Science.gov

Sample records for sheds-wood model incorporation

  1. The SHEDS-Wood Model: Incorporation of Observational Data to Estimate Exposure to Arsenic for Children Playing on CCA-Treated Wood Structures

    PubMed Central

    Barraj, Leila M.; Tsuji, Joyce S.; Scrafford, Carolyn G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) compounds has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and public playgrounds. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children’s exposure to arsenic using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The assessment relied on data derived from an experimental study conducted using adult volunteers and designed to result in maximum hand and wipe loadings to estimate the residue–skin transfer efficiency. Recent analyses of arsenic hand-loading data generated by studies of children actively involved in playing on CCA-treated structures indicate that the transfer efficiency coefficient and hand-loading estimates derived from the experimental study significantly overestimate the amount that occurs during actual play. Objectives Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using child hand-loading data in the SHEDS-Wood model and their impact on exposure estimates. Methods We used data generated by the larger of the studies of children in SHEDS-Wood, instead of the distributions used by U.S. EPA. We compared our estimates of the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and average daily dose (ADD) with those derived by the U.S. EPA. Results Our analysis indicates that data from observational studies of children can be used in SHEDS-Wood. Our estimates of the mean (and 95th percentile) LADD and ADD were 27% (10%) and 29% (15%) of the estimates derived by U.S. EPA. Conclusion We recommend that the SHEDS-Woods model use data from studies of children actively playing on playsets to more accurately estimate children’s actual exposures to CCA. PMID:17520068

  2. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  3. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  4. Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model

    Treesearch

    William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller

    2010-01-01

    The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...

  5. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  6. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  7. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  8. Incorporating immigrant flows into microsimulation models.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Building on the research on immigrant earnings reviewed in the first article of this series, "Research on Immigrant Earnings," the preceding article, "Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models," linked research results to various issues essential for incorporating immigrant earnings into microsimulation models. The discussions of that article were in terms of a closed system. That is, it examined a system in which immigrant earnings and emigration are forecast for a given population represented in the base sample in the microsimulation model. This article, the last in the series, addresses immigrant earnings projections for open systems--microsimulation models that include projections of future immigration. The article suggests a simple method to project future immigrants and their earnings. Including the future flow of immigrants in microsimulation models can dramatically affect the projected Social Security benefits of some groups.

  9. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Robert C.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Loftin, Cyndy

    2012-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  10. Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. C., Jr.; Haire, M. J.; Schryver, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model to represent the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army's next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through 'what if' questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.

  11. Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C. Jr.; Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model represents the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army`s next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through ``what if`` questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.

  12. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  13. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Boris R M; Vosselman, M J; Frijns, A J H; van Steenhoven, A A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  14. Incorporating routing into reservoir planning optimization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To achieve the best overall operation result in a reservoir network, optimization models are used. For larger reservoir networks the computational cost increases, making simplification of the hydrodynamic description necessary. In-accuracy in flow prediction can be related to an incurred sub-optimality in production planning. Flow behavior in a management optimization model is often described using a constant time-lag model. A simplified hydraulic model was used, describing the stream flow in a reservoir network for short term production planning of a case-study reservoir network (Dalälven River). In this study, the importance of incorporating hydrodynamic wave diffusion for optimized hydropower production planning in a regulated water system was examined, comparing the kinematic-wave model to the constant time-lag. The receding horizon optimization procedure was applied, emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern operations. Power production was shown to deviate from the planned production while considering a single time-lag, as a function of the stream description. The simplification of using a constant time-lag could be considered acceptable for streams characterized by high Peclet number. Examining the effect of the effect of the length of the decision time-step demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for streams characterized by low Peclet numbers. Further, it was shown that the variability in flow becomes more ordered as a result of management and that the Peclet number contributes to that goal.

  15. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumadar, A. S.; Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2008-06-01

    Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  16. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  17. Incorporating uncertainty in predictive species distribution modelling

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Colin M.; Lennon, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the need to solve ecological problems (climate change, habitat fragmentation and biological invasions), there has been increasing interest in species distribution models (SDMs). Predictions from these models inform conservation policy, invasive species management and disease-control measures. However, predictions are subject to uncertainty, the degree and source of which is often unrecognized. Here, we review the SDM literature in the context of uncertainty, focusing on three main classes of SDM: niche-based models, demographic models and process-based models. We identify sources of uncertainty for each class and discuss how uncertainty can be minimized or included in the modelling process to give realistic measures of confidence around predictions. Because this has typically not been performed, we conclude that uncertainty in SDMs has often been underestimated and a false precision assigned to predictions of geographical distribution. We identify areas where development of new statistical tools will improve predictions from distribution models, notably the development of hierarchical models that link different types of distribution model and their attendant uncertainties across spatial scales. Finally, we discuss the need to develop more defensible methods for assessing predictive performance, quantifying model goodness-of-fit and for assessing the significance of model covariates. PMID:22144387

