes, separations and recirculations. The results compared with experimental data show good agreeent.

  9. Modeling of Wall-Bounded Complex Flows and Free Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Lumley, John L.

    1994-01-01

    Various wall-bounded flows with complex geometries and free shear flows have been studied with a newly developed realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The model development is based on the invariant theory in continuum mechanics. This theory enables us to formulate a general constitutive relation for the Reynolds stresses. Pope was the first to introduce this kind of constitutive relation to turbulence modeling. In our study, realizability is imposed on the truncated constitutive relation to determine the coefficients so that, unlike the standard k-E eddy viscosity model, the present model will not produce negative normal stresses in any situations of rapid distortion. The calculations based on the present model have shown an encouraging success in modeling complex turbulent flows.

  10. Modeling of flow-induced shear stress applied on 3D cellular scaffolds: Implications for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lesman, Ayelet; Blinder, Yaron; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2010-02-15

    Novel tissue-culture bioreactors employ flow-induced shear stress as a means of mechanical stimulation of cells. We developed a computational fluid dynamics model of the complex three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of a porous scaffold incubated in a direct perfusion bioreactor. Our model was designed to predict high shear-stress values within the physiological range of those naturally sensed by vascular cells (1-10 dyne/cm(2)), and will thereby provide suitable conditions for vascular tissue-engineering experiments. The model also accounts for cellular growth, which was designed as an added cell layer grown on all scaffold walls. Five model variants were designed, with geometric differences corresponding to cell-layer thicknesses of 0, 50, 75, 100, and 125 microm. Four inlet velocities (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 cm/s) were applied to each model. Wall shear-stress distribution and overall pressure drop calculations were then used to characterize the relation between flow rate, shear stress, cell-layer thickness, and pressure drop. The simulations showed that cellular growth within 3D scaffolds exposes cells to elevated shear stress, with considerably increasing average values in correlation to cell growth and inflow velocity. Our results provide in-depth analysis of the microdynamic environment of cells cultured within 3D environments, and thus provide advanced control over tissue development in vitro.

  11. Dynamic deformability of sickle red blood cells in microphysiological flow.

    PubMed

    Alapan, Y; Matsuyama, Y; Little, J A; Gurkan, U A

    2016-06-01

    In sickle cell disease (SCD), hemoglobin molecules polymerize intracellularly and lead to a cascade of events resulting in decreased deformability and increased adhesion of red blood cells (RBCs). Decreased deformability and increased adhesion of sickle RBCs lead to blood vessel occlusion (vaso-occlusion) in SCD patients. Here, we present a microfluidic approach integrated with a cell dimensioning algorithm to analyze dynamic deformability of adhered RBC at the single-cell level in controlled microphysiological flow. We measured and compared dynamic deformability and adhesion of healthy hemoglobin A (HbA) and homozygous sickle hemoglobin (HbS) containing RBCs in blood samples obtained from 24 subjects. We introduce a new parameter to assess deformability of RBCs: the dynamic deformability index (DDI), which is defined as the time-dependent change of the cell's aspect ratio in response to fluid flow shear stress. Our results show that DDI of HbS-containing RBCs were significantly lower compared to that of HbA-containing RBCs. Moreover, we observed subpopulations of HbS containing RBCs in terms of their dynamic deformability characteristics: deformable and non-deformable RBCs. Then, we tested blood samples from SCD patients and analyzed RBC adhesion and deformability at physiological and above physiological flow shear stresses. We observed significantly greater number of adhered non-deformable sickle RBCs than deformable sickle RBCs at flow shear stresses well above the physiological range, suggesting an interplay between dynamic deformability and increased adhesion of RBCs in vaso-occlusive events.

  12. Dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddala, Jeevan; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen

    The dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in perturbed shear flow remains ill-defined. Microfluidics is a promising technology for improving the understanding of blood flow under complex conditions of shear; as found in stent implants and in tortuous blood vessels. We model the fluid dynamics of blood flow in a microfluidic ladder network with dimensions mimicking venules. Interaction of blood cells was modeled using multiagent framework, where cells of different diameters were treated as spheres. This model served as the basis for predicting transition regions, collision pathways, re-circulation zones and residence times of cells dependent on their diameters and device architecture. Based on these insights from the model, we were able to predict the clot formation configurations at various locations in the device. These predictions were supported by the experiments using whole blood. To facilitate platelet aggregation, the devices were coated with fibrillar collagen and tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the microfluidic device for 9 min at a physiologically relevant venous shear rate of 600 s-1. Using fluorescent microscopy, we observed flow transitions near the channel intersections and at the areas of blood flow obstruction, which promoted larger thrombus formation. This study of integrating model predictions with experimental design, aids in defining the dynamics of blood flow in microvasculature and in development of novel biomedical devices.

  13. Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of local fluid flow and shear stress within microporous scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Yang, Ying; Haj, Alicia El; Hinds, Monica T.; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2009-05-01

    Establishing a relationship between perfusion rate and fluid shear stress in a 3D cell culture environment is an ongoing and challenging task faced by tissue engineers. We explore Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) as a potential imaging tool for in situ monitoring of local fluid flow profiles inside porous chitosan scaffolds. From the measured fluid flow profiles, the fluid shear stresses are evaluated. We examine the localized fluid flow and shear stress within low- and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds, which are subjected to a constant input flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1. The DOCT results show that the behavior of the fluid flow and shear stress in micropores is strongly dependent on the micropore interconnectivity, porosity, and size of pores within the scaffold. For low-porosity and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds examined, the measured local fluid flow and shear stress varied from micropore to micropore, with a mean shear stress of 0.49+/-0.3 dyn.cm-2 and 0.38+/-0.2 dyn.cm-2, respectively. In addition, we show that the scaffold's porosity and interconnectivity can be quantified by combining analyses of the 3D structural and flow images obtained from DOCT.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Turbulent-driven Sheared Parallel Flows in the CSDX Plasma Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, George; Hong, Rongjie; Li, Jiacong; Thakur, Saikat; Diamond, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Parallel velocity and its radial shear is a key element for both accessing improved confinement regimes and controlling the impurity transport in tokamak devices. In this study, the development of radially sheared parallel plasma flows in plasmas without magnetic shear is investigated using laser induced fluorescence, multi-tip Langmuir and Mach probes in the CSDX helicon linear plasma device. Results show that a mean parallel velocity shear grows as the radial gradient of plasma density increased. The sheared flow onset corresponds to the onset of a finite parallel Reynolds stress that acts to reinforce the flow. As a result, the mean parallel flow gains energy from the turbulence that, in turn, is driven by the density gradient. This results in a flow away from the plasma source in the central region of the plasma and a reverse flow in far-peripheral region of the plasma column. The results motivate a model of negative viscosity induced by the turbulent stress which may help explain the origin of intrinsic parallel flow in systems without magnetic shear.

  15. Static and dynamic shear viscosity of a single-layer complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Peter; Sandor, Mate Csaba; Kovacs, Aniko; Donko, Zoltan

    2011-07-15

    The static and dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a single-layer dusty plasma is measured by applying, respectively, a stationary and a periodically modulated shear stress, induced by the light pressure of manipulating laser beams. Under static conditions we observe a decrease of the viscosity with increasing shear rate, the so-called shear-thinning behavior. Under oscillating shear both the magnitude and the ratio of the dissipative and elastic contributions to the complex viscosity show strong frequency dependence, as the system changes from viscous to elastic in nature with increasing excitation frequency. Accompanying molecular dynamics simulations explain and support the experimental observations.

  16. Risk assessment of erosion from concentrated flow on rangelands using overland flow distribution and shear stress partitioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion rates of overland flow on rangelands tend to be relatively low, but under certain conditions where flow is concentrated, soil loss can be significant. Therefore, a rangeland site can be highly vulnerable to soil erosion where overland flow is likely to concentrate and exert high shear stress...

  17. Dynamic shear jamming in dense granular suspensions under extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sayantan; Peters, Ivo R.; Han, Endao; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2017-01-01

    Unlike dry granular materials, a dense granular suspension like cornstarch in water can strongly resist extensional flows. At low extension rates, such a suspension behaves like a viscous fluid, but rapid extension results in a response where stresses far exceed the predictions of lubrication hydrodynamics and capillarity. To understand this remarkable mechanical response, we experimentally measure the normal force imparted by a large bulk of the suspension on a plate moving vertically upward at a controlled velocity. We observe that, above a velocity threshold, the peak force increases by orders of magnitude. Using fast ultrasound imaging we map out the local velocity profiles inside the suspension, which reveal the formation of a growing jammed region under rapid extension. This region interacts with the rigid boundaries of the container through strong velocity gradients, suggesting a direct connection to the recently proposed shear-jamming mechanism.

  18. Dynamical theory of shear bands in structural glasses.

    PubMed

    Wisitsorasak, Apiwat; Wolynes, Peter G

    2017-02-07

    The heterogeneous elastoplastic deformation of structural glasses is explored using the framework of the random first-order transition theory of the glass transition along with an extended mode-coupling theory that includes activated events. The theory involves coupling the continuum elastic theory of strain transport with mobility generation and transport as described in the theory of glass aging and rejuvenation. Fluctuations that arise from the generation and transport of mobility, fictive temperature, and stress are treated explicitly. We examine the nonlinear flow of a glass under deformation at finite strain rate. The interplay among the fluctuating fields leads to the spatially heterogeneous dislocation of the particles in the glass, i.e., the appearance of shear bands of the type observed in metallic glasses deforming under mechanical stress.

  19. Dynamical theory of shear bands in structural glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisitsorasak, Apiwat; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-02-01

    The heterogeneous elastoplastic deformation of structural glasses is explored using the framework of the random first-order transition theory of the glass transition along with an extended mode-coupling theory that includes activated events. The theory involves coupling the continuum elastic theory of strain transport with mobility generation and transport as described in the theory of glass aging and rejuvenation. Fluctuations that arise from the generation and transport of mobility, fictive temperature, and stress are treated explicitly. We examine the nonlinear flow of a glass under deformation at finite strain rate. The interplay among the fluctuating fields leads to the spatially heterogeneous dislocation of the particles in the glass, i.e., the appearance of shear bands of the type observed in metallic glasses deforming under mechanical stress.

  20. Effect of velocity ratio on coherent-structure dynamics in turbulent free shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam

    2014-11-01

    The relevance of the vortex-gas model to the large scale dynamics of temporally evolving turbulent free shear layers has been established by extensive simulations (Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)). The effects of velocity ratio (r =U2 /U1) on shear layer dynamics are revealed by spatially evolving vortex-gas shear-layer simulations using a computational model based on Basu et al. (Appl. Math. Modelling 19, (1995)), but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the initial conditions and downstream boundaries can significantly affect the flow over substantial part of the domain, but the equilibrium spread rate is a universal function of r, and is within the experimental scatter. The spread in the r = 0 limit is higher than Galilean-transformed temporal value. The present 2D simulations at r = 0 show continuous growth of structures, while merger-dominated evolution is observed for r = 0 . 23 (and higher). These two mechanisms were observed across the same two values of r in the experiments of D'Ovidio & Coats (J. Fluid Mech. 737, 2013), but the continuous growth was instead attributed to mixing-transition and 3D. The 2D mechanisms responsible for the observed continuous growth of structures are analyzed in detail. Supported in part by RN/Intel/4288 and RN/DRDO/4124.