  18. Multiplicative earthquake likelihood models incorporating strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe examine the potential for strain-rate variables to improve long-term earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span>. We derive a set of multiplicative hybrid earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span> in which cell rates in a spatially uniform baseline <span class="hlt">model</span> are scaled using combinations of covariates derived from earthquake catalogue data, fault data, and strain-rates for the New Zealand region. Three components of the strain rate estimated from GPS data over the period 1991-2011 are considered: the shear, rotational and dilatational strain rates. The hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are optimised for earthquakes of M 5 and greater over the period 1987-2006 and tested on earthquakes from the period 2012-2015, which is independent of the strain rate estimates. The shear strain rate is overall the most informative individual covariate, as indicated by Molchan error diagrams as well as multiplicative <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Most <span class="hlt">models</span> including strain rates are significantly more informative than the best <span class="hlt">models</span> excluding strain rates in both the fitting and testing period. A hybrid that combines the shear and dilatational strain rates with a smoothed seismicity covariate is the most informative <span class="hlt">model</span> in the fitting period, and a simpler <span class="hlt">model</span> without the dilatational strain rate is the most informative in the testing period. These results have implications for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be used to improve the background <span class="hlt">model</span> component of medium-term and short-term earthquake forecasting <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22144387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22144387"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty in predictive species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beale, Colin M; Lennon, Jack J</p> <p>2012-01-19</p> <p>Motivated by the need to solve ecological problems (climate change, habitat fragmentation and biological invasions), there has been increasing interest in species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs). Predictions from these <span class="hlt">models</span> inform conservation policy, invasive species management and disease-control measures. However, predictions are subject to uncertainty, the degree and source of which is often unrecognized. Here, we review the SDM literature in the context of uncertainty, focusing on three main classes of SDM: niche-based <span class="hlt">models</span>, demographic <span class="hlt">models</span> and process-based <span class="hlt">models</span>. We identify sources of uncertainty for each class and discuss how uncertainty can be minimized or included in the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> process to give realistic measures of confidence around predictions. Because this has typically not been performed, we conclude that uncertainty in SDMs has often been underestimated and a false precision assigned to predictions of geographical distribution. We identify areas where development of new statistical tools will improve predictions from distribution <span class="hlt">models</span>, notably the development of hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> that link different types of distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> and their attendant uncertainties across spatial scales. Finally, we discuss the need to develop more defensible methods for assessing predictive performance, quantifying <span class="hlt">model</span> goodness-of-fit and for assessing the significance of <span class="hlt">model</span> covariates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4805300','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4805300"><span>A Financial Market <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Herd Behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction <span class="hlt">model</span> based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span>, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of <span class="hlt">model</span> price returns in terms of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span> corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007236"><span>A Financial Market <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Herd Behaviour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction <span class="hlt">model</span> based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span>, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of <span class="hlt">model</span> price returns in terms of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span> corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/505175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/505175"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty into spatial predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Handcock, M.S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>We consider a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for spatially distributed data. We are concerned with aspects of statistical inference for Gaussian random fields when the ultimate objective is to predict the value of the random field at unobserved locations. However the exact statistical <span class="hlt">model</span> is seldom known before hand and is usually estimated from the very same data relative to which the predictions are made. Our objective is to assess the effect of the fact that the <span class="hlt">model</span> is estimated, rather than known, on the prediction and the associated prediction uncertainty. We describe a method for achieving this objective. We, in essence, consider the best linear unbiased prediction procedure based on the <span class="hlt">model</span> within a Bayesian framework. These ideas are implemented for the spring temperature over the region in the northern United States based on the stations in the United States historical climatological network reported in Karl, Williams, Quinlan & Boden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494697"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> evolutionary processes into population viability <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based <span class="hlt">models</span> with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to <span class="hlt">model</span> emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA <span class="hlt">models</span> by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25925649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25925649"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> 3-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> in online articles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Ruellas, Antonio C O; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The aims of this article are to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface <span class="hlt">models</span> in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface <span class="hlt">models</span> for such online 3D visualizations. Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface <span class="hlt">models</span>, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. All registered 3D surface <span class="hlt">models</span> in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface <span class="hlt">models</span> are available in the article's online version for viewing and downloading using the reader's software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader's software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. When submitting manuscripts, authors can now upload 3D <span class="hlt">models</span> that will allow readers to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418234','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418234"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> 3-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> in online articles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface <span class="hlt">models</span> in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface <span class="hlt">models</span> for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface <span class="hlt">models</span>, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface <span class="hlt">models</span> in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface <span class="hlt">models</span> are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527820"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> covariates in skewed functional data <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Meng; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Bondell, Howard D</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We introduce a class of covariate-adjusted skewed functional <span class="hlt">models</span> (cSFM) designed for functional data exhibiting location-dependent marginal distributions. We propose a semi-parametric copula <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pointwise marginal distributions, which are allowed to depend on covariates, and the functional dependence, which is assumed covariate invariant. The proposed cSFM framework provides a unifying platform for pointwise quantile estimation and trajectory prediction. We consider a computationally feasible procedure that handles densely as well as sparsely observed functional data. The methods are examined numerically using simulations and is applied to a new tractography study of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the methodology is implemented in the R package cSFM, which is publicly available on CRAN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320711000103','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320711000103"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from <span class="hlt">model</span> projections. We present a method for explicitly <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> this source of uncertainty into population <span class="hlt">models</span> to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the replication loop of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and temporal variance is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the loop for time steps in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1298E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1298E"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> agricultural land cover in conceptual rainfall runoff <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi) distributed conceptual rainfall runoff <span class="hlt">models</span>. One of the methods to do this is by using these spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. This study tests whether the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of an additional agricultural HRU in a conceptual hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> can better reflect the spatial differences in runoff generation and therefore improve the simulation of the wetting phase in autumn. The study area is the meso-scale Ourthe catchment in Belgium. A previous study in this area showed that spatial patterns in runoff generation were already better represented by <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a wetland and a hillslope HRU, compared to a lumped <span class="hlt">model</span> structure. The influences which are considered by including an agriculture HRU are increased drainage speed due to roads, plough pans and increased infiltration excess overland flow (drainage pipes area only limited present), and variable vegetation patterns due to sowing and harvesting. In addition, the vegetation is not <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as a static resistance towards evaporation, but the Jarvis stress functions are used to increase the realism of the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> transpiration; in land-surface <span class="hlt">models</span> the Jarvis stress functions are already often used for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> transpiration. The results show that an agricultural conceptualisation in addition to wetland and hillslope conceptualisations leads to small improvements in the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> discharge. However, the influence is larger on the representation of spatial patterns and the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> contributions of different HRUs to the total discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=evaluate+AND+definition&id=EJ1032789','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=evaluate+AND+definition&id=EJ1032789"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> RTI in a Hybrid <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Reading Disability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Quinn, Jamie M.; Lopez, Danielle; Petscher, Yaacov</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present study seeks to evaluate a hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> of identification that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> response to instruction and intervention (RTI) as one of the key symptoms of reading disability. The 1-year stability of alternative operational definitions of reading disability was examined in a large-scale sample of students who were followed longitudinally…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disability&pg=7&id=EJ1032789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disability&pg=7&id=EJ1032789"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> RTI in a Hybrid <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Reading Disability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Quinn, Jamie M.; Lopez, Danielle; Petscher, Yaacov</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present study seeks to evaluate a hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> of identification that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> response to instruction and intervention (RTI) as one of the key symptoms of reading disability. The 1-year stability of alternative operational definitions of reading disability was examined in a large-scale sample of students who were followed longitudinally…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116348','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116348"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of a compost biofilter <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgenroth, E.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Scow, K.M.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Biofiltration of air streams is gaining acceptance as an air pollution control technology. Biofilters are advantageous because of low operating costs and low energy requirements. Biofilters are advantageous for the removal of biodegradable pollutants at low concentrations. In this paper steady state and dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> for biofilters are presented. Analytical steady state <span class="hlt">models</span> are useful for design purposes. The effects of changing operating conditions on removal efficiency and elimination capacity can be predicted. Dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> give a better representation of processes in a biofilter. A dynamic biofilter <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial growth was developed. The dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> accounts for higher organism density at the inlet due to higher substrate concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914684"><span>"Violent Intent <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.</p> <p>2007-08-24</p> <p>While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> can benefit from understanding that process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-19/pdf/2010-8596.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-19/pdf/2010-8596.pdf"><span>75 FR 20265 - Airworthiness Directives; Liberty Aerospace <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> XL-2 Airplanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-19</p> <p>... Aerospace <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> XL-2 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Liberty Aerospace <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> XL-2 airplanes. AD 2009-08-05 currently requires repetitively... approved the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> by reference of Liberty Aerospace, Inc. Service Document Critical...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9951527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9951527"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> qualitative knowledge in enzyme kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> using fuzzy logic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, B; Yen, J; Yang, L; Liao, J C</p> <p>1999-03-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of metabolic pathway dynamics requires detailed kinetic equations at the enzyme level. In particular, the kinetic equations must account for metabolite effectors that contribute significantly to the pathway regulation in vivo. Unfortunately, most kinetic rate laws available in the literature do not consider all the effectors simultaneously, and much kinetic information exists in a qualitative or semiquantitative form. In this article, we present a strategy to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> such information into the kinetic equation. This strategy uses fuzzy logic-based factors to modify algebraic rate laws that account for partial kinetic characteristics. The parameters introduced by the fuzzy factors are then optimized by use of a hybrid of simplex and genetic algorithms. The resulting <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a flexible form that can simulate various kinetic behaviors. Such kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> are suitable for pathway <span class="hlt">modeling</span> without complete enzyme mechanisms. Three enzymes in Escherichia coli central metabolism are used as examples: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; and pyruvate kinase I. Results show that, with fuzzy logic-augmented <span class="hlt">models</span>, the kinetic data can be much better described. In particular, complex behavior, such as allosteric inhibition, can be captured using fuzzy rules. The resulting <span class="hlt">models</span>, even though they do not provide additional physical meaning in enzyme mechanisms, allow the <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> semiquantitative information in metabolic pathway <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5689P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5689P"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in the global biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> HAMOCC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulsen, Hanna; Ilyina, Tatiana; Six, Katharina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Nitrogen fixation by marine diazotrophs plays a fundamental role in the oceanic nitrogen and carbon cycle as it provides a major source of 'new' nitrogen to the euphotic zone that supports biological carbon export and sequestration. Since most global biogeochemical <span class="hlt">models</span> include nitrogen fixation only diagnostically, they are not able to capture its spatial pattern sufficiently. Here we present the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of an explicit, dynamic representation of diazotrophic cyanobacteria and the corresponding nitrogen fixation in the global ocean biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> HAMOCC (Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle <span class="hlt">model</span>), which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth system <span class="hlt">model</span> (MPI-ESM). The parameterization of the diazotrophic growth is thereby based on available knowledge about the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp., which is considered as the most significant pelagic nitrogen fixer. Evaluation against observations shows that the <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully reproduces the main spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and nitrogen fixation, covering large parts of the tropical and subtropical oceans. Besides the role of cyanobacteria in marine biogeochemical cycles, their capacity to form extensive surface blooms induces a number of bio-physical feedback mechanisms in the Earth system. The processes driving these interactions, which are related to the alteration of heat absorption, surface albedo and momentum input by wind, are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in the biogeochemical and physical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the MPI-ESM in order to investigate their impacts on a global scale. First preliminary results will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhRvE..50..618J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhRvE..50..618J"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> deposition, diffusion, and aggregation in submonolayer nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Pablo; Barabási, Albert-László; Larralde, Hernán; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. E.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>We propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> for describing diffusion-controlled aggregation of particles that are continually deposited on a surface. The <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> deposition, diffusion, and aggregation. We find that the diffusion and aggregation of randomly deposited particles ``builds'' a wide variety of fractal structures, all characterized by a common length scale L1. This length L1 scales as the ratio of the diffusion constant over the particle flux to the power 1/4. We compare our results with several recent experiments on two-dimensional nanostructures formed by diffusion-controlled aggregation on surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90941"><span>Methods improvements <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the SAPHIRE ASP <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sattison, M.B.; Blackman, H.S.; Novack, S.D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has sought the assistance of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to make some significant enhancements to the SAPHIRE-based Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) <span class="hlt">models</span> recently developed by the INEL. The challenge of this project is to provide the features of a full-scale PRA within the framework of the simplified ASP <span class="hlt">models</span>. Some of these features include: (1) uncertainty analysis addressing the standard PRA uncertainties and the uncertainties unique to the ASP <span class="hlt">models</span> and methods, (2) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> and proper quantification of individual human actions and the interaction among human actions, (3) enhanced treatment of common cause failures, and (4) extension of the ASP <span class="hlt">models</span> to more closely mimic full-scale PRAs (inclusion of more initiators, explicitly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> support system failures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of the methods being used to make the above improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3977D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3977D"><span>Importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> agriculture in conceptual rainfall-runoff <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi-)distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff <span class="hlt">models</span>. One of the methods to do this is by using this spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. In large parts of Europe the original forested land cover is replaced by an agricultural land cover. This change in land cover probably affects the dominant runoff processes in the area, for example by increasing the Hortonian overland flow component, especially on the flatter and higher elevated parts of the catchment. A change in runoff processes implies a change in HRUs as well. A previous version of our <span class="hlt">model</span> distinguished wetlands (areas close to the stream) from the remainder of the catchment. However, this configuration was not able to reproduce all fast runoff processes, both in summer as in winter. Therefore, this study tests whether the reproduction of fast runoff processes can be improved by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a HRU which explicitly accounts for the effect of agriculture. A case study is carried out in the Ourthe catchment in Belgium. For this case study the relevance of different process conceptualisations is tested stepwise. Among the conceptualisations are Hortonian overland flow in summer and winter, reduced infiltration capacity due to a partly frozen soil and the relative effect of rainfall and snow smelt in case of this frozen soil. The results show that the named processes can make a large difference on event basis, especially the Hortonian overland flow in summer and the combination of rainfall and snow melt on (partly) frozen soil in winter. However, differences diminish when the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> period of several years is evaluated based on standard metrics like Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. These results emphasise on one hand the importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effects of agricultural in conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> and on the other hand the importance of more event</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124655"><span>A novel fluence map optimization <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> leaf sequencing constraints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Renchao; Min, Zhifang; Song, Enmin; Liu, Hong; Ye, Yinyu</p> <p>2010-02-21</p> <p>A novel fluence map optimization <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> leaf sequencing constraints is proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the current objective inside smoothing <span class="hlt">models</span>. Instead of adding a smoothing item to the objective function, we add the total number of monitor unit (TNMU) requirement directly to the constraints which serves as an important factor to balance the fluence map optimization and leaf sequencing optimization process at the same time. Consequently, we formulate the fluence map optimization <span class="hlt">models</span> for the trailing (left) leaf synchronized, leading (right) leaf synchronized and the interleaf motion constrained non-synchronized leaf sweeping schemes, respectively. In those schemes, the leaves are all swept unidirectionally from left to right. Each of those <span class="hlt">models</span> is turned into a linear constrained quadratic programming <span class="hlt">model</span> which can be solved effectively by the interior point method. Those new <span class="hlt">models</span> are evaluated with two publicly available clinical treatment datasets including a head-neck case and a prostate case. As shown by the empirical results, our <span class="hlt">models</span> perform much better in comparison with two recently emerged smoothing <span class="hlt">models</span> (the total variance smoothing <span class="hlt">model</span> and the quadratic smoothing <span class="hlt">model</span>). For all three leaf sweeping schemes, our objective dose deviation functions increase much slower than those in the above two smoothing <span class="hlt">models</span> with respect to the decreasing of the TNMU. While keeping plans in the similar conformity level, our new <span class="hlt">models</span> gain much better performance on reducing TNMU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........44K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........44K"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Auditory <span class="hlt">Models</span> in Speech/Audio Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnamoorthi, Harish</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Following the success in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> perceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> stages. The performance of the pruned <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared to that of the original auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001140','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001140"><span>Cirrus cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> realistic ice particle generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sassen, Kenneth; Dodd, G. C.; Starr, David OC.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Recent cirrus cloud <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies have involved the application of a time-dependent, two dimensional Eulerian <span class="hlt">model</span>, with generalized cloud microphysical parameterizations drawn from experimental findings. For computing the ice versus vapor phase changes, the ice mass content is linked to the maintenance of a relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) of 105 percent; ice growth occurs both with regard to the introduction of new particles and the growth of existing particles. In a simplified cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> designed to investigate the basic role of various physical processes in the growth and maintenance of cirrus clouds, these parametric relations are justifiable. In comparison, the one dimensional cloud microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> recently applied to evaluating the nucleation and growth of ice crystals in cirrus clouds explicitly treated populations of haze and cloud droplets, and ice crystals. Although these two <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches are clearly incompatible, the goal of the present numerical study is to develop a parametric treatment of new ice particle generation, on the basis of detailed microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> findings, for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into improved cirrus growth <span class="hlt">models</span>. For example, the relation between temperature and the relative humidity required to generate ice crystals from ammonium sulfate haze droplets, whose probability of freezing through the homogeneous nucleation mode are a combined function of time and droplet molality, volume, and temperature. As an example of this approach, the results of cloud microphysical simulations are presented showing the rather narrow domain in the temperature/humidity field where new ice crystals can be generated. The microphysical simulations point out the need for detailed CCN studies at cirrus altitudes and haze droplet measurements within cirrus clouds, but also suggest that a relatively simple treatment of ice particle generation, which includes cloud chemistry, can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into cirrus cloud growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381"><span>Geomagnetic field <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physical constraints on the secular variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Constable, Catherine; Parker, Robert L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This proposal has been concerned with methods for constructing geomagnetic field <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> physical constraints on the secular variation. The principle goal that has been accomplished is the development of flexible algorithms designed to test whether the frozen flux approximation is adequate to describe the available geomagnetic data and their secular variation throughout this century. These have been applied to geomagnetic data from both the early and middle part of this century and convincingly demonstrate that there is no need to invoke violations of the frozen flux hypothesis in order to satisfy the available geomagnetic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412319"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> groundwater-surface water interaction into river management <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to <span class="hlt">modeling</span> low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water <span class="hlt">models</span> exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management <span class="hlt">models</span>. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations <span class="hlt">model</span>, RiverWare, and the groundwater <span class="hlt">model</span>, MODFLOW, was developed to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations <span class="hlt">model</span>. An explicit approach is used in which the two <span class="hlt">models</span> run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked <span class="hlt">model</span> accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23374173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23374173"><span>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> biofeedback into human postural control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ersal, Tulga; Sienko, Kathleen H</p> <p>2013-02-02</p> <p>Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1) to develop a scalable method for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of its postural controller; and 2) to validate this new <span class="hlt">model</span> using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Biofeedback was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a two-link multibody <span class="hlt">model</span> with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP) to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. The biofeedback <span class="hlt">model</span> developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as an additional torque to the postural controller without a need for sensory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575272','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575272"><span>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> biofeedback into human postural control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1) to develop a scalable method for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of its postural controller; and 2) to validate this new <span class="hlt">model</span> using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a two-link multibody <span class="hlt">model</span> with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP) to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback <span class="hlt">model</span> developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as an additional torque to the postural</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63135&keyword=equations+AND+states&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90799019&CFTOKEN=79972741','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63135&keyword=equations+AND+states&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90799019&CFTOKEN=79972741"><span>USEPA SHEDS <span class="hlt">MODEL</span>: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> (<span class="hlt">SHEDS-Wood</span>: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63135&keyword=TRANSFER+AND+FACTOR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63135&keyword=TRANSFER+AND+FACTOR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>USEPA SHEDS <span class="hlt">MODEL</span>: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> (<span class="hlt">SHEDS-Wood</span>: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9035E..3JN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9035E..3JN"><span>Active shape <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> isolated landmarks for medical image annotation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Stieltjes, Bram; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Apart from their robustness in anatomic surface segmentation, purely surface based 3D Active Shape <span class="hlt">Models</span> lack the ability to automatically detect and annotate non-surface key points of interest. However, annotation of anatomic landmarks is desirable, as it yields additional anatomic and functional information. Moreover, landmark detection might help to further improve accuracy during ASM segmentation. We present an extension of surface-based 3D Active Shape <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> isolated non-surface landmarks. Positions of isolated and surface landmarks are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> conjoint within a point distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> (PDM). Isolated landmark appearance is described by a set of haar-like features, supporting local landmark detection on the PDM estimates using a kNN-Classi er. Landmark detection was evaluated in a leave-one-out cross validation on a reference dataset comprising 45 CT volumes of the human liver after shape space projection. Depending on the anatomical landmark to be detected, our experiments have shown in about 1/4 up to more than 1/2 of all test cases a signi cant improvement in detection accuracy compared to the position estimates delivered by the PDM. Our results encourage further research with regard to the combination of shape priors and machine learning for landmark detection within the Active Shape <span class="hlt">Model</span> Framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831497"><span>Safety <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> graph theory based transit indicators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quintero, Liliana; Sayed, Tarek; Wahba, Mohamed M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is a considerable need for tools to enable the evaluation of the safety of transit networks at the planning stage. One interesting approach for the planning of public transportation systems is the study of networks. Network techniques involve the analysis of systems by viewing them as a graph composed of a set of vertices (nodes) and edges (links). Once the transport system is visualized as a graph, various network properties can be evaluated based on the relationships between the network elements. Several indicators can be calculated including connectivity, coverage, directness and complexity, among others. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between network-based transit indicators and safety. The study develops macro-level collision prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> that explicitly <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> transit physical and operational elements and transit network indicators as explanatory variables. Several macro-level (zonal) collision prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> were developed using a generalized linear regression technique, assuming a negative binomial error structure. The <span class="hlt">models</span> were grouped into four main themes: transit infrastructure, transit network topology, transit route design, and transit performance and operations. The safety <span class="hlt">models</span> showed that collisions were significantly associated with transit network properties such as: connectivity, coverage, overlapping degree and the Local Index of Transit Availability. As well, the <span class="hlt">models</span> showed a significant relationship between collisions and some transit physical and operational attributes such as the number of routes, frequency of routes, bus density, length of bus and 3+ priority lanes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036200&hterms=kuhn&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkuhn','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036200&hterms=kuhn&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkuhn"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of multiple cloud layers for ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Charache, Darryl H.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Kuhn, William R.; Skinner, Wilbert R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Cloud data sets compiled from surface observations were used to develop an algorithm for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span>. Aerosol extinction and ozone data sets were also <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> to estimate the seasonally averaged ultraviolet (UV) flux reaching the surface of the Earth in the Detroit, Michigan, region for the years 1979-1991, corresponding to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 6 ozone observations. The calculated UV spectrum was convolved with an erythema action spectrum to estimate the effective biological exposure for erythema. Calculations show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an increase in erythemal exposure by approximately 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with previous studies. A comparison of the UV radiation budget at the surface between a single cloud layer method and a multiple cloud layer method presented here is discussed, along with limitations of each technique. With improved parameterization of cloud properties, and as knowledge of biological effects of UV exposure increase, inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036200&hterms=ultraviolet+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dultraviolet%2Bradiation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036200&hterms=ultraviolet+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dultraviolet%2Bradiation"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of multiple cloud layers for ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Charache, Darryl H.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Kuhn, William R.; Skinner, Wilbert R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Cloud data sets compiled from surface observations were used to develop an algorithm for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span>. Aerosol extinction and ozone data sets were also <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> to estimate the seasonally averaged ultraviolet (UV) flux reaching the surface of the Earth in the Detroit, Michigan, region for the years 1979-1991, corresponding to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 6 ozone observations. The calculated UV spectrum was convolved with an erythema action spectrum to estimate the effective biological exposure for erythema. Calculations show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an increase in erythemal exposure by approximately 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with previous studies. A comparison of the UV radiation budget at the surface between a single cloud layer method and a multiple cloud layer method presented here is discussed, along with limitations of each technique. With improved parameterization of cloud properties, and as knowledge of biological effects of UV exposure increase, inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.U41A..05B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.U41A..05B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Terrestrial Processes in <span class="hlt">Models</span> of PETM Carbon Cycle Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bowen, G. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Evidence for the massive, rapid release of carbon to the ocean/atmosphere/biosphere system at the onset of the PETM is unequivocal, but the sequence of feedbacks that governed the evolution and recovery of the carbon cycle over the subsequent 150,000 years of the event remain unclear. Sedimentological evidence suggests that much of the excess carbon was eventually sequestered as carbonate in marine sediments, but there is also significant and growing evidence for changes in continental carbon cycle processes, most of which have not been <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in <span class="hlt">models</span> of the event. I describe several aspects of the observed or implied continental response to the PETM, including changes in ecosystem organic carbon storage, soil carbonate growth, and export of organic carbon to the marine margins. These processes, along with continental silicate weathering, have been <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in a terrestrial module for a simple box <span class="hlt">model</span> of the PETM carbon cycle, which is being used to evaluate their potential impact on global carbon cycle response and recovery. Although changes in terrestrial organic carbon storage can help explain patterns of global carbon isotope change throughout the event, constraints from ocean pH records suggest that other mechanisms must have contributed to pacing the duration and recovery of the PETM. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results suggest that enhanced soil carbonate formation and the provenance of organic carbon buried in continental margin sediments are two poorly constrained variables that could alter the interpretation and implications of the continental records. Given the strong potential for, and high uncertainty in, future changes in terrestrial carbon cycle processes, resolving the nature and long-term impacts of such changes during the PETM represents a major opportunity to leverage the geologic record of this hyperthermal to increase understanding of human-induced global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017782','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017782"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of shuttle CCT parameters in computer simulation <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huntsberger, Terry</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Computer simulations of shuttle missions have become increasingly important during recent years. The complexity of mission planning for satellite launch and repair operations which usually involve EVA has led to the need for accurate visibility and access studies. The PLAID <span class="hlt">modeling</span> package used in the Man-Systems Division at Johnson currently has the necessary capabilities for such studies. In addition, the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> package is used for spatial location and orientation of shuttle components for film overlay studies such as the current investigation of the hydrogen leaks found in the shuttle flight. However, there are a number of differences between the simulation studies and actual mission viewing. These include image blur caused by the finite resolution of the CCT monitors in the shuttle and signal noise from the video tubes of the cameras. During the course of this investigation the shuttle CCT camera and monitor parameters are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the existing PLAID framework. These parameters are specific for certain camera/lens combinations and the SNR characteristics of these combinations are included in the noise <span class="hlt">models</span>. The monitor resolution is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> using a Gaussian spread function such as that found in the screen phosphors in the shuttle monitors. Another difference between the traditional PLAID generated images and actual mission viewing lies in the lack of shadows and reflections of light from surfaces. Ray tracing of the scene explicitly includes the lighting and material characteristics of surfaces. The results of some preliminary studies using ray tracing techniques for the image generation process combined with the camera and monitor effects are also reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005567&hterms=variation+phenology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvariation%2Bphenology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005567&hterms=variation+phenology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvariation%2Bphenology"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Plant Phenology Dynamics in a Biophysical Canopy <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barata, Raquel A.; Drewry, Darren</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Multi-Layer Canopy <span class="hlt">Model</span> (MLCan) is a vegetation <span class="hlt">model</span> created to capture plant responses to environmental change. Themodel vertically resolves carbon uptake, water vapor and energy exchange at each canopy level by coupling photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is forced by incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, as well as near-surface meteorological conditions. The original formulation of MLCan utilized canopy structural traits derived from observations. This project aims to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a plant phenology scheme within MLCan allowing these structural traits to vary dynamically. In the plant phenology scheme implemented here, plant growth is dependent on environmental conditions such as air temperature and soil moisture. The scheme includes functionality that <span class="hlt">models</span> plant germination, growth, and senescence. These growth stages dictate the variation in six different vegetative carbon pools: storage, leaves, stem, coarse roots, fine roots, and reproductive. The magnitudes of these carbon pools determine land surface parameters such as leaf area index, canopy height, rooting depth and root water uptake capacity. Coupling this phenology scheme with MLCan allows for a more flexible representation of the structure and function of vegetation as it responds to changing environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L"><span>Tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt</p> <p></p> <p>Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain rate and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> for tantalum that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. A constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for single crystal tantalum is developed based on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005567&hterms=Plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPlant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005567&hterms=Plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPlant"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Plant Phenology Dynamics in a Biophysical Canopy <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barata, Raquel A.; Drewry, Darren</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Multi-Layer Canopy <span class="hlt">Model</span> (MLCan) is a vegetation <span class="hlt">model</span> created to capture plant responses to environmental change. Themodel vertically resolves carbon uptake, water vapor and energy exchange at each canopy level by coupling photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is forced by incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, as well as near-surface meteorological conditions. The original formulation of MLCan utilized canopy structural traits derived from observations. This project aims to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a plant phenology scheme within MLCan allowing these structural traits to vary dynamically. In the plant phenology scheme implemented here, plant growth is dependent on environmental conditions such as air temperature and soil moisture. The scheme includes functionality that <span class="hlt">models</span> plant germination, growth, and senescence. These growth stages dictate the variation in six different vegetative carbon pools: storage, leaves, stem, coarse roots, fine roots, and reproductive. The magnitudes of these carbon pools determine land surface parameters such as leaf area index, canopy height, rooting depth and root water uptake capacity. Coupling this phenology scheme with MLCan allows for a more flexible representation of the structure and function of vegetation as it responds to changing environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1651...64G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1651...64G"><span>A dengue <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> saturation incidence and human migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gakkhar, S.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, a non-linear <span class="hlt">model</span> has been proposed to investigate the effects of human migration on dengue dynamics. Human migration has been considered between two patches having different dengue strains. Due to migration secondary infection is possible. Further, the secondary infection is considered in patch-2 only as strain-2 in patch-2 is considered to be more severe than that of strain-1 in patch-1. The saturation incidence rate has been considered to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the behavioral changes towards epidemic in human population. The basic reproduction number has been computed. Four Equilibrium states have been found and analyzed. Increasing saturation rate decreases the threshold thereby enhancing the stability of disease-free state in both the patches. Control on migration may lead to change in infection level of patches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25948393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25948393"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of molybdenum in rubredoxin: <span class="hlt">models</span> for mononuclear molybdenum enzymes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Silveira, Célia M; Todorovic, Smilja; Carreira, Cintia; Carepo, Marta S P; Grazina, Raquel; Moura, Isabel; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, José J G</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Molybdenum is found in the active site of enzymes usually coordinated by one or two pyranopterin molecules. Here, we mimic an enzyme with a mononuclear molybdenum-bis pyranopterin center by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> molybdenum in rubredoxin. In the molybdenum-substituted rubredoxin, the metal ion is coordinated by four sulfurs from conserved cysteine residues of the apo-rubredoxin and two other exogenous ligands, oxygen and thiol, forming a Mo((VI))-(S-Cys)4(O)(X) complex, where X represents -OH or -SR. The rubredoxin molybdenum center is stabilized in a Mo(VI) oxidation state, but can be reduced to Mo(IV) via Mo(V) by dithionite, being a suitable <span class="hlt">model</span> for the spectroscopic properties of resting and reduced forms of molybdenum-bis pyranopterin-containing enzymes. Preliminary experiments indicate that the molybdenum site built in rubredoxin can promote oxo transfer reactions, as exemplified with the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8390E..0IS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8390E..0IS"><span>Parking lot process <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into DIRSIG scene simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Jiangqin; Messinger, David</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool is a rst principles-based synthetic image generation <span class="hlt">model</span>, developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) over the past 20+ years. By calculating the sensor reaching radiance between the bandpass 0.2 to 20mm, it produces multi or hyperspectral remote sensing images. By integrating independent rst principles based sub-<span class="hlt">models</span>, such as MODTRAN, DIRSIG generates a representation of what a sensor would see with high radiometric delity. In order to detect temporal changes in a process within the scene, currently the eort is devoted to enhance the capacity of DIRSIG by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> process <span class="hlt">models</span>. The parking lot process <span class="hlt">model</span> is interesting to many applications. Therefore, this paper builds a parking lot process <span class="hlt">model</span> PARKVIEW based on the statistical description of the parking lot which includes parking lot occupancy, parking duration and parking spot preference. The output of PARKVIEW could then be fed into DIRSIG to enhance the scene simulation capacity of DIRSIG in terms of including temporal information of the parking lot. In order to show an accurate and ecient way of extracting the statistical description of the parking lot, an experiment is set up to record the distribution of cars in several parking lots on the RIT campus during one weekday by taking photos every ve minutes. The image data are processed to extract the parking spot status of the parking lot for each frame taken from the experiment. The parking spot status information is then described in a statistical way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41G0133T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41G0133T"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Functional Gene Quantification into Traditional Decomposition <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todd-Brown, K. E.; Zhou, J.; Yin, H.; Wu, L.; Tiedje, J. M.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Konstantinidis, K.; Luo, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> new genetic quantification measurements into traditional substrate pool <span class="hlt">models</span> represents a substantial challenge. These decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> are built around the idea that substrate availablity, with environmental drivers, limit carbon dioxide respiration rates. In this paradigm, microbial communities optimally adapt to a given substrate and environment on much shorter time scales then the carbon flux of interest. By characterizing the relative shift in biomass of these microbial communities, we informed previously poorly constrained parameters in traditional decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this study we coupled a 9 month laboratory incubation study with quantitative gene measurements with traditional CO2 flux measurements plus initial soil organic carbon quantification. GeoChip 5.0 was used to quantify the functional genes associated with carbon cycling at 2 weeks, 3 months and 9 months. We then combined the genes which 'collapsed' over the experiment and assumed that this tracked the relative change in the biomass associated with the 'fast' pool. We further assumed that this biomass was proportional to the 'fast' SOC pool and thus were able to constrain the relative change in the fast SOC pool in our 3-pool decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span>. We found that biomass quantification described above, combined with traditional CO2 flux and SOC measurements, improve the transfer coefficient estimation in traditional decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span>. Transfer coefficients are very difficult to characterized using traditional CO2 flux measurements, thus DNA quantification provides new and significant information about the system. Over a 100 year simulation, these new biologically informed parameters resulted in an additional 10% of SOC loss over the traditionally informed parameters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8402P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8402P"><span>Digital terrain <span class="hlt">model</span> generalization <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> scale, semantic and cognitive constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Papadogiorgaki, Maria</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Cartographic generalization is a well-known process accommodating spatial data compression, visualization and comprehension under various scales. In the last few years, there are several international attempts to construct tangible GIS systems, forming real 3D surfaces using a vast number of mechanical parts along a matrix formation (i.e., bars, pistons, vacuums). Usually, moving bars upon a structured grid push a stretching membrane resulting in a smooth visualization for a given surface. Most of these attempts suffer either in their cost, accuracy, resolution and/or speed. Under this perspective, the present study proposes a surface generalization process that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> intrinsic constrains of tangible GIS systems including robotic-motor movement and surface stretching limitations. The main objective is to provide optimized visualizations of 3D digital terrain <span class="hlt">models</span> with minimum loss of information. That is, to minimize the number of pixels in a raster dataset used to define a DTM, while reserving the surface information. This neighborhood type of pixel relations adheres to the basics of Self Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural networks, which are often used for information abstraction since they are indicative of intrinsic statistical features contained in the input patterns and provide concise and characteristic representations. Nevertheless, SOM remains more like a black box procedure not capable to cope with possible particularities and semantics of the application at hand. E.g. for coastal monitoring applications, the near - coast areas, surrounding mountains and lakes are more important than other features and generalization should be "biased"-stratified to fulfill this requirement. Moreover, according to the application objectives, we extend the SOM algorithm to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> special types of information generalization by differentiating the underlying strategy based on topologic information of the objects included in the application. The final</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28881933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28881933"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Context Dependency of Species Interactions in Species Distribution <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> typically use correlative approaches that characterize the species-environment relationship using occurrence or abundance data for a single species. However, species distributions are determined by both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Therefore, climate change is expected to impact species through direct effects on their physiology and indirect effects propagated through their resources, predators, competitors, or mutualists. Furthermore, the sign and strength of species interactions can change according to abiotic conditions, resulting in context-dependent species interactions that may change across space or with climate change. Here, we <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the context dependency of species interactions into a dynamic species distribution <span class="hlt">model</span>. We developed a multi-species <span class="hlt">model</span> that uses a time-series of observational survey data to evaluate how abiotic conditions and species interactions affect the dynamics of three rocky intertidal species. The <span class="hlt">model</span> further distinguishes between the direct effects of abiotic conditions on abundance and the indirect effects propagated through interactions with other species. We apply the <span class="hlt">model</span> to keystone predation by the sea star Pisaster ochraceus on the mussel Mytilus californianus and the barnacle Balanus glandula in the rocky intertidal zone of the Pacific coast, USA. Our method indicated that biotic interactions between P. ochraceus and B. glandula affected B. glandula dynamics across >1000 km of coastline. Consistent with patterns from keystone predation, the growth rate of B. glandula varied according to the abundance of P. ochraceus in the previous year. The data and the <span class="hlt">model</span> did not indicate that the strength of keystone predation by P. ochraceus varied with a mean annual upwelling index. Balanus glandula cover increased following years with high phytoplankton abundance measured as mean annual chlorophyll-a. M. californianus exhibited the same</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2713M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2713M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatial correlations into multispecies mean-field <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markham, Deborah C.; Simpson, Matthew J.; Maini, Philip K.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Baker, Ruth E.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In biology, we frequently observe different species existing within the same environment. For example, there are many cell types in a tumour, or different animal species may occupy a given habitat. In <span class="hlt">modeling</span> interactions between such species, we often make use of the mean-field approximation, whereby spatial correlations between the locations of individuals are neglected. Whilst this approximation holds in certain situations, this is not always the case, and care must be taken to ensure the mean-field approximation is only used in appropriate settings. In circumstances where the mean-field approximation is unsuitable, we need to include information on the spatial distributions of individuals, which is not a simple task. In this paper, we provide a method that overcomes many of the failures of the mean-field approximation for an on-lattice volume-excluding birth-death-movement process with multiple species. We explicitly take into account spatial information on the distribution of individuals by including partial differential equation descriptions of lattice site occupancy correlations. We demonstrate how to derive these equations for the multispecies case and show results specific to a two-species problem. We compare averaged discrete results to both the mean-field approximation and our improved method, which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> spatial correlations. We note that the mean-field approximation fails dramatically in some cases, predicting very different behavior from that seen upon averaging multiple realizations of the discrete system. In contrast, our improved method provides excellent agreement with the averaged discrete behavior in all cases, thus providing a more reliable <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework. Furthermore, our method is tractable as the resulting partial differential equations can be solved efficiently using standard numerical techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9016E..0OA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9016E..0OA"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> visual attention <span class="hlt">models</span> into video quality metrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akamine, Welington Y. L.; Farias, Mylène C. Q.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A recent development in the area of image and video quality consists of trying to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> aspects of visual attention in the design of visual quality metrics, mostly using the assumption that visual distortions appearing in less salient areas might be less visible and, therefore, less annoying. This research area is still in its infancy and results obtained by different groups are not yet conclusive. Among the works that have reported some improvement, most use subjective saliency maps, i.e. saliency maps generated from eye-tracking data obtained experimentally. Besides, most works address the image quality problem, not focusing on how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> visual attention into video signals. In this work, we investigate the benefits of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> saliency maps obtained with visual attention. In particular, we compare the performance of four full-reference video quality metrics with their modified versions, which had saliency maps <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> to the algorithm. For comparison proposes, we have used a database of subjective salience maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.P11B1270D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.P11B1270D"><span><span class="hlt">Models</span> of Jupiter's Growth <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Thermal and Hydrodynamics Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Angelo, G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Hubickyj, O.; Bodenheimer, P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We have <span class="hlt">modeled</span> the growth of Jupiter <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> both thermal and hydrodynamical constraints on its accretion of gas from the circumsolar disk. We have used a planetary formation code, based on a Henyey- type stellar evolution code, to compute the planet's internal structure and a three-dimensional hydrodynamics code to calculate the planet's interactions with the protoplanetary disk. Our principal results are: (1) Three dimensional hydrodynamics calculations show that the flow of gas in the circumsolar disk limits the region occupied by the planet's tenuous gaseous envelope to within about 0.25 Rh (Hill sphere radii) of the planet's center, which is much smaller than the value of ~ 1 Rh that was assumed in previous studies. (2) This smaller size of the planet's envelope increases the planet's accretion time, but only by 5-- 10%. In general, in agreement with previous results of Hubickyj et al. [Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., 2005. Icarus, 179, 415-431], Jupiter formation times are in the range 2.5--3 Myr, assuming a protoplanetary disk with solid surface density of 10 g/cm2 and dust opacity in the protoplanet's envelope equal to 2% that of interstellar material. Thermal pressure limits the rate at which a planet less than a few dozen times as massive as Earth can accumulate gas from the protoplanetary disk, whereas hydrodynamics regulates the growth rate for more massive planets. (3) In a protoplanetary disk whose alpha-viscosity parameter is ~ 0.004, giant planets will grow to several times the mass of Jupiter unless the disk has a small local surface density when the planet begins to accrete gas hydrodynamically, or the disk is dispersed very soon thereafter. The large number of planets known with masses near Jupiter's compared with the smaller number of substantially more massive planets is more naturally explained by planetary growth within circumstellar disks whose alpha-viscosity parameter is ~ 0.0004. (4) Capture of Jupiter's irregular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015545','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015545"><span>Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Adversary Probability Perception <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in Security Games</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-30</p> <p>security game (SSG) algorithms. Given recent work on human decision-making, we adjust the existing subjective utility function to account for...data from previous security game experiments with human subjects. Our results show the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of probability perceptions into the SUQR can...provide improvements in the ability to predict probabilities of attack in certain games .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+five+AND+model+AND+personality&pg=6&id=EJ815000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+five+AND+model+AND+personality&pg=6&id=EJ815000"><span>A Measurement <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Likert Responses that <span class="hlt">Incorporates</span> Response Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">model</span> for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic <span class="hlt">model</span> for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> together with the factor <span class="hlt">model</span> provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+level+AND+changes&pg=6&id=EJ430466','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+level+AND+changes&pg=6&id=EJ430466"><span>Implementing the Standards: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Mathematical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into the Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Swetz, Frank</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Following a brief historical review of the mechanism of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, examples are included that associate a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> with given data (changes in sea level) and that <span class="hlt">model</span> a real-life situation (process of parallel parking). Also provided is the rationale for the curricular implementation of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. (JJK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+level+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ430466','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+level+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ430466"><span>Implementing the Standards: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Mathematical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into the Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Swetz, Frank</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Following a brief historical review of the mechanism of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, examples are included that associate a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> with given data (changes in sea level) and that <span class="hlt">model</span> a real-life situation (process of parallel parking). Also provided is the rationale for the curricular implementation of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. (JJK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=eysenck+AND+personality+AND+theory&id=EJ815000','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=eysenck+AND+personality+AND+theory&id=EJ815000"><span>A Measurement <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Likert Responses that <span class="hlt">Incorporates</span> Response Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">model</span> for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic <span class="hlt">model</span> for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> together with the factor <span class="hlt">model</span> provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnOp...47..737K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnOp...47..737K"><span>A new nonlinear Muskingum flood routing <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> lateral flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karahan, Halil; Gurarslan, Gurhan; Geem, Zong Woo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A new nonlinear Muskingum flood routing <span class="hlt">model</span> taking the contribution from lateral flow into consideration was developed in the present study. The cuckoo search algorithm, a quite novel and robust algorithm, was used in the calibration and verification of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. The success and the dependability of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> were tested on five different sets of synthetic and real flood data. The optimal solutions for the test cases were determined by the currently proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> rather than by different <span class="hlt">models</span> taken from the literature, indicating that this <span class="hlt">model</span> could be suitable for use in flood routing problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Chaos..27i3926R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Chaos..27i3926R"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> inductances in tissue-scale <span class="hlt">models</span> of cardiac electrophysiology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rossi, Simone; Griffith, Boyce E.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>In standard <span class="hlt">models</span> of cardiac electrophysiology, including the bidomain and monodomain <span class="hlt">models</span>, local perturbations can propagate at infinite speed. We address this unrealistic property by developing a hyperbolic bidomain <span class="hlt">model</span> that is based on a generalization of Ohm's law with a Cattaneo-type <span class="hlt">model</span> for the fluxes. Further, we obtain a hyperbolic monodomain <span class="hlt">model</span> in the case that the intracellular and extracellular conductivity tensors have the same anisotropy ratio. In one spatial dimension, the hyperbolic monodomain <span class="hlt">model</span> is equivalent to a cable <span class="hlt">model</span> that includes axial inductances, and the relaxation times of the Cattaneo fluxes are strictly related to these inductances. A purely linear analysis shows that the inductances are negligible, but <span class="hlt">models</span> of cardiac electrophysiology are highly nonlinear, and linear predictions may not capture the fully nonlinear dynamics. In fact, contrary to the linear analysis, we show that for simple nonlinear ionic <span class="hlt">models</span>, an increase in conduction velocity is obtained for small and moderate values of the relaxation time. A similar behavior is also demonstrated with biophysically detailed ionic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Using the Fenton-Karma <span class="hlt">model</span> along with a low-order finite element spatial discretization, we numerically analyze differences between the standard monodomain <span class="hlt">model</span> and the hyperbolic monodomain <span class="hlt">model</span>. In a simple benchmark test, we show that the propagation of the action potential is strongly influenced by the alignment of the fibers with respect to the mesh in both the parabolic and hyperbolic <span class="hlt">models</span> when using relatively coarse spatial discretizations. Accurate predictions of the conduction velocity require computational mesh spacings on the order of a single cardiac cell. We also compare the two formulations in the case of spiral break up and atrial fibrillation in an anatomically detailed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the left atrium, and we examine the effect of intracellular and extracellular inductances on the virtual electrode phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=240091&keyword=Predation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78721075&CFTOKEN=45413152','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=240091&keyword=Predation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78721075&CFTOKEN=45413152"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Temperature-driven Seasonal Variation in Survival, Growth, and Reproduction <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Small Fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Seasonal variation in survival and reproduction can be a large source of prediction uncertainty in <span class="hlt">models</span> used for conservation and management. A seasonally varying matrix population <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> temperature-driven differences in mortality and reproduction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=240091&keyword=Bertalanffy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=240091&keyword=Bertalanffy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Temperature-driven Seasonal Variation in Survival, Growth, and Reproduction <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Small Fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Seasonal variation in survival and reproduction can be a large source of prediction uncertainty in <span class="hlt">models</span> used for conservation and management. A seasonally varying matrix population <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> temperature-driven differences in mortality and reproduction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80980&keyword=cca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89491218&CFTOKEN=34041740','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80980&keyword=cca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89491218&CFTOKEN=34041740"><span>A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for wood preservatives (<span class="hlt">SHEDS-Wood</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80980&keyword=soil+AND+washing+AND+risk+AND+assessment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80980&keyword=soil+AND+washing+AND+risk+AND+assessment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for wood preservatives (<span class="hlt">SHEDS-Wood</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019915','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019915"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of the planetary boundary layer in atmospheric <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary boundary layer (PBL) measurements; current problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale <span class="hlt">models</span>; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024875','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024875"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty into high-resolution groundwater supply <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rahman, A.; Hartono, S.; Carlson, D.; Willson, C.S.; ,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is a useful tool for evaluating whether an acquifer system is capable of supporting groundwater withdrawals over long periods of time and what effect, if any, such activity will have on the regional flow dynamics as well as on specific public water, agricultural and industrial supplies. An overview is given of an ongoing groundwater <span class="hlt">modeling</span> study of the Chicot Aquifer in southwestern Louisiana where a low-resolution groundwater <span class="hlt">model</span> is being used to study the regional flow in the Chicot acquifer and to provide boundary conditions for higher-resolution inset <span class="hlt">models</span> created using telescopic mesh refinement (TMR).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ479810','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ479810"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Library Book Circulations <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Loan Periods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burrell, Quentin L.; Fenton, Michael R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Proposes and explains a modification of the mixed Poisson <span class="hlt">model</span> for library circulations which takes into account the periods when a book is out on loan and therefore unavailable for borrowing. Highlights include frequency of circulation distributions; negative binomial distribution; and examples of the <span class="hlt">model</span> at two universities. (Contains 34…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4816..132M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4816..132M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of polarization into the DIRSIG synthetic image generation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyers, Jason P.; Schott, John R.; Brown, Scott D.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Synthetic Image Generation (DIRSIG) <span class="hlt">model</span> uses a quantitative first principles approach to generate synthetic hyperspectral imagery. This paper presents the methods used to add <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of polarization phenomenology. The radiative transfer equations were modified to use Stokes vectors for the radiance values and Mueller matrices for the energy-matter interactions. The use of Stokes vectors enables a full polarimetric characterization of the illumination and sensor reaching radiances. The bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) module was rewritten and modularized to accommodate a variety of polarized and unpolarized BRDF <span class="hlt">models</span>. Two new BRDF <span class="hlt">models</span> based on Torrance-Sparrow and Beard-Maxwell were added to provide polarized BRDF estimations. The sensor polarization characteristics are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using Mueller matrix transformations on a per pixel basis. All polarized radiative transfer calculations are performed spectrally to preserve the hyperspectral capabilities of DIRSIG. Integration over sensor bandpasses is handled by the sensor module.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004HyPr...18.3371S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004HyPr...18.3371S"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> topographic variability into a simple regional snowmelt <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sloan, W. T.; Kilsby, C. G.; Lunn, R.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>General circulation <span class="hlt">models</span> (GCMs), or stand-alone <span class="hlt">models</span> that are forced by the output from GCMs, are increasingly being used to simulate the interactions between snow cover, snowmelt, climate and water resources. The variation in snowpack extent, and hence albedo, through time in a cell is likely to be substantial, especially in mid-latitude mountainous regions. As a consequence, the energy budget simulation by a GCM relies on a realistic representation of snowpack extent. Similarly, from a water resource perspective, the spatial extent of the pack is key in predicting meltwater discharges into rivers. In this paper a simple computationally efficient regional snow <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed, which is based on a degree-day approach and simulates the fraction of the <span class="hlt">model</span> domain covered by snow, the spatially averaged melt rate and the mean snowpack depth. Computational efficiency is achieved through a novel spatial averaging procedure, which relies on the assumptions that precipitation and temperature scale linearly with elevation and that the distribution of elevations in the domain can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by a continuous function. The resulting spatially averaged <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared with both observations of the duration of snow cover throughout Austria and with results from a distributed <span class="hlt">model</span> based on the same underlying assumptions but applied at a fine spatial resolution. The new spatially averaged <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully simulated the seasonal snow duration observations and reproduced the daily dynamics of snow cover extent, the spatially averaged melt rate and mean pack depth simulated by the distributed <span class="hlt">model</span>. It, therefore, offers a computationally efficient and easily applied alternative to the current crop of regional snow <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4516825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4516825"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> measurement error in n = 1 psychological autoregressive <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schuurman, Noémi K.; Houtveen, Jan H.; Hamaker, Ellen L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Measurement error is omnipresent in psychological data. However, the vast majority of applications of autoregressive time series analyses in psychology do not take measurement error into account. Disregarding measurement error when it is present in the data results in a bias of the autoregressive parameters. We discuss two <span class="hlt">models</span> that take measurement error into account: An autoregressive <span class="hlt">model</span> with a white noise term (AR+WN), and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) <span class="hlt">model</span>. In a simulation study we compare the parameter recovery performance of these <span class="hlt">models</span>, and compare this performance for both a Bayesian and frequentist approach. We find that overall, the AR+WN <span class="hlt">model</span> performs better. Furthermore, we find that for realistic (i.e., small) sample sizes, psychological research would benefit from a Bayesian approach in fitting these <span class="hlt">models</span>. Finally, we illustrate the effect of disregarding measurement error in an AR(1) <span class="hlt">model</span> by means of an empirical application on mood data in women. We find that, depending on the person, approximately 30–50% of the total variance was due to measurement error, and that disregarding this measurement error results in a substantial underestimation of the autoregressive parameters. PMID:26283988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...85...14G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...85...14G"><span>A transient stochastic weather generator <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> climate <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glenis, Vassilis; Pinamonti, Valentina; Hall, Jim W.; Kilsby, Chris G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Stochastic weather generators (WGs), which provide long synthetic time series of weather variables such as rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET), have found widespread use in water resources <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. When conditioned upon the changes in climatic statistics (change factors, CFs) predicted by climate <span class="hlt">models</span>, WGs provide a useful tool for climate impacts assessment and adaption planning. The latest climate <span class="hlt">modelling</span> exercises have involved large numbers of global and regional climate <span class="hlt">models</span> integrations, designed to explore the implications of uncertainties in the climate <span class="hlt">model</span> formulation and parameter settings: so called 'perturbed physics ensembles' (PPEs). In this paper we show how these climate <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainties can be propagated through to impact studies by testing multiple vectors of CFs, each vector derived from a different sample from a PPE. We combine this with a new methodology to parameterise the projected time-evolution of CFs. We demonstrate how, when conditioned upon these time-dependent CFs, an existing, well validated and widely used WG can be used to generate non-stationary simulations of future climate that are consistent with probabilistic outputs from the Met Office Hadley Centre's Perturbed Physics Ensemble. The WG enables extensive sampling of natural variability and climate <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty, providing the basis for development of robust water resources management strategies in the context of a non-stationary climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0XC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0XC"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> tissue absorption and scattering in rapid ultrasound beam <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, Douglas; Almquist, Scott</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We have developed a new approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the propagation of an ultrasound beam in inhomogeneous tissues such as encountered with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treatment of various diseases. This method, called the hybrid angular spectrum (HAS) approach, alternates propagation steps between the space and the spatial frequency domains throughout the inhomogeneous regions of the body; the use of spatial Fourier transforms makes this technique considerably faster than other <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches (about 10 sec for a 141 x 141 x 121 <span class="hlt">model</span>). In HIFU thermal treatments, the acoustic absorption property of the tissues is of prime importance since it leads to temperature rise and the achievement of desired thermal dose at the treatment site. We have recently added to the HAS method the capability of independently <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tissue absorption and scattering, the two components of acoustic attenuation. These additions improve the predictive value of the beam <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and more accurately describes the thermal conditions expected during a therapeutic ultrasound exposure. Two approaches to explicitly <span class="hlt">model</span> scattering were developed: one for scattering sizes smaller than a voxel, and one when the scattering scale is several voxels wide. Some anatomically realistic examples that demonstrate the importance of independently <span class="hlt">modeling</span> absorption and scattering are given, including propagation through the human skull for noninvasive brain therapy and in the human breast for treatment of breast lesions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26283988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26283988"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> measurement error in n = 1 psychological autoregressive <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuurman, Noémi K; Houtveen, Jan H; Hamaker, Ellen L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Measurement error is omnipresent in psychological data. However, the vast majority of applications of autoregressive time series analyses in psychology do not take measurement error into account. Disregarding measurement error when it is present in the data results in a bias of the autoregressive parameters. We discuss two <span class="hlt">models</span> that take measurement error into account: An autoregressive <span class="hlt">model</span> with a white noise term (AR+WN), and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) <span class="hlt">model</span>. In a simulation study we compare the parameter recovery performance of these <span class="hlt">models</span>, and compare this performance for both a Bayesian and frequentist approach. We find that overall, the AR+WN <span class="hlt">model</span> performs better. Furthermore, we find that for realistic (i.e., small) sample sizes, psychological research would benefit from a Bayesian approach in fitting these <span class="hlt">models</span>. Finally, we illustrate the effect of disregarding measurement error in an AR(1) <span class="hlt">model</span> by means of an empirical application on mood data in women. We find that, depending on the person, approximately 30-50% of the total variance was due to measurement error, and that disregarding this measurement error results in a substantial underestimation of the autoregressive parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311019&keyword=descriptive+AND+research&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311019&keyword=descriptive+AND+research&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> principal component analysis into air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The efficacy of standard air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Princi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579834"><span>Markov modulated Poisson process <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> covariates for rainfall intensity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thayakaran, R; Ramesh, N I</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Time series of rainfall bucket tip times at the Beaufort Park station, Bracknell, in the UK are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by a class of Markov modulated Poisson processes (MMPP) which may be thought of as a generalization of the Poisson process. Our main focus in this paper is to investigate the effects of including covariate information into the MMPP <span class="hlt">model</span> framework on statistical properties. In particular, we look at three types of time-varying covariates namely temperature, sea level pressure, and relative humidity that are thought to be affecting the rainfall arrival process. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to obtain the parameter estimates, and likelihood ratio tests are employed in <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison. Simulated data from the fitted <span class="hlt">model</span> are used to make statistical inferences about the accumulated rainfall in the discrete time interval. Variability of the daily Poisson arrival rates is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311019&keyword=computing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85822524&CFTOKEN=32976541','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311019&keyword=computing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85822524&CFTOKEN=32976541"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> principal component analysis into air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The efficacy of standard air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Princi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017790"><span>An Approach for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Context in Building Probabilistic Predictive <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Juan Anna; Hsu, William; Bui, Alex AT</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the increasing amount of information collected through clinical practice and scientific experimentation, a growing challenge is how to utilize available resources to construct predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> to facilitate clinical decision making. Clinicians often have questions related to the treatment and outcome of a medical problem for individual patients; however, few tools exist that leverage the large collection of patient data and scientific knowledge to answer these questions. Without appropriate context, existing data that have been collected for a specific task may not be suitable for creating new <span class="hlt">models</span> that answer different questions. This paper presents an approach that leverages available structured or unstructured data to build a probabilistic predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> that assists physicians with answering clinical questions on individual patients. Various challenges related to transforming available data to an end-user application are addressed: problem decomposition, variable selection, context representation, automated extraction of information from unstructured data sources, <span class="hlt">model</span> generation, and development of an intuitive application to query the <span class="hlt">model</span> and present the results. We describe our efforts towards building a <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts the risk of vasospasm in aneurysm patients. PMID:27617299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776109','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776109"><span>NEXT-GENERATION NUMERICAL <span class="hlt">MODELING</span>: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> ELASTICITY, ANISOTROPY AND ATTENUATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. LARSEN; ET AL</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>A new effort has been initiated between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) to investigate what features the next generation of numerical seismic <span class="hlt">models</span> should contain that will best address current technical problems encountered during exploration in increasingly complex geologies. This collaborative work is focused on designing and building these new <span class="hlt">models</span>, generating synthetic seismic data through simulated surveys of various geometries, and using these data to test and validate new and improved seismic imaging algorithms. The new <span class="hlt">models</span> will be both 2- and 3-dimensional and will include complex velocity structures as well as anisotropy and attenuation. Considerable attention is being focused on multi-component acoustic and elastic effects because it is now widely recognized that converted phases could play a vital role in improving the quality of seismic images. An existing, validated 3-D elastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> code is being used to generate the synthetic data. Preliminary elastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results using this code are presented here along with a description of the proposed new <span class="hlt">models</span> that will be built and tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617299"><span>An Approach for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Context in Building Probabilistic Predictive <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Juan Anna; Hsu, William; Bui, Alex At</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>With the increasing amount of information collected through clinical practice and scientific experimentation, a growing challenge is how to utilize available resources to construct predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> to facilitate clinical decision making. Clinicians often have questions related to the treatment and outcome of a medical problem for individual patients; however, few tools exist that leverage the large collection of patient data and scientific knowledge to answer these questions. Without appropriate context, existing data that have been collected for a specific task may not be suitable for creating new <span class="hlt">models</span> that answer different questions. This paper presents an approach that leverages available structured or unstructured data to build a probabilistic predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> that assists physicians with answering clinical questions on individual patients. Various challenges related to transforming available data to an end-user application are addressed: problem decomposition, variable selection, context representation, automated extraction of information from unstructured data sources, <span class="hlt">model</span> generation, and development of an intuitive application to query the <span class="hlt">model</span> and present the results. We describe our efforts towards building a <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts the risk of vasospasm in aneurysm patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9308E..0VK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9308E..0VK"><span>Macroscopic singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> photobleaching as an input parameter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A macroscopic singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">model</span> for photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used extensively to calculate the reacted singlet oxygen concentration for various photosensitizers. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]r,sh) can be found for various drugs and drug-light intervals using a fitting algorithm. The input parameters for this <span class="hlt">model</span> include the fluence, photosensitizer concentration, optical properties, and necrosis radius. An additional input variable of photobleaching was implemented in this study to optimize the results. Photobleaching was measured by using the pre-PDT and post-PDT sensitizer concentrations. Using the RIF <span class="hlt">model</span> of murine fibrosarcoma, mice were treated with a linear source with fluence rates from 12 - 150 mW/cm and total fluences from 24 - 135 J/cm. The two main drugs investigated were benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). Previously published photophysical parameters were fine-tuned and verified using photobleaching as the additional fitting parameter. Furthermore, photobleaching can be used as an indicator of the robustness of the <span class="hlt">model</span> for the particular mouse experiment by comparing the experimental and <span class="hlt">model</span>-calculated photobleaching ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875641"><span>Stochastic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of landfill leachate and biogas production <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> waste heterogeneity. <span class="hlt">Model</span> formulation and uncertainty analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zacharof, A.I.; Butler, A.P</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> simulating the hydrological and biochemical processes occurring in landfilled waste is presented and demonstrated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> combines biochemical and hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span> into an integrated representation of the landfill environment. Waste decomposition is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using traditional biochemical waste decomposition pathways combined with a simplified methodology for representing the rate of decomposition. Water flow through the waste is represented using a statistical velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> capable of representing the effects of waste heterogeneity on leachate flow through the waste. Given the limitations in data capture from landfill sites, significant emphasis is placed on improving parameter identification and reducing parameter requirements. A sensitivity analysis is performed, highlighting the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s response to changes in input variables. A <span class="hlt">model</span> test run is also presented, demonstrating the <span class="hlt">model</span> capabilities. A parameter perturbation <span class="hlt">model</span> sensitivity analysis was also performed. This has been able to show that although the <span class="hlt">model</span> is sensitive to certain key parameters, its overall intuitive response provides a good basis for making reasonable predictions of the future state of the landfill system. Finally, due to the high uncertainty associated with landfill data, a tool for handling input data uncertainty is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s structure. It is concluded that the <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used as a reasonable tool for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> landfill processes and that further work should be undertaken to assess the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529"><span>Bayesian statistical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of disinfection byproduct (DBP) bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in the ICR database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Francis, Royce A; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M; Small, Mitchell J</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>Statistical <span class="hlt">models</span> are developed for bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of water quality conditions before, during, and post-treatment on distribution system bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into DBP mixtures. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to <span class="hlt">model</span> individual DBP concentrations and estimate the coefficients of the linear <span class="hlt">models</span> used to predict the bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> fraction for distribution system DBP mixtures in each of the four priority DBP classes. The bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> achieve good agreement with the data. The most important predictors of bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> fraction across DBP classes are alkalinity, specific UV absorption (SUVA), and the bromide to total organic carbon ratio (Br:TOC) at the first point of chlorine addition. Free chlorine residual in the distribution system, distribution system residence time, distribution system pH, turbidity, and temperature only slightly influence bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. The bromide to applied chlorine (Br:Cl) ratio is not a significant predictor of the bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> fraction (BIF) in any of the four classes studied. These results indicate that removal of natural organic matter and the location of chlorine addition are important treatment decisions that have substantial implications for bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into disinfection byproduct in drinking waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/49334','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/49334"><span>Making Invasion <span class="hlt">models</span> useful for decision makers; <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> uncertainty, knowledge gaps, and decision-making preferences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Denys Yemshanov; Frank H Koch; Mark Ducey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Uncertainty is inherent in <span class="hlt">model</span>-based forecasts of ecological invasions. In this chapter, we explore how the perceptions of that uncertainty can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the pest risk assessment process. Uncertainty changes a decision maker’s perceptions of risk; therefore, the direct <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of uncertainty may provide a more appropriate depiction of risk. Our...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA501374','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA501374"><span>A Ternary Phase-Field <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Commercial CALPHAD Software (Preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-10-21</p> <p>AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2009-4033 A TERNARY PHASE-FIELD <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> COMMERCIAL CALPHAD SOFTWARE (PREPRINT) J.P. Simmons Metals...Article Preprint 01 January 2009 – 31 January 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A TERNARY PHASE-FIELD <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> COMMERCIAL CALPHAD SOFTWARE...2008 14. ABSTRACT A ternary phase-field <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4167299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4167299"><span>A Mammalian Circadian Clock <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Daytime Expression Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jolley, Craig C.; Ukai-Tadenuma, Maki; Perrin, Dimitri; Ueda, Hiroki R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> of the mammalian clock have traditionally been based around two feedback loops—the self-repression of Per/Cry by interfering with activation by BMAL/CLOCK, and the repression of Bmal/Clock by the REV-ERB proteins. Recent experimental evidence suggests that the D-box, a transcription factor binding site associated with daytime expression, plays a larger role in clock function than has previously been understood. We present a simplified clock <span class="hlt">model</span> that highlights the role of the D-box and illustrate an approach for finding maximum-entropy ensembles of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, given experimentally imposed constraints. Parameter variability can be mitigated using prior probability distributions derived from genome-wide studies of cellular kinetics. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> reproduces predictions concerning the dual regulation of Cry1 by the D-box and Rev-ErbA/ROR response element (RRE) promoter elements and allows for ensemble-based predictions of phase response curves (PRCs). Nonphotic signals such as Neuropeptide Y (NPY) may act by promoting Cry1 expression, whereas photic signals likely act by stimulating expression from the E/E' box. Ensemble generation with parameter probability restraints reveals more about a model’s behavior than a single optimal parameter set. PMID:25229153</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=knowledge+AND+capture&id=EJ1138759','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=knowledge+AND+capture&id=EJ1138759"><span>Do Knowledge-Component <span class="hlt">Models</span> Need to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Representational Competencies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rau, Martina Angela</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Traditional knowledge-component <span class="hlt">models</span> describe students' content knowledge (e.g., their ability to carry out problem-solving procedures or their ability to reason about a concept). In many STEM domains, instruction uses multiple visual representations such as graphs, figures, and diagrams. The use of visual representations implies a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61069&keyword=diet+AND+case+AND+study&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61069&keyword=diet+AND+case+AND+study&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING <span class="hlt">MODELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stable isotopes are frequently used to quantify the contributions of multiple sources to a mixture; e.g., C and N isotopic signatures can be used to determine the fraction of three food sources in a consumer's diet. The standard dual isotope, three source linear mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> ass...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA571870','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA571870"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Uncertainties in Satellite-Derived Chlorophyll into <span class="hlt">Model</span> Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>2007JC004472. F. Chai, R.C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F.P. Wilkerson, and R.T. Barber. 2002. "One-dimensional ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span> of the equatorial Pacific ...THIS PAGE Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT uu 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 12 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Richard Gould 19b. TELEPHONE</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61069&keyword=lean&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78802506&CFTOKEN=43101003','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61069&keyword=lean&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78802506&CFTOKEN=43101003"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING <span class="hlt">MODELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stable isotopes are frequently used to quantify the contributions of multiple sources to a mixture; e.g., C and N isotopic signatures can be used to determine the fraction of three food sources in a consumer's diet. The standard dual isotope, three source linear mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> ass...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..82..307E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..82..307E"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> principal component analysis into air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eder, Brian; Bash, Jesse; Foley, Kristen; Pleim, Jon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The efficacy of standard air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric - the <span class="hlt">model</span> bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) <span class="hlt">model</span> when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ <span class="hlt">model</span> bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station-grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the probable mechanisms responsible for the unique behavior among bias regimes. A sampling of results indicates that biases are still prevalent in both SO42- and NH4+ simulations that can be attributed to either: 1) cloud processes in the meteorological <span class="hlt">model</span> utilized by CMAQ, which are found to overestimated convective clouds and precipitation, while underestimating larger-scale resolved clouds that are less likely to precipitate, and 2) biases associated with Midwest NH3 emissions which may be partially ameliorated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> grassland management in a global vegetation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and management requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span> designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how management of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how management affects <span class="hlt">modeled</span> grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new <span class="hlt">model</span>, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland Management) is capable with a management module inspired from a grassland <span class="hlt">model</span> (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland management practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without management. At some sites, the <span class="hlt">model</span>-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to <span class="hlt">model</span> structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090009321&hterms=series+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dseries%2Btime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090009321&hterms=series+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dseries%2Btime"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Satellite Time-Series Data into <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, Watson</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In situ time series observations have provided a multi-decadal view of long-term changes in ocean biology. These observations are sufficiently reliable to enable discernment of even relatively small changes, and provide continuous information on a host of variables. Their key drawback is their limited domain. Satellite observations from ocean color sensors do not suffer the drawback of domain, and simultaneously view the global oceans. This attribute lends credence to their use in global and regional <span class="hlt">model</span> validation and data assimilation. We focus on these applications using the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical <span class="hlt">Model</span>. The enhancement of the satellite data using data assimilation is featured and the limitation of tongterm satellite data sets is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H11B0228B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H11B0228B"><span>The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of geomorphic information in storage-zone <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boufadel, M. C.; Gabriel, M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Three stream-tracer studies were conducted in a 190-m reach of an urban stream in Philadelphia to investigate the interactions between the main channel and transverse storage zones. Sodium chloride was used as a conservative tracer and was monitored at two downstream locations using electric conductivity measurements. The experiments were simulated using the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms that account for the transverse exchange. The fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the data was good when all the parameters were assumed to be sub-reach-averaged. When measurements of the cross sectional area at various downstream distances were introduced into the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the remaining reach-averaged parameters had to take extreme values to achieve agreement with the experimental breakthrough curve. This indicates that additional but incomplete geomorphic information does not necessarily improve the understanding of a particular stream system. The variation of the parameters with scale was also explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7825B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7825B"><span>The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of geomorphic information in storage-zone <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boufadel, M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Three stream-tracer studies were conducted in a 190-m reach of an urban stream in Philadelphia to investigate the interactions between the main channel and transverse storage zones. Sodium chloride was used as a conservative tracer and was monitored at two downstream locations using electric conductivity measurements. The experiments were simulated using the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms that account for the transverse exchange. The fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the data was good when all the parameters were assumed to be sub-reach-averaged. When measurements of the cross sectional area at various downstream distances were introduced into the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the remaining reach-averaged parameters had to take extreme values to achieve agreement with the experimental breakthrough curve. This indicates that additional but incomplete geomorphic information does not necessarily improve the understanding of a particular stream system. The variation of the parameters with scale was also explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4790418','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4790418"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Spatial <span class="hlt">Models</span> in Visual Field Test Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rubinstein, Nikki J.; McKendrick, Allison M.; Turpin, Andrew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To introduce a perimetric algorithm (Spatially Weighted Likelihoods in Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing [ZEST] [SWeLZ]) that uses spatial information on every presentation to alter visual field (VF) estimates, to reduce test times without affecting output precision and accuracy. Methods SWeLZ is a maximum likelihood Bayesian procedure, which updates probability mass functions at VF locations using a spatial <span class="hlt">model</span>. Spatial <span class="hlt">models</span> were created from empirical data, computational <span class="hlt">models</span>, nearest neighbor, random relationships, and interconnecting all locations. SWeLZ was compared to an implementation of the ZEST algorithm for perimetry using computer simulations on 163 glaucomatous and 233 normal VFs (Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2). Output measures included number of presentations and visual sensitivity estimates. Results There was no significant difference in accuracy or precision of SWeLZ for the different spatial <span class="hlt">models</span> relative to ZEST, either when collated across whole fields or when split by input sensitivity. Inspection of VF maps showed that SWeLZ was able to detect localized VF loss. SWeLZ was faster than ZEST for normal VFs: median number of presentations reduced by 20% to 38%. The number of presentations was equivalent for SWeLZ and ZEST when simulated on glaucomatous VFs. Conclusions SWeLZ has the potential to reduce VF test times in people with normal VFs, without detriment to output precision and accuracy in glaucomatous VFs. Translational Relevance SWeLZ is a novel perimetric algorithm. Simulations show that SWeLZ can reduce the number of test presentations for people with normal VFs. Since many patients have normal fields, this has the potential for significant time savings in clinical settings. PMID:26981329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3718....2L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3718....2L"><span>Efficient estimation of thermodynamic state <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> order selection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanterman, Aaron D.; Cooper, Matthew L.; Miller, Michael I.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>The recognition of targets in infrared scenes is complicated by the wide variety of appearances associated with different thermodynamic states. We represent the variability in the thermodynamic signatures of targets via an expansion in terms of 'eigentanks' derived from a principal component analysis performed over the target's surface. Employing a Poisson sensor likelihood, or equivalently a likelihood based on Csiszar's I-divergence, a natural discrepancy measure for nonnegative images, yields a coupled set of nonlinear equations which must be solved to computed maximum a posteriori estimates of the thermodynamic expansion coefficients. We propose a weighted least-squares approximation to the Poisson loglikelihood for which the MAP estimates are solutions of linear equations. Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> order estimation techniques are employed to choose the number of coefficients; this prevents target <span class="hlt">models</span> with numerous eigentanks in their representation from having an unfair advantage over simple target <span class="hlt">models</span>. The Bayesian integral is approximated by Schwarz's application of Laplace's method of integration; this technique is closely related to Rissanen's minimum description length and Wallace's minimum message length criteria. Our implementation of these techniques on Silicon Graphics computers exploits the flexible nature of their rendering engines. The implementation is illustrated in estimating the orientation of a tank and the optimum number of representative eigentanks for real data provided by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33G2741W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33G2741W"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> history dependence and texture in <span class="hlt">models</span> of mantle convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wookey, J.; Walker, A. M.; Davies, R.; Davies, J. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Solid state deformation processes permitting convection of Earth's rocky mantle necessarily lead to strong feedbacks between the deformation history and the instantaneous flow field. Mechanisms leading to the history dependence include the alignment of mineral grains with the attendant generation of elastic and rheological anisotropy, as well as processes operating at larger and smaller length scales (e.g. phase separation, grain size reduction, changes to the defect chemistry and dislocation multiplication and entanglement). Despite their sophistication, current <span class="hlt">models</span> of mantle dynamics frequently ignore history dependent rheologies, and the feedback between deformation, grain size, crystal orientation, chemistry and viscosity. These processes have huge effects on viscosity: in the crust, they lead to the development of shear-zones and highly localised deformation, whilst, in the mantle, they are nearly always ignored. Here we describe an approach intended to introduce the consequences of history dependence into <span class="hlt">models</span> of whole-mantle convection. We make use of existing technology that exists in several convection codes: the ability to track markers, or particles, through the evolving flow field. Tracers have previously been used to track attributes such as the bulk chemical composition or trace element ratios. Our modification is to use this technology to track a description of the current state of the texture and microstructure (encompassing an orientation distribution function, grain size parameters and dislocation density) such that we can advance <span class="hlt">models</span> of polycrystalline deformation for many particles alongside and in sync with <span class="hlt">models</span> of mantle convection. Our approach is intended to be reasonably generic, coupling one of several mantle convection engines with a choice of polycrystalline deformation <span class="hlt">models</span>, but the initial implementation uses the TERRA convection code (Baumgardner, J. Stat. Phys. 39:501-511, 1985; Davies and Davies, EPSL 278:50-54, 2009) to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2720181','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2720181"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> nucleosomes into thermodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> of transcription regulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Levo, Michal; Segal, Eran</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Transcriptional control is central to many cellular processes, and, consequently, much effort has been devoted to understanding its underlying mechanisms. The organization of nucleosomes along promoter regions is important for this process, since most transcription factors cannot bind nucleosomal sequences and thus compete with nucleosomes for DNA access. This competition is governed by the relative concentrations of nucleosomes and transcription factors and by their respective sequence binding preferences. However, despite its importance, a mechanistic understanding of the quantitative effects that the competition between nucleosomes and factors has on transcription is still missing. Here we use a thermodynamic framework based on fundamental principles of statistical mechanics to explore theoretically the effect that different nucleosome organizations along promoters have on the activation dynamics of promoters in response to varying concentrations of the regulating factors. We show that even simple landscapes of nucleosome organization reproduce experimental results regarding the effect of nucleosomes as general repressors and as generators of obligate binding cooperativity between factors. Our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework also allows us to characterize the effects that various sequence elements of promoters have on the induction threshold and on the shape of the promoter activation curves. Finally, we show that using only sequence preferences for nucleosomes and transcription factors, our <span class="hlt">model</span> can also predict expression behavior of real promoter sequences, thereby underscoring the importance of the interplay between nucleosomes and factors in determining expression kinetics. PMID:19451592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19451592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19451592"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> nucleosomes into thermodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> of transcription regulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Levo, Michal; Segal, Eran</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Transcriptional control is central to many cellular processes, and, consequently, much effort has been devoted to understanding its underlying mechanisms. The organization of nucleosomes along promoter regions is important for this process, since most transcription factors cannot bind nucleosomal sequences and thus compete with nucleosomes for DNA access. This competition is governed by the relative concentrations of nucleosomes and transcription factors and by their respective sequence binding preferences. However, despite its importance, a mechanistic understanding of the quantitative effects that the competition between nucleosomes and factors has on transcription is still missing. Here we use a thermodynamic framework based on fundamental principles of statistical mechanics to explore theoretically the effect that different nucleosome organizations along promoters have on the activation dynamics of promoters in response to varying concentrations of the regulating factors. We show that even simple landscapes of nucleosome organization reproduce experimental results regarding the effect of nucleosomes as general repressors and as generators of obligate binding cooperativity between factors. Our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework also allows us to characterize the effects that various sequence elements of promoters have on the induction threshold and on the shape of the promoter activation curves. Finally, we show that using only sequence preferences for nucleosomes and transcription factors, our <span class="hlt">model</span> can also predict expression behavior of real promoter sequences, thereby underscoring the importance of the interplay between nucleosomes and factors in determining expression kinetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28946894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28946894"><span><span class="hlt">Models</span> of microbiome evolution <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> host and microbial selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Qinglong; Wu, Steven; Sukumaran, Jeet; Rodrigo, Allen</p> <p>2017-09-25</p> <p>Numerous empirical studies suggest that hosts and microbes exert reciprocal selective effects on their ecological partners. Nonetheless, we still lack an explicit framework to <span class="hlt">model</span> the dynamics of both hosts and microbes under selection. In a previous study, we developed an agent-based forward-time computational framework to simulate the neutral evolution of host-associated microbial communities in a constant-sized, unstructured population of hosts. These neutral <span class="hlt">models</span> allowed offspring to sample microbes randomly from parents and/or from the environment. Additionally, the environmental pool of available microbes was constituted by fixed and persistent microbial OTUs and by contributions from host individuals in the preceding generation. In this paper, we extend our neutral <span class="hlt">models</span> to allow selection to operate on both hosts and microbes. We do this by constructing a phenome for each microbial OTU consisting of a sample of traits that influence host and microbial fitnesses independently. Microbial traits can influence the fitness of hosts ("host selection") and the fitness of microbes ("trait-mediated microbial selection"). Additionally, the fitness effects of traits on microbes can be modified by their hosts ("host-mediated microbial selection"). We simulate the effects of these three types of selection, individually or in combination, on microbiome diversities and the fitnesses of hosts and microbes over several thousand generations of hosts. We show that microbiome diversity is strongly influenced by selection acting on microbes. Selection acting on hosts only influences microbiome diversity when there is near-complete direct or indirect parental contribution to the microbiomes of offspring. Unsurprisingly, microbial fitness increases under microbial selection. Interestingly, when host selection operates, host fitness only increases under two conditions: (1) when there is a strong parental contribution to microbial communities or (2) in the absence of a strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980016989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980016989"><span>Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Structural Reliability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duffy, Stephen F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineer's perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for "graceful" rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction, these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970024835','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970024835"><span>Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Structural Reliability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duffy, Stephen F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineers perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(sub x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for 'graceful' rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144963"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: An Approach for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Nonlinearity in Regression Analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knafl, George J; Barakat, Lamia P; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Hardie, Thomas; Knafl, Kathleen A; Li, Yimei; Deatrick, Janet A</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Although regression relationships commonly are treated as linear, this often is not the case. An adaptive approach is described for identifying nonlinear relationships based on power transforms of predictor (or independent) variables and for assessing whether or not relationships are distinctly nonlinear. It is also possible to <span class="hlt">model</span> adaptively both means and variances of continuous outcome (or dependent) variables and to adaptively power transform positive-valued continuous outcomes, along with their predictors. Example analyses are provided of data from parents in a nursing study on emotional-health-related quality of life for childhood brain tumor survivors as a function of the effort to manage the survivors' condition. These analyses demonstrate that relationships, including moderation relationships, can be distinctly nonlinear, that conclusions about means can be affected by accounting for non-constant variances, and that outcome transformation along with predictor transformation can provide distinct improvements and can resolve skewness problems.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5266111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5266111"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> tracer-tracee differences into <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schoeller, D.A. )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The ideal tracer for metabolic studies is one that behaves exactly like the tracee. Compounds labeled with isotopes come the closest to this ideal because they are chemically identical to the tracee except for the substitution of a stable or radioisotope at one or more positions. Even this substitution, however, can introduce a difference in metabolism that may be quantitatively important with regard to the development of the mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> used to interpret the kinetic data. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of carbon dioxide production and hence energy expenditure in free-living subjects is a good example of how differences between the metabolism of the tracers and the tracee can influence the accuracy of the carbon dioxide production rate determined from the kinetic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPCM...19t5139K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPCM...19t5139K"><span>Amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanocarriers with <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuskov, A. N.; Villemson, A. L.; Shtilman, M. I.; Larionova, N. I.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Tsikalas, I.; Rizos, A. K.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>New nanoscaled polymeric carriers have been prepared on the basis of different amphiphilic water-soluble derivatives of poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The polymer self-assembly and interaction with <span class="hlt">model</span> proteins (Bowman-Birk soybean proteinase inhibitor (BBI) and its hydrophobized derivatives) were studied in aqueous media. The possibility of inclusion of both BBI and hydrophobized oleic acid derivatives of BBI in amphiphilic PVP aggregates was investigated. It was ascertained that polymeric particles of size 50-80 nm were formed in certain concentrations of amphiphilic PVP and poorly soluble dioleic acid derivatives of BBI. Such polymeric aggregates are capable of solubilization of dioleoyl BBI with a concomitant prevention of its inactivation at low pH values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004635','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004635"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> affective bias in <span class="hlt">models</span> of human decision making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nygren, Thomas E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this <span class="hlt">model</span> is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65448&keyword=Bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780711&CFTOKEN=17657028','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65448&keyword=Bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780711&CFTOKEN=17657028"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING <span class="hlt">MODELS</span>: A REPLY TO ROBBINS, HILDERBRAND AND FARLEY (2002)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Phillips & Koch (2002) outlined a new stable isotope mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> differences in elemental concentrations in the determinations of source proportions in a mixture. They illustrated their method with sensitivity analyses and two examples from the wildlife ecolog...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65448&keyword=brown+AND+bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65448&keyword=brown+AND+bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING <span class="hlt">MODELS</span>: A REPLY TO ROBBINS, HILDERBRAND AND FARLEY (2002)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Phillips & Koch (2002) outlined a new stable isotope mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> differences in elemental concentrations in the determinations of source proportions in a mixture. They illustrated their method with sensitivity analyses and two examples from the wildlife ecolog...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514596"><span>Joint <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of longitudinal and survival data: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> delayed entry and an assessment of <span class="hlt">model</span> misspecification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crowther, Michael J; Andersson, Therese M-L; Lambert, Paul C; Abrams, Keith R; Humphreys, Keith</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>A now common goal in medical research is to investigate the inter-relationships between a repeatedly measured biomarker, measured with error, and the time to an event of interest. This form of question can be tackled with a joint longitudinal-survival <span class="hlt">model</span>, with the most common approach combining a longitudinal mixed effects <span class="hlt">model</span> with a proportional hazards survival <span class="hlt">model</span>, where the <span class="hlt">models</span> are linked through shared random effects. In this article, we look at <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> delayed entry (left truncation), which has received relatively little attention. The extension to delayed entry requires a second set of numerical integration, beyond that required in a standard joint <span class="hlt">model</span>. We therefore implement two sets of fully adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature with nested Gauss-Kronrod quadrature (to allow time-dependent association structures), conducted simultaneously, to evaluate the likelihood. We evaluate fully adaptive quadrature compared with previously proposed non-adaptive quadrature through a simulation study, showing substantial improvements, both in terms of minimising bias and reducing computation time. We further investigate, through simulation, the consequences of misspecifying the longitudinal trajectory and its impact on estimates of association. Our scenarios showed the current value association structure to be very robust, compared with the rate of change that we found to be highly sensitive showing that assuming a simpler trend when the truth is more complex can lead to substantial bias. With emphasis on flexible parametric approaches, we generalise previous <span class="hlt">models</span> by proposing the use of polynomials or splines to capture the longitudinal trend and restricted cubic splines to <span class="hlt">model</span> the baseline log hazard function. The methods are illustrated on a dataset of breast cancer patients, <span class="hlt">modelling</span> mammographic density jointly with survival, where we show how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> density measurements prior to the at-risk period, to make use of all the available</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350632"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the life course <span class="hlt">model</span> into MCH nutrition leadership education and training programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haughton, Betsy; Eppig, Kristen; Looney, Shannon M; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Spear, Bonnie A; Spence, Marsha; Stang, Jamie S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Life course perspective, social determinants of health, and health equity have been combined into one comprehensive <span class="hlt">model</span>, the life course <span class="hlt">model</span> (LCM), for strategic planning by US Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. The purpose of this project was to describe a faculty development process; identify strategies for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the LCM into nutrition leadership education and training at the graduate and professional levels; and suggest broader implications for training, research, and practice. Nineteen representatives from 6 MCHB-funded nutrition leadership education and training programs and 10 federal partners participated in a one-day session that began with an overview of the <span class="hlt">models</span> and concluded with guided small group discussions on how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into maternal and child health (MCH) leadership training using obesity as an example. Written notes from group discussions were compiled and coded emergently. Content analysis determined the most salient themes about <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the <span class="hlt">models</span> into training. Four major LCM-related themes emerged, three of which were about training: (1) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> by training grants through LCM-framed coursework and experiences for trainees, and similarly framed continuing education and skills development for professionals; (2) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> through collaboration with other training programs and state and community partners, and through advocacy; and (3) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> by others at the federal and local levels through policy, political, and prevention efforts. The fourth theme focused on anticipated challenges of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the <span class="hlt">model</span> in training. Multiple methods for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the LCM into MCH training and practice are warranted. Challenges to <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> include the need for research and related policy development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......159L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.......159L"><span>Near real time wind energy forecasting <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> wind tunnel <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lubitz, William David</p> <p></p> <p>A series of experiments and investigations were carried out to inform the development of a day-ahead wind power forecasting system. An experimental near-real time wind power forecasting system was designed and constructed that operates on a desktop PC and forecasts 12--48 hours in advance. The system uses <span class="hlt">model</span> output of the Eta regional scale forecast (RSF) to forecast the power production of a wind farm in the Altamont Pass, California, USA from 12 to 48 hours in advance. It is of modular construction and designed to also allow diagnostic forecasting using archived RSF data, thereby allowing different methods of completing each forecasting step to be tested and compared using the same input data. Wind-tunnel investigations of the effect of wind direction and hill geometry on wind speed-up above a hill were conducted. Field data from an Altamont Pass, California site was used to evaluate several speed-up prediction algorithms, both with and without wind direction adjustment. These algorithms were found to be of limited usefulness for the complex terrain case evaluated. Wind-tunnel and numerical simulation-based methods were developed for determining a wind farm power curve (the relation between meteorological conditions at a point in the wind farm and the power production of the wind farm). Both methods, as well as two methods based on fits to historical data, ultimately showed similar levels of accuracy: mean absolute errors predicting power production of 5 to 7 percent of the wind farm power capacity. The downscaling of RSF forecast data to the wind farm was found to be complicated by the presence of complex terrain. Poor results using the geostrophic drag law and regression methods motivated the development of a database search method that is capable of forecasting not only wind speeds but also power production with accuracy better than persistence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..GEC.AM003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..GEC.AM003M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> swarm data into plasma <span class="hlt">models</span> and plasma surface interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makabe, Toshiaki</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Since the mid-1980s, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of non-equilibrium plasmas in a collisional region driven at radio frequency has been developed at pressure greater than ˜Pa. The collisional plasma has distinct characteristics induced by a quantum property of each of feed gas molecules through collisions with electrons or heavy particles. That is, there exists a proper function caused by chemically active radicals, negative-ions, and radiations based on a molecular quantum structure through short-range interactions mainly with electrons. This differs from high-density, collisionless plasma controlled by the long-range Coulomb interaction. The quantum property in the form of the collision cross section is the first essential through swarm parameters in order to investigate the collisional plasma structure and to predict the function. These structure and function, of course, appear under a self- organized spatiotemporal distribution of electrons and positive ions subject to electromagnetic theory, i.e., bulk-plasma and ion-sheath. In a plasma interacting with a surface, the flux, energy and angle of particles incident on a surface are basic quantities. It will be helpful to learn the limits of the swarm data in a quasi-equilibrium situation and to find a way out of the difficulty, when we predict the collisional plasma, the function, and related surface processes. In this talk we will discuss some of these experiences in the case of space and time varying radiofrequency plasma and the micro/nano-surface processes. This work is partly supported by Global-COE program in Keio University, granted by MEXT Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426...68H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426...68H"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of the Deshpande-Evans mechanism-based damage <span class="hlt">model</span> into the EPIC code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holmquist, Timothy J.; Johnson, Gordon R.