  1. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  2. Shear-induced particle diffusion and its effects on the flow of concentrated suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Acrivos, A.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanism underlying shear-induced particle diffusion in concentrated suspensions is clarified. Examples are then presented where this diffusion process plays a crucial role in determining the manner by which such suspensions flow under laminar conditions.

  3. Dynamics of fluid mixing in separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, A.

    1991-05-01

    Separated flows at high Re (>103) are highly turbulent. In some situations the turbulence generation and mixing processes associated with flow separation are desirable, e.g., in heat exchangers or in many chemical engineering applications. In others, e.g., stalled airfoils, separation must be avoided as it causes loss in pressure and kinetic energy. To control the phenomenon effectively, physical mechanisms of flow separation and related aspects, such as the growth of flow instabilities in shear layers, the process of vortex formation, and the dynamics of fluid mixing in recirculating flow regions, must be understood. In many cases numerical procedures, e.g., Navier-Stokes calculations including k-ɛ turbulence modeling, fail to predict real physical mechanisms in separated flows.1,2 Separated flows in the lee of bluff bodies have been studied for many years.3,4 However, accurate measurements of the magnitude and direction of velocities and the magnitude of the terms of the Reynolds stress tensor have been restricted by the unsuitability of the hot-wire anemometer in recirculating flows. The development of the pulsed-wire anemometer, flying hot-wire anemometer, and laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) allows more reliable measurements also in turbulent separated flows.5-8 The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of undisturbed fluid mixing in separated regions of 2-D, incompressible flows with visualization techniques and LDA. Measurements were performed with a vertical flat plate model, mounted in a closed-circuit wind tunnel at low blockage ratio. Because of the noninvasive character, optical techniques like LDA are more suitable to analyze complex fluid motions than pulsed-wire and flying-wire anemometry. The LDA system used to investigate turbulent flow structures consists of a two-channel version operating in backscatter mode and a specifically developed phase detector to extract phase-averaged information from recorded measurement ensembles.9 Endplates

  4. Pattern formation in granular binary mixtures under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Narteau, C.; Rozier, O.

    2012-12-01

    Polydisperse granular materials are ubiquitous in the field of geomorphology. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to address the impact of segregation, stratification and mixing on landscape dynamics and sediment transport. Here, we study numerically the formation and evolution of bed forms using a binary granular mixture. The two types of particles may have different dynamic properties and angle of repose. We associate these changes to two different grain sizes, the so-called coarse and thin particles. Our computation are based on a real-space cellular automaton that combines a model of sediment transport with a lattice-gas cellular automaton. Thus, we implement the permanent feedbacks between fluid flow and topography. Keeping constant the strength of the flow, we explore a parameter-space by varying the size of the coarse particles and their proportion within the bed. As a result of avalanches and sediment transport, we systematically find regions of segregation and stratification. In a vast majority of cases, we also observe the formation of an armoring layer mainly composed of coarse particles. Its depth is mainly controlled by the proportion of coarse grains and not by the size of these larger particles. When there is a larger proportion of thin particles, transverse dunes develop on the top of the armoring layer. As this proportion decreases, we may observe barchans or even no clear bed forms. Not surprisingly, we conclude that the main control parameter for dune pattern formation is the thin sediment availability. Finally, we discuss the processes responsible for the formation of the armoring layer and show how it controls the overall sediment transport.

  5. Pattern formation in granular binary mixtures under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clement; Rozier, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    We study numerically the formation and evolution of bed forms using a binary granular mixture. The two types of particles may have different dynamic properties and angle of repose. We associate these changes to two different grain sizes, the so-called coarse and thin particles. Our computation are based on a real-space cellular automaton that combines a model of sediment transport with a lattice-gas cellular automaton. Thus, we implement the permanent feedbacks between fluid flow and topography. Keeping constant the strength of the flow, we explore a parameter-space by varying the size of the coarse particles and their proportion within the bed. As a result of avalanches and sediment transport, we systematically find regions of segregation and stratification. In a vast majority of cases, we also observe the formation of an armoring layer mainly composed of coarse particles. Its depth is mainly controlled by the proportion of coarse grains and not by the size of these larger particles. When there is a larger proportion of thin particles, transverse dunes develop on the top of the armoring layer. As this proportion decreases, we may observe barchans or even no clear bed forms. We conclude that the main control parameter for dune pattern formation is the thin sediment availability. Finally, we discuss the processes responsible for the formation of the armoring layer and show how it controls the overall sediment transport.

  6. An alternative assessment of second-order closure models in turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of three recently proposed second-order closure models is tested in benchmark turbulent shear flows. Both homogeneous shear flow and the log-layer of an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer are considered for this purpose. An objective analysis of the results leads to an assessment of these models that stands in contrast to that recently published by other authors. A variety of pitfalls in the formulation and testing of second-order closure models are uncovered by this analysis.

  7. Influence of the potential well on the breakage rate of colloidal aggregates in simple shear and uniaxial extensional flows.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiqiang; Harshe, Yogesh M; Lattuada, Marco

    2015-06-02

    In this work we build on our previous paper (Harshe, Y. M.; Lattuada, M. Langmuir 2012, 28, 283-292) and compute the breakage rate of colloidal aggregates under the effect of shear forces by means of Stokesian dynamics simulations. A library of clusters made of identical spherical particles covering a broad range of masses and fractal dimension values (from 1.8 to 3.0) was generated by means of a combination of several Monte Carlo methods. DLVO theory has been used to describe the interparticle interactions, and contact forces have been introduced by means of the discrete element method. The aggregate breakage process was investigated by exposing them to well-defined shear forces, generated under both simple shear and uniaxial extensional flow conditions, and by recording the time required to reach the first breakage event. It has been found that the breakage rate of clusters was controlled by the potential well between particles as described by DLVO theory. A semiempirical Arrhenius-type exponential equation that relates the potential well to the breakage rate has been used to fit the simulation results. The dependence of the breakage process on the radius of gyration, on the external shear strength, and on the fractal dimension has been obtained, providing a very general relationship for the breakage rate of clusters. It was also found that the fragment mass distribution is insensitive to the presence of electrostatic repulsive interactions. We also clarify the physical reason for the large difference in the breakage rate of clusters between simple shear and the uniaxial extensional flow using a criterion based on the energy dissipation rate. Finally, in order to answer the question of the minimum cluster size that can break under simple shear conditions, a critical rotation number has been introduced, expressing the maximum number of rotations that a cluster exposed to simple shear could sustain before breakage.

  8. Dynamic response of shear thickening fluid under laser induced shock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xianqian Yin, Qiuyun; Huang, Chenguang; Zhong, Fachun

    2015-02-16

    The dynamic response of the 57 vol./vol. % dense spherical silica particle-polyethylene glycol suspension at high pressure was investigated through short pulsed laser induced shock experiments. The measured back free surface velocities by a photonic Doppler velocimetry showed that the shock and the particle velocities decreased while the shock wave transmitted in the shear thickening fluid (STF), from which an equation of state for the STF was obtained. In addition, the peak stress decreased and the absorbed energy increased rapidly with increasing the thickness for a thin layer of the STF, which should be attributed to the impact-jammed behavior through compression of particle matrix, the deformation or crack of the hard-sphere particles, and the volume compression of the particles and the polyethylene glycol.

  9. Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.

  10. [Comparison of adhesion of different endothelial cells under shear stress load in the flow field in vitro].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Eryong; Xu, Weilin; Shi, Yingkang; Guo, Yingqiang

    2011-02-01

    This study was aimed to compare the differences of adhesion properties of endothelial cells (EC) from arteries (AEC), veins (VEC) and capillaries (MVEC) under shear stress condition, and to explore whether they can get the same adhesive ability as graft in similar shear stress conditions. With mended parallel plate flow apparatus and peristalsis pump providing fluid shear stress used, endothelial culture models were established in vitro with the same environmental factors as steady culture. To compare the adhesion among three kinds of endothelial cells under dynamic condition and static condition, the dynamic change of cytoskeletal actin filaments and the effects of different adhesive proteins coated on the adhesion of EC to the glass were studied. The cultured endothelial cells under flow conditions were extended and arranged along the direction of flow. The adhesive ability from high to low under static condition were AEC, MVEC and VEC (VEC compared with AEC or MVEC, P < 0.05), sequentially. The adhesion of endothelial cells from variety sources under dynamic culture condition was significantly increased than that of the static groups. The ratio of cell retention was not significantly different between AEC and MVEC. But VEC was significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with AEC or MVEC. The actin filaments (F-actin) were bundled together and arranged along the direction of flow after fluid culture. Dense peripheral band (DPB) gradually disappeared and distinct stress fibers were formed, which even interconnected to form a whole in the MVEC. The adhesion of AEC, VEC and MVEC under shear stress conditions are more significantly increased than those under the static culture conditions, and the MVEC can achieve the same adhesion as AEC.

  11. Michaelis-Menten kinetics in shear flow: Similarity solutions for multi-step reactions.

    PubMed

    Ristenpart, W D; Stone, H A

    2012-03-01

    Models for chemical reaction kinetics typically assume well-mixed conditions, in which chemical compositions change in time but are uniform in space. In contrast, many biological and microfluidic systems of interest involve non-uniform flows where gradients in flow velocity dynamically alter the effective reaction volume. Here, we present a theoretical framework for characterizing multi-step reactions that occur when an enzyme or enzymatic substrate is released from a flat solid surface into a linear shear flow. Similarity solutions are developed for situations where the reactions are sufficiently slow compared to a convective time scale, allowing a regular perturbation approach to be employed. For the specific case of Michaelis-Menten reactions, we establish that the transversally averaged concentration of product scales with the distance x downstream as x(5/3). We generalize the analysis to n-step reactions, and we discuss the implications for designing new microfluidic kinetic assays to probe the effect of flow on biochemical processes.