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This article presents the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a mechanism-based failure <span class="hlt">model</span> into the EPIC code. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed by Deshpande and Evans (DE) and is based on micromechanics and wing-crack theory. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the effects of flaw size, flaw density, fracture toughness, friction, crack shape, and crack growth rate. It is also fully 3-dimensional and covers both compression and tension. Specifically, this work <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the DE damage <span class="hlt">model</span> into the Johnson-Holmquist- Beissel (JHB) ceramic <span class="hlt">model</span> providing a micromechanical approach for computing damage. A discussion of the DE damage <span class="hlt">model</span> and its <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into the JHB <span class="hlt">model</span> is provided. Computations are presented for two ballistic impact experiments into 99.5% - Al2O3 ceramic including some parametric effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.P6001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.P6001H"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of the Deshpande-Evans Mechanism-Based Damage <span class="hlt">Model</span> into the EPIC Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holmquist, Timothy</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>This article presents the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a mechanism-based failure <span class="hlt">model</span> into the EPIC code. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed by Deshpande and Evans (DE) and is based on micromechanics and wing-crack theory. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the effects of flaw size, flaw density, fracture toughness, friction, crack shape, and crack growth rate. It is also fully 3-dimensional and covers both compression and tension. This work <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the DE <span class="hlt">model</span> into the Johnson-Holmquist-Beissel (JHB) ceramic <span class="hlt">model</span> and provides an optional, micromechanical, approach for computing damage. A discussion of the DE damage <span class="hlt">model</span> including the theory and its <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into the JHB <span class="hlt">model</span> is provided. Computations are also presented for several ballistic impact experiments into 99.5 alumina ceramic including some parametric effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155915','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155915"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO2 exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate–carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate–carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts and provide suggestions for how to move forward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743069F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743069F"><span>A new <span class="hlt">model</span> for in situ nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into 4H-SiC during epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general <span class="hlt">model</span> explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a <span class="hlt">model</span> based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface. It is shown that all the growth parameters are influencing the probability of C vacancies formation in a similar manner as they do for N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. The surface exchange <span class="hlt">model</span> proposes a new framework for explaining the experimental results even beyond the commonly accepted reactor type dependency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5314348','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5314348"><span>A new <span class="hlt">model</span> for in situ nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into 4H-SiC during epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general <span class="hlt">model</span> explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a <span class="hlt">model</span> based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface. It is shown that all the growth parameters are influencing the probability of C vacancies formation in a similar manner as they do for N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. The surface exchange <span class="hlt">model</span> proposes a new framework for explaining the experimental results even beyond the commonly accepted reactor type dependency. PMID:28211528</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H43B0495M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H43B0495M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> PROPACK into PEST to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Model</span> Resolution Matrix for Large Groundwater Flow <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muffels, C.; Zhang, H.; Doherty, J.; Tonkin, M.; Hunt, R.; Anderson, M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Regularized inversion of groundwater flow <span class="hlt">models</span> can be used to delineate geological heterogeneities using subspace methods like the singular value decomposition (SVD). To characterize heterogeneity, thousands of system parameters and, with appropriate regularization, thousands of observations may be necessary. The SVD method is not practical because it requires significant memory space and is time consuming. In previous work, we demonstrated the LSQR can be used to estimate the many unknown parameters in large groundwater flow inverse problems. However, in doing so, a resolution analysis is needed to characterize the reliability of the resulting <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. We adopted an approach developed for large seismic tomography problems and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the PROPACK package into PEST, a <span class="hlt">model</span> independent parameter estimation program. PROPACK estimates singular values and vectors for large sparse matrices efficiently and accurately based on the Lanczos bidiagonalization, the core of LSQR, with partial reorthogonalization. Unlike other LSQR-based resolution approaches, this PROPACK-based approach calculates the full resolution matrix. We estimate the <span class="hlt">model</span> resolution matrix for a synthetic approximation based on a regional MODFLOW <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Trout Lake Basin, Wisconsin, and compare it with results from the more commonly used SVD approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1007190','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1007190"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of a Generalized Data Assimilation Module within a Global Photospheric Flux Transport <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-03-31</p> <p>represent the instantaneous state of the global solar photospheric magnetic field distribution by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> advanced data assimilation techniques...helioseismically detected active region data so that truly instantaneous global solar photospheric magnetic field maps are generated. The photospheric flux...magnetic flux transport <span class="hlt">model</span> selected for this effort was the Worden and Harvey (WH) <span class="hlt">model</span> originally developed at the National Solar Observatory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..442..197P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..442..197P"><span>A new car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> with the consideration of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> timid and aggressive driving behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed with the consideration of the <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19144132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19144132"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> pathway information into boosting estimation of high-dimensional risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Binder, Harald; Schumacher, Martin</p> <p>2009-01-13</p> <p>There are several techniques for fitting risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> to high-dimensional data, arising from microarrays. However, the biological knowledge about relations between genes is only rarely taken into account. One recent approach <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> pathway information, available, e.g., from the KEGG database, by augmenting the penalty term in Lasso estimation for continuous response <span class="hlt">models</span>. As an alternative, we extend componentwise likelihood-based boosting techniques for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> pathway information into a larger number of <span class="hlt">model</span> classes, such as generalized linear <span class="hlt">models</span> and the Cox proportional hazards <span class="hlt">model</span> for time-to-event data. In contrast to Lasso-like approaches, no further assumptions for explicitly specifying the penalty structure are needed, as pathway information is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> by adapting the penalties for single microarray features in the course of the boosting steps. This is shown to result in improved prediction performance when the coefficients of connected genes have opposite sign. The properties of the fitted <span class="hlt">models</span> resulting from this approach are then investigated in two application examples with microarray survival data. The proposed approach results not only in improved prediction performance but also in structurally different <span class="hlt">model</span> fits. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> pathway information in the suggested way is therefore seen to be beneficial in several ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..11R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..11R"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Gaussian <span class="hlt">model</span> at the catheter tip for improved registration of preoperative surface <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia in which aberrant electrical activity cause the atria to quiver which results in irregular beating of the heart. Catheter ablation therapy is becoming increasingly popular in treating atrial fibrillation, a procedure in which an electrophysiologist guides a catheter into the left atrium and creates radiofrequency lesions to stop the arrhythmia. Typical visualization tools include bi-plane fluoroscopy, 2-D ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps, however, recently there has been increased interest in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> preoperative surface <span class="hlt">models</span> into the procedure. Typical strategies for registration include landmark-based and surface-based methods. Drawbacks of these approaches include difficulty in accurately locating corresponding landmark pairs and the time required to sample surface points with a catheter. In this paper, we describe a new approach which <span class="hlt">models</span> the catheter tip as a Gaussian kernel and eliminates the need to collect surface points by instead using the stream of continuosly tracked catheter points. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique with a left atrial phantom <span class="hlt">model</span> and compare the results with a standard surface based approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSR...11...35H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSR...11...35H"><span>A vector auto-regressive <span class="hlt">model</span> for onshore and offshore wind synthesis <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> meteorological <span class="hlt">model</span> information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, D.; Bell, K. R. W.; McMillan, D.; Infield, D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The growth of wind power production in the electricity portfolio is striving to meet ambitious targets set, for example by the EU, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020. Huge investments are now being made in new offshore wind farms around UK coastal waters that will have a major impact on the GB electrical supply. Representations of the UK wind field in syntheses which capture the inherent structure and correlations between different locations including offshore sites are required. Here, Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented and extended in a novel way to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> offshore time series from a pan-European meteorological <span class="hlt">model</span> called COSMO, with onshore wind speeds from the MIDAS dataset provided by the British Atmospheric Data Centre. Forecasting ability onshore is shown to be improved with the inclusion of the offshore sites with improvements of up to 25% in RMS error at 6 h ahead. In addition, the VAR <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to synthesise time series of wind at each offshore site, which are then used to estimate wind farm capacity factors at the sites in question. These are then compared with estimates of capacity factors derived from the work of Hawkins et al. (2011). A good degree of agreement is established indicating that this synthesis tool should be useful in power system impact studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259532-physically-based-strength-model-tantalum-incorporating-effects-temperature-strain-rate-pressure','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259532-physically-based-strength-model-tantalum-incorporating-effects-temperature-strain-rate-pressure"><span>Physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> of tantalum <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; ...</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>In this work, we develop a tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the <span class="hlt">model</span> are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa.more » The proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1259532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1259532"><span>Physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> of tantalum <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>In this work, we develop a tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the <span class="hlt">model</span> are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259532"><span>Physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> of tantalum <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>In this work, we develop a tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the <span class="hlt">model</span> are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1298..651A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1298..651A"><span>Software Reliability <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Log-Logistic Testing-Effort with Imperfect Debugging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, N.; Khan, M. G. M.; Rafi, L. S.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Reference [5] have proposed the log-logistic SRGM that can capture the increasing/decreasing nature of the failure occurrence rate per fault. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the log-logistic testing-effort function (TEF) into inflection S-shaped software reliability growth <span class="hlt">models</span> based on non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP). The <span class="hlt">models</span> parameters are estimated by least square estimation (LSE) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) methods. The methods of data analysis and comparison criteria are presented and the experimental results from actual data applications are analyzed. Results are compared with the other existing <span class="hlt">models</span> to show that the proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> can give fairly better predictions. It is shown that the log-logistic TEF is suitable for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> into inflection S-shaped NHPP growth <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition, the proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> are also discussed under imperfect debugging environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28459180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28459180"><span>Multilevel growth curve <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a random coefficient <span class="hlt">model</span> for the level 1 variance function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George; Charlton, Christopher; Tilling, Kate; Browne, William J</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Aim To present a flexible <span class="hlt">model</span> for repeated measures longitudinal growth data within individuals that allows trends over time to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> individual-specific random effects. These may reflect the timing of growth events and characterise within-individual variability which can be <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as a function of age. Subjects and methods A Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed that includes random effects for the mean growth function, an individual age-alignment random effect and random effects for the within-individual variance function. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to data on boys' heights from the Edinburgh longitudinal growth study and to repeated weight measurements of a sample of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. Results The mean age at which the growth curves for individual boys are aligned is 11.4 years, corresponding to the mean 'take off' age for pubertal growth. The within-individual variance (standard deviation) is found to decrease from 0.24 cm(2) (0.50 cm) at 9 years for the 'average' boy to 0.07 cm(2) (0.25 cm) at 16 years. Change in weight during pregnancy can be characterised by regression splines with random effects that include a large woman-specific random effect for the within-individual variation, which is also correlated with overall weight and weight gain. Conclusions The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a useful extension to existing approaches, allowing considerable flexibility in describing within- and between-individual differences in growth patterns.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ979605.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ979605.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> 4MAT <span class="hlt">Model</span> in Distance Instructional Material--An Innovative Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nikolaou, Alexandra; Koutsouba, Maria</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In an attempt to improve the effectiveness of distance learning, the present study aims to introduce an innovative way of creating and designing distance learning instructional material <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> Bernice McCarthy's 4MAT <span class="hlt">Model</span> based on learning styles. According to McCarthy's theory, all students can learn effectively in a cycle of learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308395&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308395&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population <span class="hlt">Models</span>:Design and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eco-evolutionary population <span class="hlt">models</span> are powerful new tools for exploring howevolutionary processes influence plant and animal population dynamics andvice-versa. The need to manage for climate change and other dynamicdisturbance regimes is creating a demand for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PREY-PREDATOR&id=EJ753902','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PREY-PREDATOR&id=EJ753902"><span>Controllability and Optimal Harvesting of a Prey-Predator <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Prey Refuge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kar, Tapan Kumar</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with a prey-predator <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308395&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78843071&CFTOKEN=26678619','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308395&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78843071&CFTOKEN=26678619"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population <span class="hlt">Models</span>:Design and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eco-evolutionary population <span class="hlt">models</span> are powerful new tools for exploring howevolutionary processes influence plant and animal population dynamics andvice-versa. The need to manage for climate change and other dynamicdisturbance regimes is creating a demand for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62360&keyword=michael+AND+evans&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84662360&CFTOKEN=85457407','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62360&keyword=michael+AND+evans&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84662360&CFTOKEN=85457407"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATION</span> OF MECHANISTIC INFORMATION IN THE ARSENIC PBPK <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> DEVELOPMENT PROCESS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS IN A PBPK <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> FOR ARSENIC<br><br>Elaina M. Kenyon, Michael F. Hughes, Marina V. Evans, David J. Thomas, U.S. EPA; Miroslav Styblo, University of North Carolina; Michael Easterling, Analytical Sciences, Inc.<br><br>A physiologically based phar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=prey&pg=2&id=EJ753902','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=prey&pg=2&id=EJ753902"><span>Controllability and Optimal Harvesting of a Prey-Predator <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Prey Refuge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kar, Tapan Kumar</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with a prey-predator <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+dilemma&pg=2&id=EJ955653','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+dilemma&pg=2&id=EJ955653"><span>The Forced Choice Dilemma: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Idiocentric/Allocentric Cultural Orientation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gross, Miraca U. M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study developed and tested a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of the forced choice dilemma (i.e., the belief held by some intellectually gifted students that they must choose between academic achievement and peer acceptance) that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> individual-level cultural orientation variables (i.e., vertical allocentrism and vertical idiocentrism). A survey that had…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Group+AND+work&pg=7&id=EJ973474','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Group+AND+work&pg=7&id=EJ973474"><span>SPARC Groups: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Spiritual Psychoeducation into Group Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Christmas, Christopher; Van Horn, Stacy M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of spirituality as a resource for clients within the counseling field is growing; however, the primary focus has been on individual therapy. The purpose of this article is to provide counseling practitioners, administrators, and researchers with an approach for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> spiritual psychoeducation into group work. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> can…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=vertical&pg=7&id=EJ955653','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=vertical&pg=7&id=EJ955653"><span>The Forced Choice Dilemma: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Idiocentric/Allocentric Cultural Orientation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gross, Miraca U. M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study developed and tested a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of the forced choice dilemma (i.e., the belief held by some intellectually gifted students that they must choose between academic achievement and peer acceptance) that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> individual-level cultural orientation variables (i.e., vertical allocentrism and vertical idiocentrism). A survey that had…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62360&keyword=Autopsy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62360&keyword=Autopsy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATION</span> OF MECHANISTIC INFORMATION IN THE ARSENIC PBPK <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> DEVELOPMENT PROCESS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS IN A PBPK <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> FOR ARSENIC<br><br>Elaina M. Kenyon, Michael F. Hughes, Marina V. Evans, David J. Thomas, U.S. EPA; Miroslav Styblo, University of North Carolina; Michael Easterling, Analytical Sciences, Inc.<br><br>A physiologically based phar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiritual+AND+practice&pg=6&id=EJ973474','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=spiritual+AND+practice&pg=6&id=EJ973474"><span>SPARC Groups: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Spiritual Psychoeducation into Group Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Christmas, Christopher; Van Horn, Stacy M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of spirituality as a resource for clients within the counseling field is growing; however, the primary focus has been on individual therapy. The purpose of this article is to provide counseling practitioners, administrators, and researchers with an approach for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> spiritual psychoeducation into group work. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> can…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25843377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25843377"><span>Nine challenges in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Funk, Sebastian; Bansal, Shweta; Bauch, Chris T; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Galvani, Alison P; Klepac, Petra</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic <span class="hlt">models</span> of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> behavioural changes in <span class="hlt">models</span> of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such <span class="hlt">models</span>, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806o0004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806o0004B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of composite defects from ultrasonic NDE into CAD and FE <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bingol, Onur Rauf; Schiefelbein, Bryan; Grandin, Robert J.; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Fiber-reinforced composites are widely used in aerospace industry due to their combined properties of high strength and low weight. However, owing to their complex structure, it is difficult to assess the impact of manufacturing defects and service damage on their residual life. While, ultrasonic testing (UT) is the preferred NDE method to identify the presence of defects in composites, there are no reasonable ways to <span class="hlt">model</span> the damage and evaluate the structural integrity of composites. We have developed an automated framework to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> flaws and known composite damage automatically into a finite element analysis (FEA) <span class="hlt">model</span> of composites, ultimately aiding in accessing the residual life of composites and make informed decisions regarding repairs. The framework can be used to generate a layer-by-layer 3D structural CAD <span class="hlt">model</span> of the composite laminates replicating their manufacturing process. Outlines of structural defects, such as delaminations, are automatically detected from UT of the laminate and are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the CAD <span class="hlt">model</span> between the appropriate layers. In addition, the framework allows for direct structural analysis of the resulting 3D CAD <span class="hlt">models</span> with defects by automatically applying the appropriate boundary conditions. In this paper, we show a working proof-of-concept for the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> builder with capabilities of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> delaminations between laminate layers and automatically preparing the CAD <span class="hlt">model</span> for structural analysis using a FEA software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335328-incorporating-phosphorus-cycling-global-modeling-efforts-worthwhile-tractable-endeavor','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335328-incorporating-phosphorus-cycling-global-modeling-efforts-worthwhile-tractable-endeavor"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO2 exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate-carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate-carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts andmore » provide suggestions for how to move forward.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115197"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>324 I. 324 II. 325 III. 326 IV. 327 328 References 328 SUMMARY: Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO2 exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate-carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate-carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts and provide suggestions for how to move forward. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335328','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335328"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO<sub>2</sub> exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate-carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate-carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts and provide suggestions for how to move forward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3918G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3918G"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> preferential flow into a 3D <span class="hlt">model</span> of a forested headwater catchment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaser, Barbara; Jackisch, Conrad; Hopp, Luisa; Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Preferential flow plays an important role for water flow and solute transport. The inclusion of preferential flow, for example with dual porosity or dual permeability approaches, is a common feature in transport simulations at the plot scale. But at hillslope and catchment scales, <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of macropore and fracture flow into distributed hydrologic 3D <span class="hlt">models</span> is rare, often due to limited data availability for <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterisation. In this study, we <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> preferential flow into an existing 3D integrated surface subsurface hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span> (HydroGeoSphere) of a headwater region (6 ha) of the forested Weierbach catchment in western Luxembourg. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> philosophy was a strong link between measured data and the <span class="hlt">model</span> setup. The <span class="hlt">model</span> setup we used previously had been parameterised and validated based on various field data. But existing macropores and fractures had not been considered in this initial <span class="hlt">model</span> setup. The multi-criteria validation revealed a good <span class="hlt">model</span> performance but also suggested potential for further improvement by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> preferential flow as additional process. In order to pursue the data driven <span class="hlt">model</span> philosophy for the implementation of preferential flow, we analysed the results of plot scale bromide sprinkling and infiltration experiments carried out in the vicinity of the Weierbach catchment. Three 1 sqm plots were sprinkled for one hour and excavated one day later for bromide depth profile sampling. We simulated these sprinkling experiments at the soil column scale, using the parameterisation of the base headwater <span class="hlt">model</span> extended by a second permeability domain. Representing the bromide depth profiles was successful without changing this initial parameterisation. Moreover, to explain the variability between the three bromide depth profiles it was sufficient to adapt the dual permeability properties, indicating the spatial heterogeneity of preferential flow. Subsequently, we <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the dual permeability simulation in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18640693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18640693"><span>A stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple types of genomic instability fitted to colon cancer data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P; Vineis, Paolo; Li, Guangquan</p> <p>2008-09-21</p> <p>A generalization of the two-mutation stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> of Moolgavkar, Venzon and Knudson and certain <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed by Little [Little, M.P. (1995). Are two mutations sufficient to cause cancer? Some generalizations of the two-mutation <span class="hlt">model</span> of carcinogenesis of Moolgavkar, Venzon, and Knudson, and of the multistage <span class="hlt">model</span> of Armitage and Doll. Biometrics 51, 1278-1291] and Little and Wright [Little, M.P., Wright, E.G. (2003). A stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> genomic instability fitted to colon cancer data. Math. Biosci. 183, 111-134] is developed; the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> multiple types of progressive genomic instability and an arbitrary number of mutational stages. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is fitted to US Caucasian colon cancer incidence data. On the basis of the comparison of fits to the population-based data, there is little evidence to support the hypothesis that the <span class="hlt">model</span> with more than one type of genomic instability fits better than <span class="hlt">models</span> with a single type of genomic instability. Given the good fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to this large dataset, it is unlikely that further information on presence of genomic instability or of types of genomic instability can be extracted from age-incidence data by extensions of this <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MeApp...8..297M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MeApp...8..297M"><span>River flow forecasting using a rainfall disaggregation <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> small-scale topographic effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Misumi, R.; Bell, V. A.; Moore, R. J.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>River flow forecasting using rainfall predictions from a mesoscale weather prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> in combination with a physically-based rainfall disaggregation <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> small-scale topographic variability is demonstrated. Rainfall predicted by the UK Met Office Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Model</span> on a 16.8 km grid is disaggregated onto a 2 km grid using a rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span> which adds the effect of small-scale topography. River flow is calculated by a distributed rainfall-runoff <span class="hlt">model</span> using the output from the rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span>. A thunderstorm event on 7 June 1996 over the Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">models</span>. The rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully forecasts the band-shaped rainfall field within the catchment and the error in the total amount of flow during the storm is only -12%. An error of -40% in the peak flow is attributed to the treatment of convective clouds in the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218410','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218410"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of uncertainty in PCB bioaccumulation factors on <span class="hlt">modeled</span> receptor doses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welsh, C.; Duncan, J.; Purucker, S.; Richardson, N.; Redfearn, A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) are regularly employed in ecological risk assessments to <span class="hlt">model</span> contaminant transfer through ecological food chains. The authors compiled data on bioaccumulation of PCBs in plants, invertebrates, birds, and mammals from published literature and used these data to develop regression equations relating soil or food concentrations to bioaccumulation. They then used Latin Hypercube simulation techniques and simple food chain <span class="hlt">models</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> uncertainty in the BAF regressions into the derivation of exposure dose estimates for selected wildlife receptors. The authors present their preliminary results in this paper. Dose estimates ranged over several orders of magnitude for herbivorous, insectivorous, and carnivorous receptors. These results suggest <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the uncertainty in BAF values into food chain exposure <span class="hlt">models</span> could provide risk assessors and risk managers with information on the probability of a given outcome that can be used in interpreting the potential risks at hazardous waste sites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...139...16S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...139...16S"><span>2-D magnetotelluric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using finite element method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> unstructured quadrilateral elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarakorn, Weerachai</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this research, the finite element (FE) method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> quadrilateral elements for solving 2-D MT <span class="hlt">modeling</span> was presented. The finite element software was developed, employing a paving algorithm to generate the unstructured quadrilateral mesh. The accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and flexibility of our FE forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are presented, compared and discussed. The numerical results indicate that our FE codes using an unstructured quadrilateral mesh provide good accuracy when the local mesh refinement is applied around sites and in the area of interest, with superior results when compared to other FE methods. The reliability of the developed codes was also confirmed when comparing both analytical solutions and COMMEMI2D <span class="hlt">model</span>. Furthermore, our developed FE codes <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an unstructured quadrilateral mesh showed useful and powerful features such as handling irregular and complex subregions and providing local refinement of the mesh for a 2-D domain as closely as unstructured triangular mesh but it requires less number of elements in a mesh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1263647-incorporating-physically-based-microstructures-materials-modeling-bridging-phase-field-crystal-plasticity-frameworks','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1263647-incorporating-physically-based-microstructures-materials-modeling-bridging-phase-field-crystal-plasticity-frameworks"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in materials <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; ...</p> <p>2016-04-25</p> <p>Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local <span class="hlt">models</span> of failure. In this study, we present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) <span class="hlt">model</span> into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF <span class="hlt">model</span> yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FEmore » meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging <span class="hlt">models</span> of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1263647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1263647"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in materials <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.</p> <p>2016-04-25</p> <p>Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local <span class="hlt">models</span> of failure. In this study, we present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) <span class="hlt">model</span> into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF <span class="hlt">model</span> yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FE meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging <span class="hlt">models</span> of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1263647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1263647"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in materials <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.</p> <p>2016-04-25</p> <p>Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local <span class="hlt">models</span> of failure. In this study, we present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) <span class="hlt">model</span> into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF <span class="hlt">model</span> yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FE meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging <span class="hlt">models</span> of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3701879','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3701879"><span>In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> electromechanical coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adeniran, Ismail; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS) arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarization, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favorable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well-understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle <span class="hlt">models</span> to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and Results: The Rice et al. mechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell <span class="hlt">model</span>. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on [Ca2+]i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch-activated channel current (Isac). Without Isac, at a stimulation frequency of 1Hz, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of [Ca2+]i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell <span class="hlt">models</span> were then <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into 3D human ventricular tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of Isac appears to be an important consideration in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847545"><span>In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> electromechanical coupling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adeniran, Ismail; Hancox, Jules C; Zhang, Henggui</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS) arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarization, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favorable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well-understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle <span class="hlt">models</span> to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. The Rice et al. mechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell <span class="hlt">model</span>. Previously validated K(+) channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on [Ca(2+)] i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch-activated channel current (I sac). Without I sac, at a stimulation frequency of 1Hz, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of [Ca(2+)] i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When I sac was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca(2+) transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell <span class="hlt">models</span> were then <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into 3D human ventricular tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of I sac appears to be an important consideration in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..170N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..170N"><span>A Cochlear Partition <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Realistic Electrical and Mechanical Parameters for Outer Hair Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nam, Jong-Hoon; Fettiplace, Robert</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The organ of Corti (OC) is believed to optimize the force transmission from the outer hair cell (OHC) to the basilar membrane and inner hair cell. Recent studies showed that the OC has complex modes of deformation. In an effort to understand the consequence of the OC deformation, we developed a fully deformable 3D finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> of the OC. It <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> hair bundle's mechano-transduction and the OHC electrical circuit. Geometric information was taken from the gerbil cochlea at locations with 18 and 0.7 kHz characteristic frequencies. Cochlear partitions of several hundred micrometers long were simulated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the signature 3D structural arrangement in the OC, especially the tilt of OHC and Deiters cell process. Transduction channel kinetics contributed to the system's mechanics through the hair bundle. The OHC electrical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the transduction channel conductance, nonlinear capacitance and piezoelectric properties. It also <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> recent data on the voltage-dependent potassium conductance and membrane time constant. With the <span class="hlt">model</span> we simulated (1) the limiting frequencies of mechano-transduction and OHC somatic motility and (2) OC transient response to impulse stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24795786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24795786"><span>Commensurate Priors for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Historical Information in Clinical Trials Using General and Generalized Linear <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hobbs, Brian P; Sargent, Daniel J; Carlin, Bradley P</p> <p>2012-08-28</p> <p>Assessing between-study variability in the context of conventional random-effects meta-analysis is notoriously difficult when <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> data from only a small number of historical studies. In order to borrow strength, historical and current data are often assumed to be fully homogeneous, but this can have drastic consequences for power and Type I error if the historical information is biased. In this paper, we propose empirical and fully Bayesian modifications of the commensurate prior <span class="hlt">model</span> (Hobbs et al., 2011) extending Pocock (1976), and evaluate their frequentist and Bayesian properties for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> patient-level historical data using general and generalized linear mixed regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our proposed commensurate prior <span class="hlt">models</span> lead to preposterior admissible estimators that facilitate alternative bias-variance trade-offs than those offered by pre-existing methodologies for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> historical data from a small number of historical studies. We also provide a sample analysis of a colon cancer trial comparing time-to-disease progression using a Weibull regression <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4007051','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4007051"><span>Commensurate Priors for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Historical Information in Clinical Trials Using General and Generalized Linear <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hobbs, Brian P.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Carlin, Bradley P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Assessing between-study variability in the context of conventional random-effects meta-analysis is notoriously difficult when <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> data from only a small number of historical studies. In order to borrow strength, historical and current data are often assumed to be fully homogeneous, but this can have drastic consequences for power and Type I error if the historical information is biased. In this paper, we propose empirical and fully Bayesian modifications of the commensurate prior <span class="hlt">model</span> (Hobbs et al., 2011) extending Pocock (1976), and evaluate their frequentist and Bayesian properties for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> patient-level historical data using general and generalized linear mixed regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our proposed commensurate prior <span class="hlt">models</span> lead to preposterior admissible estimators that facilitate alternative bias-variance trade-offs than those offered by pre-existing methodologies for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> historical data from a small number of historical studies. We also provide a sample analysis of a colon cancer trial comparing time-to-disease progression using a Weibull regression <span class="hlt">model</span>. PMID:24795786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24845950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24845950"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatial autocorrelation into species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> alters forecasts of climate-mediated range shifts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crase, Beth; Liedloff, Adam; Vesk, Peter A; Fukuda, Yusuke; Wintle, Brendan A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs) are widely used to forecast changes in the spatial distributions of species and communities in response to climate change. However, spatial autocorrelation (SA) is rarely accounted for in these <span class="hlt">models</span>, despite its ubiquity in broad-scale ecological data. While spatial autocorrelation in <span class="hlt">model</span> residuals is known to result in biased parameter estimates and the inflation of type I errors, the influence of unmodeled SA on species' range forecasts is poorly understood. Here we quantify how accounting for SA in SDMs influences the magnitude of range shift forecasts produced by SDMs for multiple climate change scenarios. SDMs were fitted to simulated data with a known autocorrelation structure, and to field observations of three mangrove communities from northern Australia displaying strong spatial autocorrelation. Three <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches were implemented: environment-only <span class="hlt">models</span> (most frequently applied in species' range forecasts), and two approaches that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> SA; autologistic <span class="hlt">models</span> and residuals autocovariate (RAC) <span class="hlt">models</span>. Differences in forecasts among <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches and climate scenarios were quantified. While all <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions at the current time closely matched that of the actual current distribution of the mangrove communities, under the climate change scenarios environment-only <span class="hlt">models</span> forecast substantially greater range shifts than <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> SA. Furthermore, the magnitude of these differences intensified with increasing increments of climate change across the scenarios. When <span class="hlt">models</span> do not account for SA, forecasts of species' range shifts indicate more extreme impacts of climate change, compared to <span class="hlt">models</span> that explicitly account for SA. Therefore, where biological or population processes induce substantial autocorrelation in the distribution of organisms, and this is not <span class="hlt">modeled</span>, <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions will be inaccurate. These results have global importance for conservation efforts as inaccurate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513469"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of a double-pendulum gantry crane system <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> payload</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ismail, R. M. T. Raja; Ahmad, M. A.; Ramli, M. S.; Ishak, R.; Zawawi, M. A.</p> <p>2011-06-20</p> <p>The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. Under certain conditions, the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. This paper presents dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system. A dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012408','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012408"><span>Finite element analysis of structural engineering problems using a viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> two back stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of a viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> two back stresses and a drag strength is investigated for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural engineering problems. To demonstrate suitability for nonlinear structural analyses, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into a finite element program and analyses for several uniaxial and multiaxial problems are performed. Good agreement is shown between the results obtained using the finite element implementation and those obtained experimentally. The advantages of using advanced viscoplastic <span class="hlt">models</span> for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural components are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1337..118I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1337..118I"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of a Double-Pendulum Gantry Crane System <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Payload</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail, R. M. T. Raja; Ahmad, M. A.; Ramli, M. S.; Ishak, R.; Zawawi, M. A.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. Under certain conditions, the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. This paper presents dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system. A dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26881961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26881961"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Mobility in Growth <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for Multilevel and Longitudinal Item Response Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, In-Hee; Wilson, Mark</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Multilevel data often cannot be represented by the strict form of hierarchy typically assumed in multilevel <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. A common example is the case in which subjects change their group membership in longitudinal studies (e.g., students transfer schools; employees transition between different departments). In this study, cross-classified and multiple membership <span class="hlt">models</span> for multilevel and longitudinal item response data (CCMM-MLIRD) are developed to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> such mobility, focusing on students' school change in large-scale longitudinal studies. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of incorrectly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> school membership in the analysis of multilevel and longitudinal item response data. Two types of school mobility are described, and corresponding <span class="hlt">models</span> are specified. Results of the simulation studies suggested that appropriate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the two types of school mobility using the CCMM-MLIRD yielded good recovery of the parameters and improvement over <span class="hlt">models</span> that did not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> mobility properly. In addition, the consequences of incorrectly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the school effects on the variance estimates of the random effects and the standard errors of the fixed effects depended upon mobility patterns and <span class="hlt">model</span> specifications. Two sets of large-scale longitudinal data are analyzed to illustrate applications of the CCMM-MLIRD for each type of school mobility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H52D..08K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H52D..08K"><span>Going beyond the unitary curve: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> richer cognition into agent-based water resources <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kock, B. E.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The increased availability and understanding of agent-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technology and techniques provides a unique opportunity for water resources <span class="hlt">modelers</span>, allowing them to go beyond traditional behavioral approaches from neoclassical economics, and add rich cognition to social-hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span>. Agent-based <span class="hlt">models</span> provide for an individual focus, and the easier and more realistic <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of learning, memory and other mechanisms for increased cognitive sophistication. We are in an age of global change impacting complex water resources systems, and social responses are increasingly recognized as fundamentally adaptive and emergent. In consideration of this, water resources <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">modelers</span> need to better address social dynamics in a manner beyond the capabilities of neoclassical economics theory and practice. However, going beyond the unitary curve requires unique levels of engagement with stakeholders, both to elicit the richer knowledge necessary for structuring and parameterizing agent-based <span class="hlt">models</span>, but also to make sure such <span class="hlt">models</span> are appropriately used. With the aim of encouraging epistemological and methodological convergence in the agent-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of water resources, we have developed a water resources-specific cognitive <span class="hlt">model</span> and an associated collaborative <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process. Our cognitive <span class="hlt">model</span> emphasizes efficiency in architecture and operation, and capacity to adapt to different application contexts. We describe a current application of this cognitive <span class="hlt">model</span> and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process in the Arkansas Basin of Colorado. In particular, we highlight the potential benefits of, and challenges to, using more sophisticated cognitive <span class="hlt">models</span> in agent-based water resources <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335209-incorporating-atmospheric-stability-effects-floris-engineering-model-wakes-wind-farms','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335209-incorporating-atmospheric-stability-effects-floris-engineering-model-wakes-wind-farms"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> atmospheric stability effects into the FLORIS engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> of wakes in wind farms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Fleming, Paul A.</p> <p>2016-10-03</p> <p>Atmospheric stability conditions have an effect on wind turbine wakes. This is an important factor in wind farms in which the wake properties affect the performance of downstream turbines. In the stable atmosphere, wind direction shear has a lateral skewing effect on the wakes. In this study, we describe changes to the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady-state (FLORIS) wake engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> and parameterize this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..100..168B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..100..168B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> channel network information in hydrologic response <span class="hlt">modelling</span>: Development of a <span class="hlt">model</span> and inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biswal, Basudev; Singh, Riddhi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of channel network information in streamflow <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is a well-accepted scientific practice now. In particular, channel network morphology based instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUHs) are widely used for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of flood response. However, very few attempts have been made so far to use channel networks for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> total flow, not just flood flow. In this study, total flow is partitioned into pure surface flow (PSF) and mixed surface-subsurface flow (MSSF), which are then <span class="hlt">modelled</span> separately by constructing channel network morphology based IUHs. For <span class="hlt">modelling</span> total flow, the combined IUH is then obtained by introducing a splitting parameter that represents the relative proportions of PSF and MSSF. We compare the performance of the proposed geomorphology based routing structure and a variant with a commonly used routing structure - two linear reservoirs in parallel. The three routing structures are then integrated with a well-known water balance <span class="hlt">model</span> to perform continuous streamflow <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. We perform inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparison quantitatively by considering eight performance metrics within a multi-objective framework as well as qualitatively by observing the simulated storage-discharge relationships. By performing the inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparison for 71 catchments across the US, we find that the geomorphology based <span class="hlt">models</span> perform better than the linear <span class="hlt">model</span> for low flow related metrics. They are also better at capturing non-linear and dynamic relationship between catchment water storage and discharge. The geomorphology based <span class="hlt">models</span> perform particularly well in northeastern and midwestern US, while no such region of dominance emerges for the linear routing based <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results also indicate the possibility of using the proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> to capture the dominant flow generation processes in a basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087158"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> into a school-based intervention for students with autism spectrum disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Kaitlyn P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving students with ASDs. This tutorial draws from the many reviews and meta-analyses of the video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> literature that have been conducted over the past decade, presenting empirically supported considerations for school-based SLPs who are planning to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> into their service delivery for students with ASD. The 5 overarching procedural phases presented in this tutorial are (a) preparation, (b) recording of the video <span class="hlt">model</span>, (c) implementation of the video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> intervention, (d) monitoring of the student's response to the intervention, and (e) planning of the next steps. Video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is not only a promising intervention strategy for students with ASD, but it is also a practical and efficient tool that is well-suited to the school setting. This tutorial will facilitate school-based SLPs' <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of this empirically supported intervention into their existing strategies for intervention for students with ASD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4710761"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Auditory Cortical Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schoppe, Oliver; King, Andrew J.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.; Harper, Nicol S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet current standard <span class="hlt">models</span> of the response properties of auditory neurons do not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> such adaptation. Here we present a <span class="hlt">model</span> of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the IC Adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span>), which takes into account adaptation to mean sound level at a lower level of processing: the inferior colliculus (IC). The <span class="hlt">model</span> performs high-pass filtering with frequency-dependent time constants on the sound spectrogram, followed by half-wave rectification, and passes the output to a standard linear–nonlinear (LN) <span class="hlt">model</span>. We find that the IC Adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently predicts cortical responses better than the standard LN <span class="hlt">model</span> for a range of synthetic and natural stimuli. The IC Adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span> introduces no extra free parameters, so it improves predictions without sacrificing parsimony. Furthermore, the time constants of adaptation in the IC appear to be matched to the statistics of natural sounds, suggesting that neurons in the auditory midbrain predict the mean level of future sounds and adapt their responses appropriately. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An ability to accurately predict how sensory neurons respond to novel stimuli is critical if we are to fully characterize their response properties. Attempts to <span class="hlt">model</span> these responses have had a distinguished history, but it has proven difficult to improve their predictive power significantly beyond that of simple, mostly linear receptive field <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we show that auditory cortex receptive field <span class="hlt">models</span> benefit from a nonlinear preprocessing stage that replicates known adaptation properties of the auditory midbrain. This improves their predictive power across a wide range of stimuli but keeps <span class="hlt">model</span> complexity low as it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999726"><span>Polychlorinated biphenyls in glaciers. 2. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results of deposition and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>In previous work, Alpine glaciers have been identified as a secondary source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, detailed understanding of the processes organic chemicals undergo in a glacial system was missing. Here, we present results from a chemical fate <span class="hlt">model</span> describing deposition and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into an Alpine glacier (Fiescherhorn, Switzerland) and an Arctic glacier (Lomonosovfonna, Norway). To understand PCB fate and dynamics, we investigate the interaction of deposition, sorption to ice and particles in the atmosphere and within the glacier, revolatilization, diffusion and degradation, and discuss the effects of these processes on the fate of individual PCB congeners. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce measured absolute concentrations in the two glaciers for most PCB congeners. While the <span class="hlt">model</span> generally predicts concentration profiles peaking in the 1970s, in the measurements, this behavior can only be seen for higher-chlorinated PCB congeners on Fiescherhorn glacier. We suspect seasonal melt processes are disturbing the concentration profiles of the lower-chlorinated PCB congeners. While a lower-chlorinated PCB congener is mainly deposited by dry deposition and almost completely revolatilized after deposition, a higher-chlorinated PCB congener is predominantly transferred to the glacier surface by wet deposition and then is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the glacier ice. The <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> amounts of PCBs are higher on the Alpine glacier than on the Arctic glacier due to the higher precipitation rate and aerosol particle concentration on the former. Future studies should include the effects of seasonal melt processes, calculate the quantities of PCBs <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the entire glacier surface, and estimate the quantity of chemicals released from glaciers to determine the importance of glaciers as a secondary source of organic chemicals to remote aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5552177','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5552177"><span>A Constitutive <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Soft Clays <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Elastic and Plastic Cross-Anisotropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Castro, Jorge; Sivasithamparam, Nallathamby</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Natural clays exhibit a significant degree of anisotropy in their fabric, which initially is derived from the shape of the clay platelets, deposition process and one-dimensional consolidation. Various authors have proposed anisotropic elastoplastic <span class="hlt">models</span> involving an inclined yield surface to reproduce anisotropic behavior of plastic nature. This paper presents a novel constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for soft structured clays that includes anisotropic behavior both of elastic and plastic nature. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> stress-dependent cross-anisotropic elastic behavior within the yield surface using three independent elastic parameters because natural clays exhibit cross-anisotropic (or transversely isotropic) behavior after deposition and consolidation. Thus, the <span class="hlt">model</span> only <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> an additional variable with a clear physical meaning, namely the ratio between horizontal and vertical stiffnesses, which can be analytically obtained from conventional laboratory tests. The <span class="hlt">model</span> does not consider evolution of elastic anisotropy, but laboratory results show that large strains are necessary to cause noticeable changes in elastic anisotropic behavior. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to capture initial non-vertical effective stress paths for undrained triaxial tests and to predict deviatoric strains during isotropic loading or unloading. PMID:28772938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281931"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of stochastic engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> as prior information in Bayesian medical device trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haddad, Tarek; Himes, Adam; Thompson, Laura; Irony, Telba; Nair, Rajesh</p> <p>2017-03-10</p> <p>Evaluation of medical devices via clinical trial is often a necessary step in the process of bringing a new product to market. In recent years, device manufacturers are increasingly using stochastic engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> during the product development process. These <span class="hlt">models</span> have the capability to simulate virtual patient outcomes. This article presents a novel method based on the power prior for augmenting a clinical trial using virtual patient data. To properly inform clinical evaluation, the virtual patient <span class="hlt">model</span> must simulate the clinical outcome of interest, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> patient variability, as well as the uncertainty in the engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> and in its input parameters. The number of virtual patients is controlled by a discount function which uses the similarity between <span class="hlt">modeled</span> and observed data. This method is illustrated by a case study of cardiac lead fracture. Different discount functions are used to cover a wide range of scenarios in which the type I error rates and power vary for the same number of enrolled patients. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> as prior knowledge in a Bayesian clinical trial design can provide benefits of decreased sample size and trial length while still controlling type I error rate and power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22100577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22100577"><span>Dose convolution filter: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatial dose information into tissue response <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huang Yimei; Joiner, Michael; Zhao Bo; Liao Yixiang; Burmeister, Jay</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: A <span class="hlt">model</span> is introduced to integrate biological factors such as cell migration and bystander effects into physical dose distributions, and to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> spatial dose information in plan analysis and optimization. Methods: The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a dose convolution filter (DCF) with single parameter {sigma}. Tissue response is calculated by an existing NTCP <span class="hlt">model</span> with DCF-applied dose distribution as input. The authors determined {sigma} of rat spinal cord from published data. The authors also simulated the GRID technique, in which an open field is collimated into many pencil beams. Results: After applying the DCF, the NTCP <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully fits the rat spinal cord data with a predicted value of {sigma}=2.6{+-}0.5 mm, consistent with 2 mm migration distances of remyelinating cells. Moreover, it enables the appropriate prediction of a high relative seriality for spinal cord. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also predicts the sparing of normal tissues by the GRID technique when the size of each pencil beam becomes comparable to {sigma}. Conclusions: The DCF <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> spatial dose information and offers an improved way to estimate tissue response from complex radiotherapy dose distributions. It does not alter the prediction of tissue response in large homogenous fields, but successfully predicts increased tissue tolerance in small or highly nonuniform fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1348/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1348/"><span>Velocity and Density <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Cascadia Subduction Zone for 3D Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The <span class="hlt">model</span> volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in <span class="hlt">model</span> coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these <span class="hlt">models</span>. The version of the <span class="hlt">model</span> volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the <span class="hlt">model</span> volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these <span class="hlt">model</span> volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this <span class="hlt">model</span> version, no EarthScope-specific results were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> in their research. To this end, it is intended that these <span class="hlt">models</span> will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCoPh.230.3884C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCoPh.230.3884C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Havriliak-Negami dielectric <span class="hlt">model</span> in the FD-TD method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Causley, Matthew F.; Petropoulos, Peter G.; Jiang, Shidong</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We derive and analyze an efficient algorithm to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the anomalously dispersive Havriliak-Negami dielectric <span class="hlt">model</span> of induced polarization in the Finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method. Our algorithm implements this dielectric <span class="hlt">model</span>, which in the time-domain involves fractional derivatives and fractional differential operators, with a preset error over the desired computational time interval [0, Tcomp] and correctly takes into account the singularity at t = 0 + of the corresponding time-domain dielectric susceptibility. The overall algorithm is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, and to obey the standard FD-TD stability condition. Numerical experiments confirm our analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976478','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976478"><span>Transient thermohydraulic heat pipe <span class="hlt">modeling</span> : <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> THROHPUT into the Caesar environment /</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hall, Michael L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The THROHPUT code, which <span class="hlt">models</span> transient thermohydraulic heat pipe behavior, is being <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the CAESAR computational physics development environment. The CAESAR environment provides many beneficial features for enhanced <span class="hlt">model</span> development, including levelized design, unit testing, Design by ContractTM (Meyer, 1997), and literate programming (Knuth, 1992), in a parallel, object-based manner. The original THROHPUT code was developed as a doctoral thesis research code; the current emphasis is on making a robust, verifiable, documented, component-based production package. Results from the original code are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/485996','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/485996"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> many-body effects into <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of semiconductor lasers and amplifiers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ning, C.Z.; Moloney, J.V.; Indik, R.A.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Major many-body effects that are important for semiconductor laser <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are summarized. The authors adopt a bottom-up approach to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these many-body effects into a <span class="hlt">model</span> for semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. The optical susceptibility function ({Chi}) computed from the semiconductor Bloch equations (SBEs) is approximated by a single Lorentzian, or a superposition of a few Lorentzians in the frequency domain. Their approach leads to a set of effective Bloch equations (EBEs). The authors compare this approach with the full microscopic SBEs for the case of pulse propagation. Good agreement between the two is obtained for pulse widths longer than tens of picoseconds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857947"><span>Constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for municipal solid waste <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> mechanical creep and biodegradation-induced compression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sivakumar Babu, G L; Reddy, Krishna R; Chouksey, Sandeep K</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed to describe the stress-strain behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) under loading using the critical state soil mechanics framework. The modified cam clay <span class="hlt">model</span> is extended to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of mechanical creep and time dependent biodegradation to calculate total compression under loading. <span class="hlt">Model</span> parameters are evaluated based on one-dimensional compression and triaxial consolidated undrained test series conducted on three types of MSW: (a) fresh MSW obtained from working phase of a landfill, (b) landfilled waste retrieved from a landfill after 1.5 years of degradation, and (c) synthetic MSW with controlled composition. The <span class="hlt">model</span> captures the stress-strain and pore water pressure response of these three types of MSW adequately. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is useful for assessing the deformation and stability of landfills and any post-closure development structures located on landfills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22030001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22030001"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Markov reliability <span class="hlt">models</span> for digital instrumentation and control systems into existing PRAs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bucci, P.; Mangan, L. A.; Kirschenbaum, J.; Mandelli, D.; Aldemir, T.; Arndt, S. A.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> have the ability to capture the statistical dependence between failure events that can arise in the presence of complex dynamic interactions between components of digital instrumentation and control systems. One obstacle to the use of such <span class="hlt">models</span> in an existing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is that most of the currently available PRA software is based on the static event-tree/fault-tree methodology which often cannot represent such interactions. We present an approach to the integration of Markov reliability <span class="hlt">models</span> into existing PRAs by describing the Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> of a digital steam generator feedwater level control system, how dynamic event trees (DETs) can be generated from the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and how the DETs can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into an existing PRA with the SAPHIRE software. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6929E..1WE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6929E..1WE"><span>Fully-coupled magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for Galfenol alloys <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> eddy current losses and thermal relaxation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, Phillip G.; Dapino, Marcelo J.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>A general framework is developed to <span class="hlt">model</span> the nonlinear magnetization and strain response of cubic magnetostrictive materials to 3-D dynamic magnetic fields and 3-D stresses. Dynamic eddy current losses and inertial stresses are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by coupling Maxwell's equations to Newton's second law through a nonlinear constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. The constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived from continuum thermodynamics and <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> rate-dependent thermal effects. The framework is implemented in 1-D to describe a Tonpilz transducer in both dynamic actuation and sensing modes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to qualitatively describe the effect of increase in magnetic hysteresis with increasing frequency, the shearing of the magnetization loops with increasing stress, and the decrease in the magnetostriction with increasing load stiffness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2863069','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2863069"><span>A Bayesian Approach in Differential Equation Dynamic <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Clinical Factors and Covariates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Yangxin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A virologic marker, the number of HIV RNA copies or viral load, is currently used to evaluate antiretroviral (ARV) therapies in AIDS clinical trials. This marker can be used to assess the antiviral potency of therapies, but may be easily affected by clinical factors such as drug exposures and drug resistance as well as baseline characteristics during the long-term treatment evaluation process. HIV dynamic studies have significantly contributed to the understanding of HIV pathogenesis and ARV treatment strategies. Viral dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> can be formulated through differential equations, but there has been only limited development of statistical methodologies for estimating such <span class="hlt">models</span> or assessing their agreement with observed data. This paper develops a mechanism-based nonlinear differential equation <span class="hlt">models</span> for characterizing long-term viral dynamics with ARV therapy. In this <span class="hlt">model</span> we not only <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> clinical factors (drug exposures and susceptibility), but also baseline covariate (baseline viral load, CD4 count, weight or age) into a function of treatment efficacy. A Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach is investigated with application to an AIDS clinical trial study. The effects of confounding interaction of clinical factors with covariate-based <span class="hlt">models</span> are compared using the Deviance Information Criteria (DIC), a Bayesian version of the classical deviance for <span class="hlt">model</span> assessment, designed from complex hierarchical <span class="hlt">model</span> settings. Relationships between baseline covariate combined with confounding clinical factors and drug efficacy are explored. In addition, we compared <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> each of four baseline covariates through DIC and some interesting findings are presented. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">modeling</span> HIV dynamics and virologic responses with consideration of time-varying clinical factors as well as baseline characteristics may play an important role in understanding HIV pathogenesis, designing new treatment strategies for long-term care of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A22B..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A22B..07R"><span>A Novel Approach of Understanding and <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Error of Chemical Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> into a Geostatistical Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes, J.; Vizuete, W.; Serre, M. L.; Xu, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The EPA employs a vast monitoring network to measure ambient PM2.5 concentrations across the United States with one of its goals being to quantify exposure within the population. However, there are several areas of the country with sparse monitoring spatially and temporally. One means to fill in these monitoring gaps is to use PM2.5 <span class="hlt">modeled</span> estimates from Chemical Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> (CTMs) specifically the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) <span class="hlt">model</span>. CMAQ is able to provide complete spatial coverage but is subject to systematic and random error due to <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty. Due to the deterministic nature of CMAQ, often these uncertainties are not quantified. Much effort is employed to quantify the efficacy of these <span class="hlt">models</span> through different metrics of <span class="hlt">model</span> performance. Currently evaluation is specific to only locations with observed data. Multiyear studies across the United States are challenging because the error and <span class="hlt">model</span> performance of CMAQ are not uniform over such large space/time domains. Error changes regionally and temporally. Because of the complex mix of species that constitute PM2.5, CMAQ error is also a function of increasing PM2.5 concentration. To address this issue we introduce a <span class="hlt">model</span> performance evaluation for PM2.5 CMAQ that is regionalized and non-linear. This <span class="hlt">model</span> performance evaluation leads to error quantification for each CMAQ grid. Areas and time periods of error being better qualified. The regionalized error correction approach is non-linear and is therefore more flexible at characterizing <span class="hlt">model</span> performance than approaches that rely on linearity assumptions and assume homoscedasticity of CMAQ predictions errors. Corrected CMAQ data are then <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the modern geostatistical framework of Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). Through cross validation it is shown that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> error-corrected CMAQ data leads to more accurate estimates than just using observed data by themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108854"><span>Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> life history and environmental factors into a standard growth <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>English, Sinéad; Bateman, Andrew W; Clutton-Brock, Tim H</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to <span class="hlt">model</span> variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used <span class="hlt">model</span> selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth <span class="hlt">models</span> (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380361"><span>Towards a functional <span class="hlt">model</span> of mental disorders <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the laws of thermodynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, George C; McKenzie, Karen</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The current paper presents the hypothesis that the understanding of mental disorders can be advanced by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the laws of thermodynamics, specifically relating to energy conservation and energy transfer. These ideas, along with the introduction of the notion that entropic activities are symptomatic of inefficient energy transfer or disorder, were used to propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> of understanding mental ill health as resulting from the interaction of entropy, capacity and work (environmental demands). The <span class="hlt">model</span> was applied to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and was shown to be compatible with current thinking about this condition, as well as emerging <span class="hlt">models</span> of mental disorders as complex networks. A key implication of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is that it argues that all mental disorders require a systemic functional approach, with the advantage that it offers a number of routes into the assessment, formulation and treatment for mental health problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853563"><span>A data-driven <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza transmission <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Lewis; Ross, Joshua V</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have attempted to <span class="hlt">model</span> the effect of mass media on the transmission of diseases such as influenza; however, quantitative data on media engagement has until recently been difficult to obtain. With the recent explosion of 'big data' coming from online social media and the like, large volumes of data on a population's engagement with mass media during an epidemic are becoming available to researchers. In this study, we combine an online dataset comprising millions of shared messages relating to influenza with traditional surveillance data on flu activity to suggest a functional form for the relationship between the two. Using this data, we present a simple deterministic <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza dynamics <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects, and show that such a <span class="hlt">model</span> helps explain the dynamics of historical influenza outbreaks. Furthermore, through <span class="hlt">model</span> selection we show that the proposed media function fits historical data better than other media functions proposed in earlier studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098988','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098988"><span>A data-driven <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza transmission <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ross, Joshua V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have attempted to <span class="hlt">model</span> the effect of mass media on the transmission of diseases such as influenza; however, quantitative data on media engagement has until recently been difficult to obtain. With the recent explosion of ‘big data’ coming from online social media and the like, large volumes of data on a population’s engagement with mass media during an epidemic are becoming available to researchers. In this study, we combine an online dataset comprising millions of shared messages relating to influenza with traditional surveillance data on flu activity to suggest a functional form for the relationship between the two. Using this data, we present a simple deterministic <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza dynamics <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects, and show that such a <span class="hlt">model</span> helps explain the dynamics of historical influenza outbreaks. Furthermore, through <span class="hlt">model</span> selection we show that the proposed media function fits historical data better than other media functions proposed in earlier studies. PMID:27853563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938058"><span>A Docking <span class="hlt">Model</span> Based on Mass Spectrometric and Biochemical Data Describes Phage Packaging Motor <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, Chi-yu; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Kang, Sebyung; Morais, Marc C.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Walter, Mark R.; Prevelige, Peter E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The molecular mechanism of scaffolding protein-mediated <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of one and only one DNA packaging motor/connector dodecamer at a unique vertex during lambdoid phage assembly has remained elusive because of the lack of structural information on how the connector and scaffolding proteins interact. We assembled and characterized a φ29 connector-scaffolding complex, which can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into procapsids during in vitro assembly. Native mass spectrometry revealed that the connector binds at most 12 scaffolding molecules, likely organized as six dimers. A data-driven docking <span class="hlt">model</span>, using input from chemical cross-linking and mutagenesis data, suggested an interaction between the scaffolding protein and the exterior of the wide domain of the connector dodecamer. The connector binding region of the scaffolding protein lies upstream of the capsid binding region located at the C terminus. This arrangement allows the C terminus of scaffolding protein within the complex to both recruit capsid subunits and mediate the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the single connector vertex. PMID:20124351</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0631R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0631R"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> grazing into an eco-hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span>: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span> that also <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our <span class="hlt">model</span> over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale <span class="hlt">model</span> that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters affecting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9552T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9552T"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> water scarcity over south Asia: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> crop growth and irrigation <span class="hlt">models</span> into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Large-scale hydrologic <span class="hlt">models</span>, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) <span class="hlt">model</span>, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these <span class="hlt">models</span> simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a crop growth <span class="hlt">model</span> and irrigation <span class="hlt">model</span> into the VIC <span class="hlt">model</span> in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth <span class="hlt">model</span> responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth <span class="hlt">model</span> shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP43C2294F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP43C2294F"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Sediment Compaction Into a Gravitationally Self-consistent <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Global Sea-level Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In sedimentary deltas and fans, sea-level changes are strongly modulated by the deposition and compaction of marine sediment. The deposition of sediment and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of water into the sedimentary pore space reduces sea level by increasing the elevation of the seafloor, which reduces the thickness of sea-water above the bed. In a similar manner, the compaction of sediment and purging of water out of the sedimentary pore space increases sea level by reducing the elevation of the seafloor, which increases the thickness of sea water above the bed. Here we show how one can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of sediment deposition and compaction into the global, gravitationally self-consistent sea-level <span class="hlt">model</span> of Dalca et al. (2013). <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> sediment compaction requires accounting for only one additional quantity that had not been accounted for in Dalca et al. (2013): the mean porosity in the sediment column. We provide a general analytic framework for global sea-level changes including sediment deposition and compaction, and we demonstrate how sea level responds to deposition and compaction under one simple parameterization for compaction. The compaction of sediment generates changes in sea level only by changing the elevation of the seafloor. That is, sediment compaction does not affect the mass load on the crust, and therefore does not generate perturbations in crustal elevation or the gravity field that would further perturb sea level. These results have implications for understanding sedimentary effects on sea-level changes and thus for disentangling the various drivers of sea-level change. ReferencesDalca A.V., Ferrier K.L., Mitrovica J.X., Perron J.T., Milne G.A., Creveling J.R., 2013. On postglacial sea level - III. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> sediment redistribution. Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt089.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9219195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9219195"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> risk attitude into Markov-process decision <span class="hlt">models</span>: importance for individual decision making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cher, D J; Miyamoto, J; Lenert, L A</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Most decision <span class="hlt">models</span> published in the medical literature take a risk-neutral perspective. Under risk neutrality, the utility of a gamble is equivalent to its expected value and the marginal utility of living a given unit of time is the same regardless of when it occurs. Most patients, however, are not risk-neutral. Not only does risk aversion affect decision analyses when tradeoffs between short- and long-term survival are involved, it also affects the interpretation of time-tradeoff measures of health-state utility. The proportional time tradeoff under- or overestimates the disutility of an inferior health state, depending on whether the patient is risk-seeking or risk-averse (it is unbiased if the patient is risk-neutral). The authors review how risk attitude with respect to gambles for survival duration can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into decision <span class="hlt">models</span> using the framework of risk-adjusted quality-adjusted life years (RA-QALYs). They present a simple extension of this framework that allows RA-QALYs to be calculated for Markov-process decision <span class="hlt">models</span>. Using a previously published Markov-process <span class="hlt">model</span> of surgical vs expectant treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), they show how attitude towards risk affects the expected number of QALYs calculated by the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, under risk neutrality, surgery was the preferred option. Under mild risk aversion, expectant treatment was the preferred option. Risk attitude is an important aspect of preferences that should be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into decision <span class="hlt">models</span> where one treatment option has upfront risks of morbidity or mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RSPSA.47260275G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RSPSA.47260275G"><span>A non-classical Mindlin plate <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, X.-L.; Zhang, G. Y.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A non-classical <span class="hlt">model</span> for a Mindlin plate resting on an elastic foundation is developed in a general form using a modified couple stress theory, a surface elasticity theory and a two-parameter Winkler-Pasternak foundation <span class="hlt">model</span>. It includes all five kinematic variables possible for a Mindlin plate. The equations of motion and the complete boundary conditions are obtained simultaneously through a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle, and the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are treated in a unified manner. The newly developed <span class="hlt">model</span> contains one material length-scale parameter to describe the microstructure effect, three surface elastic constants to account for the surface energy effect, and two foundation parameters to capture the foundation effect. The current non-classical plate <span class="hlt">model</span> reduces to its classical elasticity-based counterpart when the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are all suppressed. In addition, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the Mindlin plate <span class="hlt">models</span> considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect or the foundation influence alone as special cases, recovers the Kirchhoff plate <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects, and degenerates to the Timoshenko beam <span class="hlt">model</span> including the microstructure effect. To illustrate the new Mindlin plate <span class="hlt">model</span>, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported rectangular plate are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulae derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971254','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971254"><span>A non-classical Mindlin plate <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, G. Y.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A non-classical <span class="hlt">model</span> for a Mindlin plate resting on an elastic foundation is developed in a general form using a modified couple stress theory, a surface elasticity theory and a two-parameter Winkler–Pasternak foundation <span class="hlt">model</span>. It includes all five kinematic variables possible for a Mindlin plate. The equations of motion and the complete boundary conditions are obtained simultaneously through a variational formulation based on Hamilton's principle, and the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are treated in a unified manner. The newly developed <span class="hlt">model</span> contains one material length-scale parameter to describe the microstructure effect, three surface elastic constants to account for the surface energy effect, and two foundation parameters to capture the foundation effect. The current non-classical plate <span class="hlt">model</span> reduces to its classical elasticity-based counterpart when the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects are all suppressed. In addition, the new <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the Mindlin plate <span class="hlt">models</span> considering the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect or the foundation influence alone as special cases, recovers the Kirchhoff plate <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the microstructure, surface energy and foundation effects, and degenerates to the Timoshenko beam <span class="hlt">model</span> including the microstructure effect. To illustrate the new Mindlin plate <span class="hlt">model</span>, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported rectangular plate are analytically solved by directly applying the general formulae derived. PMID:27493578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12711407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12711407"><span>A stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> genomic instability fitted to colon cancer data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, M P; Wright, E G</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>A generalization of the two-mutation stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> of Moolgavkar, Venzon and Knudson and certain <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed by Little is developed; the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> progressive genomic instability and an arbitrary number of mutational stages. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to have the property that, at least in the case when the parameters of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are eventually constant, the excess relative and absolute cancer rates following changes in any of the parameters will eventually tend to zero. It is also shown that when the parameters governing the processes of cell division, death, or additional mutation (whether of the normal sort or that resulting in genomic destabilization) at the penultimate stage are subject to perturbations, there are relatively large fluctuations in the hazard function for the <span class="hlt">model</span>, which start almost as soon as the parameters are changed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is fitted to US Caucasian colon cancer incidence data. A <span class="hlt">model</span> with five stages and two levels of genomic destabilization fits the data well. Comparison with patterns of excess risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor colon cancer incidence data indicate that radiation might act on early mutation rates in the <span class="hlt">model</span>; a major role for radiation in initiating genomic destabilization is less likely.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CPL...485...95K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CPL...485...95K"><span>A molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span> of rhodamine-labeled phospholipid <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a lipid bilayer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyrychenko, Alexander</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Phospholipids, labeled covalently by a fluorescent dye, are commonly applied in membrane biophysics. In this work, a molecular dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span> of sulforhodamine attached covalently to a headgroup of 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine is developed. It is found that the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of rhodamine-labeled phospholipids into a DPPC bilayer at the low concentration results in small perturbation of the bilayer. In the dye-labeled membrane, the sulforhodamine moiety binds favorably to a polar membrane interface, forming the tilt angle 44° ± 8° to the bilayer normal. The deep location and binding of a bulk sulforhodamine fluorophore lead, therefore, to some 'softening' of the membrane structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891554"><span>Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Address Psychosocial Complexity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shugar, Andrea</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum <span class="hlt">model</span> and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA512669','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA512669"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Relevance and Psuedo-Relevance Feedback in the Markov Random Field <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>i.e. relevant) feedback documents: Θ̂F = 1 |F| ∑ D∈F ΘD (4) While the classic Rocchio method ( Rocchio & others 1971) also <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> negative...participating systems that em- ployed one or the other. Use of negative feedback (e.g. via Rocchio ) generally provided little benefit. Interest- ingly, all of...and Croft, W. B. 1998. A language <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach to information retrieval. In Proc. of SIGIR, 275– 281. Rocchio , J., et al. 1971. Relevance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP012245','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP012245"><span>Optical Characterization and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Sulfur <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> Nanocrystalline Carbon Thin Films Deposited By Hot Filament CVD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Raman spectroscopy (RS) and ex situ spectroscopic phase modulated ellipsometry ( SPME ) from near IR to near UV (1.5-5.0 eV) obtaining their vibrational...mixture of sp 3C+sp2C+void and a bulk layer (L2), defined as a dense amorphized FB-<span class="hlt">modeled</span> material was found to simulate the data reasonably well...considerably, similar to Ts= 900 °C, 400 ppm HS n-C:S nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>, which SE data induces graphitization of carbon 10 - simulation 10 films</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418255"><span>Evolutionary demography of iteroparous plants: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> non-lethal costs of reproduction into integral projection <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Tom E X; Williams, Jennifer L; Jongejans, Eelke; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans</p> <p>2012-07-22</p> <p>Understanding the selective forces that shape reproductive strategies is a central goal of evolutionary ecology. Selection on the timing of reproduction is well studied in semelparous organisms because the cost of reproduction (death) can be easily <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into demographic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Iteroparous organisms also exhibit delayed reproduction and experience reproductive costs, although these are not necessarily lethal. How non-lethal costs shape iteroparous life histories remains unresolved. We analysed long-term demographic data for the iteroparous orchid Orchis purpurea from two habitat types (light and shade). In both the habitats, flowering plants had lower growth rates and this cost was greater for smaller plants. We detected an additional growth cost of fruit production in the light habitat. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> these non-lethal costs into integral projection <span class="hlt">models</span> to identify the flowering size that maximizes fitness. In both habitats, observed flowering sizes were well predicted by the <span class="hlt">models</span>. We also estimated optimal parameters for size-dependent flowering effort, but found a strong mismatch with the observed flower production. Our study highlights the role of context-dependent non-lethal reproductive costs as selective forces in the evolution of iteroparous life histories, and provides a novel and broadly applicable approach to studying the evolutionary demography of iteroparous organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840061513&hterms=newtonian+fluids&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnewtonian%2Bfluids','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840061513&hterms=newtonian+fluids&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnewtonian%2Bfluids"><span>Non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. The approach uses a Newtonian <span class="hlt">model</span> as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020183','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020183"><span>Non-Newtonian Fluid <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> into Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rectangular Contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. The approach uses a Newtonian <span class="hlt">model</span> as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840061513&hterms=non+Newtonian+fluid&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnon%2BNewtonian%2Bfluid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840061513&hterms=non+Newtonian+fluid&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnon%2BNewtonian%2Bfluid"><span>Non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. The approach uses a Newtonian <span class="hlt">model</span> as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3367791','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3367791"><span>Evolutionary demography of iteroparous plants: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> non-lethal costs of reproduction into integral projection <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miller, Tom E. X.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Jongejans, Eelke; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the selective forces that shape reproductive strategies is a central goal of evolutionary ecology. Selection on the timing of reproduction is well studied in semelparous organisms because the cost of reproduction (death) can be easily <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into demographic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Iteroparous organisms also exhibit delayed reproduction and experience reproductive costs, although these are not necessarily lethal. How non-lethal costs shape iteroparous life histories remains unresolved. We analysed long-term demographic data for the iteroparous orchid Orchis purpurea from two habitat types (light and shade). In both the habitats, flowering plants had lower growth rates and this cost was greater for smaller plants. We detected an additional growth cost of fruit production in the light habitat. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> these non-lethal costs into integral projection <span class="hlt">models</span> to identify the flowering size that maximizes fitness. In both habitats, observed flowering sizes were well predicted by the <span class="hlt">models</span>. We also estimated optimal parameters for size-dependent flowering effort, but found a strong mismatch with the observed flower production. Our study highlights the role of context-dependent non-lethal reproductive costs as selective forces in the evolution of iteroparous life histories, and provides a novel and broadly applicable approach to studying the evolutionary demography of iteroparous organisms. PMID:22418255</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyE...71...21L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyE...71...21L"><span>A variational size-dependent <span class="hlt">model</span> for electrostatically actuated NEMS <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> nonlinearities and Casimir force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Binbin; Zhang, Long; Wang, Binglei; Zhou, Shenjie</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A size-dependent <span class="hlt">model</span> for the electrostatically actuated Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> nonlinearities and Casimir force is presented by using a variational method. The governing equation and boundary conditions are derived with the help of strain gradient elasticity theory and Hamilton principle. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to solve the problem numerically. The pull-in instability with Casimir force included is then studied. The results reveal that Casimir force, which is a spontaneous force between the two electrodes, can reduce the external applied voltage. With Casimir force <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>, the pull-in instability occurs without voltage applied when the beam size is in nanoscale. The minimum gap and detachment length can be calculated from the present <span class="hlt">model</span> for different beam size, which is important for NEMS design. Finally, discussions of size effect induced by the strain gradient terms reveal that the present <span class="hlt">model</span> is more accurate since size effect play an important role when beam in nanoscale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MPLB...3050351P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MPLB...3050351P"><span>A new macro <span class="hlt">model</span> of traffic flow by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> both timid and aggressive driving behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Guanghan; Qing, Li</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, a novel macro <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived from car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the timid and aggressive effects of optimal velocity on a single lane. Numerical simulation shows that the timid and aggressive macro <span class="hlt">model</span> of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction waves and local cluster effects under small perturbation. Also, the results uncover that the aggressive effect can smoothen the front of the shock wave and the timid effect results in local press peak, which means that the timid effect hastens the process of congregation in the shock wave. The more timid traffic behaviors are, the smaller is the stable range. Furthermore, the research shows that the advantage of the aggressive effect over the timid one lies in the fact that the aggressive traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> timid and aggressive driving behaviors at the same time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033994"><span>An Imaging <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Ultrasonic Transducer Properties for Three-Dimensional Optoacoustic Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Kun; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Su, Richard; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Optoacoustic Tomography (OAT) is a hybrid imaging modality that combines the advantages of optical and ultrasound imaging. Most existing reconstruction algorithms for OAT assume that the ultrasound transducers employed to record the measurement data are point-like. When transducers with large detecting areas and/or compact measurement geometries are utilized, this assumption can result in conspicuous image blurring and distortions in the reconstructed images. In this work, a new OAT imaging <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the spatial and temporal responses of an ultrasound transducer is introduced. A discrete form of the imaging <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented and its numerical properties are investigated. We demonstrate that use of the imaging <span class="hlt">model</span> in an iterative reconstruction method can improve the spatial resolution of the optoacoustic images as compared to those reconstructed assuming point-like ultrasound transducers. PMID:20813634</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002672','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002672"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> yearly wheat masks into the forecasting <span class="hlt">model</span>. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5379927','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5379927"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> social contact data in spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">models</span> for infectious disease spread</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Held, Leonhard</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Summary Routine public health surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases gives rise to weekly counts of reported cases—possibly stratified by region and/or age group. We investigate how an age-structured social contact matrix can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a spatio-temporal endemic–epidemic <span class="hlt">model</span> for infectious disease counts. To illustrate the approach, we analyze the spread of norovirus gastroenteritis over six age groups within the 12 districts of Berlin, 2011–2015, using contact data from the POLYMOD study. The proposed age-structured <span class="hlt">model</span> outperforms alternative scenarios with homogeneous or no mixing between age groups. An extended contact <span class="hlt">model</span> suggests a power transformation of the survey-based contact matrix toward more within-group transmission. PMID:28025182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3381521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3381521"><span>Generalised Linear <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Population Level Information: An Empirical Likelihood Based Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri, Sanjay; Handcock, Mark S.; Rendall, Michael S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In many situations information from a sample of individuals can be supplemented by population level information on the relationship between a dependent variable and explanatory variables. Inclusion of the population level information can reduce bias and increase the efficiency of the parameter estimates. Population level information can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> via constraints on functions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. In general the constraints are nonlinear making the task of maximum likelihood estimation harder. In this paper we develop an alternative approach exploiting the notion of an empirical likelihood. It is shown that within the framework of generalised linear <span class="hlt">models</span>, the population level information corresponds to linear constraints, which are comparatively easy to handle. We provide a two-step algorithm that produces parameter estimates using only unconstrained estimation. We also provide computable expressions for the standard errors. We give an application to demographic hazard <span class="hlt">modelling</span> by combining panel survey data with birth registration data to estimate annual birth probabilities by parity. PMID:22740776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648796"><span>Some considerations concerning the challenge of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> social variables into epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span> of infectious disease transmission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barnett, Tony; Fournié, Guillaume; Gupta, Sunetra; Seeley, Janet</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of 'social' variables into epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span> remains a challenge. Too much detail and <span class="hlt">models</span> cease to be useful; too little and the very notion of infection - a highly social process in human populations - may be considered with little reference to the social. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim proposed that the scientific study of society required identification and study of 'social currents'. Such 'currents' are what we might today describe as 'emergent properties', specifiable variables appertaining to individuals and groups, which represent the perspectives of social actors as they experience the environment in which they live their lives. Here we review the ways in which one particular emergent property, hope, relevant to a range of epidemiological situations, might be used in epidemiological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of infectious diseases in human populations. We also indicate how such an approach might be extended to include a range of other potential emergent properties to represent complex social and economic processes bearing on infectious disease transmission.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025182"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> social contact data in spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">models</span> for infectious disease spread.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, Sebastian; Held, Leonhard</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Routine public health surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases gives rise to weekly counts of reported cases-possibly stratified by region and/or age group. We investigate how an age-structured social contact matrix can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a spatio-temporal endemic-epidemic <span class="hlt">model</span> for infectious disease counts. To illustrate the approach, we analyze the spread of norovirus gastroenteritis over six age groups within the 12 districts of Berlin, 2011-2015, using contact data from the POLYMOD study. The proposed age-structured <span class="hlt">model</span> outperforms alternative scenarios with homogeneous or no mixing between age groups. An extended contact <span class="hlt">model</span> suggests a power transformation of the survey-based contact matrix toward more within-group transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27873482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27873482"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> evolutionary adaptation in species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span> reduces projected vulnerability to climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bush, Alex; Mokany, Karel; Catullo, Renee; Hoffmann, Ary; Kellermann, Vanessa; Sgrò, Carla; McEvey, Shane; Ferrier, Simon</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Based on the sensitivity of species to ongoing climate change, and numerous challenges they face tracking suitable conditions, there is growing interest in species' capacity to adapt to climatic stress. Here, we develop and apply a new generic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach (AdaptR) that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> adaptive capacity through physiological limits, phenotypic plasticity, evolutionary adaptation and dispersal into a species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework. Using AdaptR to predict change in the distribution of 17 species of Australian fruit flies (Drosophilidae), we show that accounting for adaptive capacity reduces projected range losses by up to 33% by 2105. We identify where local adaptation is likely to occur and apply sensitivity analyses to identify the critical factors of interest when parameters are uncertain. Our study suggests some species could be less vulnerable than previously thought, and indicates that spatiotemporal adaptive <span class="hlt">models</span> could help improve management interventions that support increased species' resilience to climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5553556','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5553556"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> fuel swelling and clad shrinkage effects in diffusion theory calculations (LWBR Development Program)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schick, W.C. Jr.; Milani, S.; Duncombe, E.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> has been devised for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> into the thermal feedback procedure of the PDQ few-group diffusion theory computer program the explicit calculation of depletion and temperature dependent fuel-rod shrinkage and swelling at each mesh point. The <span class="hlt">model</span> determines the effect on reactivity of the change in hydrogen concentration caused by the variation in coolant channel area as the rods contract and expand. The calculation of fuel temperature, and hence of Doppler-broadened cross sections, is improved by correcting the heat transfer coefficient of the fuel-clad gap for the effects of clad creep, fuel densification and swelling, and release of fission-product gases into the gap. An approximate calculation of clad stress is also included in the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758822"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Auditory Cortical Processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willmore, Ben D B; Schoppe, Oliver; King, Andrew J; Schnupp, Jan W H; Harper, Nicol S</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet current standard <span class="hlt">models</span> of the response properties of auditory neurons do not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> such adaptation. Here we present a <span class="hlt">model</span> of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the IC Adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span>), which takes into account adaptation to mean sound level at a lower level of processing: the inferior colliculus (IC). The <span class="hlt">model</span> performs high-pass filtering with frequency-dependent time constants on the sound spectrogram, followed by half-wave rectification, and passes the output to a standard linear-nonlinear (LN) <span class="hlt">model</span>. We find that the IC Adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently predicts cortical responses better than the standard LN <span class="hlt">model</span> for a range of synthetic and natural stimuli. The IC Adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span> introduces no extra free parameters, so it improves predictions without sacrificing parsimony. Furthermore, the time constants of adaptation in the IC appear to be matched to the statistics of natural sounds, suggesting that neurons in the auditory midbrain predict the mean level of future sounds and adapt their responses appropriately. An ability to accurately predict how sensory neurons respond to novel stimuli is critical if we are to fully characterize their response properties. Attempts to <span class="hlt">model</span> these responses have had a distinguished history, but it has proven difficult to improve their predictive power significantly beyond that of simple, mostly linear receptive field <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we show that auditory cortex receptive field <span class="hlt">models</span> benefit from a nonlinear preprocessing stage that replicates known adaptation properties of the auditory midbrain. This improves their predictive power across a wide range of stimuli but keeps <span class="hlt">model</span> complexity low as it introduces no new free</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460205"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> temporal EHR data in predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> for risk stratification of renal function deterioration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Anima; Nadkarni, Girish; Gottesman, Omri; Ellis, Stephen B; Bottinger, Erwin P; Guttag, John V</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> built using temporal data in electronic health records (EHRs) can potentially play a major role in improving management of chronic diseases. However, these data present a multitude of technical challenges, including irregular sampling of data and varying length of available patient history. In this paper, we describe and evaluate three different approaches that use machine learning to build predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> using temporal EHR data of a patient. The first approach is a commonly used non-temporal approach that aggregates values of the predictors in the patient's medical history. The other two approaches exploit the temporal dynamics of the data. The two temporal approaches vary in how they <span class="hlt">model</span> temporal information and handle missing data. Using data from the EHR of Mount Sinai Medical Center, we learned and evaluated the <span class="hlt">models</span> in the context of predicting loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the most common assessment of kidney function. Our results show that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> temporal information in patient's medical history can lead to better prediction of loss of kidney function. They also demonstrate that exactly how this information is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> is important. In particular, our results demonstrate that the relative importance of different predictors varies over time, and that using multi-task learning to account for this is an appropriate way to robustly capture the temporal dynamics in EHR data. Using a case study, we also demonstrate how the multi-task learning based <span class="hlt">model</span> can yield predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> with better performance for identifying patients at high risk of short-term loss of kidney function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27045328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27045328"><span>A Direct Method for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Experimental Data into Multiscale Coarse-Grained <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Thomas; White, Andrew D; Voth, Gregory A</p> <p>2016-05-10</p> <p>To extract meaningful data from molecular simulations, it is necessary to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> new experimental observations as they become available. Recently, a new method was developed for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> experimental observations into molecular simulations, called experiment directed simulation (EDS), which utilizes a maximum entropy argument to bias an existing <span class="hlt">model</span> to agree with experimental observations while changing the original <span class="hlt">model</span> by a minimal amount. However, there is no discussion in the literature of whether or not the minimal bias systematically and generally improves the <span class="hlt">model</span> by creating agreement with the experiment. In this work, we show that the relative entropy of the biased system with respect to an ideal target is always reduced by the application of a minimal bias, such as the one utilized by EDS. Using all-atom simulations that have been biased with EDS, one can then easily and rapidly improve a bottom-up multiscale coarse-grained (MS-CG) <span class="hlt">model</span> without the need for a time-consuming reparametrization of the underlying atomistic force field. Furthermore, the improvement given by the many-body interactions introduced by the EDS bias can be maintained after being projected down to effective two-body MS-CG interactions. The result of this analysis is a new paradigm in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation in which the "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches are combined within a single, rigorous formalism based on statistical mechanics. The utility of building the resulting EDS-MS-CG <span class="hlt">models</span> is demonstrated on two molecular systems: liquid methanol and ethylene carbonate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..779N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..779N"><span>A coral polyp <span class="hlt">model</span> of photosynthesis, respiration and calcification <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a transcellular ion transport mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, T.; Nadaoka, K.; Watanabe, A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A numerical simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> of coral polyp photosynthesis, respiration and calcification was developed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is constructed with three components (ambient seawater, coelenteron and calcifying fluid), and <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> photosynthesis, respiration and calcification processes with transcellular ion transport by Ca-ATPase activity and passive transmembrane CO2 transport and diffusion. The <span class="hlt">model</span> calculates dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity in the ambient seawater, coelenteron and calcifying fluid, dissolved oxygen (DO) in the seawater and coelenteron and stored organic carbon (CH2O). To reconstruct the drastic variation between light and dark respiration, respiration rate dependency on DO in the coelenteron is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. The calcification rate depends on the aragonite saturation state in the calcifying fluid (Ω a cal). Our simulation result was a good approximation of "light-enhanced calcification." In our <span class="hlt">model</span>, the mechanism is expressed as follows: (1) DO in the coelenteron is increased by photosynthesis, (2) respiration is stimulated by increased DO in the light (or respiration is limited by DO depletion in the dark), then (3) calcification increases due to Ca-ATPase, which is driven by the energy generated by respiration. The <span class="hlt">model</span> simulation results were effective in reproducing the basic responses of the internal CO2 system and DO. The daily calcification rate, the gross photosynthetic rate and the respiration rate under a high-flow condition increased compared to those under the zero-flow condition, but the net photosynthetic rate decreased. The calculated calcification rate responses to variations in the ambient aragonite saturation state (Ω a amb) were nonlinear, and the responses agreed with experimental results of previous studies. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> predicted that in response to ocean acidification (1) coral calcification will decrease, but will remain at a higher value until Ω a amb decreases to 1, by maintaining a higher Ω a cal due to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018146"><span>Are adverse effects <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in economic <span class="hlt">models</span>? An initial review of current practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Craig, D; McDaid, C; Fonseca, T; Stock, C; Duffy, S; Woolacott, N</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>To identify methodological research on the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of adverse effects in economic <span class="hlt">models</span> and to review current practice. Major electronic databases (Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Economic Evaluations Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, IDEAS, MEDLINE and Science Citation Index) were searched from inception to September 2007. Health technology assessment (HTA) reports commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme and published between 2004 and 2007 were also reviewed. The reviews of methodological research on the inclusion of adverse effects in decision <span class="hlt">models</span> and of current practice were carried out according to standard methods. Data were summarised in a narrative synthesis. Of the 719 potentially relevant references in the methodological research review, five met the inclusion criteria; however, they contained little information of direct relevance to the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of adverse effects in <span class="hlt">models</span>. Of the 194 HTA monographs published from 2004 to 2007, 80 were reviewed, covering a range of research and therapeutic areas. In total, 85% of the reports included adverse effects in the clinical effectiveness review and 54% of the decision <span class="hlt">models</span> included adverse effects in the <span class="hlt">model</span>; 49% included adverse effects in the clinical review and <span class="hlt">model</span>. The link between adverse effects in the clinical review and <span class="hlt">model</span> was generally weak; only 3/80 (< 4%) used the results of a meta-analysis from the systematic review of clinical effectiveness and none used only data from the review without further manipulation. Of the <span class="hlt">models</span> including adverse effects, 67% used a clinical adverse effects parameter, 79% used a cost of adverse effects parameter, 86% used one of these and 60% used both. Most <span class="hlt">models</span> (83%) used utilities, but only two (2.5%) used solely utilities to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> adverse effects and were explicit that the utility captured relevant adverse effects; 53% of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249240"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> animal behavior into seed dispersal <span class="hlt">models</span>: implications for seed shadows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russo, Sabrina E; Portnoy, Stephen; Augspurger, Carol K</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Seed dispersal fundamentally influences plant population and community dynamics but is difficult to quantify directly. Consequently, <span class="hlt">models</span> are frequently used to describe the seed shadow (the seed deposition pattern of a plant population). For vertebrate-dispersed plants, animal behavior is known to influence seed shadows but is poorly integrated in seed dispersal <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here, we illustrate a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> animal behavior and develop a stochastic, spatially explicit simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts the seed shadow for a primate-dispersed tree species (Virola calophylla, Myristicaceae) at the forest stand scale. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was parameterized from field-collected data on fruit production and seed dispersal, behaviors and movement patterns of the key disperser, the spider monkey (Ateles paniscus), densities of dispersed and non-dispersed seeds, and direct estimates of seed dispersal distances. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> demonstrated that the spatial scale of dispersal for this V. calophylla population was large, as spider monkeys routinely dispersed seeds >100 m, a commonly used threshold for long-distance dispersal. The simulated seed shadow was heterogeneous, with high spatial variance in seed density resulting largely from behaviors and movement patterns of spider monkeys that aggregated seeds (dispersal at their sleeping sites) and that scattered seeds (dispersal during diurnal foraging and resting). The single-distribution dispersal kernels frequently used to <span class="hlt">model</span> dispersal substantially underestimated this variance and poorly fit the simulated seed-dispersal curve, primarily because of its multimodality, and a mixture distribution always fit the simulated dispersal curve better. Both seed shadow heterogeneity and dispersal curve multimodality arose directly from these different dispersal processes generated by spider monkeys. Compared to <span class="hlt">models</span> that did not account for disperser behavior, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach improved prediction of the seed shadow of this V</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HESS...21.3557W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HESS...21.3557W"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> remote sensing-based ET estimates into the Community Land <span class="hlt">Model</span> version 4.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Dagang; Wang, Guiling; Parr, Dana T.; Liao, Weilin; Xia, Youlong; Fu, Congsheng</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> bear substantial biases in simulating surface water and energy budgets despite the continuous development and improvement of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations. To reduce <span class="hlt">model</span> biases, Parr et al. (2015) proposed a method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) products into land surface <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we apply this bias correction method to the Community Land <span class="hlt">Model</span> version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and test its performance over the conterminous US (CONUS). We first calibrate a relationship between the observational ET from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GLEAM) product and the <span class="hlt">model</span> ET from CLM4.5, and assume that this relationship holds beyond the calibration period. During the validation or application period, a simulation using the default CLM4.5 (<q>CLM</q>) is conducted first, and its output is combined with the calibrated observational-vs.-<span class="hlt">model</span> ET relationship to derive a corrected ET; an experiment (<q>CLMET</q>) is then conducted in which the <span class="hlt">model</span>-generated ET is overwritten with the corrected ET. Using the observations of ET, runoff, and soil moisture content as benchmarks, we demonstrate that CLMET greatly improves the hydrological simulations over most of the CONUS, and the improvement is stronger in the eastern CONUS than the western CONUS and is strongest over the Southeast CONUS. For any specific region, the degree of the improvement depends on whether the relationship between observational and <span class="hlt">model</span> ET remains time-invariant (a fundamental hypothesis of the Parr et al. (2015) method) and whether water is the limiting factor in places where ET is underestimated. While the bias correction method improves hydrological estimates without improving the physical parameterization of land surface <span class="hlt">models</span>, results from this study do provide guidance for physically based <span class="hlt">model</span> development effort.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305382"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty of management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salomon, Yacov; McCarthy, Michael A; Taylor, Peter; Wintle, Brendan A</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The importance of accounting for economic costs when making environmental-management decisions subject to resource constraints has been increasingly recognized in recent years. In contrast, uncertainty associated with such costs has often been ignored. We developed a method, on the basis of economic theory, that accounts for the uncertainty in population-management decisions. We considered the case where, rather than taking fixed values, <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are random variables that represent the situation when parameters are not precisely known. Hence, the outcome is not precisely known either. Instead of maximizing the expected outcome, we maximized the probability of obtaining an outcome above a threshold of acceptability. We derived explicit analytical expressions for the optimal allocation and its associated probability, as a function of the threshold of acceptability, where the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters were distributed according to normal and uniform distributions. To illustrate our approach we revisited a previous study that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> cost-efficiency analyses in management decisions that were based on perturbation analyses of matrix population <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> derivations from this study into our framework, we extended the <span class="hlt">model</span> to address potential uncertainties. We then applied these results to 2 case studies: management of a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population and conservation of an olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population. For low aspirations, that is, when the threshold of acceptability is relatively low, the optimal strategy was obtained by diversifying the allocation of funds. Conversely, for high aspirations, the budget was directed toward management actions with the highest potential effect on the population. The exact optimal allocation was sensitive to the choice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty when making decisions and suggest that more effort should be placed on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943382"><span>Comparison of approaches for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> new information into existing risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grill, Sonja; Ankerst, Donna P; Gail, Mitchell H; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Pfeiffer, Ruth M</p> <p>2017-03-30</p> <p>We compare the calibration and variability of risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> that were estimated using various approaches for combining information on new predictors, termed 'markers', with parameter information available for other variables from an earlier <span class="hlt">model</span>, which was estimated from a large data source. We assess the performance of risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> updated based on likelihood ratio (LR) approaches that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> dependence between new and old risk factors as well as approaches that assume independence ('naive Bayes' methods). We study the impact of estimating the LR by (i) fitting a single <span class="hlt">model</span> to cases and non-cases when the distribution of the new markers is in the exponential family or (ii) fitting separate <span class="hlt">models</span> to cases and non-cases. We also evaluate a new constrained maximum likelihood method. We study updating the risk prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> when the new data arise from a cohort and extend available methods to accommodate updating when the new data source is a case-control study. To create realistic correlations between predictors, we also based simulations on real data on response to antiviral therapy for hepatitis C. From these studies, we recommend the LR method fit using a single <span class="hlt">model</span> or constrained maximum likelihood. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28927844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28927844"><span>Reliability <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of redundant safety systems without automatic diagnostics <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> common cause failures and process demand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alizadeh, Siamak; Sriramula, Srinivas</p> <p>2017-09-16</p> <p>Redundant safety systems are commonly used in the process industry to respond to hazardous events. In redundant systems composed of identical units, Common Cause Failures (CCFs) can significantly influence system performance with regards to reliability and safety. However, their impact has been overlooked due to the inherent complexity of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> common cause induced failures. This article develops a reliability <span class="hlt">model</span> for a redundant safety system using Markov analysis approach. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> process demands in conjunction with CCF for the first time and evaluates their impacts on the reliability quantification of safety systems without automatic diagnostics. The reliability of the Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> is quantified by considering the Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) as a measure for low demand systems. The safety performance of the <span class="hlt">model</span> is analysed using Hazardous Event Frequency (HEF) to evaluate the frequency of entering a hazardous state that will lead to an accident if the situation is not controlled. The utilisation of Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> for a simple case study of a pressure protection system is demonstrated and it is shown that the proposed approach gives a sufficiently accurate result for all demand rates, durations, component failure rates and corresponding repair rates for low demand mode of operation. The Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> proposed in this paper assumes the absence of automatic diagnostics, along with multiple stage repair strategy for CCFs and restoration of the system from hazardous state to the "as good as new" state. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116066"><span>An approach to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> individual personality in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> fish dispersal across in-stream barriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Thorlacius, Magnus; Brodin, Tomas; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Animal personalities are an important factor that affects the dispersal of animals. In the context of aquatic species, dispersal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> needs to consider that most freshwater ecosystems are highly fragmented by barriers reducing longitudinal connectivity. Previous research has <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> such barriers into dispersal <span class="hlt">models</span> under the neutral assumption that all migrating animals attempt to ascend at all times. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> dispersal of animals that do not perform trophic or reproductive migrations will be more realistic if it includes assumptions of which individuals attempt to overcome a barrier. We aimed to introduce personality into predictive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of whether a nonmigratory invasive freshwater fish (the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus) will disperse across an in-stream barrier. To that end, we experimentally assayed the personalities of 259 individuals from invasion fronts and established round goby populations. Based on the population differences in boldness, asociability, and activity, we defined a priori thresholds with bolder, more asocial, and more active individuals having a higher likelihood of ascent. We then combined the personality thresholds with swimming speed data from the literature and in situ measurements of flow velocities in the barrier. The resulting binary logistic regression <span class="hlt">model</span> revealed probabilities of crossing a barrier which depended not only on water flow and fish swimming speed but also on animal personalities. We conclude that risk assessment through predictive dispersal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> across fragmented landscapes can be advanced by including personality traits as parameters. The inclusion of behavior into <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the spread of invasive species can help to improve the accuracy of risk assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26006250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26006250"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of stochastic variability in mechanistic population pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">models</span>: handling the physiological constraints using normal transformations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Wendling, Thierry; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra; Aarons, Leon</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The utilisation of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> for the analysis of population data is an approach with progressively increasing impact. However, as we move from empirical to complex mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> structures, <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of stochastic variability in <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters can be challenging due to the physiological constraints that may arise. Here, we investigated the most common types of constraints faced in mechanistic pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and explored techniques for handling them during a population data analysis. An efficient way to impose stochastic variability on the parameters of interest without neglecting the underlying physiological constraints is through the assumption that they follow a distribution with support and properties matching the underlying physiology. It was found that two distributions that arise through transformations of the normal, the logit-normal generalisation and the logistic-normal, are excellent for such an application as not only they can satisfy the physiological constraints but also offer high flexibility during characterisation of the parameters' distribution. The statistical properties and practical advantages/disadvantages of these distributions for such an application were clearly displayed in the context of different <span class="hlt">modelling</span> examples. Finally, a simulation study clearly illustrated the practical gains of the utilisation of the described techniques, as omission of population variability in physiological systems parameters leads to a biased/misplaced stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> with mechanistically incorrect variance structure. The current methodological work aims to facilitate the use of mechanistic/physiologically-based <span class="hlt">models</span> for the analysis of population pharmacokinetic clinical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1144823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1144823"><span>Advanced Methods for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Literature Review and Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion <span class="hlt">models</span>. This is a challenge because <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the electricity system--and, in particular, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> solar technologies into capacity-expansion <span class="hlt">models</span> and shows examples of how specific <span class="hlt">models</span> address those challenges. These challenges include <span class="hlt">modeling</span> non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to <span class="hlt">model</span>, choosing a spatial resolution, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........18P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........18P"><span>A methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> geomechanically-based fault damage zones <span class="hlt">models</span> into reservoir simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Pijush Kanti</p> <p></p> <p>In the fault damage zone <span class="hlt">modeling</span> study for a field in the Timor Sea, I present a methodology to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> geomechanically-based fault damage zones into reservoir simulation. In the studied field, production history suggests that the mismatch between actual production and <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction is due to preferential fluid flow through the damage zones associated with the reservoir scale faults, which is not included in the baseline petrophysical <span class="hlt">model</span>. I analyzed well data to estimate stress heterogeneity and fracture distributions in the reservoir. Image logs show that stress orientations are homogenous at the field scale with a strike-slip/normal faulting stress regime and maximum horizontal stress oriented in NE-SW direction. Observed fracture zones in wells are mostly associated with well scale fault and bed boundaries. These zones do not show any anomalies in production logs or well test data, because most of the fractures are not optimally oriented to the present day stress state, and matrix permeability is high enough to mask any small anomalies from the fracture zones. However, I found that fracture density increases towards the reservoir scale faults, indicating high fracture density zones or damage zones close to these faults, which is consistent with the preferred flow direction indicated by interference and tracer test done between the wells. It is well known from geologic studies that there is a concentration of secondary fractures and faults in a damage zone adjacent to larger faults. Because there is usually inadequate data to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> damage zone fractures and faults into reservoir simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, in this study I utilized the principles of dynamic rupture propagation from earthquake seismology to predict the nature of fractured/damage zones associated with reservoir scale faults. The implemented workflow can be used to more routinely <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> damage zones into reservoir simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Applying this methodology to a real reservoir utilizing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614938','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614938"><span>Building a Better <span class="hlt">Model</span>: A Comprehensive Breast Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Breast Density to Stratify Risk and Apply Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>o Comparison of Breast Density Measurements with a Mammographic Volumetric and Area Algorithm and Magnetic resonance imaging . O Alonzo-Proulx, JG... Breast Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Breast Density To Stratify Risk and Apply Resources. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0545 5c...Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose: Development and validation of a personalized breast cancer risk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966911','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966911"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> and Compensating Cerebrospinal Fluid in Surface-Based Forward <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Magneto- and Electroencephalography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stenroos, Matti; Nummenmaa, Aapo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MEG/EEG source imaging is usually done using a three-shell (3-S) or a simpler head <span class="hlt">model</span>. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> omit cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that strongly affects the volume currents. We present a four-compartment (4-C) boundary-element (BEM) <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the CSF and is computationally efficient and straightforward to build using freely available software. We propose a way for compensating the omission of CSF by decreasing the skull conductivity of the 3-S <span class="hlt">model</span>, and study the robustness of the 4-C and 3-S <span class="hlt">models</span> to errors in skull conductivity. We generated dense boundary meshes using MRI datasets and automated SimNIBS pipeline. Then, we built a dense 4-C reference <span class="hlt">model</span> using Galerkin BEM, and 4-C and 3-S test <span class="hlt">models</span> using coarser meshes and both Galerkin and collocation BEMs. We compared field topographies of cortical sources, applying various skull conductivities and fitting conductivities that minimized the relative error in 4-C and 3-S <span class="hlt">models</span>. When the CSF was left out from the EEG <span class="hlt">model</span>, our compensated, unbiased approach improved the accuracy of the 3-S <span class="hlt">model</span> considerably compared to the conventional approach, where CSF is neglected without any compensation (mean relative error < 20% vs. > 40%). The error due to the omission of CSF was of the same order in MEG and compensated EEG. EEG has, however, large overall error due to uncertain skull conductivity. Our results show that a realistic 4-C MEG/EEG <span class="hlt">model</span> can be implemented using standard tools and basic BEM, without excessive workload or computational burden. If the CSF is omitted, compensated skull conductivity should be used in EEG. PMID:27472278</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652650','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652650"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Social Anxiety Into a <span class="hlt">Model</span> of College Problem Drinking: Replication and Extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a <span class="hlt">model</span> of college problem drinking, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228 undergraduate volunteers. According to structural equation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (SEM) results, social anxiety was unrelated to alcohol use and was negatively related to drinking consequences. Perceived drinking norms mediated the social anxiety–alcohol use relation and was the variable most strongly associated with problem drinking. College students appear to be unique with respect to drinking and social anxiety. Although the notion of social anxiety alone as a risk factor for problem drinking was unsupported, additional research is necessary to determine whether there is a subset of socially anxious students who have high drinking norms and are in need of intervention. PMID:16938075</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2734404','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2734404"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> home demands into <span class="hlt">models</span> of job strain: Findings from the Work, Family & Health Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koenen, KC; Berkman, LF</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective To integrate home demands with the Demand-Control-Support <span class="hlt">model</span> to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Methods Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child under age 18 in the household signified home demands. The outcome was depressive symptoms based on a shortened version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household (child). There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Conclusions Job strain may be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands. <span class="hlt">Models</span> of job strain should expand to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> family demands. PMID:19001950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139b4703W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139b4703W"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> headgroup structure into the Poisson-Boltzmann <span class="hlt">model</span> of charged lipid membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Muyang; Chen, Er-Qiang; Yang, Shuang; May, Sylvio</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Charged lipids often possess a complex headgroup structure with several spatially separated charges and internal conformational degrees of freedom. We propose a headgroup <span class="hlt">model</span> consisting of two rod-like segments of the same length that form a flexible joint, with three charges of arbitrary sign and valence located at the joint and the two terminal positions. One terminal charge is firmly anchored at the polar-apolar interface of the lipid layer whereas the other two benefit from the orientational degrees of freedom of the two headgroup segments. This headgroup <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the mean-field continuum Poisson-Boltzmann formalism of the electric double layer. For sufficiently small lengths of the two rod-like segments a closed-form expression of the charging free energy is calculated. For three specific examples—a zwitterionic headgroup with conformational freedom and two headgroups that carry an excess charge—we analyze and discuss conformational properties and electrostatic free energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286113"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> parameter uncertainty in Bayesian segmentation <span class="hlt">models</span>: application to hippocampal subfield volumetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Van Leemput, Koen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Many successful segmentation algorithms are based on Bayesian <span class="hlt">models</span> in which prior anatomical knowledge is combined with the available image information. However, these methods typically have many free parameters that are estimated to obtain point estimates only, whereas a faithful Bayesian analysis would also consider all possible alternate values these parameters may take. In this paper, we propose to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the uncertainty of the free parameters in Bayesian segmentation <span class="hlt">models</span> more accurately by using Monte Carlo sampling. We demonstrate our technique by sampling atlas warps in a recent method for hippocampal subfield segmentation, and show a significant improvement in an Alzheimer's disease classification task. As an additional benefit, the method also yields informative "error bars" on the segmentation results for each of the individual sub-structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28215113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28215113"><span>A Loudness <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Time-Varying Sounds <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Binaural Inhibition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Brian C J; Glasberg, Brian R; Varathanathan, Ajanth; Schlittenlacher, Josef</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">model</span> of loudness for time-varying sounds that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the concept of binaural inhibition, namely, that the signal applied to one ear can reduce the internal response to a signal at the other ear. For each ear, the <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the following: a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear; a short-term spectral analysis with greater frequency resolution at low than at high frequencies; calculation of an excitation pattern, representing the magnitudes of the outputs of the auditory filters as a function of center frequency; application of a compressive nonlinearity to the output of each auditory filter; and smoothing over time of the resulting instantaneous specific loudness pattern using an averaging process resembling an automatic gain control. The resulting short-term specific loudness patterns are used to calculate broadly tuned binaural inhibition functions, the amount of inhibition depending on the relative short-term specific loudness at the two ears. The inhibited specific loudness patterns are summed across frequency to give an estimate of the short-term loudness for each ear. The overall short-term loudness is calculated as the sum of the short-term loudness values for the two ears. The long-term loudness for each ear is calculated by smoothing the short-term loudness for that ear, again by a process resembling automatic gain control, and the overall loudness impression is obtained by summing the long-term loudness across ears. The predictions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are more accurate than those of an earlier <span class="hlt">model</span> that did not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> binaural inhibition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318944','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318944"><span>A Loudness <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Time-Varying Sounds <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Binaural Inhibition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Glasberg, Brian R.; Varathanathan, Ajanth; Schlittenlacher, Josef</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">model</span> of loudness for time-varying sounds that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the concept of binaural inhibition, namely, that the signal applied to one ear can reduce the internal response to a signal at the other ear. For each ear, the <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the following: a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear; a short-term spectral analysis with greater frequency resolution at low than at high frequencies; calculation of an excitation pattern, representing the magnitudes of the outputs of the auditory filters as a function of center frequency; application of a compressive nonlinearity to the output of each auditory filter; and smoothing over time of the resulting instantaneous specific loudness pattern using an averaging process resembling an automatic gain control. The resulting short-term specific loudness patterns are used to calculate broadly tuned binaural inhibition functions, the amount of inhibition depending on the relative short-term specific loudness at the two ears. The inhibited specific loudness patterns are summed across frequency to give an estimate of the short-term loudness for each ear. The overall short-term loudness is calculated as the sum of the short-term loudness values for the two ears. The long-term loudness for each ear is calculated by smoothing the short-term loudness for that ear, again by a process resembling automatic gain control, and the overall loudness impression is obtained by summing the long-term loudness across ears. The predictions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are more accurate than those of an earlier <span class="hlt">model</span> that did not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> binaural inhibition. PMID:28215113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345550"><span>Tutorial in medical decision <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> waiting lines and queues using discrete event simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jahn, Beate; Theurl, Engelbert; Siebert, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Karl-Peter</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In most decision-analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> in health care, it is assumed that there is treatment without delay and availability of all required resources. Therefore, waiting times caused by limited resources and their impact on treatment effects and costs often remain unconsidered. Queuing theory enables mathematical analysis and the derivation of several performance measures of queuing systems. Nevertheless, an analytical approach with closed formulas is not always possible. Therefore, simulation techniques are used to evaluate systems that include queuing or waiting, for example, discrete event simulation. To include queuing in decision-analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> requires a basic knowledge of queuing theory and of the underlying interrelationships. This tutorial introduces queuing theory. Analysts and decision-makers get an understanding of queue characteristics, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> features, and its strength. Conceptual issues are covered, but the emphasis is on practical issues like <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the arrival of patients. The treatment of coronary artery disease with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent placement serves as an illustrative queuing example. Discrete event simulation is applied to explicitly <span class="hlt">model</span> resource capacities, to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> waiting lines and queues in the decision-analytic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W1..513Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ISPAr42W1..513Z"><span>a Multi-Resolution Fusion <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Color and Elevation for Semantic Segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, W.; Huang, H.; Schmitz, M.; Sun, X.; Wang, H.; Mayer, H.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>In recent years, the developments for Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN) have led to great improvements for semantic segmentation in various applications including fused remote sensing data. There is, however, a lack of an in-depth study inside FCN <span class="hlt">models</span> which would lead to an understanding of the contribution of individual layers to specific classes and their sensitivity to different types of input data. In this paper, we address this problem and propose a fusion <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> infrared imagery and Digital Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span> (DSM) for semantic segmentation. The goal is to utilize heterogeneous data more accurately and effectively in a single <span class="hlt">model</span> instead of to assemble multiple <span class="hlt">models</span>. First, the contribution and sensitivity of layers concerning the given classes are quantified by means of their recall in FCN. The contribution of different modalities on the pixel-wise prediction is then analyzed based on visualization. Finally, an optimized scheme for the fusion of layers with color and elevation information into a single FCN <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived based on the analysis. Experiments are performed on the ISPRS Vaihingen 2D Semantic Labeling dataset. Comprehensive evaluations demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751291"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of experimentally-derived fiber orientation into a structural constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for planar collagenous tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sacks, Michael S</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Structural constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> integrate information on tissue composition and structure, avoiding ambiguities in material characterization. However, critical structural information (such as fiber orientation) must be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using assumed statistical distributions, with the distribution parameters estimated from fits to the mechanical test data. Thus, full realization of structural approaches continues to be limited without direct quantitative structural information for direct implementation or to validate <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions. In the present study, fiber orientation information obtained using small angle light scattering (SALS) was directly <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a structural constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> based on work by Lanir (J. Biomech., v. 16, pp. 1-12, 1983). Demonstration of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was performed using existing biaxial mechanical and fiber orientation data for native bovine pericardium (Sacks and Chuong, ABME, v.26, pp. 892-902, 1998). The structural constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately predicted the complete measured biaxial mechanical response. An important aspect of this approach is that only a single equibiaxial test to determine the effective fiber stress-strain response and the SALS-derived fiber orientation distribution were required to determine the complete planar biaxial mechanical response. Changes in collagen fiber crimp under equibiaxial strain suggest that, at the meso-scale, fiber deformations follow the global tissue strains. This result supports the assumption of affine strain to estimate the fiber strains. However, future evaluations will have to be performed for tissue subjected to a wider range of strain to more fully validate the current approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.2728W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.2728W"><span>An agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> of stock markets <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> momentum investors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, J. R.; Huang, J. P.; Hui, P. M.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>It has been widely accepted that there exist investors who adopt momentum strategies in real stock markets. Understanding the momentum behavior is of both academic and practical importance. For this purpose, we propose and study a simple agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> of trading <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> momentum investors and random investors. The random investors trade randomly all the time. The momentum investors could be idle, buying or selling, and they decide on their action by implementing an action threshold that assesses the most recent price movement. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce some of the stylized facts observed in real markets, including the fat-tails in returns, weak long-term correlation and scaling behavior in the kurtosis of returns. An analytic treatment of the <span class="hlt">model</span> relates the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to several quantities that can be extracted from real data sets. To illustrate how the <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied, we show that real market data can be used to constrain the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, which in turn provide information on the behavior of momentum investors in different markets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3839642','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3839642"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> time-delays in S-System <span class="hlt">model</span> for reverse engineering genetic networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In any gene regulatory network (GRN), the complex interactions occurring amongst transcription factors and target genes can be either instantaneous or time-delayed. However, many existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches currently applied for inferring GRNs are unable to represent both these interactions simultaneously. As a result, all these approaches cannot detect important interactions of the other type. S-System <span class="hlt">model</span>, a differential equation based approach which has been increasingly applied for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> GRNs, also suffers from this limitation. In fact, all S-System based existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches have been designed to capture only instantaneous interactions, and are unable to infer time-delayed interactions. Results In this paper, we propose a novel Time-Delayed S-System (TDSS) <span class="hlt">model</span> which uses a set of delay differential equations to represent the system dynamics. The ability to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> time-delay parameters in the proposed S-System <span class="hlt">model</span> enables simultaneous <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of both instantaneous and time-delayed interactions. Furthermore, the delay parameters are not limited to just positive integer values (corresponding to time stamps in the data), but can also take fractional values. Moreover, we also propose a new criterion for <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation exploiting the sparse and scale-free nature of GRNs to effectively narrow down the search space, which not only reduces the computation time significantly but also improves <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy. The evaluation criterion systematically adapts the max-min in-degrees and also systematically balances the effect of network accuracy and complexity during optimization. Conclusion The four well-known performance measures applied to the experimental studies on synthetic networks with various time-delayed regulations clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can capture both instantaneous and delayed interactions correctly with high precision. The experiments carried out on two well-known real-life networks, namely IRMA and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2212S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2212S"><span>Benefits of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> spatial organisation of catchments for a semi-distributed hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schumann, Andreas; Oppel, Henning</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>To represent the hydrological behaviour of catchments a <span class="hlt">model</span> should reproduce/reflect the hydrologically most relevant catchment characteristics. These are heterogeneously distributed within a watershed but often interrelated and subject of a certain spatial organisation. Since common <span class="hlt">models</span> are mostly based on fundamental assumptions about hydrological processes, the reduction of variance of catchment properties as well as the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the spatial organisation of the catchment is desirable. We have developed a method that combines the idea of the width-function used for determination of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph with information about soil or topography. With this method we are able to assess the spatial organisation of selected catchment characteristics. An algorithm was developed that structures a watershed into sub-basins and other spatial units to minimise its heterogeneity. The outcomes of this algorithm are used for the spatial setup of a semi-distributed <span class="hlt">model</span>. Since the spatial organisation of a catchment is not bound to a single characteristic, we have to embed information of multiple catchment properties. For this purpose we applied a fuzzy-based method to combine the spatial setup for multiple single characteristics into a union, optimal spatial differentiation. Utilizing this method, we are able to propose a spatial structure for a semi-distributed hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span>, comprising the definition of sub-basins and a zonal classification within each sub-basin. Besides the improved spatial structuring, the performed analysis ameliorates <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in another way. The spatial variability of catchment characteristics, which is considered by a minimum of heterogeneity in the zones, can be considered in a parameter constrained calibration scheme in a case study both options were used to explore the benefits of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the spatial organisation and derived parameter constraints for the parametrisation of a HBV-96 <span class="hlt">model</span>. We use two benchmark</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QSRv...28..120R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QSRv...28..120R"><span>The dilemma of disappearing diatoms: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> diatom dissolution data into palaeoenvironmental <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryves, David B.; Battarbee, Richard W.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Taphonomic issues pose fundamental challenges for Quaternary scientists to recover environmental signals from biological proxies and make accurate inferences of past environments. The problem of microfossil preservation, specifically diatom dissolution, remains an important, but often overlooked, source of error in both qualitative and quantitative reconstructions of key variables from fossil samples, especially those using relative abundance data. A first step to tackling this complex issue is establishing an objective method of assessing preservation (here, diatom dissolution) that can be applied by different analysts and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into routine counting strategies. Here, we establish a methodology for assessment of diatom dissolution under standard light microscopy (LM) illustrated with morphological criteria for a range of major diatom valve shapes. Dissolution data can be applied to numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> (transfer functions) from contemporary samples, and to fossil material to aid interpretation of stratigraphic profiles and taphonomic pathways of individual taxa. Using a surface sediment diatom-salinity training set from the Northern Great Plains (NGP) as an example, we explore a variety of approaches to include dissolution data in salinity inference <span class="hlt">models</span> indirectly and directly. Results show that dissolution data can improve <span class="hlt">models</span>, with apparent dissolution-adjusted error (RMSE) up to 15% lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Internal validation suggests improvements are more modest, with bootstrapped prediction errors (RMSEP) up to 10% lower. When tested on a short core from Devils Lake, North Dakota, which has a historical record of salinity, dissolution-adjusted <span class="hlt">models</span> infer higher values compared to unadjusted <span class="hlt">models</span> during peak salinity of the 1930s-1940s Dust Bowl but nonetheless significantly underestimate peak values. Site-specific factors at Devils Lake associated with effects of lake level change on taphonomy (preservation and re</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A53J..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A53J..08L"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter sensitivity and selection for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> uncertainty in regional climate <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, S.; Mote, P.; Rupp, D. E.; McNeall, D. J.; Sarah, S.; Hawkins, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Many processes - especially those involving clouds - that control climate responses to external forcings are still poorly understood, poorly <span class="hlt">modeled</span>, and/or difficult to observe in nature. As such, <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations representing these processes have large uncertainties. Therefore, even a Global Climate <span class="hlt">Model</span> (GCM)'s `standard' configuration, which has been tuned to reproduce observed climate well, is subject to large uncertainty. To explore the influence of different parameter selections on regional climate, a large global/regional atmospheric perturbed physics ensemble was run using the volunteer computing network weather@home with the goal of finding <span class="hlt">model</span> variants that have small top-of-atmosphere flux imbalance. This configuration reasonably reproduces the observed climates across the western US, while retaining the possibility of a range regional climate sensitivities. After this screening step, a subset of these parameter perturbations are used when downscaling the global <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations with an embedded regional climate <span class="hlt">model</span>. This work aims to identify <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters that influence the quality of regional simulations, improve global and regional <span class="hlt">model</span> performance through improved <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations, and quantify uncertainty in downscaled simulations stemming from error in <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6965G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6965G"><span>Progressive evaluation of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> information into a <span class="hlt">model</span> building process: from scratch to FLEX-TOPO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gharari, Shervan; Gupta, Hoshin; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Although different strategies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of expert and a priori knowledge can help to improve the realism of <span class="hlt">models</span>, no systematic strategy has been presented in the literature for constraining the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to be consistent with the (sometimes) patchy understanding of a <span class="hlt">modeler</span> regarding how the real system might work. Part of the difficulty in doing this is that expert knowledge may not always consist of explicitly quantifiable relationships between physical system characteristics and <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters; rather, it may consist of conceptual understanding about consistency relationships that must exist between various <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter or behavioral relationships that must exist among <span class="hlt">model</span> state variables and/or fluxes. Apart from aforementioned constraints, a unified strategy for measurement of information content in hierarchal <span class="hlt">model</span> building seems lacking. Firstly the <span class="hlt">model</span> structure is built by its building blocks (control volumes or state variables) as well as interconnecting fluxes (formation of control volumes and fluxes). Secondly, parameterizations of <span class="hlt">model</span> are designed, as an example the effect of a specific type of stage-discharge relation for a control volume can be explored. At the final stage the parameter values are quantified. In each step and based on assumptions made, more and more information is added to the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study we try to construct (based on hierarchal <span class="hlt">model</span> building scheme) and constrain parameters of different conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> built on landscape units classified according to their hydrological functions and based on our logical considerations and general lessons from previous studies across the globe for a Luxembourgish catchment. Based on the result, including our basic understanding of how a system may work into hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span> appears to be a powerful tool to achieve higher <span class="hlt">model</span> realism as it leads to <span class="hlt">models</span> with higher performance. Progressive measurement of performance and uncertainty</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760487"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Student Mobility in Achievement Growth <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve <span class="hlt">Model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grady, Matthew W; Beretvas, S Natasha</p> <p>2010-05-28</p> <p>Multiple membership random effects <span class="hlt">models</span> (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (GCM). This study introduces a cross-classified multiple membership growth curve <span class="hlt">model</span> (CCMM-GCM) for <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, for example, academic achievement trajectories in the presence of student mobility. Real data are used to demonstrate and compare growth curve <span class="hlt">model</span> estimates using the CCMM-GCM and a conventional GCM that ignores student mobility. Results indicate that the CCMM-GCM represents a promising option for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> growth for multiple membership data structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26910963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26910963"><span>Statistical integration of tracking and vessel survey data to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> life history differences in habitat <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hazen, Elliott L; Nishizawa, Bungo; Sasaki, Hiroko; Takahashi, Akinori</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Habitat use is often examined at a species or population level, but patterns likely differ within a species, as a function of the sex, breeding colony, and current breeding status of individuals. Hence, within-species differences should be considered in habitat <span class="hlt">models</span> when analyzing and predicting species distributions, such as predicted responses to expected climate change scenarios. Also, species' distribution data obtained by different methods (vessel-survey and individual tracking) are often analyzed separately rather than integrated to improve predictions. Here, we eventually fit generalized additive <span class="hlt">models</span> for Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leuconelas using tracking data from two different breeding colonies in the Northwestern Pacific and visual observer data collected during a research cruise off the coast of western Japan. The tracking-based <span class="hlt">models</span> showed differences among patterns of relative density distribution as a function of life history category (colony, sex, and breeding conditions). The integrated tracking-based and vessel-based bird count <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> ecological states rather than predicting a single surface for the entire species. This study highlights both the importance of including ecological and life history data and integrating multiple data types (tag-based tracking and vessel count) when examining species-environment relationships, ultimately advancing the capabilities of species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I2....7H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I2....7H"><span>a Maximum Entropy <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Bearded Capuchin Monkey Habitat <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Topography and Spectral Unmixing Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howard, A. M.; Bernardes, S.; Nibbelink, N.; Biondi, L.; Presotto, A.; Fragaszy, D. M.; Madden, M.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Movement patterns of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus) in northeastern Brazil are likely impacted by environmental features such as elevation, vegetation density, or vegetation type. Habitat preferences of these monkeys provide insights regarding the impact of environmental features on species ecology and the degree to which they <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these features in movement decisions. In order to evaluate environmental features influencing movement patterns and predict areas suitable for movement, we employed a maximum entropy <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach, using observation points along capuchin monkey daily routes as species presence points. We combined these presence points with spatial data on important environmental features from remotely sensed data on land cover and topography. A spectral mixing analysis procedure was used to generate fraction images that represent green vegetation, shade and soil of the study area. A Landsat Thematic Mapper scene of the area of study was geometrically and atmospherically corrected and used as input in a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) procedure and a linear spectral unmixing approach was used to generate the fraction images. These fraction images and elevation were the environmental layer inputs for our logistic MaxEnt <span class="hlt">model</span> of capuchin movement. Our <span class="hlt">models</span>' predictive power (test AUC) was 0.775. Areas of high elevation (>450 m) showed low probabilities of presence, and percent green vegetation was the greatest overall contributor to <span class="hlt">model</span> AUC. This work has implications for predicting daily movement patterns of capuchins in our field site, as suitability values from our <span class="hlt">model</span> may relate to habitat preference and facility of movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..170...56M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..170...56M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> plant fossil data into species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> is not straightforward: Pitfalls and possible solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno-Amat, Elena; Rubiales, Juan Manuel; Morales-Molino, César; García-Amorena, Ignacio</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The increasing development of species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs) using palaeodata has created new prospects to address questions of evolution, ecology and biogeography from wider perspectives. Palaeobotanical data provide information on the past distribution of taxa at a given time and place and its <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> on <span class="hlt">modelling</span> has contributed to advancing the SDM field. This has allowed, for example, to calibrate <span class="hlt">models</span> under past climate conditions or to validate projected <span class="hlt">models</span> calibrated on current species distributions. However, these data also bear certain shortcomings when used in SDMs that may hinder the resulting ecological outcomes and eventually lead to misleading conclusions. Palaeodata may not be equivalent to present data, but instead frequently exhibit limitations and biases regarding species representation, taxonomy and chronological control, and their inclusion in SDMs should be carefully assessed. The limitations of palaeobotanical data applied to SDM studies are infrequently discussed and often neglected in the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> literature; thus, we argue for the more careful selection and control of these data. We encourage authors to use palaeobotanical data in their SDMs studies and for doing so, we propose some recommendations to improve the robustness, reliability and significance of palaeo-SDM analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...299..202L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...299..202L"><span>A transient electrochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the Donnan effect for all-vanadium redox flow batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Y.; Zhang, B. W.; Bai, B. F.; Zhao, T. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In a typical all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), the ion exchange membrane is directly exposed in the bulk electrolyte. Consequently, the Donnan effect occurs at the membrane/electrolyte (M/E) interfaces, which is critical for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of ion transport through the membrane and the prediction of cell performance. However, unrealistic assumptions in previous VRFB <span class="hlt">models</span>, such as electroneutrality and discontinuities of ionic potential and ion concentrations at the M/E interfaces, lead to simulated results inconsistent with the theoretical analysis of ion adsorption in the membrane. To address this issue, this work proposes a continuous-Donnan effect-<span class="hlt">model</span> using the Poisson equation coupled with the Nernst-Planck equation to describe variable distributions at the M/E interfaces. A one-dimensional transient VRFB <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the Donnan effect is developed. It is demonstrated that the present <span class="hlt">model</span> enables (i) a more realistic simulation of continuous distributions of ion concentrations and ionic potential throughout the membrane and (ii) a more comprehensive estimation for the effect of the fixed charge concentration on species crossover across the membrane and cell performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.758a2022B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.758a2022B"><span>Overall challenges in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micro-mechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> into materials design process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennoura, M.; Aboutajeddine, A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Using materials in engineering design has historically been handled using the paradigm of selecting appropriate materials from the finite set of available material databases. Recent trends, however, have moved toward the tailoring of materials that meet the overall system performance requirements, based on a process called material design. An important building block of this process is micromechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> that relate microstructure to proprieties. Unfortunately, these <span class="hlt">models</span> remain short and include a lot of uncertainties from assumptions and idealizations, which, unavoidably, impacts material design strategy. In this work, candidate methods to deal with micromechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> uncertainties and their drawbacks in material design are investigated. Robust design methods for quantifying uncertainty and managing or mitigating its impact on design performances are reviewed first. These methods include principles for classifying uncertainty, mathematical techniques for evaluating its level degree, and design methods for performing and generating design alternatives, that are relatively insensitive to sources of uncertainty and flexible for admitting design changes or variations. The last section of this paper addresses the limits of the existing approaches from material <span class="hlt">modelling</span> perspective and identifies the research opportunities to overcome the impediment of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micromechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> in material design process.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3335T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3335T"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating <span class="hlt">models</span> that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> climate indices using a Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Model</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive <span class="hlt">models</span> that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These <span class="hlt">models</span> then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Model</span> is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24435736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24435736"><span>Statistical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of human liver <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the variations in shape, size, and material properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Gayzik, Scott; Untaroiu, Costin D; Beillas, Philippe</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs during motor vehicle crashes. Realistic numerical assessments of liver injury risk for the entire occupant population require <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> inter-subject variations into numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>. The main objective of this study was to quantify the shape variations of human liver in a seated posture and the statistical distributions of its material properties. Statistical shape analysis was applied to construct shape <span class="hlt">models</span> of the livers of 15 adult human subjects, recorded in a typical seated (occupant) posture. The principal component analysis was then utilized to obtain the modes of variation, the mean <span class="hlt">model</span>, and 95% statistical boundary shape <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition, a total of 52 tensile tests were performed on the parenchyma of three fresh human livers at four loading rates (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 s^-1) to characterize the rate-dependent and failure properties of the human liver. A FE-based optimization approach was employed to identify the material parameters of an Ogden material <span class="hlt">model</span> for each specimen. The mean material parameters were then determined for each loading rate from the characteristic averages of the stress-strain curves, and a stochastic optimization approach was utilized to determine the standard deviations of the material parameters. Results showed that the first five modes of the human liver shape <span class="hlt">models</span> account for more than 60% of the overall anatomical variations. The distributions of the material parameters combined with the mean and statistical boundary shape <span class="hlt">models</span> could be used to develop probabilistic finite element (FE) <span class="hlt">models</span>, which may help to better understand the variability in biomechanical responses and injuries to the abdominal organs under impact loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176782"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of caffeine into a quantitative <span class="hlt">model</span> of fatigue and sleep.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puckeridge, M; Fulcher, B D; Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A</p> <p>2011-03-21</p> <p>A recent physiologically based <span class="hlt">model</span> of human sleep is extended to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of caffeine on sleep-wake timing and fatigue. The <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the sleep-active neurons of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), the wake-active monoaminergic brainstem populations (MA), their interactions with cholinergic/orexinergic (ACh/Orx) input to MA, and circadian and homeostatic drives. We <span class="hlt">model</span> two effects of caffeine on the brain due to competitive antagonism of adenosine (Ad): (i) a reduction in the homeostatic drive and (ii) an increase in cholinergic activity. By comparing the <span class="hlt">model</span> output to experimental data, constraints are determined on the parameters that describe the action of caffeine on the brain. In accord with experiment, the ranges of these parameters imply significant variability in caffeine sensitivity between individuals, with caffeine's effectiveness in reducing fatigue being highly dependent on an individual's tolerance, and past caffeine and sleep history. Although there are wide individual differences in caffeine sensitivity and thus in parameter values, once the <span class="hlt">model</span> is calibrated for an individual it can be used to make quantitative predictions for that individual. A number of applications of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are examined, using exemplar parameter values, including: (i) quantitative estimation of the sleep loss and the delay to sleep onset after taking caffeine for various doses and times; (ii) an analysis of the system's stable states showing that the wake state during sleep deprivation is stabilized after taking caffeine; and (iii) comparing <span class="hlt">model</span> output successfully to experimental values of subjective fatigue reported in a total sleep deprivation study examining the reduction of fatigue with caffeine. This <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a framework for quantitatively assessing optimal strategies for using caffeine, on an individual basis, to maintain performance during sleep deprivation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149741"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Into the Lyman <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Improve Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, Susan L.; Li Minghuan; Xu Ting; Gomez, Daniel; Yuan Xianglin; Yu Jinming; Liu Zhensheng; Yin Ming; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Lie; Wei Qingyi; Mohan, Radhe; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Martel, Mary; Liao Zhongxing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-{beta}, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) <span class="hlt">model</span> of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen SNPs from 10 different genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX1, MDM2, TGF{beta}, TNF{alpha}, TNFR, MTHFR, MTRR, and VEGF) were genotyped in 141 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. The LKB <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to estimate the risk of severe (grade {>=}3) RP as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with SNPs and patient smoking status <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the <span class="hlt">model</span> as dose-modifying factors. Multivariate analyses were performed by adding significant factors to the MLD <span class="hlt">model</span> in a forward stepwise procedure, with significance assessed using the likelihood-ratio test. Bootstrap analyses were used to assess the reproducibility of results under variations in the data. Results: Five SNPs were selected for inclusion in the multivariate NTCP <span class="hlt">model</span> based on MLD alone. SNPs associated with an increased risk of severe RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, TNF{alpha}, XRCC1 and APEX1. With smoking status included in the multivariate <span class="hlt">model</span>, the SNPs significantly associated with increased risk of RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, and XRCC3. Bootstrap analyses selected a median of 4 SNPs per <span class="hlt">model</span> fit, with the 6 genes listed above selected most often. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that SNPs can significantly improve the predictive ability of the Lyman MLD <span class="hlt">model</span>. With a small number of SNPs, it was possible to distinguish cohorts with >50% risk vs <10% risk of RP when they were exposed to high MLDs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6206084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6206084"><span>Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the NUVEL-1 global plate motion <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. )</p> <p>1990-07-01</p> <p>NUVEL-1 is a new global <span class="hlt">model</span> of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here the authors <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global <span class="hlt">model</span> of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their <span class="hlt">model</span> of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two <span class="hlt">models</span> include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between <span class="hlt">models</span> by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between <span class="hlt">models</span> by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4230744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4230744"><span>A Neural Population <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Dopaminergic Neurotransmission during Complex Voluntary Behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simonyan, Kristina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Assessing brain activity during complex voluntary motor behaviors that require the recruitment of multiple neural sites is a field of active research. Our current knowledge is primarily based on human brain imaging studies that have clear limitations in terms of temporal and spatial resolution. We developed a physiologically informed non-linear multi-compartment stochastic neural <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate functional brain activity coupled with neurotransmitter release during complex voluntary behavior, such as speech production. Due to its state-dependent modulation of neural firing, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in the organization of functional brain circuits controlling speech and language and thus has been <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in our neural population <span class="hlt">model</span>. A rigorous mathematical proof establishing existence and uniqueness of solutions to the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> as well as a computationally efficient strategy to numerically approximate these solutions are presented. Simulated brain activity during the resting state and sentence production was analyzed using functional network connectivity, and graph theoretical techniques were employed to highlight differences between the two conditions. We demonstrate that our <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully reproduces characteristic changes seen in empirical data between the resting state and speech production, and dopaminergic neurotransmission evokes pronounced changes in <span class="hlt">modeled</span> functional connectivity by acting on the underlying biological stochastic neural <span class="hlt">model</span>. Specifically, <span class="hlt">model</span> and data networks in both speech and rest conditions share task-specific network features: both the simulated and empirical functional connectivity networks show an increase in nodal influence and segregation in speech over the resting state. These commonalities confirm that dopamine is a key neuromodulator of the functional connectome of speech control. Based on reproducible characteristic aspects of empirical data, we suggest a number of extensions of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8899H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8899H"><span>Constraining Distributed Catchment <span class="hlt">Models</span> by <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Perceptual Understanding of Spatial Hydrologic Behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Distributed <span class="hlt">models</span> offer the potential to resolve catchment systems in more detail, and therefore simulate the hydrological impacts of spatial changes in catchment forcing (e.g. landscape change). Such <span class="hlt">models</span> tend to contain a large number of poorly defined and spatially varying <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters which are therefore computationally expensive to calibrate. Insufficient data can result in <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter and structural equifinality, particularly when calibration is reliant on catchment outlet discharge behaviour alone. Evaluating spatial patterns of internal hydrological behaviour has the potential to reveal simulations that, whilst consistent with measured outlet discharge, are qualitatively dissimilar to our perceptual understanding of how the system should behave. We argue that such understanding, which may be derived from stakeholder knowledge across different catchments for certain process dynamics, is a valuable source of information to help reject non-behavioural <span class="hlt">models</span>, and therefore identify feasible <span class="hlt">model</span> structures and parameters. The challenge, however, is to convert different sources of often qualitative and/or semi-qualitative information into robust quantitative constraints of <span class="hlt">model</span> states and fluxes, and combine these sources of information together to reject <span class="hlt">models</span> within an efficient calibration framework. Here we present the development of a framework to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> different sources of data to efficiently calibrate distributed catchment <span class="hlt">models</span>. For each source of information, an interval or inequality is used to define the behaviour of the catchment system. These intervals are then combined to produce a hyper-volume in state space, which is used to identify behavioural <span class="hlt">models</span>. We apply the methodology to calibrate the Penn State Integrated Hydrological <span class="hlt">Model</span> (PIHM) at the Wye catchment, Plynlimon, UK. Outlet discharge behaviour is successfully simulated when perceptual understanding of relative groundwater levels between lowland peat, upland peat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475996"><span>Development of QTc prolongation <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> circadian rhythm using harmonic <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Back, Hyun-moon; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Kwon, Kwang-il</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>1. QT prolongation is one of the major safety tests used in the development of a new drug. The ICH guidelines for the evaluation of QT prolongation recommend the use of the in vitro hERG assay and the in vivo telemetry test. However, QT intervals change under normal conditions due to circadian rhythm and can affect the results of the tests. In this study, we developed a PK/PD <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe the QT interval after the administration of astemizole allowing for the normal changes by circadian rhythm. 2. The typical PK parameters of absorption rate constant (ka), volume of distribution (Vc and Vm), metabolism (km), and elimination rate constant (kel and kel-m) were 0.49 h(-1), 4950 L, 20 L, 0.0127 h(-1), 0.0095 h(-1), and 0.95 h(-1), respectively. The final PK/PD <span class="hlt">model</span> was the biophase <span class="hlt">model</span> with the modified harmonic <span class="hlt">model</span>. The typical PK/PD parameters, base QTc interval (QT0), amplitude (T1, T3), period of QTc interval changing (T2, T4), and EC50 were 233 ms, 3.31, 1.5, -9.24 h, 1.85 h, and 0.81 ng/ml, respectively. 3. The PK/PD <span class="hlt">model</span> to explain the changes of the QT interval that allows normal changes in the circadian rhythm after the administration of astemizole was developed successfully. This final <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied to the development of a human <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PCE....99...95S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PCE....99...95S"><span>Transport properties evolution of cement <span class="hlt">model</span> system under degradation - <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of a pore-scale approach into reactive transport <span class="hlt">modelling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seigneur, N.; L'Hôpital, E.; Dauzères, A.; Sammaljärvi, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Labeau, P. E.; Dubus, A.; Detilleux, V.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>This paper describes a multi-scale approach for the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the degradation of <span class="hlt">model</span> cement pastes using reactive transport. It specifically aims at <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> chemistry-transport feedback results from a pore-scale approach into a continuum description. Starting from a numerical representative elementary volume of the <span class="hlt">model</span> cement paste, which was built according to extensive experimental dedicated chacarterizations, this paper provides three separate descriptions of two different degradations: leaching and carbonation. First, 2D pore-scale simulations are performed and predict degradation depths in very good agreement with experiments. Second, 3D pore scale descriptions of how the microstructre evolves provides accurate description of the evolution of transport properties through degradation. Finally, those latter results are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as a feedback law between porosity and effective diffusion coefficient into a 1D continuum approach of reactive transport. This paper provides pore-scale explanations of why reactive transport <span class="hlt">modelling</span> has encountered mitigated success when applied to cementitious materials, especially during carbonation or degradations consisting of precipitation reactions. In addition to that, different degradation <span class="hlt">modellings</span> are in very good agreement with experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17585944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17585944"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> toxin hypothesis into a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of persister formation and dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cogan, N G</p> <p>2007-09-21</p> <p>Biofilms are well known for their extreme tolerance to antibiotics. Recent experimental evidence has indicated the existence of a small fraction of specialized persister cells may be responsible for this tolerance. Although persister cells seem to exist in planktonic bacterial populations, within a biofilm the additional protection offered by the polymeric matrix allows persister cells to evade elimination and serve as a source for re-population. Whether persister cells develop through interactions with toxin/antitoxin modules or are senescent bacteria is an open question. In this investigation we contrast results of the analysis of a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the toxin/antitoxin hypothesis for bacteria in a chemostat with results <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the senescence hypothesis. We find that the persister fraction of the population as a function of washout rate provides a viable distinction between the two hypotheses. We also give simulation results that indicate that a strategy of alternating dose/withdrawal disinfection can be effective in clearing the entire persister and susceptible populations of bacteria. This strategy was considered previously in analysis of a generic <span class="hlt">model</span> of persister formation. We find that extending the <span class="hlt">model</span> of persister formation to include the toxin/antitoxin interactions in a chemostat does not alter the qualitative results that success of the dosing strategy depends on the withdrawal time. While this treatment is restricted to planktonic bacterial populations, it serves as a framework for including persister cells in a spatially dependent biofilm <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723613"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of memory effects in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) <span class="hlt">models</span> and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> memory effects into CG <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG <span class="hlt">models</span> with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143x3128L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143x3128L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of memory effects in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) <span class="hlt">models</span> and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> memory effects into CG <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG <span class="hlt">models</span> with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493375"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of memory effects in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Karniadakis, George Em; Li, Xiantao</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) <span class="hlt">models</span> and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> memory effects into CG <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG <span class="hlt">models</span> with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMES...9..438P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAMES...9..438P"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a prognostic representation of marine nitrogen fixers into the global ocean biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> HAMOCC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulsen, Hanna; Ilyina, Tatiana; Six, Katharina D.; Stemmler, Irene</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of bioavailable nitrogen to the euphotic zone, thereby exerting an important control on ocean biogeochemical cycling. This paper presents the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of prognostic N2 fixers into the HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle <span class="hlt">model</span> (HAMOCC), a component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System <span class="hlt">Model</span> (MPI-ESM). Growth dynamics of N2 fixers in the <span class="hlt">model</span> are based on physiological characteristics of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. The applied temperature dependency confines diazotrophic growth and N2 fixation to the tropical and subtropical ocean roughly between 40°S and 40°N. Simulated large-scale spatial patterns compare well with observations, and the global N2 fixation rate of 135.6 Tg N yr-1 is within the range of current estimates. The vertical distribution of N2 fixation also matches well the observations, with a major fraction of about 85% occurring in the upper 20 m. The observed seasonal variability at the stations BATS and ALOHA is reasonably reproduced, with highest fixation rates in northern summer/fall. Iron limitation was found to be an important factor in controlling the simulated distribution of N2 fixation, especially in the Pacific Ocean. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> component considerably improves the representation of present-day N2 fixation in HAMOCC. It provides the basis for further studies on the role of diazotrophs in global biogeochemical cycles, as well as on the response of N2 fixation to changing environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA592072','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA592072"><span>Scalability of Classical Terramechanics <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Lightweight Vehicle Applications <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Stochastic <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Uncertainty Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-22</p> <p>fitting the dimensionless form of Bekker ?s equation to the data given by the pressure-sinkage test. In a similar approach, the soil parameters associated...accurately predict the performance of light-weight vehicles on deformable terrain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Terramechanics; Robotic vehicles; Bekker and Wong...deformable terrain. 2 KEYWORDS Terramechanics; Robotic vehicles; Bekker and Wong <span class="hlt">models</span>; Soil test bed; Uncertainty propagation; Stochastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28877382"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> fragmentation and non-native species into distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> to inform fluvial fish conservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Andrew T; Papeş, Monica; Long, James M</p> <p>2017-09-06</p> <p>Fluvial fishes face increased imperilment from anthropogenic activities, but the specific factors contributing most to range declines are often poorly understood. For example, the shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) is a fluvial-specialist species experiencing continual range loss, yet how perceived threats have contributed to range loss is largely unknown. We employed species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs) to disentangle which factors are contributing most to shoal bass range loss by estimating a potential distribution based on natural abiotic factors and by estimating a series of current, occupied distributions that also <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> variables characterizing land cover, non-native species, and fragmentation intensity (no fragmentation, dams only, and dams and large impoundments). <span class="hlt">Model</span> construction allowed for interspecific relationships between non-native congeners and shoal bass to vary across fragmentation intensities. Results from the potential distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> estimated shoal bass presence throughout much of their native basin, whereas <span class="hlt">models</span> of current occupied distribution illustrated increased range loss as fragmentation intensified. Response curves from current occupied <span class="hlt">models</span> indicated a potential interaction between fragmentation intensity and the relationship between shoal bass and non-native congeners, wherein non-natives may be favored at the highest fragmentation intensity. Response curves also suggested that free-flowing fragment lengths of > 100 km were necessary to support shoal bass presence. <span class="hlt">Model</span> evaluation, including an independent validation, suggested <span class="hlt">models</span> had favorable predictive and discriminative abilities. Similar approaches that use readily-available, diverse geospatial datasets may deliver insights into the biology and conservation needs of other fluvial species facing similar threats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016095','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016095"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Full-Physics Meteorological <span class="hlt">Model</span> into an Applied Atmospheric Dispersion <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.</p> <p>2004-08-23</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system has been developed to provide a non-meteorologist with tools to predict air pollution transport in regions of complex terrain. This system couples the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Model</span> 5 (MM5) with Earth Tech’s CALMET-CALPUFF system using a unique Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This system is most useful in data-sparse regions, where there are limited observations to initialize the CALMET <span class="hlt">model</span>. The user is able to define the domain of interest, provide details about the source term, and enter a surface weather observation through the GUI. The system then generates initial conditions and time constant boundary conditions for use by MM5. MM5 is run and the results are piped to CALPUFF for the dispersion calculations. Contour plots of pollutant concentration are prepared for the user. The primary advantages of the system are the streamlined application of MM5 and CALMET, limited data requirements, and the ability to run the coupled system on a desktop or laptop computer. In comparison with data collected as part of a field campaign, the new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system shows promise that a full-physics mesoscale <span class="hlt">model</span> can be used in an applied <span class="hlt">modeling</span> system to effectively simulate locally thermally-driven winds with minimal observations as input. An unexpected outcome of this research was how well CALMET represented the locally thermally-driven flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1173103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1173103"><span>Methodology for the <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Passive Component Aging <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into the RAVEN/ RELAP-7 Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mandelli, Diego; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Alfonsi, Andrea; Askin Guler; Tunc Aldemir</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Passive system, structure and components (SSCs) will degrade over their operation life and this degradation may cause to reduction in the safety margins of a nuclear power plant. In traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the event-tree/fault-tree methodology, passive SSC failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data and the true state of a specific plant is not reflected realistically. To address aging effects of passive SSCs in the traditional PRA methodology [1] does consider physics based <span class="hlt">models</span> that account for the operating conditions in the plant, however, [1] does not include effects of surveillance/inspection. This paper represents an overall methodology for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of aging <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of passive components into the RAVEN/RELAP-7 environment which provides a framework for performing dynamic PRA. Dynamic PRA allows consideration of both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties (including those associated with maintenance activities) in a consistent phenomenological and probabilistic framework and is often needed when there is complex process/hardware/software/firmware/ human interaction [2]. Dynamic PRA has gained attention recently due to difficulties in the traditional PRA <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of aging effects of passive components using physics based <span class="hlt">models</span> and also in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of digital instrumentation and control systems. RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control Environment) [3] is a software package under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as an online control logic driver and post-processing tool. It is coupled to the plant transient code RELAP-7 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) also currently under development at INL [3], as well as RELAP 5 [4]. The overall methodology aims to: • Address multiple aging mechanisms involving large number of components in a computational feasible manner where sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149419"><span>Applying a Hypoxia-<span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> TCP <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Experimental Data on Rat Sarcoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruggieri, Ruggero; Stavreva, Nadejda; Naccarato, Stefania; Stavrev, Pavel</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Purpose: To verify whether a tumor control probability (TCP) <span class="hlt">model</span> which mechanistically <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> acute and chronic hypoxia is able to describe animal in vivo dose-response data, exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. Methods and Materials: The investigated TCP <span class="hlt">model</span> accounts for tumor repopulation, reoxygenation of chronic hypoxia, and fluctuating oxygenation of acute hypoxia. Using the maximum likelihood method, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is fitted to Fischer-Moulder data on Wag/Rij rats, inoculated with rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112, and irradiated in vivo using different fractionation schemes. This data set is chosen because two of the experimental dose-response curves exhibit an inverse dose behavior, which is interpreted as due to reoxygenation. The tested TCP <span class="hlt">model</span> is complex, and therefore, in vivo cell survival data on the same BA1112 cell line from Reinhold were added to Fischer-Moulder data and fitted simultaneously with a corresponding cell survival function. Results: The obtained fit to the combined Fischer-Moulder-Reinhold data was statistically acceptable. The best-fit values of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters for which information exists were in the range of published values. The cell survival curves of well-oxygenated and hypoxic cells, computed using the best-fit values of the radiosensitivities and the initial number of clonogens, were in good agreement with the corresponding in vitro and in situ experiments of Reinhold. The best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters were used to recompute the TCP for non-small cell lung cancer patients as a function of the number of fractions, TCP(n). Conclusions: The investigated TCP <span class="hlt">model</span> adequately describes animal in vivo data exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. The TCP(n) curve computed for non-small cell lung cancer patients with the best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters confirms previously obtained abrupt reduction in TCP for n < 10, thus warning against the adoption of severely hypofractionated schedules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3654L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3654L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> short bottom length scale perturbations for tsunami source treatment in long wave <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Løvholt, Finn; Pedersen, Geir</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Tsunami generation by complex sources such as earthquakes with non-uniform slip and possible splay faults, slumps and submarine landslides often involve small lateral extents. However, it may be unclear how to treat the source terms originating from short scales, or to quantify which extent the short scales influence the wave generation. Due to the large geographical scale of the tsunami phenomenon, it is still necessary to resort to the application of long wave <span class="hlt">models</span> for the propagation and run-up parts. A crucial question is then how well complex sources may be described by simplified source <span class="hlt">models</span>, which may be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> directly in a long wave framework. A related question is what requirements the long wave <span class="hlt">model</span> must meet to facilitate such an approach. We address this issue through analysis of both earthquake and slide cases, including experiments. It turns out that waves generated from bottom sources (slides, earthquakes, but not, for instance, asteroid impacts) are near or within the realm of dispersive long wave equations, but that the source itself often must be approximately treated with a more general theory, even though a full simulation with primitive equations may not be needed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992758"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span>-Based Detection of Radioactive Contraband for Harbor Defense <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Compton Scattering Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M</p> <p>2010-03-02</p> <p>The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem is maintaining national security for any country. Photon emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. This problem becomes especially important when ships are intercepted by U.S. Coast Guard harbor patrols searching for contraband. The development of a sequential <span class="hlt">model</span>-based processor that captures both the underlying transport physics of gamma-ray emissions including Compton scattering and the measurement of photon energies offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. The inclusion of a basic radionuclide representation of absorbed/scattered photons at a given energy along with interarrival times is used to extract the physics information available from the noisy measurements portable radiation detection systems used to interdict contraband. It is shown that this physics representation can <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> scattering physics leading to an 'extended' <span class="hlt">model</span>-based structure that can be used to develop an effective sequential detection technique. The resulting <span class="hlt">model</span>-based processor is shown to perform quite well based on data obtained from a controlled experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22525664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22525664"><span>EVOLUTIONARY <span class="hlt">MODELS</span> OF SUPER-EARTHS AND MINI-NEPTUNES <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> COOLING AND MASS LOSS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We construct <span class="hlt">models</span> of the structural evolution of super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type exoplanets with H{sub 2}–He envelopes, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> radiative cooling and XUV-driven mass loss. We conduct a parameter study of these <span class="hlt">models</span>, focusing on initial mass, radius, and envelope mass fractions, as well as orbital distance, metallicity, and the specific prescription for mass loss. From these calculations, we investigate how the observed masses and radii of exoplanets today relate to the distribution of their initial conditions. Orbital distance and the initial envelope mass fraction are the most important factors determining planetary evolution, particularly radius evolution. Initial mass also becomes important below a “turnoff mass,” which varies with orbital distance, with mass–radius curves being approximately flat for higher masses. Initial radius is the least important parameter we study, with very little difference between the hot start and cold start limits after an age of 100 Myr. <span class="hlt">Model</span> sets with no mass loss fail to produce results consistent with observations, but a plausible range of mass-loss scenarios is allowed. In addition, we present scenarios for the formation of the Kepler-11 planets. Our best fit to observations of Kepler-11b and Kepler-11c involves formation beyond the snow line, after which they moved inward, circularized, and underwent a reduced degree of mass loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006775','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006775"><span>Supersonic propulsion simulation by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> component <span class="hlt">models</span> in the large perturbation inlet (LAPIN) computer code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cole, Gary L.; Richard, Jacques C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An approach to simulating the internal flows of supersonic propulsion systems is presented. The approach is based on a fairly simple modification of the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code. LAPIN uses a quasi-one dimensional, inviscid, unsteady formulation of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved using a shock capturing, finite difference algorithm. The original code, developed for simulating supersonic inlets, includes engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and variable duct geometry, by means of source terms in the equations. The source terms also provide a mechanism for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span>, with the inlet, propulsion system components such as compressor stages, combustors, and turbine stages. This requires each component to be distributed axially over a number of grid points. Because of the distributed nature of such components, this representation should be more accurate than a lumped parameter <span class="hlt">model</span>. Components can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by performance map(s), which in turn are used to compute the source terms. The general approach is described. Then, simulation of a compressor/fan stage is discussed to show the approach in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H13A1369L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H13A1369L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatially explicit crown light competition into a <span class="hlt">model</span> of canopy transpiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loranty, M. M.; Mackay, D. S.; Roberts, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.; Traver, E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Stomatal conductance parameterized in a transpiration <span class="hlt">model</span> has been shown to vary spatially for aspen ( Populus tremuloides) and alder (Alnus incana) growing along a moisture gradient. We hypothesized that competition for light within the canopy would explain some of this variation. Sap flux data was collected over 10 days in 2004, and 30 days in 2005 at a 1.5 ha site near the WLEF AmeriFlux tower in the Chequmegon National Forest near Park Falls, Wisconsin. We used inverse <span class="hlt">modeling</span> with the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) to estimate values of GSref for individual trees. Competition data for individual aspen sampled for sap flux was collected in August 2006. The number, height, DBH, and location of all competitors within 5 meters of each flux tree were recorded. Preliminary geostatistical analysis indicates that the number of competitor trees varies spatially for aspen. We hypothesize that height and species specific crown characteristics of competitor trees will have a spatially variable affect on transpiration via light attenuation. Furthermore, a simple light competition term will be able to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> this variability into the TREES transpiration <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117Q2495P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..117Q2495P"><span><span class="hlt">Models</span> for attenuation in marine sediments that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> structural relaxation processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pierce, Allan D.; Carey, William M.; Lynch, James F.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Biot's <span class="hlt">model</span> leads to an attenuation coefficient at low frequencies that is proportional to ω2, and such is consistent with physical <span class="hlt">models</span> of viscous attenuation of fluid flows through narrow constrictions driven by pressure differences between larger fluid pockets within the granular configuration. Much data suggests, however, that the attenuation coefficient is linear in ω for some sediments and over a wide range of frequencies. A common <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts such a dependence stems from theoretical work by Stoll and Bryan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 47, 1440 (1970)], in which the elastic constants of the solid frame are taken to be complex numbers, with small constant imaginary parts. Such invariably leads to a linear ω dependence at sufficiently low frequencies and this conflicts with common intuitive notions. The present paper <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> structural relaxation, with a generalization of the formulations of Hall [Phys. Rev. 73, 775 (1948)] and Nachman, Smith, and Waag [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1584 (1990)]. The mathematical form and plausibility of such is established, and it is shown that the dependence is as ω2 at low frequencies, and that a likely realization is one where the dependence is linear in ω at intermediate frequency ranges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26993615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26993615"><span>Cardiac MRI based numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of left ventricular fluid dynamics with mitral valve <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Su, Boyang; Tan, Ru San; Tan, Ju Le; Guo, Kenneth Wei Qiang; Zhang, Jun Mei; Leng, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaodan; Allen, John Carson; Zhong, Liang</p> <p>2016-05-03</p> <p>Recent numerical studies were focused on the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of flow in patient-specific left ventricle (LV); however, the mitral valve (MV) was usually excluded. In this study, both patient-specific LV and MV were <span class="hlt">modeled</span> to achieve a more realistic intraventricular flow. Cardiac MRI images were acquired from a pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patient and a healthy volunteer, and manual segmentation was conducted to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) LV and MV geometries at each frame. Based on these 3D geometries, vortex formation time (VFT) was derived, and the values were 4.0 and 6.5 for the normal subject and the PAH patient, respectively. Based on studies in the literature, VTF in the healthy subject fell within the normal range, while that in the PAH patient exceeded the threshold for normality. The vortex structures in the LV clearly showed that the vortex ring was initiated from the tips of the MV instead of the mitral annulus. The excessive VFT during the rapid filling phase in the PAH patient resulted in a trailing flow structure behind the primary vortex ring, which was not observed in the normal subject. It can be deduced from this study that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the MV into a patient-specific <span class="hlt">model</span> is necessary to produce more reasonable VFT and intraventricular flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452926"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> ecological data and associated uncertainty in bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: methodology development and case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Laender, Frederik; Van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J; Soetaert, Karline</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">models</span> predict internal concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> key gain/loss processes reflecting the ecology of the exposed species and the characteristics of the chemical. Here, we propose a new methodology that uses ecological data and the principle of mass balance in food webs to estimate bioaccumulation in food webs. To this end, we combine linear inverse <span class="hlt">models</span> (LIMs) that estimate food web flows based on mass balance with a mechanistic bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">model</span> (OMEGA). In a case study we show that uncertainty ranges on bioaccumulation predictions were on average estimated a factor of 4 lower by LIM-OMEGA than by an OMEGA application that does not consider mass balance within food webs, most notably for chemicals with log Kow > 5, reflecting an increasing importance of uptake through food ingestion for those chemicals. Ranges of internal concentrations predicted by LIM-OMEGA were smaller in enclosures with fish, as strong predation pressure from the latter on mesozooplankton constrains food web flows and thus bioaccumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475685"><span>The Laminar Cortex <span class="hlt">Model</span>: A New Continuum Cortex <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Laminar Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Du, Jiaxin; Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Local field potentials (LFPs) are widely used to study the function of local networks in the brain. They are also closely correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal, the predominant contrast mechanism in functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed a new laminar cortex <span class="hlt">model</span> (LCM) to simulate the amplitude and frequency of LFPs. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> combines the laminar architecture of the cerebral cortex and multiple continuum <span class="hlt">models</span> to simulate the collective activity of cortical neurons. The five cortical layers (layer I, II/III, IV, V, and VI) are simulated as separate continuum <span class="hlt">models</span> between which there are synaptic connections. The LCM was used to simulate the dynamics of the visual cortex under different conditions of visual stimulation. LFPs are reported for two kinds of visual stimulation: general visual stimulation and intermittent light stimulation. The power spectra of LFPs were calculated and compared with existing empirical data. The LCM was able to produce spontaneous LFPs exhibiting frequency-inverse (1/ƒ) power spectrum behaviour. Laminar profiles of current source density showed similarities to experimental data. General stimulation enhanced the oscillation of LFPs corresponding to gamma frequencies. During simulated intermittent light stimulation, the LCM captured the fundamental as well as high order harmonics as previously reported. The power spectrum expected with a reduction in layer IV neurons, often observed with focal cortical dysplasias associated with epilepsy was also simulated. PMID:23093925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=membership&pg=4&id=EJ886602','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=membership&pg=4&id=EJ886602"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Student Mobility in Achievement Growth <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Multiple membership random effects <span class="hlt">models</span> (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cross-classified&pg=2&id=EJ886602','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cross-classified&pg=2&id=EJ886602"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Student Mobility in Achievement Growth <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Multiple membership random effects <span class="hlt">models</span> (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180018','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180018"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> food web dynamics into ecological restoration: A <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for river ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bellmore, J. Ryan; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Newsom, Michael; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Dombroski, Daniel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a <span class="hlt">model</span> that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon. Three restoration strategies were simulated: riparian vegetation restoration, nutrient augmentation via salmon carcass addition, and side-channel reconnection. We also added populations of nonnative aquatic snails and fish to the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> food web to explore how changes in food web structure mediate responses to restoration. Simulations suggest that side-channel reconnection may be a better strategy than carcass addition and vegetation planting for improving conditions for salmon in this river segment. However, <span class="hlt">modeled</span> responses were strongly sensitive to changes in the structure of the food web. The addition of nonnative snails and fish modified pathways of energy through the food web, which negated restoration improvements. This finding illustrates that forecasting responses to restoration may require accounting for the structure of food webs, and that changes in this structure—as might be expected with the spread of invasive species—could compromise restoration outcomes. Unlike habitat-based approaches to restoration assessment that focus on the direct effects of physical habitat conditions on single species of interest, our approach dynamically links the success of target organisms to the success of competitors, predators, and prey. By elucidating the direct and indirect pathways by which restoration affects target species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078716"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> food web dynamics into ecological restoration: a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for river ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellmore, J Ryan; Benjamin, Joseph R; Newsom, Michael; Bountry, Jennifer A; Dombroski, Daniel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these complexities into river restoration planning, we constructed a <span class="hlt">model</span> that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the Methow River, Washington, USA, a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon. Three restoration strategies were simulated: riparian vegetation restoration, nutrient augmentation via salmon carcass addition, and side channel reconnection. We also added populations of nonnative aquatic snails and fish to the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> food web to explore how changes in food web structure mediate responses to restoration. Simulations suggest that side channel reconnection may be a better strategy than carcass addition and vegetation planting for improving conditions for salmon in this river segment. However, <span class="hlt">modeled</span> responses were strongly sensitive to changes in the structure of the food web. The addition of nonnative snails and fish modified pathways of energy through the food web, which negated restoration improvements. This finding illustrates that forecasting responses to restoration may require accounting for the structure of food webs, and that changes in this structure, as might be expected with the spread of invasive species, could compromise restoration outcomes. Unlike habitat-based approaches to restoration assessment that focus on the direct effects of physical habitat conditions on single species of interest, our approach dynamically links the success of target organisms to the success of competitors, predators, and prey. By elucidating the direct and indirect pathways by which restoration affects target species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2487..190C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2487..190C"><span>ROC analysis of ATR from SAR images using a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based recognizer <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> pose information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cyganski, David; King, Brian M.; Vaz, Richard F.; Orr, John A.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>An automatic taget recognition (ATR) technique developed by the authors features analytically derived object <span class="hlt">models</span> which are formed from entire image suites, yet are compact and allow a direct target recognition and pose determination procedure. In contrast to the pose-invariant information used to form the <span class="hlt">models</span> in conventional approaches, view-dependent information is retained in the formation of the compact <span class="hlt">models</span> for this new approach. All <span class="hlt">model</span>-based ATR systems are confronted with the problem of image variation as a function of viewing angle. This problem can be addressed by use of an exhaustive library of views, at the expense of a large suite of literal images and a computationally intensive search-based recognition process. Means for overcoming these storage and processing obstacles have traditionally invloved some type of view-independent target representation, often developed from some composite view of the target over the viewing angles of interest. This results in a much more compact target <span class="hlt">model</span>, and a more direct recognition process. Unfortunately, the gains in storage and computational requirements of these invariant algorithms come at the price of diminished target discrimination capability. The new algorithm <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> pose as a fundamental parameter which is solved for as part of the recognition process, and does not discard the pose-related information which is relevant to target recognition. In this paper, the newly developed technique is applied to synthetic aperture radar images to develop receiver operating characteristic curves in the presence of both multiplicative noise and clutter. Comparative curves are also developed for a conventional generalized quandratic classifier ATR system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23513446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23513446"><span>A land use regression <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> data on industrial point source pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Li; Wang, Yuming; Li, Peiwu; Ji, Yaqin; Kong, Shaofei; Li, Zhiyong; Bai, Zhipeng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Advancing the understanding of the spatial aspects of air pollution in the city regional environment is an area where improved methods can be of great benefit to exposure assessment and policy support. We created land use regression (LUR) <span class="hlt">models</span> for SO2, NO2 and PM10 for Tianjin, China. Traffic volumes, road networks, land use data, population density, meteorological conditions, physical conditions and satellite-derived greenness, brightness and wetness were used for predicting SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentrations. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> data on industrial point sources to improve LUR <span class="hlt">model</span> performance. In order to consider the impact of different sources, we calculated the PSIndex, LSIndex and area of different land use types (agricultural land, industrial land, commercial land, residential land, green space and water area) within different buffer radii (1 to 20 km). This method makes up for the lack of consideration of source impact based on the LUR <span class="hlt">model</span>. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with gaseous pollutant concentrations such as SO2 and NO2. R2 values of the multiple linear regression equations for SO2, NO2 and PM10 were 0.78, 0.89 and 0.84, respectively, and the RMSE values were 0.32, 0.18 and 0.21, respectively. <span class="hlt">Model</span> predictions at validation monitoring sites went well with predictions generally within 15% of measured values. Compared to the relationship between dependent variables and simple variables (such as traffic variables or meteorological condition variables), the relationship between dependent variables and integrated variables was more consistent with a linear relationship. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction and health effects assessment on the spatial distribution of air pollution in the city region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224031"><span>Bias in diet determination: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> traditional methods in Bayesian mixing <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There are not "universal methods" to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing <span class="hlt">models</span> (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators' diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal's diet the sea lion's did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP's diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs' estimates, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys' contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators' diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818279"><span>Bias in Diet Determination: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Traditional Methods in Bayesian Mixing <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There are not “universal methods” to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing <span class="hlt">models</span> (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators’ diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal’s diet the sea lion’s did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP’s diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs’ estimates, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys’ contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators’ diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RMRE...49.3947S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RMRE...49.3947S"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of Dynamic Rock Fracture Process with a Rate-Dependent Combined Continuum Damage-Embedded Discontinuity <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Microstructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saksala, Timo</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This paper deals with numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of rock fracture under dynamic loading. For this end, a combined continuum damage-embedded discontinuity <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied in finite element <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of crack propagation in rock. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, the strong loading rate sensitivity of rock is captured by the rate-dependent continuum scalar damage <span class="hlt">model</span> that controls the pre-peak nonlinear hardening part of rock behaviour. The post-peak exponential softening part of the rock behaviour is governed by the embedded displacement discontinuity <span class="hlt">model</span> describing the mode I, mode II and mixed mode fracture of rock. Rock heterogeneity is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in the present approach by random description of the rock mineral texture based on the Voronoi tessellation. The <span class="hlt">model</span> performance is demonstrated in numerical examples where the uniaxial tension and compression tests on rock are simulated. Finally, the dynamic three-point bending test of a semicircular disc is simulated in order to show that the <span class="hlt">model</span> correctly predicts the strain rate-dependent tensile strengths as well as the failure modes of rock in this test. Special emphasis is laid on <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the loading rate sensitivity of tensile strength of Laurentian granite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987767','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987767"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> cardiac-induced lung tissue motion in a breathing motion <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, Benjamin M.; Santhanam, Anand; Thomas, David; Min, Yugang; Lamb, James M.; Neylon, Jack; Jani, Shyam; Gaudio, Sergio; Srinivasan, Subashini; Ennis, Daniel; Low, Daniel A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a cardiac-induced lung motion <span class="hlt">model</span> to be integrated into an existing breathing motion <span class="hlt">model</span>. Methods: The authors’ proposed cardiac-induced lung motion <span class="hlt">model</span> represents the lung tissue's specific response to the subject's cardiac cycle. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is mathematically defined as a product of a converging polynomial function h of the cardiac phase (c) and the maximum displacement \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\smash{\\mathord{\\buildrel{\\lower3pt\\hbox{\\scriptscriptstyle\\rightharpoonup}}\\over \\gamma } ( {\\mathord{\\buildrel{\\lower3pt\\hbox{\\scriptscriptstyle\\rightharpoonup}}\\over X} _0 } )}\\end{document}γ⇀(X⇀0) of each voxel (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\smash{\\mathord{\\buildrel{\\lower3pt\\hbox{\\scriptscriptstyle\\rightharpoonup}}\\over X} _0 }\\end{document}X⇀0) among all the cardiac phases. The function h(c) was estimated from cardiac-gated MR imaging of ten healthy volunteers using an Akaike Information Criteria optimization algorithm. For each volunteer, a total of 24 short-axis and 18 radial planar views were acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner during a series of 12–15 s breath-hold maneuvers. Each view contained 30 temporal frames of equal time-duration beginning with the end-diastolic cardiac phase. The frames in each of the planar views were resampled to create a set of three-dimensional (3D) anatomical volumes representing thoracic anatomy at different cardiac phases. A 3D multiresolution optical flow deformable image registration algorithm was used to quantify the difference</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6183P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6183P"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> H2 Dynamics and Inhibition into a Microbially Based Methanogenesis <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Restored Wetland Sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pal, David; Jaffe, Peter</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Estimates of global CH4 emissions from wetlands indicate that wetlands are the largest natural source of CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper, we propose that there is a missing component to these <span class="hlt">models</span> that should be addressed. CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are multiple sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane <span class="hlt">models</span> propionate is used as a <span class="hlt">model</span> carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2, while the H2 and CO2 are used to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. Changing planted species, or genetically modifying new species of plants may control this transport of soil gases. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. The results of an incubation study were combined with a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of propionate degradation for methanogenesis that also examines other natural parameters (i.e. gas transport through plants). This presentation examines how we would expect this <span class="hlt">model</span> to behave in a natural field setting with changing sulfate and carbon loading schemes. These changes can be controlled through new plant species and other management practices. Next, we compare the behavior of two variations of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, with or without the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of H2 interactions, with changing sulfate, carbon loading and root volatilization. Results show that while the <span class="hlt">models</span> behave similarly there may be a discrepancy of nearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030322&hterms=Hawaii+Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHawaii%2BPlate%2BTectonics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030322&hterms=Hawaii+Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHawaii%2BPlate%2BTectonics"><span>No-net-rotation <span class="hlt">model</span> of current plate velocities <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> plate motion <span class="hlt">model</span> NUVEL-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>NNR-NUVEL1 is presented which is a <span class="hlt">model</span> of plate velocities relative to the unique reference frame defined by requiring no-net-rotation of the lithosphere while constraining relative plate velocities to equal those in global plate motion <span class="hlt">model</span> NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al., 1990). In NNR-NUVEL1, the Pacific plate rotates in a right-handed sense relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 0.67 deg/m.y. about 63 deg S, 107 deg E. At Hawaii the Pacific plate moves relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 70 mm/yr, which is 25 mm/yr slower than the Pacific plate moves relative to the hotspots. Differences between NNR-NUVEL1 and HS2-NUVEL1 are described. The no-net-rotation reference frame differs significantly from the hotspot reference frame. If the difference between reference frames is caused by motion of the hotspots relative to a mean-mantle reference frame, then hotspots beneath the Pacific plate move with coherent motion towards the east-southeast. Alternatively, the difference between reference frames can show that the uniform drag, no-net-torque reference frame, which is kinematically equivalent to the no-net-rotation reference frame, is based on a dynamically incorrect premise.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B11F0525A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B11F0525A"><span>Soil Fluxomics: Disentangling Microbial Group Specific Metabolism by <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of 13C-<span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> into PLFAs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Apostel, C.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Dippold, M. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Soils are the largest terrestrial C sinks and microorganisms are the most important drivers of organic matter (OM) dynamics in soils: C allocation to ana- or catabolism in microbial cells is the decisive step, whether C gets oxidized to CO2 or whether it is allocated to microbial biomass, which, after cell death can be stabilized in soils. The metabolic parameter describing the ratio between the two fluxes is the carbon use efficiency (CUE), which can be assessed by position-specific labeling followed by metabolic flux <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. However, to disentangle the single microbial groups' contribution to the bulk soil CUE, a tracing of individual groups metabolism is necessary. We assessed short-term (3 and 10 days) transformations of monosaccharides by adding position-specifically 13C labeled glucose to soil in a field experiment. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of 13C in the microbial PLFAs enabled us to distinguish individual microbial groups metabolic fluxes and compare their C-utilization efficiency using a quantitative C-flux <span class="hlt">model</span>. The position-specific pattern in PLFAs revealed two sets of microorganisms: one metabolized glucose mainly by glycolysis and the other mainly by the pentose-phosphate pathway, which results in a higher CUE. Both of those sets included prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic microorganisms. This demonstrates that phylogenetic grouping is not decisive for the metabolic behavior of a microbial group and that the contribution of individual group members to the soil C fluxes cannot be concluded from their phylogeny.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294283"><span>Anisotropic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple damage mechanisms for multiscale simulation of dental enamel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>An anisotropic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed in the framework of finite deformation to capture several damage mechanisms occurring in the microstructure of dental enamel, a hierarchical bio-composite. It provides the basis for a homogenization approach for an efficient multiscale (in this case: multiple hierarchy levels) investigation of the deformation and damage behavior. The influence of tension-compression asymmetry and fiber-matrix interaction on the nonlinear deformation behavior of dental enamel is studied by 3D micromechanical simulations under different loading conditions and fiber lengths. The complex deformation behavior and the characteristics and interaction of three damage mechanisms in the damage process of enamel are well captured. The proposed constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> anisotropic damage is applied to the first hierarchical level of dental enamel and validated by experimental results. The effect of the fiber orientation on the damage behavior and compressive strength is studied by comparing micro-pillar experiments of dental enamel at the first hierarchical level in multiple directions of fiber orientation. A very good agreement between computational and experimental results is found for the damage evolution process of dental enamel. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594041"><span>Alternative Methods of Classifying Eating Disorders: <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Comorbid Psychopathology and Associated Features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing recognition of the limitations of current approaches to psychiatric classification. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the eating disorders (EDs). Several alternative methods of classifying EDs have been proposed, which can be divided into two major groups: 1) those that have classified individuals on the basis of disordered eating symptoms; and, 2) those that have classified individuals on the basis of comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Several reviews have addressed symptom-based approaches to ED classification, but we are aware of no paper that has critically examined comorbidity-based systems. Thus, in this paper, we review <span class="hlt">models</span> of classifying EDs that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> information about comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Early approaches are described first, followed by more recent scholarly contributions to comorbidity-based ED classification. Importantly, several areas of overlap among the classification schemes are identified that may have implications for future research. In particular, we note similarities between early <span class="hlt">models</span> and newer studies in the salience of impulsivity, compulsivity, distress, and inhibition versus risk taking. Finally, we close with directions for future work, with an emphasis on neurobiologically-informed research to elucidate basic behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of comorbidity-based ED classes, as well as implications for treatment. PMID:23416343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500195','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500195"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> measured valve properties into a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of a lymphatic vessel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Macaskill, C.; Moore, J.E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An existing lumped-parameter <span class="hlt">model</span> of multiple lymphangions (lymphatic vascular segments) in series is adapted for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of recent physiological measurements of lymphatic vascular properties. The new data show very marked nonlinearity of the passive pressure-diameter relation during distension, relative to comparable blood vessels, and complex valve behaviour. Since lymph is transported as a result of either the active contraction or the passive squeezing of vascular segments situated between two one-way valves, the performance of these valves is of primary importance. The valves display hysteresis (the opening and closing pressure-drop thresholds differ), a bias to staying open (both state changes occur when the trans-valve pressure drop is adverse), and pressure-drop threshold dependence on transmural pressure. These properties, in combination with the strong nonlinearity that valve operation represents, have in turn caused intriguing numerical problems in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and we describe numerical stratagems by which we have overcome the problems. The principal problem is also generalised into a relatively simple mathematical example, for which solution detail is provided using two different solvers. PMID:23387996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118276','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118276"><span>Conditional spectrum computation <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple causal earthquakes and ground-motion prediction <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lin, Ting; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The conditional spectrum (CS) is a target spectrum (with conditional mean and conditional standard deviation) that links seismic hazard information with ground-motion selection for nonlinear dynamic analysis. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) estimates the ground-motion hazard by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the aleatory uncertainties in all earthquake scenarios and resulting ground motions, as well as the epistemic uncertainties in ground-motion prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> (GMPMs) and seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span>. Typical CS calculations to date are produced for a single earthquake scenario using a single GMPM, but more precise use requires consideration of at least multiple causal earthquakes and multiple GMPMs that are often considered in a PSHA computation. This paper presents the mathematics underlying these more precise CS calculations. Despite requiring more effort to compute than approximate calculations using a single causal earthquake and GMPM, the proposed approach produces an exact output that has a theoretical basis. To demonstrate the results of this approach and compare the exact and approximate calculations, several example calculations are performed for real sites in the western United States. The results also provide some insights regarding the circumstances under which approximate results are likely to closely match more exact results. To facilitate these more precise calculations for real applications, the exact CS calculations can now be performed for real sites in the United States using new deaggregation features in the U.S. Geological Survey hazard mapping tools. Details regarding this implementation are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208168','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208168"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Wheeled Vehicle <span class="hlt">Model</span> in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> a wheeled vehicle <span class="hlt">model</span> for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle <span class="hlt">model</span> to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697904"><span>A Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> of lightness perception that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> spatial variation in the illumination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allred, Sarah R.; Brainard, David H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The lightness of a test stimulus depends in a complex manner on the context in which it is viewed. To predict lightness, it is necessary to leverage measurements of a feasible number of contextual configurations into predictions for a wider range of configurations. Here we pursue this goal, using the idea that lightness results from the visual system's attempt to provide stable information about object surface reflectance. We develop a Bayesian algorithm that estimates both illumination and reflectance from image luminance, and link perceived lightness to the algorithm's estimates of surface reflectance. The algorithm resolves ambiguity in the image through the application of priors that specify what illumination and surface reflectances are likely to occur in viewed scenes. The prior distributions were chosen to allow spatial variation in both illumination and surface reflectance. To evaluate our <span class="hlt">model</span>, we compared its predictions to a data set of judgments of perceived lightness of test patches embedded in achromatic checkerboards (Allred, Radonjić, Gilchrist, & Brainard, 2012). The checkerboard stimuli <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the large variation in luminance that is a pervasive feature of natural scenes. In addition, the luminance profile of the checks both near to and remote from the central test patches was systematically manipulated. The manipulations provided a simplified version of spatial variation in illumination. The <span class="hlt">model</span> can account for effects of overall changes in image luminance and the dependence of such changes on spatial location as well as some but not all of the more detailed features of the data. PMID:23814073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120u3101W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120u3101W"><span>Exciton delocalization <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> drift-diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zi Shuai; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the charge-generation process is highly important to understand device physics and optimize power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Free carriers are generated by both ultrafast exciton delocalization and slow exciton diffusion and dissociation at the heterojunction interface. In this work, we developed a systematic numerical simulation to describe the charge-generation process by a modified drift-diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span>. The transport, recombination, and collection of free carriers are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> to fully capture the device response. The theoretical results match well with the state-of-the-art high-performance organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the increase of exciton delocalization ratio reduces the energy loss in the exciton diffusion-dissociation process, and thus, significantly improves the device efficiency, especially for the short-circuit current. By changing the exciton delocalization ratio, OSC performances are comprehensively investigated under the conditions of short-circuit and open-circuit. Particularly, bulk recombination dependent fill factor saturation is unveiled and understood. As a fundamental electrical analysis of the delocalization mechanism, our work is important to understand and optimize the high-performance OSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5223858','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5223858"><span>Development and application of a mark-recapture <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> predicted sex and transitory behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber <span class="hlt">models</span> to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become ' untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, <span class="hlt">model</span> selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021591','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021591"><span>Development and application of a mark-recapture <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> predicted sex and transitory behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber <span class="hlt">models</span> to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become 'untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, <span class="hlt">model</span> selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24917572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24917572"><span>The modified unified interaction <span class="hlt">model</span>: <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of dose-dependent localised recombination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavon, A; Eliyahu, I; Oster, L; Horowitz, Y S</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The unified interaction <span class="hlt">model</span> (UNIM) was developed to simulate thermoluminescence (TL) linear/supralinear dose-response and the dependence of the supralinearity on ionisation density, i.e. particle type and energy. Before the development of the UNIM, this behaviour had eluded all types of TL <span class="hlt">modelling</span> including conduction band/valence band (CB/VB) kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span>. The dependence of the supralinearity on photon energy was explained in the UNIM as due to the increasing role of geminate (localised recombination) with decreasing photon/electron energy. Recently, the Ben Gurion University group has <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the concept of trapping centre/luminescent centre (TC/LC) spatially correlated complexes and localised/delocalised recombination into the CB/VB kinetic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of the LiF:Mg,Ti system. Track structure considerations are used to describe the relative population of the TC/LC complexes by an electron-hole or by an electron-only as a function of both photon/electron energy and dose. The latter dependence was not included in the original UNIM formulation, a significant over-simplification that is herein corrected. The modified version, the M-UNIM, is then applied to the simulation of the linear/supralinear dose-response characteristics of composite peak 5 in the TL glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti at two representative average photon/electron energies of 500 and 8 keV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B21D0347A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B21D0347A"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Geochemical And Microbial Kinetics In Reactive Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> For Generation Of Acid Rock Drainage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.; Silverstein, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> at the scale of a single rock is developed <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the proposed kinetic rate expressions. Simulations of initiation, washout and AMD flows are discussed to gain a better understanding of the role of porosity, effective diffusivity and reactive surface area in generating AMD. Simulations indicate that flow boundary conditions control generation of acid rock drainage as porosity increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+reasoned+AND+action&id=EJ1000299','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+reasoned+AND+action&id=EJ1000299"><span>Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jung, Jae Yup</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study tested a newly developed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39618','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39618"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> genetic variation into a <span class="hlt">model</span> of budburst phenology of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; Bradley J. St Clair</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> to predict budburst and other phenological events in plants are needed to forecast how climate change may impact ecosystems and for the development of mitigation strategies. Differences among genotypes are important to predicting phenological events in species that show strong clinal variation in adaptive traits. We present a <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the effects...