  12. Spatio-temporal intermittency in stratified shear flow: effects of Prandtl number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefauve, Adrien; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We present laboratory experiments of a stratified shear flow in an inclined square duct, connecting two reservoirs of water at different densities. The exchange flow in which a layer of dense salt-water flows beneath a layer of lighter fresh-water moving in the opposite direction is known to host a rich zoo of behaviors. As the driving density difference or inclination angle is increased, the initially sharp and flat density interface can support Holmboe waves, and then transition to a statistically steady turbulent intermediate mixed layer. Here we report on the significantly different dynamics observed when stratification is achieved by heat instead of salt. Even moderate values of density difference or inclination angle now allow the dramatic growth of interfacial waves causing the flow to transition to a fully-turbulent state, before it relaxes back to a laminar state and so forth. These novel laminar-turbulent cycles exhibit a remarkable periodicity and suggest that the Prandtl number (Pr = 700 for salt vs Pr = 7 for heat) affects the intermittency and mixing properties of stratified turbulence. Supported by EPSRC Programme Grant EP/K034529/1 entitled ``Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence''

  13. Critical Phenomenon Analysis of Shear-Banding Flow in Polymer-Like Micellar Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, F.; Pérez-López, J. H.; Puig, J. E.; Manero, O.

    2008-07-01

    We examined the shear-banding flow phenomenon in polymer-like micellar solutions with the Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) model, which predicts that upon decreasing the shear banding intensity parameter of this model, which correspond to increasing temperature, concentration or varying salt-to-surfactant concentration, a non-equilibrium critical line is reached. By using non-equilibrium critical theory, which we obtain a set of symmetrical curves which are the normalized stress versus normalized shear rate flow curves, similar to gas-liquid transitions around the critical point. In addition, we derived the non-equilibrium critical exponents and found that them are no classic values.

  14. Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation.

    PubMed

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Eugene A

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.

  15. Two-way coupling of finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbells with a turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2007-06-01

    We present numerical studies for finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbells which are dispersed in a turbulent plane shear flow at moderate Reynolds number. The polymer ensemble is described on the mesoscopic level by a set of stochastic ordinary differential equations with Brownian noise. The dynamics of the Newtonian solvent is determined by the Navier-Stokes equations. Momentum transfer of the dumbbells with the solvent is implemented by an additional volume forcing term in the Navier-Stokes equations, such that both components of the resulting viscoelastic fluid are connected by a two-way coupling. The dynamics of the dumbbells is given then by Newton's second law of motion including small inertia effects. We investigate the dynamics of the flow for different degrees of dumbbell elasticity and inertia, as given by Weissenberg and Stokes numbers, respectively. For the parameters accessible in our study, the magnitude of the feedback of the polymers on the macroscopic properties of turbulence remains small as quantified by the global energy budget and the Reynolds stresses. A reduction of the turbulent drag by up to 20% is observed for the larger particle inertia. The angular statistics of the dumbbells shows an increasing alignment with the mean flow direction for both, increasing elasticity and inertia. This goes in line with a growing asymmetry of the probability density function of the transverse derivative of the streamwise turbulent velocity component. We find that dumbbells get stretched preferentially in regions where vortex stretching or biaxial strain dominate the local dynamics and topology of the velocity gradient tensor.

  16. Linear Instability of a Uni-Directional Transversely Sheared Mean Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wundrow, David W.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of spanwise-periodic mean-flow distortions (i.e. streamwise-vortex structures) on the evolution of small-amplitude, single-frequency instability waves in an otherwise two-dimensional shear flow is investigated. The streamwise-vortex structures are taken to be just weak enough so that the spatially growing instability waves behave (locally) like linear perturbations about a uni-directional transversely sheared mean flow. Numerical solutions are computed and discussed for both the mean flow and the instability waves. The influence of the streamwise-vortex wavelength on the properties of the most rapidly growing instability wave is also discussed.

  17. Measurement of the Shear Lift Force on a Bubble in a Channel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Motil, Brian; Skor, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Two-phase flow systems play vital roles in the design of some current and anticipated space applications of two-phase systems which include: thermal management systems, transfer line flow in cryogenic storage, space nuclear power facilities, design and operation of thermal bus, life support systems, propulsion systems, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and space processes for pharmaceutical applications. The design of two-phase flow systems for space applications requires a clear knowledge of the behaviors of the dispersed phase (bubble), its interaction with the continuous phase (liquid) and its effect on heat and mass transfer processes, The need to understand the bubble generation process arises from the fact that for all space applications, the size and distribution of bubbles are extremely crucial for heat and mass transfer control. One important force in two-phase flow systems is the lift force on a bubble or particle in a liquid shear flow. The shear lift is usually overwhelmed by buoyancy in normal gravity, but it becomes an important force in reduced gravity. Since the liquid flow is usually sheared because of the confining wall, the trajectories of bubbles and particles injected into the liquid flow are affected by the shear lift in reduced gravity. A series of experiments are performed to investigate the lift force on a bubble in a liquid shear flow and its effect on the detachment of a bubble from a wall under low gravity conditions. Experiments are executed in a Poiseuille flow in a channel. An air-water system is used in these experiments that are performed in the 2.2 second drop tower. A bubble is injected into the shear flow from a small injector and the shear lift is measured while the bubble is held stationary relative to the fluid. The trajectory of the bubble prior, during and after its detachment from the injector is investigated. The measured shear lift force is calculated from the trajectory of the bubble at the detachment point. These

  18. Numerical Investigation of the Formation and Detachment of Droplets from Pores in a Shear Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, Kathleen; Tanner, Franz X.; Windhab, Erich J.

    2010-09-01

    The formation and detachment behavior of droplets from a pore opening into a simple shear field within a channel gap is investigated using numerical simulations. The mathematical model consists of the governing equations for an incompressible two-phase flow problem with a moving contact line. These equations are numerically solved using the volume-of-fluid method implemented in the open source software OpenFOAM. A parameter study was performed to determine the effect of relevant dimensionless parameters on the formation and detachment behavior of the droplets. These dimensionless parameters involve the pore size, pore flow rate, gap shear rate, interfacial tension, and the viscosity and density of the two fluid phases. For the parameter range considered in this study, different degrees of jetting behavior were observed. Also, the sizes of the detached droplets were seen to decrease as the gap shear rate increased, and increase with the pore flow rate, with the gap shear rate having a larger effect.

  19. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.

  20. Effects of shear flow and transverse magnetic field on Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Jintao; Ren Haijun; Li Ding; Wu Zhengwei

    2008-04-15

    The effects of shear flow and transverse magnetic field on Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are examined and the expression of the interface perturbation is obtained by analytically solving the linear ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations. It shows that the perturbation evolves exponentially rather than linearly in the presence of shear flow and magnetic field when v{sub a}<{radical}(1-A{sub T}{sup 2}){delta}{sub u}/2, where v{sub a} is the modified Alfven velocity, A{sub T} is the Atwood number, and {delta}{sub u} is the relative shear velocity, respectively. The shear flow acts as a destabilizing source, while the magnetic field is a stabilizing mechanism of the shocked corrugated interface problem. The whole analysis is based on the assumption that the fluid is incompressible.

  1. Dynamic friction in sheared fault gouge: Implications of acoustic vibration on triggering and slow slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2016-03-01

    Friction and deformation in granular fault gouge are among various dynamic interactions associated with seismic phenomena that have important implications for slip mechanisms on earthquake faults. To this end, we propose a mechanistic model of granular fault gouge subject to acoustic vibrations and shear deformation. The grain-scale dynamics is described by the Shear-Transformation-Zone theory of granular flow, which accounts for irreversible plastic deformation in terms of flow defects whose density is governed by an effective temperature. Our model accounts for stick-slip instabilities observed at seismic slip rates. In addition, as the vibration intensity increases, we observe an increase in the temporal advancement of large slip events, followed by a plateau and gradual decrease. Furthermore, slip becomes progressively slower upon increasing the vibration intensity. The results shed important light on the physical mechanisms of earthquake triggering and slow slip and provide essential elements for the multiscale modeling of earthquake ruptures. In particular, the results suggest that slow slip may be triggered by tremors.

  2. Inertial effects at moderate Reynolds number in thin-film rimming flows driven by surface shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, E. D.; Hibberd, S.; Power, H.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study two-dimensional thin-film flow inside a stationary circular cylinder driven by an imposed surface shear stress. Modelling is motivated by a need to understand the cooling and film dynamics provided by oil films in an aero-engine bearing chamber characterised by conditions of very high surface shear and additional film mass flux from oil droplets entering the film through the surface. In typical high-speed operation, film inertial effects can provide a significant leading-order mechanism neglected in existing lubrication theory models. Inertia at leading-order is included within a depth-averaged formulation where wall friction is evaluated similar to hydraulic models. This allows key nonlinear inertial effects to be included while retaining the ability to analyse the problem in a mathematically tractable formulation and compare with other approaches. In constructing this model, a set of simplified mass and momentum equations are integrated through the depth of the film yielding a spatially one-dimensional depth-averaged formulation of the problem. An a priori assumed form of velocity profile is needed to complete the system. In a local Stokes flow analysis, a quadratic profile is the exact solution for the velocity field though it must be modified when inertial effects become important. Extension of the velocity profile to a cubic profile is selected enabling specification of a wall friction model to include the roughness of the cylinder wall. A modelling advantage of including the inertia term, relevant to the applications considered, is that a smooth progression in solution can be obtained between cases of low Reynolds number corresponding to lubrication theory, and high Reynolds number corresponding to uniform rimming-flow. Importantly, we also investigate the effect of inertia on some typical solutions from other studies and present a greater insight to existing and new film solutions which arise from including inertia effects.

  3. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, 6th, Universite de Toulouse III, France, Sept. 7-9, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This symposium includes topics on wall flows, unsteady flows, scalar and buoyant transport, instrumentation and techniques, combustion, aerodynamic flows, free flows, geophysical flows, complex flows, separated flows, coherent structures, closures, numerical simulation, and two-phase flows. Papers are presented on the effect of favorable pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers, the models of hydrodynamic resonances in separated shear flows, the transport of passive scalars in a turbulent channel flow, a pulsed hot-wire probe for near-wall measurements, and vortex dynamics in diffusion flames. Consideration is also given to time-dependent structure in wing-body junction flows, bifurcating air jets at high subsonic speeds, the wake of an axisymmetric body with or without tail separation, coherent structures in quasi-geostrophic jets, and separated flow predictions using a new turbulence model. Additional papers are on stochastic estimation of organized structures in turbulent channel flow, a comparative study of eleven models of turbulence, and a numerical study of a stably stratified mixing layer.

  4. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, 6th, Universite de Toulouse III, France, Sept. 7-9, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This symposium includes topics on wall flows, unsteady flows, scalar and buoyant transport, instrumentation and techniques, combustion, aerodynamic flows, free flows, geophysical flows, complex flows, separated flows, coherent structures, closures, numerical simulation, and two-phase flows. Papers are presented on the effect of favorable pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layers, the models of hydrodynamic resonances in separated shear flows, the transport of passive scalars in a turbulent channel flow, a pulsed hot-wire probe for near-wall measurements, and vortex dynamics in diffusion flames. Consideration is also given to time-dependent structure in wing-body junction flows, bifurcating air jets at high subsonic speeds, the wake of an axisymmetric body with or without tail separation, coherent structures in quasi-geostrophic jets, and separated flow predictions using a new turbulence model. Additional papers are on stochastic estimation of organized structures in turbulent channel flow, a comparative study of eleven models of turbulence, and a numerical study of a stably stratified mixing layer.

  5. Creep cavitation can establish a dynamic granular fluid pump in ductile shear zones.

    PubMed

    Fusseis, F; Regenauer-Lieb, K; Liu, J; Hough, R M; De Carlo, F

    2009-06-18

    The feedback between fluid migration and rock deformation in mid-crustal shear zones is acknowledged as being critical for earthquake nucleation, the initiation of subduction zones and the formation of mineral deposits. The importance of this poorly understood feedback is further highlighted by evidence for shear-zone-controlled advective flow of fluids in the ductile lower crust and the recognition that deformation-induced grain-scale porosity is a key to large-scale geodynamics. Fluid migration in the middle crust cannot be explained in terms of classical concepts. The environment is considered too hot for a dynamic fracture-sustained permeability as in the upper crust, and fluid pathways are generally too deformed to be controlled by equilibrium wetting angles that apply to hotter, deeper environments. Here we present evidence that mechanical and chemical potentials control a syndeformational porosity generation in mid-crustal shear zones. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy observations allow us to formulate a model for fluid migration in shear zones where a permeable porosity is dynamically created by viscous grain-boundary sliding, creep cavitation, dissolution and precipitation. We propose that syndeformational fluid migration in our 'granular fluid pump' model is a self-sustained process controlled by the explicit role of the rate of entropy production of the underlying irreversible mechanical and chemical microprocesses. The model explains fluid transfer through the middle crust, where strain localization in the creep regime is required for plate tectonics, the formation of giant ore deposits, mantle degassing and earthquake nucleation. Our findings provide a key component for the understanding of creep instabilities in the middle crust.

  6. Non-canonical Wnt signalling modulates the endothelial shear stress flow sensor in vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Claudio A; Jones, Martin L; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Vion, Anne-Clemence; Barbacena, Pedro; Fan, Jieqing; Mathivet, Thomas; Fonseca, Catarina G; Ragab, Anan; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Coveney, Peter V; Lang, Richard A; Gerhardt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to molecular and physical forces in development and vascular homeostasis. Deregulation of endothelial responses to flow-induced shear is believed to contribute to many aspects of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. However, how molecular signals and shear-mediated physical forces integrate to regulate vascular patterning is poorly understood. Here we show that endothelial non-canonical Wnt signalling regulates endothelial sensitivity to shear forces. Loss of Wnt5a/Wnt11 renders endothelial cells more sensitive to shear, resulting in axial polarization and migration against flow at lower shear levels. Integration of flow modelling and polarity analysis in entire vascular networks demonstrates that polarization against flow is achieved differentially in artery, vein, capillaries and the primitive sprouting front. Collectively our data suggest that non-canonical Wnt signalling stabilizes forming vascular networks by reducing endothelial shear sensitivity, thus keeping vessels open under low flow conditions that prevail in the primitive plexus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07727.001 PMID:26845523

  7. Shear-layer detection in poststenotic flow by spectrum analysis of Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Fronek, A

    1988-11-01

    Spectrum analysis of the Doppler signals was performed 0.5 tube diameters downstream from an axisymmetric constriction with an area reduction of 80 percent in steady flow at a jet Reynolds number of 2840. Both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) Doppler spectra showed significant reverse flow components in the separated flow. The pulsed Doppler spectra exhibited sudden changes when the sample volume crossed the shear layer between the center jet and the separated flow. A power spectrum equation was theoretically derived from continuity of flow to define the Doppler shift frequency for the shear layer velocity. The CW Doppler spectrum showed a minimum spectrum density at a frequency which equalled the shear layer Doppler shift frequency derived from the equation. The pulsed spectra exhibited the sudden changes at the same frequency as well.

  8. Nonlinear Instability of a Uni-directional Transversely Sheared Mean Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wundrow, David W.; Goldstein, Marvin E.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that the presence of a weak cross flow in an otherwise two-dimensional shear flow results in a spanwise variation in the mean streamwise velocity profile that can lead to an amplification of certain three-dimensional disturbances through a kind of resonant-interaction mechanism (Goldstein and Wundrow 1994). The spatial evolution of an initially linear, finite-growth-rate, instability wave in such a spanwise-varying shear flow is considered, The base flow, which is governed by the three-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes equations, is initiated by imposing a spanwise- periodic cross-flow velocity on an otherwise two-dimensional shear flow at some fixed streamwise location. The resulting mean-flow distortion initially grows with increasing streamwise distance, reaches a maximum and eventually decays through the action of viscosity. This decay, which coincides with the viscous spread of of the shear layer, means that the local growth rate of the instability wave will eventually decrease as the wave propagates downstream. Nonlinear effects can then become important within a thin spanwise-modulated critical layer once the local instability-wave amplitude and growth rate become sufficiently large and small, respectively. The amplitude equation that describes this stage of evolution is shown to be a generalization of the one obtained by Goldstein and Choi (1989) who considered the related problem of the interaction of two oblique modes in a two-dimensional shear layer.

  9. Ring-Sheared Drop (RSD): Microgravity Module for Containerless Flow Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Shreyash; Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; McBride, Samantha A.; Hirsa, Amir H.

    2016-11-01

    Microgravity is potentially a powerful tool for investigating processes that are sensitive to the presence of solid walls, since fluid containment can be achieved by surface tension. One such process is the transformation of protein in solution into amyloid fibrils; these are protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. In addition to solid walls, experiments with gravity are also subject to influences from sedimentation of aggregates and buoyancy-driven convection. The ring-sheared drop (RSD) module is a flow apparatus currently under development to study formation of amyloid fibrils aboard the International Space Station (ISS). A 25 mm diameter drop of protein solution will be contained by surface tension and constrained by a pair of sharp-edged tubes, forming two contact rings. Shear can be imparted by rotating one ring with the other ring kept stationary. Here we report on parabolic flights conducted to test the growth and pinning of 10 mm diameter drops of water in under 10 s of microgravity. Finite element method (FEM) based fluid dynamics computations using a commercial package (COMSOL) assisted in the design of the parabolic flight experiments. Prior to the parabolic flights, the code was validated against experiments in the lab (1 g), on the growth of sessile and pendant droplets. The simulations show good agreement with the experiments. This modeling capability will enable the development of the RSD at the 25 mm scale for the ISS.

  10. Ring-Sheared Drop (RSD): Microgravity Module for Containerless Flow Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Shreyash; Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; McBride, Samantha A.; Hirsa, Amir H.

    2017-02-01

    Microgravity is potentially a powerful tool for investigating processes that are sensitive to the presence of solid walls, since fluid containment can be achieved by surface tension. One such process is the transformation of protein in solution into amyloid fibrils; these are protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. In addition to solid walls, experiments with gravity are also subject to influences from sedimentation of aggregates and buoyancy-driven convection. The ring-sheared drop (RSD) module is a flow apparatus currently under development to study formation of amyloid fibrils aboard the International Space Station (ISS). A 25 mm diameter drop of protein solution will be contained by surface tension and constrained by a pair of sharp-edged tubes, forming two contact rings. Shear can be imparted by rotating one ring with the other ring kept stationary. Here we report on parabolic flights conducted to test the growth and pinning of 10 mm diameter drops of water in under 10 s of microgravity. Finite element method (FEM) based fluid dynamics computations using a commercial package (COMSOL) assisted in the design of the parabolic flight experiments. Prior to the parabolic flights, the code was validated against experiments in the lab (1 g), on the growth of sessile and pendant droplets. The simulations show good agreement with the experiments. This modeling capability will enable the development of the RSD at the 25 mm scale for the ISS.

  11. Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra

    2017-04-01

    Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.

  12. Laboratory investigation of nonlinear flow characteristics in rough fractures during shear process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Guan; Yang, Jie; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-10-01

    To understand the influence of shear behavior on the transporting properties of fluid through a single fracture, splitting fractures were made in the laboratory and shear flow tests were carried out under constant normal load conditions. The applied normal stress is in the range of 0.5-3.0 MPa. Before the physical test, the fracture's morphology is measured for identification of the roughness. At each shear step, we performed 5-8 high precise hydraulic tests with different hydraulic gradient. The relationship between pressure gradient and volume flow rate demonstrates to be nonlinear and fits very well with Forchheimer's and Izbash's laws. The linear and nonlinear coefficients in Forchheimer's law are quite sensitive to shear deformation (closure or dilation), experienced 1-2 and 1-3 orders of magnitude reduction during shear, respectively. An empirical equation is proposed to quantify the relationship between linear coefficient and nonlinear coefficient based on the experimental observations. The two coefficients in Izbash's law are quantified. The m value is in the range between 1.06 and 1.41 and the λ value experiences a reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude during shear. In addition, the studied critical Reynolds number exhibits a decreasing and increasing variation corresponding to shear contraction and shear dilation of rock fracture. For all the cases in this study, the critical Reynolds number ranges between 1.5 and 13.0.

  13. Development of ionic polymer transducers as flow shear stress sensors: effects of electrode architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, David; Dominic, Justin; Akle, Barbar J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-04-01

    Ionomeric polymer transducers (IPTs) have recently received a great deal of attention. As actuators, IPT have the ability to generate large bending strain and moderate stress at low applied voltages. Although the actuation capabilities of IPTs have been studied extensively, the sensing performance of these transducers has not received much attention. The work presented herein aims to develop a wall shear stress sensor for aero/hydrodynamic and biomedical applications. Ionic polymers are generally created by an impregnation-reduction process in an ion exchange membrane, typically Nafion, and then coated with a flexible electrode. The traditional impregnation-reduction fabrication technique of IPTs has little control on the electrode thickness. However, the new Direct Assembly Process (DAP) for fabrication of IPTs allows for experimentation with varying conducting materials and direct control of electrode architecture. The thickness of the electrode is controlled by altering the amount of the ionomer/metal mix sprayed on the membrane. Transducers with varied electrode and membrane thicknesses are fabricated. The sensitivity of the transducer is characterized using two basic experiments. First, the electric impedance of the transducer is measured and its capacitive properties are computed. Earlier studies have demonstrated that capacitance has been strongly correlated to actuation performance in IPTs. Subsequently, the sensing capability of the IPTs in bending is measured using a fixed-pined cantilever configuration. Finally the shear stress sensing performance in fluid flow is quantified through a detailed calibration procedure. This is accomplished using two dynamic shear stress calibration apparatuses. In this study we demonstrate a strong correlation between the electrode thickness and the sensing performance of an IPT.

  14. Yield and flow-induced phase transition in colloidal gels under startup shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lilian; Landrum, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2016-11-01

    We study the micro-mechanical origins of the transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior during flow startup of colloidal gels via large-scale dynamic simulation, with a view toward understanding connections to energy storage and phase transition. Such materials often exhibit an overshoot in stress, and prior studies of strong, dilute colloidal gels with a stringy microstructure connect this "yield" event to loss of network connectivity. Owing to the importance of Brownian transport in phase separation processes in colloids, here we study a reversible colloidal gel of hard spheres that interact via a short-range attraction of several kT, for which Brownian motion can lead to rapid quiescent coarsening. In the present study, we interrogate the shear stress for a range of imposed flow strengths, monitoring particle-level structure and dynamics, to determine the microscopic picture of gel yield. Our detailed studies of the microstructural evolution and macroscopic response during startup provide insight into the phase behavior during yield. We present a new model of stress development, phase transition, and structural evolution during transient yield in colloidal gels for which ongoing phase separation informs gel phenomenology.

  15. Simulations of a binary-sized mixture of inelastic grains in rapid shear flow.

    PubMed

    Clelland, R; Hrenya, C M

    2002-03-01

    In an effort to explore the rapid flow behavior associated with a binary-sized mixture of grains and to assess the predictive ability of the existing theory for such systems, molecular-dynamic simulations have been carried out. The system under consideration is composed of inelastic, smooth, hard disks engaged in rapid shear flow. The simulations indicate that nondimensional stresses decrease with an increase in d(L)/d(S) (ratio of large particle diameter to small particle diameter) or a decrease in nu(L)/nu(S) (area fraction ratio), as is also predicted by the kinetic theory of Willits and Arnarson [Phys. Fluids 11, 3116 (1999)]. Furthermore, the level of quantitative agreement between the theoretical stress predictions and simulation data is good over the entire range of parameters investigated. Nonetheless, the molecular-dynamic simulations also show that the assumption of an equipartition of energy rapidly deteriorates as the coefficient of restitution is decreased. The magnitude of this energy difference is found to increase with the difference in particle sizes.

  16. Visualization of Simulated Endothelial Shear Stress and Blood Flow in Coronary Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkin, Michelle; Feldman, Charles L.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Melchionna, Simone; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2010-11-01

    Low endothelial shear stress (ESS) identifies areas of atherosclerotic disease lesion formation in the coronary arteries. However, it is impossible to directly measure ESS in vivo for an entire arterial tree. As part of the Multiscale Hemodynamics Project, computed tomography angiography (CTA) data is being used to obtain patient specific heart and coronary system geometries and then MUPHY, a multi-physics and multi-scale simulation code combining microscopic Molecular Dynamics (MD) with a hydro-kinetic Lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, is applied in order to simulate blood flow through the coronary arteries. Having effective visualizations of the simulation's multidimensional output, including ESS, is vital for the quick and thorough non-invasive evaluation of the patient. To this end, we have developed new visualization tools and techniques to make the simulation's output useful in a clinical diagnostic setting, examined the effectiveness of 2D versus 3D representations, and explored blood flow representations. The visualization methods developed are also applicable to other areas of fluid dynamics.

  17. Experimental study of the vortex-induced vibration of drilling risers under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the different Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Liangjie, Mao; Qingyou, Liu; Shouwei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.

  18. Experimental Study of the Vortex-Induced Vibration of Drilling Risers under the Shear Flow with the Same Shear Parameter at the Different Reynolds Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Liangjie, Mao; Qingyou, Liu; Shouwei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment. PMID:25118607

  19. Deformation behavior of metallic glasses with shear band like atomic structure: a molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, C.; Zhang, H.; Cao, Q. P.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, D. X.; Ramamurty, U.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the plastic deformation within the shear bands in three different metallic glasses (MGs). To mimic shear bands, MG specimens were first deformed until flow localization occurs, and then the volume of the material within the localized regions was extracted and replicated. Homogeneous deformation that is independent of the size of the specimen was observed in specimens with shear band like structure, even at a temperature that is far below the glass transition temperature. Structural relaxation and rapid cooling were employed to examine the effect of free volume content on the deformation behavior. This was followed by detailed atomic structure analyses, employing the concepts of Voronoi polyhedra and “liquid-like” regions that contain high fraction of sub-atomic size open volumes. Results suggest that the total fraction of atoms in liquid-like regions is a key parameter that controls the plastic deformation in MGs. These are discussed in the context of reported experimental results and possible strategies for synthesizing monolithic amorphous materials that can accommodate large tensile plasticity are suggested.

  20. Deformation behavior of metallic glasses with shear band like atomic structure: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, C.; Zhang, H.; Cao, Q. P.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, D. X.; Ramamurty, U.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the plastic deformation within the shear bands in three different metallic glasses (MGs). To mimic shear bands, MG specimens were first deformed until flow localization occurs, and then the volume of the material within the localized regions was extracted and replicated. Homogeneous deformation that is independent of the size of the specimen was observed in specimens with shear band like structure, even at a temperature that is far below the glass transition temperature. Structural relaxation and rapid cooling were employed to examine the effect of free volume content on the deformation behavior. This was followed by detailed atomic structure analyses, employing the concepts of Voronoi polyhedra and “liquid-like” regions that contain high fraction of sub-atomic size open volumes. Results suggest that the total fraction of atoms in liquid-like regions is a key parameter that controls the plastic deformation in MGs. These are discussed in the context of reported experimental results and possible strategies for synthesizing monolithic amorphous materials that can accommodate large tensile plasticity are suggested. PMID:27480496

  1. Deformation behavior of metallic glasses with shear band like atomic structure: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, C; Zhang, H; Cao, Q P; Wang, X D; Zhang, D X; Ramamurty, U; Jiang, J Z

    2016-08-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the plastic deformation within the shear bands in three different metallic glasses (MGs). To mimic shear bands, MG specimens were first deformed until flow localization occurs, and then the volume of the material within the localized regions was extracted and replicated. Homogeneous deformation that is independent of the size of the specimen was observed in specimens with shear band like structure, even at a temperature that is far below the glass transition temperature. Structural relaxation and rapid cooling were employed to examine the effect of free volume content on the deformation behavior. This was followed by detailed atomic structure analyses, employing the concepts of Voronoi polyhedra and "liquid-like" regions that contain high fraction of sub-atomic size open volumes. Results suggest that the total fraction of atoms in liquid-like regions is a key parameter that controls the plastic deformation in MGs. These are discussed in the context of reported experimental results and possible strategies for synthesizing monolithic amorphous materials that can accommodate large tensile plasticity are suggested.

  2. Measurements of particle orientation in simple shear and channel flows of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykes, Laura

    2005-03-01

    We report studies of flow-induced orientation in dispersions of organically modified montmorillonite clay in polypropylene. The nanocomposite samples were prepared using two methods. Melt blending in a twin-screw extruder led to intercalated samples in which the layered structure of the clay remains intact. An additional step of solid-state shear pulverization leads to samples with a higher degree of exfoliation of individual clay sheets. In situ x-ray scattering was used to probe particle orientation in steady shear using an annular cone and plate shear cell which provides information about particle orientation in the flow-gradient plane. The more highly exfoliated pulverized sample shows significantly lower orientation than the intercalated melt-blended sample. Both samples were also studied in extrusion-fed channel flows. In slit-channel geometries, the dominant shear rate direction is parallel to the x-ray beam, allowing information about orientation in the flow- vorticity plane to be obtained. In fact, little scattering was observed in these configurations, confirming the tendency of clay particles to `lie down' in the shear flow. Superposition of extension via contractions or expansions in slit-channel flows did not reorient particles sufficiently to bring them `into view' in these geometries.

  3. Direct numerical simulation of compressible free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lele, Sanjiva K.

    1989-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of compressible free shear layers in open domains are conducted. Compact finite-difference schemes of spectral-like accuracy are used for the simulations. Both temporally-growing and spatially-growing mixing layers are studied. The effect of intrinsic compressibility on the evolution of vortices is studied. The use of convective Mach number is validated. Details of vortex roll up and pairing are studied. Acoustic radiation from vortex roll up, pairing and shape oscillations is studied and quantified.

  4. Lift on a Steady Airfoil in Low Reynolds Number Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Patrick; Visbal, Miguel; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2016-11-01

    Current understanding of airfoil aerodynamics is primarily based on a uniform freestream velocity approaching the airfoil, without consideration for possible presence of shear in the approach flow. Inviscid theory by Tsien (1943) shows that a symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack experiences positive lift, i.e. a shift in the zero-lift angle of attack, in the presence of positive mean shear in the approach flow. In the current work, 2D computations are conducted on a steady NACA 0012 airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of Re = 12,000, at zero angle of attack. A uniform shear profile (i.e. a linear velocity variation) is used for the approach flow by modifying the FDL3DI Navier-Stokes solver (Visbal and Gaitonde, 1999). Interestingly, opposite to the inviscid prediction of Tsien (1943), the results for the airfoil at zero angle of attack show that the average lift is negative in the shear flow. The magnitude of this lift grows as the shear rate increases. Additional results are presented regarding the physics underlying the shear effect on lift. A companion experimental study is also given in a separate presentation. This work was supported by AFOSR Award Number FA9550-15-1-0224.

  5. Tank-Treading of Erythrocytes in Strong Shear Flows via a Nonstiff Cytoskeleton-Based Continuum Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, W.R.; Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a computationally efficient cytoskeleton-based continuum erythrocyte algorithm. The cytoskeleton is modeled as a two-dimensional elastic solid with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance that follows a material law (Skalak, R., A. Tozeren, R. P. Zarda, and S. Chien. 1973. Strain energy function of red blood cell membranes. Biophys. J. 13:245–264). Our modeling enforces the global area-incompressibility of the spectrin skeleton (being enclosed beneath the lipid bilayer in the erythrocyte membrane) via a nonstiff, and thus efficient, adaptive prestress procedure which accounts for the (locally) isotropic stress imposed by the lipid bilayer on the cytoskeleton. In addition, we investigate the dynamics of healthy human erythrocytes in strong shear flows with capillary number Ca = O(1) and small-to-moderate viscosity ratios 0.001 ≤ λ ≤ 1.5. These conditions correspond to a wide range of surrounding medium viscosities (4–600 mPa s) and shear flow rates (0.02–440 s−1), and match those used in ektacytometry systems. Our computational results on the cell deformability and tank-treading frequency are compared with ektacytometry findings. The tank-treading period is shown to be inversely proportional to the shear rate and to increase linearly with the ratio of the cytoplasm viscosity to that of the suspending medium. Our modeling also predicts that the cytoskeleton undergoes measurable local area dilatation and compression during the tank-treading of the cells. PMID:21044588

  6. Sheared velocity flows as a source of pressure anisotropy in low collisionality plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sarto, D.; Pegoraro, F.; Califano, F.

    2014-12-01

    Non-Maxwellian metaequilibrium states may exist in low-collisionality plasmas as evidenced by direct (particle distributions) and indirect (e.g., instabilities driven by pressure anisotropy) satellite and laboratory measurements. These are directly observed in the solar wind (e.g. [1]), in magnetospheric reconnection events [2], in magnetically confined plasmas [3] or in simulations of Vlasov turbulence [4]. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show that a sheared velocity field can provide an effective mechanism that makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic. We discuss how the propagation of magneto-elastic waves can affect the pressure tensor anisotropization and the small scale formation that arise from the interplay between the gyrotropic terms due to the magnetic field and the flow vorticity and the non-gyropropic effect of the flow strain tensor. We support this analysis by a numerical integration of the nonlinear equations describing the pressure tensor evolution. This anisotropization mechanism might provide a good candidate for the understanding of the observed correlation between the presence of a sheared velocity flow and the signature of pressure anisotropies which are not yet explained within the standard models based e.g. on the CGL paradigm. Examples of these signatures are provided e.g. by the threshold lowering of ion-Weibel instabilities in the geomagnetic tail, observed in concomitance to the presence of a velocity shear in the near-earth plasma profile [5], or by the relatively stronger anisotropization measured for core protons in the fast solar wind [4,6] or in "space simulation" laboratory plasma experiments [3]. [1] E. Marsch et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 109, A04120 (2004); Yu. V. Khotyainstev at el., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165001 (2011). [2] N. Aunai et al., Ann. Geophys. 29, 1571 (2011); N. Aunai et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 116, A09232 (2011). [3] E.E. Scime et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2157 (2000). [4

  7. Sheared velocity flows as a source of pressure anisotropy in low collisionality plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sarto, Daniele; Pegoraro, Francesco; Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Califano, Francesco; Tenerani, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Non-Maxwellian metaequilibrium states may exist in low-collisionality plasmas as evidenced by direct (particle distributions) and indirect (e.g., instabilities driven by pressure anisotropy) satellite and laboratory measurements. These are directly observed in the solar wind (e.g. [1]), in magnetospheric reconnection events [2], in magnetically confined plasmas [3] or in simulations of Vlasov turbulence [4]. By including the full pressure tensor dynamics in a fluid plasma model, we show that a sheared velocity field can provide an effective mechanism that makes an initial isotropic state anisotropic. We discuss how the propagation of "magneto-elastic" waves can affect the pressure tensor anisotropization and the small scale formation that arise from the interplay between the gyrotropic terms due to the magnetic field and flow vorticity, and the non-gyropropic effect of the flow strain tensor. We support this analysis by a numerical integration of the nonlinear equations describing the pressure tensor evolution. This anisotropization mechanism might provide a good candidate for the understanding of the observed correlation between the presence of a sheared velocity flow and the signature of pressure anisotropies which are not yet explained within the standard models based e.g. on the CGL paradigm (see also [5]). Examples of these signatures are provided by the threshold lowering of ion-Weibel instabilities in the geomagnetic tail, observed in concomitance to the presence of a velocity shear in the near-earth plasma profile [6], or by the relatively stronger anisotropization measured for core protons in the fast solar wind [4,7] or in "space simulation" laboratory plasma experiments [3]. 1] E. Marsch et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 109, A04120 (2004); Yu. V. Khotyainstev at el., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165001 (2011). [2] N. Aunai et al., Ann. Geophys. 29, 1571 (2011); N. Aunai et al., Journ. Geophys. Res. 116, A09232 (2011). [3] E.E. Scime et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2157

  8. Shear-slip analysis in multiphase fluid-flow reservoir engineeringap plications using TOUGH-FLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Cappa, Frederic; Oldenburg,Curt; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-15

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the coupledTOUGH-FLAC simulator for geomechanical shear-slip (failure) analysis inmultiphase fluid-flow reservoir-engineering applications. Two approachesfor analyzing shear-slip are described, one using continuum stress-strainanalysis and another using discrete fault analysis. The use of shear-slipanalysis in TOUGH-FLAC is demonstrated on application examples related toCO2 sequestration and geothermal energy extraction. In the case of CO2sequestration, the shear-slip analysis is used to evaluate maximumsustainable CO2-injection pressure under increasing reservoir pressure,whereas in the case of geothermal energy extraction, the shear-slipanalysis is used to study induced seismicity during steam productionunder decreasing reservoir pressure and temperature.

  9. The production of turbulent stress in a shear flow by irrotational fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartshore, I. S.; Durbin, P. A.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the way in which external turbulence affects an initially turbulence-free region in which there is a mean velocity gradient. External turbulence induces irrotational fluctuations in the sheared region which interact with the shear to produce rotational velocity fluctuations and mean Reynolds stresses. Since the actual front between the initial external turbulence and the shear flow is a randomly contorted surface, the turbulence near the front is intermittent, and is presently included in the form of a simple statistical model. In wind tunnel tests, turbulent shear stress was found to grow from zero to significant values in the interaction region. Observed stress magnitude and extent agrees with predictions, and it is concluded that turbulent stresses can be produced by irrotational fluctuations in a region of mean shear.

  10. What Can the Kinematic Complexity of Astrophysical Shear Flows Lead To?

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M.; Rogava, A.D.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a method for investigating waves and instabilities in astrophysical shear flows with complex kinematics. Using new tools, we find an unexpected richness in the spectrum of compressible fluctuations sustained by such a flow. The principal characteristic of the revealed exotic phenomena is their {ital asymptotic persistence} in the absence of viscosity. {open_quotes}Echoing{close_quotes} as well as strongly unstable (including parametrically driven) solutions are identified. Examples of astrophysical shear flows with nontrivial velocity structure where these method and results can be applied are also discussed. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  11. What Can the Kinematic Complexity of Astrophysical Shear Flows Lead To

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M. ); Rogava, A.D. )

    1999-06-01

    We develop a method for investigating waves and instabilities in astrophysical shear flows with complex kinematics. Using new tools, we find an unexpected richness in the spectrum of compressible fluctuations sustained by such a flow. The principal characteristic of the revealed exotic phenomena is their [ital asymptotic persistence] in the absence of viscosity. [open quotes]Echoing[close quotes] as well as strongly unstable (including parametrically driven) solutions are identified. Examples of astrophysical shear flows with nontrivial velocity structure where these method and results can be applied are also discussed. [copyright] [ital [copyright] 1999.] [ital The American Astronomical Society

  12. 3D-PTV measurement of the phototactic movement of algae in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsuyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-11-01

    Recently, swimming motion of algae cells is researched actively, because algae fuel is one of the hottest topic in engineering. It is known that algae swim toward the light for photosynthesis however, the effect of a background flow on the unidirectional swimming is unclear. In this study, we used Volvox as a model alga and placed them in a simple shear flow with or without light stimulus. The shear flow was generated by moving two flat sheets in the opposite direction tangentially. A red LED light (wave length 660 nm) was used as an observation light source, and a white LED light was used to stimulate cells for the phototaxis. The trajectories of individual cells were measured by a 3D-PTV system, consists of a pair of high-speed camera with macro lenses. The results were analyzed to understand the effect of the background shear flow on the phototaxis of cells.

  13. Three-dimensional flow instability near ion selective membrane under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Sang Van; Kim, Bumjoo; Lim, Geunbae; White, Jacob; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-11-01

    Ion transport through ion selective membranes is critically determined by concentration polarization in bulk solutions near the membrane, which is a complicated multiphysics phenomena. For the first time, we report a full experimental and numerical characterization of three-dimensional electrokinetic instability near ion selective membrane under a DC bias and shear flow. A new pattern of instability vortex is found, which was shown to be critically affected by the confinement geometry of the system. It is also found that the onset of over-limiting current and over-limiting resistance can be controlled by geometry of the system, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems. This work is supported by ARPA-E grant (DE-AR0000294), and also by Kuwait-MIT Center for Natural Resources and the Environment (CNRE), which was funded by Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS). V. S. Pham was partially supported by SMAR.

  14. Microhydrodynamics of deformable particles: surprising responses of drops and vesicles to uniform electric field or shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovska, Petia

    2015-11-01

    Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields.

  15. Hydraulic theory for a debris flow supported on a collisional shear layer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J. T.; Askari, E.

    1999-09-01

    We consider a heap of grains driven by gravity down an incline. We assume that the heap is supported at its base on a relatively thin carpet of intensely sheared, highly agitated grains that interact through collisions. We adopt the balance laws, constitutive relations, and boundary conditions of a kinetic theory for dense granular flows and determine the relationship between the shear stress, normal stress, and relative velocity of the boundaries in the shear layer in an analysis of a steady shearing flow between identical bumpy boundaries. This relationship permits us to close the hydraulic equations governing the evolution of the shape of the heap and the velocity distribution at its base. We integrate the resulting equations numerically for typical values of the parameters for glass spheres. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Interaction between mountain waves and shear flow in an inertial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin-Han; Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Mountain-generated inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) affect the dynamics of both the atmosphere and the ocean through the mean force they exert as they interact with the flow. A key to this interaction is the presence of critical-level singularities or, when planetary rotation is taken into account, inertial-level singularities, where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local Coriolis frequency. We examine the role of the latter singularities by studying the steady wavepacket generated by a multiscale mountain in a rotating linear shear flow at low Rossby number. Using a combination of WKB and saddle-point approximations, we provide an explicit description of the form of the wavepacket, of the mean forcing it induces, and of the mean-flow response. We identify two distinguished regimes of wave propagation: Regime I applies far enough from a dominant inertial level for the standard ray-tracing approximation to be valid; Regime II applies to a thin region where the wavepacket structure is controlled by the inertial-level singularities. The wave--mean-flow interaction is governed by the change in Eliassen--Palm (or pseudomomentum) flux. This change is localised in a thin inertial layer where the wavepacket takes a limiting form of that found in Regime II. We solve a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity equation forced by the divergence of the Eliassen--Palm flux to compute the wave-induced mean flow. Our results, obtained in an inviscid limit, show that the wavepacket reaches a large-but-finite distance downstream of the mountain (specifically, a distance of order $k_*^{1/2} \\Delta^{3/2}$, where $k_*^{-1}$ and $\\Delta$ measure the wave and envelope scales of the mountain) and extends horizontally over a similar scale.

  17. Suppression of drift wave instability due to sheared field-aligned flow and negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, Ryuta; Hayashi, Kenichiro; Kaneko, Toshiro; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2006-10-01

    Sheared field-aligned plasma flow is a significant topic in space/circumterrestrial plasmas. Taking into account negative ions or dust grains will make the space plasma physics more general and accurate. Using the QT-Upgrade Machine, we have conducted laboratory experiments to examine negative ion effects on shear-modified drift waves. Field-aligned K^+ ion flow and its shear strength are controlled with a concentrically segmented W hot plate. Negative ions SF6^- are produced by introducing SF6 gas in the plasma. The drift wave shows a gradual monotonic decrease in amplitude as the shear strength is increased from zero. However, as the shear strength is decreased from zero to negative values, the amplitude increases up to a certain shear strength and rapidly decreases after the peaking. The negative ion introduction, in general, suppresses this instability while retaining the dependence of the amplitude on the shear. These wave characteristics are interpreted using the theories of current-driven (kinetic) and of D’Angelo (fluid) instabilities.

  18. Effects of plasma shear flow on the RWM stability in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Yueqiang; Liu, Yue; Hao, Guangzhou; Li, Li; Wang, Zhirui

    2015-06-01

    Rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM), with varying E × B flow shear and the radial location of peak shear, is systematically investigated using the MARS-K code (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503), following a non-perturbative magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic hybrid approach. The equilibrium is based on a 9 MA steady state target plasma from the ITER design, except for the plasma flow profile, which is significantly varied in this study. Generally two branches of unstable n = 1 kinetic RWMs are computed (n is the toroidal mode number), depending on the flow amplitude. The first unstable branch, which is normally the more unstable one, is sensitively affected by both the local flow shear as well as the radial location of the peak amplitude of the shear. On the contrary, the second unstable branch, which is often weakly unstable, is less affected by the flow shear. Consequently, stability domains are computationally mapped out in relevant two-dimensional parameter spaces.

  19. Biomechanics of cell rolling: shear flow, cell-surface adhesion, and cell deformability.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Lei, X X

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) deformation and adhesion to endothelial cells (EC) has been investigated using a novel in vitro side-view flow assay. HL-60 cell rolling adhesion to surface-immobilized P-selectin was used to model the WBC-EC adhesion process. Changes in flow shear stress, cell deformability, or substrate ligand strength resulted in significant changes in the characteristic adhesion binding time, cell-surface contact and cell rolling velocity. A 2-D model indicated that cell-substrate contact area under a high wall shear stress (20 dyn/cm2) could be nearly twice of that under a low stress (0.5 dyn/cm2) due to shear flow-induced cell deformation. An increase in contact area resulted in more energy dissipation to both adhesion bonds and viscous cytoplasm, whereas the fluid energy that inputs to a cell decreased due to a flattened cell shape. The model also predicted a plateau of WBC rolling velocity as flow shear stresses further increased. Both experimental and computational studies have described how WBC deformation influences the WBC-EC adhesion process in shear flow.

  20. A test of the double-shearing model of flow for granular materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lockner, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The double-shearing model of flow attributes plastic deformation in granular materials to cooperative slip on conjugate Coulomb shears (surfaces upon which the Coulomb yield condition is satisfied). The strict formulation of the double-shearing model then requires that the slip lines in the material coincide with the Coulomb shears. Three different experiments that approximate simple shear deformation in granular media appear to be inconsistent with this strict formulation. For example, the orientation of the principal stress axes in a layer of sand driven in steady, simple shear was measured subject to the assumption that the Coulomb failure criterion was satisfied on some surfaces (orientation unspecified) within the sand layer. The orientation of the inferred principal compressive axis was then compared with the orientations predicted by the double-shearing model. The strict formulation of the model [Spencer, 1982] predicts that the principal stress axes should rotate in a sense opposite to that inferred from the experiments. A less restrictive formulation of the double-shearing model by de Josselin de Jong [1971] does not completely specify the solution but does prescribe limits on the possible orientations of the principal stress axes. The orientations of the principal compression axis inferred from the experiments are probably within those limits. An elastoplastic formulation of the double-shearing model [de Josselin de Jong, 1988] is reasonably consistent with the experiments, although quantitative agreement was not attained. Thus we conclude that the double-shearing model may be a viable law to describe deformation of granular materials, but the macroscopic slip surfaces will not in general coincide with the Coulomb shears.

  1. Fluid dynamics aspects of miniaturized axial-flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Kang, Can; Huang, Qifeng; Li, Yunxiao

    2014-01-01

    Rotary blood pump (RBP) is a kind of crucial ventricular assist device (VAD) and its advantages have been evidenced and acknowledged in recent years. Among the factors that influence the operation performance and the durability of various rotary blood pumps, medium property and the flow features in pump's flow passages are conceivably significant. The major concern in this paper is the fluid dynamics aspects of such a kind of miniaturized pump. More specifically, the structural features of axial-flow blood pump and corresponding flow features are analyzed in detail. The narrow flow passage between blade tips and pump casing and the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) zone may exert a negative effect on the shear stress distribution in the blood flow. Numerical techniques are briefly introduced in view of their contribution to facilitating the optimal design of blood pump and the visualization of shear stress distribution and multiphase flow analysis. Additionally, with the development of flow measurement techniques, the high-resolution, effective and non-intrusive flow measurement techniques catering to the measurement of the flows inside rotary blood pumps are highly anticipated.

  2. Dynamics of the blood flow in the curved artery with the rolling massage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H. H.; Wu, X. H.; Yao, Y. L.

    2011-10-01

    Arterial wall shear stress and flow velocity are important factors in the development of some arterial diseases. Here, we aim to investigate the dynamic effect of the rolling massage on the property of the blood flow in the curved artery. The distributions of flow velocity and shear stress for the blood flow are computed by the lattice Boltzmann method, and the dynamic factors under different rolling techniques are studied numerically. The study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the massage techniques.

  3. Structure in sheared supercooled liquids: Dynamical rearrangements of an effective system of icosahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinney, Rhiannon; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-12-01

    We consider a binary Lennard-Jones glassformer whose super-Arrhenius dynamics are correlated with the formation of particles organized into icosahedra under simple steady state shear. We recast this glassformer as an effective system of icosahedra [Pinney et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 244507 (2015)]. From the observed population of icosahedra in each steady state, we obtain an effective temperature which is linearly dependent on the shear rate in the range considered. Upon shear banding, the system separates into a region of high shear rate and a region of low shear rate. The effective temperatures obtained in each case show that the low shear regions correspond to a significantly lower temperature than the high shear regions. Taking a weighted average of the effective temperature of these regions (weight determined by region size) yields an estimate of the effective temperature which compares well with an effective temperature based on the global mesocluster population of the whole system.

  4. Baroclinic Vortices in Rotating Stratified Shearing Flows: Cyclones, Anticyclones, and Zombie Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram

    Large coherent vortices are abundant in geophysical and astrophysical flows. They play significant roles in the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, the atmosphere of gas giants, such as Jupiter, and the protoplanetary disks around forming stars. These vortices are essentially three-dimensional (3D) and baroclinic, and their dynamics are strongly influenced by the rotation and density stratification of their environments. This work focuses on improving our understanding of the physics of 3D baroclinic vortices in rotating and continuously stratified flows using 3D spectral simulations of the Boussinesq equations, as well as simplified mathematical models. The first chapter discusses the big picture and summarizes the results of this work. In Chapter 2, we derive a relationship for the aspect ratio (i.e., vertical half-thickness over horizontal length scale) of steady and slowly-evolving baroclinic vortices in rotating stratified fluids. We show that the aspect ratio is a function of the Brunt-Vaisala frequencies within the vortex and outside the vortex, the Coriolis parameter, and the Rossby number of the vortex. This equation is basically the gradient-wind equation integrated over the vortex, and is significantly different from the previously proposed scaling laws that find the aspect ratio to be only a function of the properties of the background flow, and independent of the dynamics of the vortex. Our relation is valid for cyclones and anticyclones in either the cyclostrophic or geostrophic regimes; it works with vortices in Boussinesq fluids or ideal gases, and non-uniform background density gradient. The relation for the aspect ratio has many consequences for quasi-equilibrium vortices in rotating stratified flows. For example, cyclones must have interiors more stratified than the background flow (i.e., super-stratified), and weak anticyclones must have interiors less stratified than the background (i.e., sub-stratified). In addition, this equation is useful to

  5. Numerical simulation of shear flows over wavy boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The full time-dependent two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved using spectral methods to achieve high spatial accuracy and high order time-splitting methods together with conformal mapping methods to allow simulation of flow over steep waves, including general turbulent Reynolds stresses. The programs are used to study the properties of laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate and in various wavy geometries. Results are compared with both available theory and experiment. For laminar flow, good agreement is achieved. For turbulent flow, the agreement is less satisfactory and may be explained by the simplified turbulent modelling use in the calculations.

  6. Stochastic dynamics of particles trapped in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicoane, N.; López-Caballero, M.; Fiabane, L.; Pinton, J.-F.; Bourgoin, M.; Burguete, J.; Volk, R.

    2016-02-01

    The long-time dynamics of large particles trapped in two nonhomogeneous turbulent shear flows is studied experimentally. Both flows present a common feature, a shear region that separates two colliding circulations, but with different spatial symmetries and temporal behaviors. Because large particles are less and less sensitive to flow fluctuations as their size increases, we observe the emergence of a slow dynamics corresponding to back-and-forth motions between two attractors, and a super-slow regime synchronized with flow reversals when they exist. Such dynamics is substantially reproduced by a one-dimensional stochastic model of an overdamped particle trapped in a two-well potential, forced by a colored noise. An extended model is also proposed that reproduces observed dynamics and trapping without potential barrier: the key ingredient is the ratio between the time scales of the noise correlation and the particle dynamics. A total agreement with experiments requires the introduction of spatially nonhomogeneous fluctuations and a suited confinement strength.

  7. Stochastic dynamics of particles trapped in turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Machicoane, N; López-Caballero, M; Fiabane, L; Pinton, J-F; Bourgoin, M; Burguete, J; Volk, R

    2016-02-01

    The long-time dynamics of large particles trapped in two nonhomogeneous turbulent shear flows is studied experimentally. Both flows present a common feature, a shear region that separates two colliding circulations, but with different spatial symmetries and temporal behaviors. Because large particles are less and less sensitive to flow fluctuations as their size increases, we observe the emergence of a slow dynamics corresponding to back-and-forth motions between two attractors, and a super-slow regime synchronized with flow reversals when they exist. Such dynamics is substantially reproduced by a one-dimensional stochastic model of an overdamped particle trapped in a two-well potential, forced by a colored noise. An extended model is also proposed that reproduces observed dynamics and trapping without potential barrier: the key ingredient is the ratio between the time scales of the noise correlation and the particle dynamics. A total agreement with experiments requires the introduction of spatially nonhomogeneous fluctuations and a suited confinement strength.

  8. Influence of the bluff body shear layers on the wake of a square prism in a turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, D. C.; Letchford, C. W.; Amitay, M.; Kopp, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Despite a substantial body of literature dealing with the effects of free-stream turbulence (FST) on two-dimensional square prism, there remain some open questions regarding the influence of the bluff body shear layer development in a highly perturbed environment and the resulting impact on bluff body flow characteristics. Accordingly, flows with ambient and enhanced FST were studied at ReD=5.0 ×104 using long-duration time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). The data indicate a narrowing and lengthening of the mean wake and an accompanying rise in base pressure. Using triple decomposition, the underlying dynamics of the wake reveal a streamwise lengthening of the individual von Kármán vortex structures, complementing the increase in mean wake length. Close inspection of the shear layer region, in the presence of FST, indicates a substantial increase in curvature towards the body but no pronounced increase in the growth rate. The loci of maximum turbulent kinetic energy and spanwise vorticity in the shear layer region further reveal that the most pronounced changes occur during the very initial stages follow separation. Inspection of a series of instantaneous PIV fields of Q criterion show that the conventional transition pathway, via the formation and subsequent pairing of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices, is bypassed. The KH vortices are observed to immediately cluster and amalgamate before breaking into smaller random eddies. The bypass transition is followed by shear layer reattachment in some cases. This is considered a primary mechanism responsible for the reported changes in the global flow characteristics and the altered wake dynamics. Furthermore, a quantitative definition of the diffusion length is implemented for the square prism wake and its relationship to the Strouhal number and wake formation length is considered.

  9. Increasing Plasma Parameters using Sheared Flow Stabilization of a Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, Uri

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments on the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch at the University of Washington have been successful in compressing the plasma column to smaller radii, producing the predicted increases in plasma density (1018 cm-3), temperature (200 eV), and magnetic fields (4 T), while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfven times (over 40 μs) using sheared plasma flows. These results indicate the suitability of the device as a discovery science platform for astrophysical and high energy density plasma research, and keeps open a possible path to achieving burning plasma conditions in a compact fusion device. Long-lived Z-pinch plasmas have been produced with dimensions of 1 cm radius and 100 cm long that are stabilized by sheared axial flows for over 1000 Alfven radial transit times. The observed plasma stability is coincident with the presence of a sheared flow as measured by time-resolved multi-chord ion Doppler spectroscopy applied to impurity ion radiation. These measurements yield insights into the evolution of the velocity profile and show that the stabilizing behavior of flow shear agrees with theoretical calculations and 2-D MHD computational simulations. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression have increased the accessible plasma parameters and have generated stable plasmas with radii below 0.5 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. This work was supported by Grants from U.S. DOE, NNSA, and ARPA-E.

  10. Modern developments in shear flow control with swirl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farokhi, Saeed; Taghavi, R.

    1990-01-01

    Passive and active control of swirling turbulent jets is experimentally investigated. Initial swirl distribution is shown to dominate the free jet evolution in the passive mode. Vortex breakdown, a manifestation of high intensity swirl, was achieved at below critical swirl number (S = 0.48) by reducing the vortex core diameter. The response of a swirling turbulent jet to single frequency, plane wave acoustic excitation was shown to depend strongly on the swirl number, excitation Strouhal number, amplitude of the excitation wave, and core turbulence in a low speed cold jet. A 10 percent reduction of the mean centerline velocity at x/D = 9.0 (and a corresponding increase in the shear layer momentum thickness) was achieved by large amplitude internal plane wave acoustic excitation. Helical instability waves of negative azimuthal wave numbers exhibit larger amplification rates than the plane waves in swirling free jets, according to hydrodynamic stability theory. Consequently, an active swirling shear layer control is proposed to include the generation of helical instability waves of arbitrary helicity and the promotion of modal interaction, through multifrequency forcing.

  11. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Koshel, Konstantin V

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  12. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A.; Koshel, Konstantin V.

    2015-10-15

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero–oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  13. High-speed ultrasound imaging in dense suspensions reveals impact-activated solidification due to dynamic shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Endao; Peters, Ivo R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-07-01

    A remarkable property of dense suspensions is that they can transform from liquid-like at rest to solid-like under sudden impact. Previous work showed that this impact-induced solidification involves rapidly moving jamming fronts; however, details of this process have remained unresolved. Here we use high-speed ultrasound imaging to probe non-invasively how the interior of a dense suspension responds to impact. Measuring the speed of sound we demonstrate that the solidification proceeds without a detectable increase in packing fraction, and imaging the evolving flow field we find that the shear intensity is maximized right at the jamming front. Taken together, this provides direct experimental evidence for jamming by shear, rather than densification, as driving the transformation to solid-like behaviour. On the basis of these findings we propose a new model to explain the anisotropy in the propagation speed of the fronts and delineate the onset conditions for dynamic shear jamming in suspensions.

  14. Time and flow-direction responses of shear-styress-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Muraqtore, J. J.; Heinick, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Time and flow-direction responses of shear-stress liquid crystal coatings were exploresd experimentally. For the time-response experiments, coatings were exposed to transient, compressible flows created during the startup and off-design operation of an injector-driven supersonic wind tunnel. Flow transients were visualized with a focusing schlieren system and recorded with a 100 frame/s color video camera.

  15. Full-field predictions of ice dynamic recrystallisation under simple shear conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Griera, Albert; Bons, Paul D.; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Evans, Lynn A.; Jansen, Daniela; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the flow of ice on the microstructural scale is essential for improving our knowledge of large-scale ice dynamics, and thus our ability to predict future changes of ice sheets. Polar ice behaves anisotropically during flow, which can lead to strain localisation. In order to study how dynamic recrystallisation affects to strain localisation in deep levels of polar ice sheets, we present a series of numerical simulations of ice polycrystals deformed under simple-shear conditions. The models explicitly simulate the evolution of microstructures using a full-field approach, based on the coupling of a viscoplastic deformation code (VPFFT) with dynamic recrystallisation codes. The simulations provide new insights into the distribution of stress, strain rate and lattice orientation fields with progressive strain, up to a shear strain of three. Our simulations show how the recrystallisation processes have a strong influence on the resulting microstructure (grain size and shape), while the development of lattice preferred orientations (LPO) appears to be less affected. Activation of non-basal slip systems is enhanced by recrystallisation and induces a strain hardening behaviour up to the onset of strain localisation and strain weakening behaviour. Simulations demonstrate that the strong intrinsic anisotropy of ice crystals is transferred to the polycrystalline scale and results in the development of strain localisation bands than can be masked by grain boundary migration. Therefore, the finite-strain history is non-directly reflected by the final microstructure. Masked strain localisation can be recognised in ice cores, such as the EDML, from the presence of stepped boundaries, microshear and grains with zig-zag geometries.

  16. Strong turbulent mixing induced by internal bores interacting with internal tide-driven vertically sheared flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, Eiji; Fringer, Oliver B.; Yamazaki, Hidekatsu; Amakasu, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    We observed the formation of an internal bore interacting with the vertically sheared flow generated during the previous phase of the internal tide, which resulted in strong turbulent mixing. The rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation reached on the order of 10-5 W kg-1 during the event. Numerical simulations reproduced the observed interaction of internal bores with the sheared flow and verified the hypothesized breaking and mixing mechanism. The numerical results indicated that the Iribarren number, or the ratio of the topographic slope to the internal wave slope, plays a major role in the mixing intensity and types of internal bores. It was found that waves with low Iribarren numbers lead to bores that interact with vertically sheared flows induced by the previous phase of the internal tide and are more likely to produce strong wave breaking and mixing.

  17. Application of DDES and IDDES with shear layer adapted subgrid length-scale to separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, E. K.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Strelets, M. Kh

    2016-11-01

    A comparative study is conducted of the original versions of Delayed Detached- Eddy Simulation (DDES) and Improved DDES (IDDES) and these approaches combined with “shear-layer-adapted” (SLA) subgrid length-scale proposed recently for resolving the issue of delayed RANS-to-LES transition in separated shear layers in global hybrid RANS-LES approaches. Computations were carried out of two separated flows: a transonic flow past M 219 cavity and a subsonic flow over NASA wall mounted hump. Results of the computations suggest that the use of the SLA subgrid length-scale considerably accelerates transition to resolved three-dimensional turbulence in the separated shear layers and substantially improves agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Electrostatic drift-wave instability in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma with parallel velocity shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, Sabeen; Mirza, Arshad M.; Masood, W.

    2010-10-15

    The propagation of high and low frequency (in comparison with the cyclotron frequency) electrostatic drift-waves is investigated in a nonuniform, dense magnetoplasma (composed of electrons and ions), in the presence of parallel shear flow, by employing the quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using QMHD model, a new set of equations is presented in order to investigate linear properties of electrostatic drift-waves with sheared plasma flows for dense plasmas. In this regard, dispersion relations for coupled electron-thermal and drift-ion acoustic modes are derived and several interesting limiting cases are discussed. For instance, it is found that sheared ion flow parallel to the external magnetic field can drive the quantum drift-ion acoustic wave unstable, etc. The present investigation may have relevance in dense astrophysical environments where quantum effects are significant.

  19. Determination of shear viscosity of molecular nitrogen (N2): molecular dynamic hard rotor methodology and the results.

    PubMed

    Strak, Paweł; Krukowski, Stanisław

    2011-04-21

    Determination of shear viscosity of molecular nitrogen (N(2)) by molecular dynamics (MD) in the high density range needs explicit incorporation of the rotational motion and therefore precise knowledge of angular dependence of N(2)-N(2) intermolecular potential. Newly designed Couette flow nonequilibrium molecular dynamic (NEMD) simulation procedure employs corrugated moving boundary, coupling the moving walls to translational and rotational motion exactly. Low density data on nitrogen viscosity show good agreement between MD data and experiment, confirming the radial dependence of the potential derived from quantum mechanical (QM) high precision calculations (coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples corrections [CCSD(T)]). Additionally, the angular dependence of the potential is verified using shear viscosity data for high density region, obtained from newly developed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It was demonstrated that the corrugated wall flow simulations provide results that are independent of the details of wall potential, fulfilling a basic requirement for application of MD simulations. These results are in good agreement with the equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) viscosity, derived from the Green-Kubo formula. Derived analytical dependence of the shear viscosity on the density and temperature shows that the MD data are in good agreement with experiment. Thus, MD simulations indicate that the CCSD(T) potential angular form is sufficiently precise for determination of the viscosity in a wide range of temperature and pressure.

  20. Computation of three-dimensional turbulent shear flows in corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, J. J.; Govindan, T. R.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1983-07-01

    A numerical technique developed for the solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations using a 'space marching' algorithm has been used to predict a complex, three-dimensional, turbulent flow. The scheme has been designed to calculate flows with a dominant flow direction, in three-dimensional geometries, and has been used successfully to predict laminar flows. This paper is concerned with the extension of this technique to calculate turbulent flows in the corner region of a wing-body junction using both algebraic eddy viscosity and K-epsilon turbulence models. Effects of different boundary conditions for the streamwise velocity, at a solid boundary, used in many turbulent flow computations are also considered. In the flow cases computed using a 'slip' boundary condition at solid boundaries, the K-epsilon model showed on distinct advantages over the simpler algebraic eddy viscosity model. However, the K-epsilon model provided much better results for the cases computed with the more realistic 'no slip' conditions.