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+values&pg=6&id=EJ1000299','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+values&pg=6&id=EJ1000299"><span>Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jung, Jae Yup</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study tested a newly developed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1340/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1340/"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>, Capitol Lake, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p> lab with Sedflume, an apparatus for measuring sediment erosion-parameters. In this report, we present results of the characterization of fine-grained sediment erodibility within Capitol Lake. The erodibility data were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the previously developed hydrodynamic and sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> simulations using the measured erodibility parameters were conducted to provide more robust estimates of the overall magnitudes and spatial patterns of sediment transport resulting from restoration of the Deschutes Estuary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220535"><span>Bayesian hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> for network meta-analysis <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> nonignorable missingness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing; Chu, Haitao; Hong, Hwanhee; Virnig, Beth A; Carlin, Bradley P</p> <p>2015-07-28</p> <p>Network meta-analysis expands the scope of a conventional pairwise meta-analysis to simultaneously compare multiple treatments, synthesizing both direct and indirect information and thus strengthening inference. Since most of trials only compare two treatments, a typical data set in a network meta-analysis managed as a trial-by-treatment matrix is extremely sparse, like an incomplete block structure with significant missing data. Zhang et al. proposed an arm-based method accounting for correlations among different treatments within the same trial and assuming that absent arms are missing at random. However, in randomized controlled trials, nonignorable missingness or missingness not at random may occur due to deliberate choices of treatments at the design stage. In addition, those undertaking a network meta-analysis may selectively choose treatments to include in the analysis, which may also lead to missingness not at random. In this paper, we extend our previous work to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> missingness not at random using selection <span class="hlt">models</span>. The proposed method is then applied to two network meta-analyses and evaluated through extensive simulation studies. We also provide comprehensive comparisons of a commonly used contrast-based method and the arm-based method via simulations in a technical appendix under missing completely at random and missing at random.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22408906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22408906"><span>Thermal analysis in the rat glioma <span class="hlt">model</span> during directly multipoint injection hyperthermia <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> magnetic nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Lianke; Ni, Fang; Zhang, Jianchao; Wang, Chunyu; Lu, Xiang; Guo, Zhirui; Yao, Shaowei; Shu, Yongqian; Xu, Ruizhi</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Hyperthermia <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is a hopeful therapy to cancers and steps into clinical tests at present. However, the clinical plan of MNPs deposition in tumors, especially applied for directly multipoint injection hyperthermia (DMIH), and the information of temperature rise in tumors by DMIH is lack of studied. In this paper, we mainly discussed thermal distributions induced by MNPs in the rat brain tumors during DMIH. Due to limited experimental measurement for detecting thermal dose of tumors, and in order to acquire optimized results of temperature distributions clinically needed, we designed the thermal <span class="hlt">model</span> in which three types of MNPs injection for hyperthermia treatments were simulated. The simulated results showed that MNPs injection plan played an important role in determining thermal distribution, as well as the overall dose of MNPs injected. We found that as injected points enhanced, the difference of temperature in the whole tumor volume decreased. Moreover, from temperature detecting data by Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors (FOTSs) in glioma bearing rats during MNPs hyperthermia, we found the temperature errors by FOTSs reduced as the number of points injected enhanced. Finally, the results showed that the simulations are preferable and the optimized plans of the numbers and spatial positions of MNPs points injected are essential during direct injection hyperthermia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760792"><span>The metabolic pace-of-life <span class="hlt">model</span>: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> ectothermic organisms into the theory of vertebrate ecoimmunology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sandmeier, Franziska C; Tracy, Richard C</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We propose a new heuristic <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> metabolic rate and pace of life to predict a vertebrate species' investment in adaptive immune function. Using reptiles as an example, we hypothesize that animals with low metabolic rates will invest more in innate immunity compared with adaptive immunity. High metabolic rates and body temperatures should logically optimize the efficacy of the adaptive immune system--through rapid replication of T and B cells, prolific production of induced antibodies, and kinetics of antibody--antigen interactions. In current theory, the precise mechanisms of vertebrate immune function oft are inadequately considered as diverse selective pressures on the evolution of pathogens. We propose that the strength of adaptive immune function and pace of life together determine many of the important dynamics of host-pathogen evolution, namely, that hosts with a short lifespan and innate immunity or with a long lifespan and strong adaptive immunity are expected to drive the rapid evolution of their populations of pathogens. Long-lived hosts that rely primarily on innate immune functions are more likely to use defense mechanisms of tolerance (instead of resistance), which are not expected to act as a selection pressure for the rapid evolution of pathogens' virulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41F1384S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41F1384S"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of GRACE Data into a Bayesian <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Groundwater Drought Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.; Porter, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Groundwater drought, defined as the sustained occurrence of below average availability of groundwater, is marked by below average water levels in aquifers and reduced flows to groundwater-fed rivers and wetlands. The impact of groundwater drought on ecosystems, agriculture, municipal water supply, and the energy sector is an increasingly important global issue. However, current drought monitors heavily rely on precipitation and vegetative stress indices to characterize the timing, duration, and severity of drought events. The paucity of in situ observations of aquifer levels is a substantial obstacle to the development of systems to monitor groundwater drought in drought-prone areas, particularly in developing countries. Observations from the NASA/German Space Agency's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been used to estimate changes in groundwater storage over areas with sparse point measurements. This study <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> GRACE total water storage observations into a Bayesian framework to assess the performance of a probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for monitoring groundwater drought based on remote sensing data. Overall, it is hoped that these methods will improve global drought preparedness and risk reduction by providing information on groundwater drought necessary to manage its impacts on ecosystems, as well as on the agricultural, municipal, and energy sectors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A31A0049L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A31A0049L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated International Monitoring System (IMS) is being deployed. Recent global scale observations recorded by this network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using empirical yield-scaling relations which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, strong variability remains in the yield estimate. Today, numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. In this study, the effects of the source frequency and the stratospheric wind speed are simulated. In order to characterize fine-scale atmospheric structures which are excluded from the current atmospheric specifications, <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions are further enhanced by the addition of perturbation terms. Thus, a theoretical attenuation relation is developed from massive numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. Compared with previous studies, our approach provides a more realistic physical description of infrasound propagation. We obtain a new relation combining a near-field and far-field term which account for the effects of both geometrical spreading and dissipation on the pressure wave attenuation. By <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> real ambient infrasound noise at the receivers which significantly limits the ability to detect and identify signals of interest, the minimum detectable source amplitude can be derived in a broad frequency range. Empirical relations between the source spectrum and the yield of explosions are used to infer detection thresholds in tons of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, the obtained attenuation relation quantifies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA446915','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA446915"><span>Development of a Wireless <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Large-Scale Fading in a Rural, Urban and Suburban Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>in a rural area is obtained using equation (2.12). ( )250 50( )( ) ( ) 4.78 log 18.33log 40.94c cL rural dB L urban f f= − + − (2.12) where ( ) rea ...DEVELOPMENT OF A WIRELESS <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> LARGE- SCALE FADING IN A RURAL , URBAN AND SUBURBAN...the U.S. Government. AFIT/GE/ENG/06-25 DEVELOPMENT OF A WIRELESS <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> LARGE- SCALE FADING IN A RURAL , URBAN AND SUBURBAN</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1751C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1751C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> geolocical constraints into stochastic scenarios for tsunami inundation <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Application to northern Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Catalan, P. A.; Ortega, M.; Gonzalez, G.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Cienfuegos, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Forecasting the tsunami hazard is a challenging task due to the inherent uncertainties, both epistemic or aleatoric, that exist in determining the occurrence, magnitude and slip distribution of the parent earthquake. As a result, the typical approach relies on estimating the hazard based on deterministic earthquake scenarios, where a given magnitude is used as a constraint to determine the size and overall shape of the rupture zone. However, this approach does not take into account the variability in the slip distribution that may be present on a real event. Slip variability plays a key role in the spatial distribution of tsunami energy, and it controls tsunami inundation and runup. Recently, <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> this variability have been proposed, under the assumption that the slip distribution follows either a prescribed physical <span class="hlt">model</span>, such as k^-2 distribution; or one that is suited to reproduce the observed distribution of a prior earthquake. While this allows for an enhanced assessment of the resulting variability, the former approach does not constrain the resulting slip distributions to geological aspects such as the inter seismic coupling. The latter, in turn, is controlled by a single prior event, and may not reproduce the overall variability of the source area. In the present work, we introduce a measure of the inter seismic coupling as a controlling factor to define patches where slip would concentrate, while allowing sufficient variability in the overall slip distribution. We do this by first establishing a representative <span class="hlt">model</span> for the heterogeneous slip distribution for the northern Chile seismic gap. The analysis yields that a Von Karman auto-correlation function is successful in describing the spatial characteristics of slip. Next, stochastic slip scenarios are generated and filtered by minimizing two parameters: the overall difference in average slip and the difference between the centroids. This allows for selecting as candidates only those</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=299110&keyword=depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=299110&keyword=depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>NexGen PVAs: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We examine how the integration of evolutionary and ecological processes in population dynamics – an emerging framework in ecology – could be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into population viability analysis (PVA). Driven by parallel, complementary advances in population genomics and computational ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=299110&keyword=genetic+AND+depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91045599&CFTOKEN=21954693','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=299110&keyword=genetic+AND+depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91045599&CFTOKEN=21954693"><span>NexGen PVAs: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We examine how the integration of evolutionary and ecological processes in population dynamics – an emerging framework in ecology – could be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into population viability analysis (PVA). Driven by parallel, complementary advances in population genomics and computational ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920015075','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920015075"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the servovalves <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in the servo hydraulic system of the 70-meter DSN antennas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartos, R. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As the pointing accuracy and service life requirements of the DSN 70 meter antenna increase, it is necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the servo hydraulic system in order to improve system designs to meet the new requirements. A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed for the servovalve <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the hydraulic system of the 70 meter antenna and uses experimental data to verify the validity of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and to identify the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210750B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210750B"><span>Water <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in spinel: <span class="hlt">modelling</span> hydrogen storage in the transition zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bromiley, Geoffrey; Nestola, Fabrizio; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Zhang, Ming</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Under conditions of the lower part of Earth's mantle transition zone, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 adopts a spinel type structure as the mineral ringwoodite. This structure, although nominally anhydrous, has the capacity to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> significant amounts of water (up to several weight percent) in the form of structurally-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> OH groups. This has led to the suggestion that a significant volume of water could be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in Earth's mantle transition zone, and even that this reservoir might be connected to water present on the surface of the Earth. Characterising the cause and effects of hydrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in ringwoodite remains difficult due to the high-pressure/temperature conditions under which it is stable. In order to characterise mechanisms for H <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in spinel-type structures we have investigated H <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in natural and synthetic MgAl2O4 spinel in a series of high-pressure/temperature annealing experiments. In contrast to most other nominally anhydrous minerals, natural spinel appears to be completely anhydrous. On the other hand, non-stoichiometric Al-rich synthetic (defect) spinel can accommodate several hundred ppm water in the form of structurally-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> hydrogen. Infrared (IR) spectra of hydrated defect spinel contain one main O-H stretching band at 3343-3352 cm-1 and a doublet consisting of two distinct O-H bands at 3505-3517 cm-1 and 3557-3566 cm-1. IR spectra and structural refinements based on single-crystal X-ray data are consistent with hydrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in defect spinel onto both octahedral and tetrahedral O-O edges. Fine structure of O-H bands in IR spectra can be explained by partial coupling of interstitial hydrogen with cation vacancies, or by the effects of Mg-Al disorder on the tetrahedral site. The concentration of cation vacancies in defect spinel is a major control on hydrogen affinity. The commercial availability of large single crystals of defect spinel coupled with high water solubility and similarities in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17486356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17486356"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Integra in tissue defects: a pilot study in the rat <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Orford, J E; Smith, Nicholas; Barker, Andrew; Gollow, I</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Integra has been shown to be very useful in accelerating the growth of neodermis. It has found extensive use in case of burns as a primary dressing immediately after a burn, after release of contractures and following scar revision. It has been used to achieve cover after the debridement of extensive infective processes involving the skin. Encouraged by these results we have assessed the application of Integra to augment and/or patch defects of the urinary bladder, diaphragm and the abdominal wall in the rat <span class="hlt">model</span>. This was a pilot study and involved the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of Integra in the diaphragm, the urinary bladder (extramucosal) and the muscle layer of the abdominal wall. Eight adult Wistar rats were given general anaesthesia and Integra was implanted with absorbable sutures at the sites mentioned. The omentum was hitched to the collagen matrix surface to revascularise the graft. The silicone was left in situ. The operative period was covered with antibiotics. The anaesthesia was then reversed. Postoperatively the rats were given analgesia and feeds started immediately. The rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks. The abdominal cavity was examined for adhesions. The Integra implant along with adjacent tissue was harvested and examined histologically. There were no visible intra-abdominal adhesions. The histology revealed good degree of neovascularisation and fibrosis in and adjacent to the implant. This was comparable to the changes seen in the skin. This pilot study has shown that implanting Integra invokes a similar response in deeper tissues and it can develop neovascularisation from the omentum. Hence, this could find some application in treating congenital conditions such as diaphragmatic hernias, abdominal wall defects and for bladders requiring augmentation. Our initial results are quite encouraging and we feel that this field should be further explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486278"><span>Metal-organic frameworks with phosphotungstate <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> for hydrolytic cleavage of a DNA-<span class="hlt">model</span> phosphodiester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Qiuxia; Zhang, Lejie; He, Cheng; Niu, Jiangyang; Duan, Chunying</p> <p>2012-05-07</p> <p>Five phosphotungstate-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> metal-organic frameworks {[Eu(4)(dpdo)(9)(H(2)O)(16)PW(12)O(40)]}(PW(12)O(40))(2)·(dpdo)(3)·Cl(3) (1); {ZnNa(2)(μ-OH)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(4)[PW(12)O(40)]}·3H(2)O (2); {Zn(3)(dpdo)(7)}[PW(12)O(40)](2)·3H(2)O (3); and [Ln(2)H(μ-O)(2)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(2)][PW(12)O(40)]·3H(2)O (Ln = Ho for 4 and Yb for 5) (dpdo = 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide) have been synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural analyses indicate that 1-5 display diversity structure from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) series of hybrids. Kinetic experiments for the hydrolytic cleavage of DNA-<span class="hlt">model</span> phosphodiester BNPP (bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate) were followed spectrophotometrically for the absorbance increase at 400 nm in EPPS (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-propane sulfonic acid) buffer solution, because of the formation of p-nitrophenoxide with 1-5 under conditions of pH 4.0 and 50 °C. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy indicate that the cleavage of the phosphodiester bond proceeds with the pseudo-first-order rate constant in the range of 10(-7)-10(-6) s(-1), giving an inorganic phosphate and p-nitrophenol as the final products of hydrolysis. The results demonstrate that 1-5 have good catalytic activity and reusability for hydrolytic cleavage of BNPP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290234"><span>A passive movement method for parameter estimation of a musculo-skeletal arm <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a modified hill muscle <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Tung Fai; Wilson, Adrian J</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this paper we present an experimental method of parameterising the passive mechanical characteristics of the bicep and tricep muscles in vivo, by fitting the dynamics of a two muscle arm <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> anatomically meaningful and structurally identifiable modified Hill muscle <span class="hlt">models</span> to measured elbow movements. Measurements of the passive flexion and extension of the elbow joint were obtained using 3D motion capture, from which the elbow angle trajectories were determined and used to obtain the spring constants and damping coefficients in the <span class="hlt">model</span> through parameter estimation. Four healthy subjects were used in the experiments. Anatomical lengths and moment of inertia values of the subjects were determined by direct measurement and calculation. There was good reproducibility in the measured arm movement between trials, and similar joint angle trajectory characteristics were seen between subjects. Each subject had their own set of fitted parameter values determined and the results showed good agreement between measured and simulated data. The average fitted muscle parallel spring constant across all subjects was 143 N/m and the average fitted muscle parallel damping constant was 1.73 Ns/m. The passive movement method was proven to be successful, and can be applied to other joints in the human body, where muscles with similar actions are grouped together. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54335','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/54335"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> food web dynamics into ecological restoration: a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for river ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>J. Ryan Bellmore; Joseph R. Benjamin; Michael Newsom; Jennifer A. Bountry; Daniel Dombroski</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these complexities into river restoration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nature+AND+therapy+AND+trauma&id=EJ837264','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=nature+AND+therapy+AND+trauma&id=EJ837264"><span>Strategies for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Women-Specific Sexuality Education into Addiction Treatment <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>James, Raven</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper advocates for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a women-specific sexuality curriculum in the addiction treatment process to aid in sexual healing and provide for aftercare issues. Sexuality in addiction treatment modalities is often approached from a sex-negative stance, or that of sexual victimization. Sexual issues are viewed as addictive in and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1050036.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1050036.pdf"><span>Anticipating and <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Stakeholder Feedback When Developing Value-Added <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Balch, Ryan; Koedel, Cory</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>State and local education agencies across the United States are increasingly adopting rigorous teacher evaluation systems. Most systems formally <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> teacher performance as measured by student test-score growth, sometimes by state mandate. An important consideration that will influence the long-term persistence and efficacy of these systems…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=female+AND+sexuality&pg=7&id=EJ837264','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=female+AND+sexuality&pg=7&id=EJ837264"><span>Strategies for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Women-Specific Sexuality Education into Addiction Treatment <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>James, Raven</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper advocates for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a women-specific sexuality curriculum in the addiction treatment process to aid in sexual healing and provide for aftercare issues. Sexuality in addiction treatment modalities is often approached from a sex-negative stance, or that of sexual victimization. Sexual issues are viewed as addictive in and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10689564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10689564"><span>The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of dyes into hair as a <span class="hlt">model</span> for drug binding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DeLauder, S F; Kidwell, D A</p> <p>2000-01-10</p> <p>The binding of charged substances from external aqueous media to hair has been investigated through the use of fluorescence microscopy. Eleven hair samples, reflecting various ethnic groups and cosmetic treatments, were tested. Rhodamine 6G, a cationic dye representative of drugs such as cocaine and opiates, showed <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> throughout the hair of all samples except one. In contrast, fluorescein, an anionic dye representative of drugs such as THC carboxylic acid, was not readily <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of rhodamine 6G was faster for chemically 'straightened' and bleached African-American female hair than for untreated hair. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of rhodamine 6G followed a pH dependence, but an ionic strength dependence could not be established. These studies support three postulates: (1) electrostatic interactions explain the preferential binding of cationic drugs of abuse to hair; (2) the hair matrix, or the non-helical portion of hair, is accessible to external solutions and thus subject to contamination; and (3) cosmetic treatments may alter the helical portion of hair thereby increasing its accessibility to external contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/835188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/835188"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the effects of habitat edges into landscape <span class="hlt">models</span>: Effective area <span class="hlt">models</span> for cross-boundary management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>T.D. Sisk; N.M. Haddad</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Sisk, T.D., and N.M. Haddad. 2002. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the effects of habitat edges into landscape <span class="hlt">models</span>: Effective area <span class="hlt">models</span> for cross-boundary management. Chapter 8, Pp. 208-240 in J. Liu and W.W. Taylor, Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Abstract: Natural resource managers are increasingly charged with meeting multiple, often conflicting goals in landscapes undergoing significant change due to shifts in land use. Conservation from native to anthropogenic habitats typically fragments the landscape, reducing the size and increasing the isolation of the resulting patches, with profound ecological impacts. These impacts occur both within and adjacent to areas under active management, creating extensive edges between habitat types. Boundaries established between management areas, for example, between timber harvest units or between reserves and adjacent agricultural fields, inevitably lead to differences in the quality of habitats on either side of the boundary, and a habitat edge results. Although edges are common components of undisturbed landscapes, the amount of edge proliferates rapidly as landscapes are fragmented. Insightful analysis of the complex issues associated with cross-boundary management necessitates an explicit focus on habitat quality in the boundary regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9682403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9682403"><span>Pesticide deposition in hair: preliminary results of a <span class="hlt">model</span> study of methomyl <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into rabbit hair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M I; Tzatzarakis, M N; Psaroudakis, K; Dolapsakis, G P; Michalodimitrakis, M N</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>This work studied the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide, into the hair of New Zealand white rabbits. A total of 600 mg methomyl was administered by drinking water over 4 mo, and acetylcholinesterase activity in serum was monitored. At the end of the dosing period, hair from the back of the rabbits was cut off, and the methomyl concentration was measured using ELISA and HPLC. A decrease of serum acetylcholinesterase occurred. The top cm of hair contained no methomyl, the second cm contained 0.9 ng/mg and the 3rd cm of hair contained 3 ng methomyl/mg. Methomyl was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the rabbit hair in a process independent of gender but dependent on the hair growth rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4240496','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4240496"><span>Repeated oral dosing of TAS-102 confers high trifluridine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into DNA and sustained antitumor activity in mouse <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>TANAKA, NOZOMU; SAKAMOTO, KAZUKI; OKABE, HIROYUKI; FUJIOKA, AKIO; YAMAMURA, KEISUKE; NAKAGAWA, FUMIO; NAGASE, HIDEKI; YOKOGAWA, TATSUSHI; OGUCHI, KEI; ISHIDA, KEIJI; OSADA, AKIKO; KAZUNO, HIROMI; YAMADA, YUKARI; MATSUO, KENICHI</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent containing trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI). The compound improves overall survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who are insensitive to standard chemotherapies. FTD possesses direct antitumor activity since it inhibits thymidylate synthase (TS) and is itself <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into DNA. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into DNA and the inhibition of TS remain unclear. We found that FTD-dependent inhibition of TS was similar to that elicited by fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), another clinically used nucleoside analog. However, washout experiments revealed that FTD-dependent inhibition of TS declined rapidly, whereas FdUrd activity persisted. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of FTD into DNA was significantly higher than that of other antitumor nucleosides. Additionally, orally administered FTD had increased antitumor activity and was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into DNA more effectively than continuously infused FTD. When TAS-102 was administered, FTD gradually accumulated in tumor cell DNA, in a TPI-independent manner, and significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival, compared to treatment with 5-FU derivatives. TAS-102 reduced the Ki-67-positive cell fraction, and swollen nuclei were observed in treated tumor tissue. The amount of FTD <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in DNA and the antitumor activity of TAS-102 in xenograft <span class="hlt">models</span> were positively and significantly correlated. These results suggest that TAS-102 exerts its antitumor activity predominantly due to its DNA <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>, rather than as a result of TS inhibition. The persistence of FTD in the DNA of tumor cells treated with TAS-102 may underlie its ability to prolong survival in cancer patients. PMID:25230742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230742"><span>Repeated oral dosing of TAS-102 confers high trifluridine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into DNA and sustained antitumor activity in mouse <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Nozomu; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Okabe, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Akio; Yamamura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Fumio; Nagase, Hideki; Yokogawa, Tatsushi; Oguchi, Kei; Ishida, Keiji; Osada, Akiko; Kazuno, Hiromi; Yamada, Yukari; Matsuo, Kenichi</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent containing trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI). The compound improves overall survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who are insensitive to standard chemotherapies. FTD possesses direct antitumor activity since it inhibits thymidylate synthase (TS) and is itself <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into DNA. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into DNA and the inhibition of TS remain unclear. We found that FTD-dependent inhibition of TS was similar to that elicited by fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), another clinically used nucleoside analog. However, washout experiments revealed that FTD-dependent inhibition of TS declined rapidly, whereas FdUrd activity persisted. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of FTD into DNA was significantly higher than that of other antitumor nucleosides. Additionally, orally administered FTD had increased antitumor activity and was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into DNA more effectively than continuously infused FTD. When TAS-102 was administered, FTD gradually accumulated in tumor cell DNA, in a TPI-independent manner, and significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival, compared to treatment with 5-FU derivatives. TAS-102 reduced the Ki-67-positive cell fraction, and swollen nuclei were observed in treated tumor tissue. The amount of FTD <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in DNA and the antitumor activity of TAS-102 in xenograft <span class="hlt">models</span> were positively and significantly correlated. These results suggest that TAS-102 exerts its antitumor activity predominantly due to its DNA <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>, rather than as a result of TS inhibition. The persistence of FTD in the DNA of tumor cells treated with TAS-102 may underlie its ability to prolong survival in cancer patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15234051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15234051"><span>Design of an internationally accredited radiation oncology resident training program <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> novel educational <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shakespeare, Thomas Philip; Back, Michael Frederick; Lu, Jiade Jay; Wynne, Christopher John; Bloomfield, Leah</p> <p>2004-07-15</p> <p>Our primary aim was to design a new, internationally accredited, comprehensive radiation oncology (RO) training program for Singaporean residents that satisfied the needs of stake holders and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> published evidence. The evidence-based method included Medline literature review and broad-based training needs assessment. Literature review revealed few studies describing or evaluating RO resident training programs. Our program was designed by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> available published research and stakeholder views determined by the training needs assessment. The program includes novel evidence-based educational methods, including individually negotiated learning contracts, a mentor program, logbooks, task-based learning, tutorials, and formative plus summative assessments. The content and structure is consistent with most United States, United Kingdom, and Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologist (RANZCR) guidelines, with resident evaluation via RANZCR examinations. The RANZCR accredited the program in January 2002. We recommend institutions or countries introducing or revising RO resident training programs use an evidence-based approach, addressing the needs of stake holders (determined by a comprehensive training needs assessment) and <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> published research. Novel educational methods may be considered in RO training. This new Singapore program is the first to achieve international accreditation by the RANZCR. It is clear that additional research in the design and evaluation of RO resident training programs is required.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27164482"><span>A Temperate Alpine Glacier as a Reservoir of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: <span class="hlt">Model</span> Results of <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span>, Transport, and Release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Lüthi, Martin P; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Zennegg, Markus; Schmid, Peter; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>In previous studies, the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been quantified in the accumulation areas of Alpine glaciers. Here, we introduce a <span class="hlt">model</span> framework that quantifies mass fluxes of PCBs in glaciers and apply it to the Silvretta glacier (Switzerland). The <span class="hlt">models</span> include PCB <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into the entire surface of the glacier, downhill transport with the flow of the glacier ice, and chemical fate in the glacial lake. The <span class="hlt">models</span> are run for the years 1900-2100 and validated by comparing <span class="hlt">modeled</span> and measured PCB concentrations in an ice core, a lake sediment core, and the glacial streamwater. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> and release fluxes, as well as the storage of PCBs in the glacier increase until the 1980s and decrease thereafter. After a temporary increase in the 2000s, the future PCB release and the PCB concentrations in the glacial stream are estimated to be small but persistent throughout the 21st century. This study quantifies all relevant PCB fluxes in and from a temperate Alpine glacier over two centuries, and concludes that Alpine glaciers are a small secondary source of PCBs, but that the aftermath of environmental pollution by persistent and toxic chemicals can endure for decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25162401"><span>Inference of gene regulatory networks <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multi-source biological knowledge via a state space <span class="hlt">model</span> with L1 regularization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasegawa, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Comprehensive understanding of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is a major challenge in the field of systems biology. Currently, there are two main approaches in GRN analysis using time-course observation data, namely an ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based approach and a statistical <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach. The ODE-based approach can generate complex dynamics of GRNs according to biologically validated nonlinear <span class="hlt">models</span>. However, it cannot be applied to ten or more genes to simultaneously estimate system dynamics and regulatory relationships due to the computational difficulties. The statistical <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach uses highly abstract <span class="hlt">models</span> to simply describe biological systems and to infer relationships among several hundreds of genes from the data. However, the high abstraction generates false regulations that are not permitted biologically. Thus, when dealing with several tens of genes of which the relationships are partially known, a method that can infer regulatory relationships based on a <span class="hlt">model</span> with low abstraction and that can emulate the dynamics of ODE-based <span class="hlt">models</span> while <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> prior knowledge is urgently required. To accomplish this, we propose a method for inference of GRNs using a state space representation of a vector auto-regressive (VAR) <span class="hlt">model</span> with L1 regularization. This method can estimate the dynamic behavior of genes based on linear time-series <span class="hlt">modeling</span> constructed from an ODE-based <span class="hlt">model</span> and can infer the regulatory structure among several tens of genes maximizing prediction ability for the observational data. Furthermore, the method is capable of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> various types of existing biological knowledge, e.g., drug kinetics and literature-recorded pathways. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a comparison of simulation studies with several previous methods. For an application example, we evaluated mRNA expression profiles over time upon corticosteroid stimulation in rats, thus <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> corticosteroid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116x3504S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116x3504S"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for arsenic anti-site <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in GaAs grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulte, K. L.; Kuech, T. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>GaAs growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) has regained interest as a potential route to low cost, high efficiency thin film photovoltaics. In order to attain the highest efficiencies, deep level defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in these materials must be understood and controlled. The arsenic anti-site defect, AsGa or EL2, is the predominant deep level defect in HVPE-grown GaAs. In the present study, the relationships between HVPE growth conditions and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of EL2 in GaAs epilayers were determined. Epitaxial n-GaAs layers were grown under a wide range of deposition temperatures (TD) and gallium chloride partial pressures (PGaCl), and the EL2 concentration, [EL2], was determined by deep level transient spectroscopy. [EL2] agreed with equilibrium thermodynamic predictions in layers grown under conditions in which the growth rate, RG, was controlled by conditions near thermodynamic equilibrium. [EL2] fell below equilibrium levels when RG was controlled by surface kinetic processes, with the disparity increasing as RG decreased. The surface chemical composition during growth was determined to have a strong influence on EL2 <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. Under thermodynamically limited growth conditions, e.g., high TD and/or low PGaCl, the surface vacancy concentration was high and the bulk crystal was close to equilibrium with the vapor phase. Under kinetically limited growth conditions, e.g., low TD and/or high PGaCl, the surface attained a high GaCl coverage, blocking As adsorption. This competitive adsorption process reduced the growth rate and also limited the amount of arsenic that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as AsGa. A defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which accounted for the surface concentration of arsenic as a function of the growth conditions, was developed. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to identify optimal growth parameters for the growth of thin films for photovoltaics, conditions in which a high growth rate and low [EL2] could be attained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28501653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28501653"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> wind availability into land use regression <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of air quality in mountainous high-density urban environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR <span class="hlt">models</span> are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2 and particulate air pollutants PM2.5, PM10) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong. Under the mountainous high-density urban scenario, we improved the traditional LUR <span class="hlt">modelling</span> method by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> wind availability information into LUR <span class="hlt">modelling</span> based on surface geomorphometrical analysis. As a result, 269 independent variables were examined to develop the LUR <span class="hlt">models</span> by using the "ADDRESS" independent variable selection method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR). Cross validation has been performed for each resultant <span class="hlt">model</span>. The results show that wind-related variables are included in most of the resultant <span class="hlt">models</span> as statistically significant independent variables. Compared with the traditional method, a maximum increase of 20% was achieved in the prediction performance of annual averaged NO2 concentration level by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> wind-related variables into LUR <span class="hlt">model</span> development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239906','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239906"><span>Generic MANPRINT Analysis: Methodology to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Human Factor Variables into Army Combat <span class="hlt">Models</span> (GM/AME-HF).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-04-30</p> <p>FINAL REPORT AD-A239 906 Generic MANPRINT Analysis Methodology to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Human Factor Variables into Army Combat <span class="hlt">Models</span> (GM/AME-HF) (Delivery...Order Number 0022) April 1991N ’ Prepared for: I U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) ATTN: ATCA Ft. Eustis, VA 23604-5538 Prepared by... Army Training and Doctrine _________________________I__ Command,-) 6c. ADDRESS (Cfly, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (C~,State, and ZIP Coe 2000 M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSCom.252...11D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSCom.252...11D"><span>Ab initio <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of point defects, self-diffusion, and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of impurities in thorium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daroca, D. Pérez</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Research on Generation-IV nuclear reactors has boosted the investigation of thorium as nuclear fuel. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, structural properties and phonon dispersion curves of Th are obtained. These results agreed very well with previous ones. The stability and formation energies of vacancies, interstitial and divacancies are studied. It is found that vacancies are the energetically preferred defects. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> energies of He, Xe, and Kr atoms in Th defects are analyzed. Self-diffusion, migration paths and activation energies are also calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28899997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28899997"><span>Improving Disease Prediction by <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Family Disease History in Risk Prediction <span class="hlt">Models</span> with Large-Scale Genetic Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gim, Jungsoo; Kim, Wonji; Kwak, Soo Heon; Choi, Hosik; Park, Changyi; Park, Kyong Soo; Kwon, Sunghoon; Park, Taesung; Won, Sungho</p> <p>2017-09-12</p> <p>Despite the many successes of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the known susceptibility variants identified by GWAS have modest effect sizes, leading to notable skepticism about the effectiveness of building a risk prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> from large-scale genetic data. However, in contrast to genetic variants, the family history of diseases has been largely accepted as an important risk factor in clinical diagnosis and risk prediction. Nevertheless, the complicated structures of the family history of diseases have limited their application in clinical practice. Here, we developed a new method that enables <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the general family history of diseases with a liability threshold <span class="hlt">model</span>, and propose a new analysis strategy for risk prediction with penalized regression analysis that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> both large numbers of genetic variants and clinical risk factors. Application of our <span class="hlt">model</span> to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Korean population (1846 cases and 1846 controls) demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms accounted for 32.5% of the variation explained by the predicted risk scores in the test data set, and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of family history led to an additional 6.3% improvement in prediction. Our results illustrate that the family medical history is valuable information on the variation of complex diseases and improves prediction performance. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461111"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> environmental attitudes in discrete choice <span class="hlt">models</span>: an exploration of the utility of the awareness of consequences scale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoyos, David; Mariel, Petr; Hess, Stephane</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding how people cognitively organise their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action. In this paper, we explore the utility of a commonly used psychometric scale, the awareness of consequences (AC) scale, in order to better understand stated choices. The main contribution of the paper is that it provides a novel approach to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> attitudinal information into discrete choice <span class="hlt">models</span> for environmental valuation: firstly, environmental attitudes are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> using a reinterpretation of the classical AC scale recently proposed by Ryan and Spash (2012); and, secondly, attitudinal data is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as latent variables under a hybrid choice <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework. This novel approach is applied to data from a survey conducted in the Basque Country (Spain) in 2008 aimed at valuing land-use policies in a Natura 2000 Network site. The results are relevant to policy-making because choice <span class="hlt">models</span> that are able to accommodate underlying environmental attitudes may help in designing more effective environmental policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21363874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21363874"><span>Glucose oxidase <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> collagen matrices for dermal wound repair in diabetic rat <span class="hlt">models</span>: a biochemical study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arul, V; Masilamoni, J G; Jesudason, E P; Jaji, P J; Inayathullah, M; Dicky John, D G; Vignesh, S; Jayakumar, R</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Impaired wound healing in diabetes is a well-documented phenomenon. Emerging data favor the involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of diabetic wound healing. We investigated the beneficial role of the sustained release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic dermal wound healing. In order to achieve the sustained delivery of ROS in the wound bed, we have <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> glucose oxidase in the collagen matrix (GOIC), which is applied to the healing diabetic wound. Our in vitro proteolysis studies on <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> GOIC show increased stability against the proteases in the collagen matrix. In this study, GOIC film and collagen film (CF) are used as dressing material on the wound of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A significant increase in ROS (p < 0.05) was observed in the fibroblast of GOIC group during the inflammation period compared to the CF and control groups. This elevated level up regulated the antioxidant status in the granulation tissue and improved cellular proliferation in the GOIC group. Interestingly, our biochemical parameters nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, uronic acid, protein, and DNA content in the healing wound showed that there is an increase in proliferation of cells in GOIC when compared to the control and CF groups. In addition, evidence from wound contraction and histology reveals faster healing in the GOIC group. Our observations document that GOIC matrices could be effectively used for diabetic wound healing therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6969300','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6969300"><span>[<span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of an organic MAGIC (<span class="hlt">Model</span> of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised <span class="hlt">model</span> using independent data sources]. [MAGIC <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, T.J.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC <span class="hlt">model</span> of acidification response, and (2) test the revised <span class="hlt">model</span> using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid <span class="hlt">model</span> with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940116"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Transmission Into Causal <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Infectious Diseases for Improved Understanding of the Effect and Impact of Risk Factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paynter, Stuart</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Conventional measures of causality (which compare risks between exposed and unexposed individuals) do not factor in the population-scale dynamics of infectious disease transmission. We used mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> of 2 childhood infections (respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus) to illustrate this problem. These <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> 3 causal pathways whereby malnutrition could act to increase the incidence of severe infection: increasing the proportion of infected children who develop severe infection, increasing the children's susceptibility to infection, and increasing infectiousness. For risk factors that increased the proportion of infected children who developed severe infection, the population attributable fraction (PAF) calculated conventionally was the same as the PAF calculated directly from the <span class="hlt">models</span>. However, for risk factors that increased transmission (by either increasing susceptibility to infection or increasing infectiousness), the PAF calculated directly from the <span class="hlt">models</span> was much larger than that predicted by the conventional PAF calculation. The <span class="hlt">models</span> also showed that even when conventional studies find no association between a risk factor and an outcome, risk factors that increase transmission can still have a large impact on disease burden. For a complete picture of infectious disease causality, transmission effects must be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into causal <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770015154','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770015154"><span>Computer simulation <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a helicopter <span class="hlt">model</span> for evaluation of aircraft avionics systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostroff, A. J.; Wood, R. B.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A computer program was developed to integrate avionics research in navigation, guidance, controls, and displays with a realistic aircraft <span class="hlt">model</span>. A user oriented program is described that allows a flexible combination of user supplied <span class="hlt">models</span> to perform research in any avionics area. A preprocessor technique for selecting various <span class="hlt">models</span> without significantly changing the memory storage is included. Also included are mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> for several avionics error <span class="hlt">models</span> and for the CH-47 helicopter used in this program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004667"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Failure Into an Orthotropic Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Model</span> with Tabulated Input Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Khaled, Bilal; Shyamsunder, Loukham; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The need for accurate material <span class="hlt">models</span> to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites under impact conditions is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased use in the aerospace and automotive communities. The aerospace community has identified several key capabilities which are currently lacking in the available material <span class="hlt">models</span> in commercial transient dynamic finite element codes. To attempt to improve the predictive capability of composite impact simulations, a next generation material <span class="hlt">model</span> is being developed for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> within the commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA. The material <span class="hlt">model</span>, which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> plasticity, damage and failure, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage and the initiation of failure as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters such as modulus and strength. The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure <span class="hlt">model</span> into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. For the damage <span class="hlt">model</span>, a strain equivalent formulation is used to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage <span class="hlt">model</span>, a semi-coupled approach is employed where the overall damage in a particular coordinate direction is assumed to be a multiplicative combination of the damage in that direction resulting from the applied loads in various coordinate directions. For the failure <span class="hlt">model</span>, a tabulated approach is utilized in which a stress or strain based invariant is defined as a function of the location of the current stress state in stress space to define the initiation of failure. Failure surfaces can be defined with any arbitrary shape, unlike traditional failure <span class="hlt">models</span> where the mathematical functions used to define the failure surface impose a specific shape on the failure surface. In the current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746499"><span>A new general methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physico-chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lizarralde, I; Fernández-Arévalo, T; Brouckaert, C; Vanrolleghem, P; Ikumi, D S; Ekama, G A; Ayesa, E; Grau, P</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a new general methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physico-chemical and chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process <span class="hlt">models</span> in a systematic and rigorous way under a Plant-Wide <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (PWM) framework. The methodology presented in this paper requires the selection of the relevant biochemical, chemical and physico-chemical transformations taking place and the definition of the mass transport for the co-existing phases. As an example a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> has been constructed to describe a system for biological COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, liquid-gas transfer, precipitation processes, and chemical reactions. The capability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> has been tested by comparing simulated and experimental results for a nutrient removal system with sludge digestion. Finally, a scenario analysis has been undertaken to show the potential of the obtained mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> to study phosphorus recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4660903','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4660903"><span>Nanofibers for drug delivery – <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> and release of <span class="hlt">model</span> molecules, influence of molecular weight and polymer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hrib, Jakub; Hobzova, Radka; Hampejsova, Zuzana; Bosakova, Zuzana; Munzarova, Marcela; Michalek, Jiri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Nanofibers were prepared from polycaprolactone, polylactide and polyvinyl alcohol using NanospiderTM technology. Polyethylene glycols with molecular weights of 2 000, 6 000, 10 000 and 20 000 g/mol, which can be used to moderate the release profile of <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> pharmacologically active compounds, served as <span class="hlt">model</span> molecules. They were terminated by aromatic isocyanate and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the nanofibers. The release of these molecules into an aqueous environment was investigated. The influences of the molecular length and chemical composition of the nanofibers on the release rate and the amount of released polyethylene glycols were evaluated. Longer molecules released faster, as evidenced by a significantly higher amount of released molecules after 72 hours. However, the influence of the chemical composition of nanofibers was even more distinct – the highest amount of polyethylene glycol molecules released from polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers, the lowest amount from polylactide nanofibers. PMID:26665065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411076"><span>From molecular <span class="hlt">modelling</span> to photophysics of neutral oligo- and polyfluorenes <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into phospholipid bilayers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tapia, M J; Monteserín, M; Burrows, H D; Almeida, J A S; Pais, A A C C; Pina, J; Seixas de Melo, J S; Jarmelo, S; Estelrich, J</p> <p>2015-01-14</p> <p>The combination of various experimental techniques with theoretical simulations has allowed elucidation of the mode of <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of fluorene based derivatives into phospholipid bilayers. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a fully hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer, with benzene (B), biphenyl (BP), fluorene (F) and tri-(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl), TF, have provided insights into the topography of these molecules when they are present in the phospholipid bilayer, and suggest marked differences between the behavior of the small molecules and the oligomer. Further information on the interaction of neutral fluorenes within the phospholipid bilayer was obtained by an infrared (IR) spectroscopic study of films of DMPC and of the phospholipid with PFO deuterated specifically on its alkyl chains (DMPC-PFO-d34). This was complemented by measurements of the effect of F, TF and two neutral polymers: polyfluorene poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl), PFO, and poly(9,9-di-n-dodecylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl), PFD, on the phospholipid phase transition temperature using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes in liposome size upon addition of F and PFO were followed by dynamic light scattering. In addition, the spectroscopic properties of F, TF, PFO and PFD solubilised in DMPC liposomes (absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence) were compared with those of the same probes in typical organic solvents (chloroform, cyclohexane and ethanol). Combining the insight from MD simulations with the results at the molecular level from the various experimental techniques suggests that while the small molecules have a tendency to be located in the phospholipid head group region, the polymers are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> within the lipid bilayers, with the backbone predominantly orthogonal to the phospholipid alkyl chains and with interdigitation of them and the PFO alkyl chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29542','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29542"><span>Using stochastic <span class="hlt">models</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> spatial and temporal variability [Exercise 14</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Carolyn Hull Sieg; Rudy M. King; Fred Van Dyke</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>To this point, our analysis of population processes and viability in the western prairie fringed orchid has used only deterministic <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this exercise, we conduct a similar analysis, using a stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> instead. This distinction is of great importance to population biology in general and to conservation biology in particular. In deterministic <span class="hlt">models</span>,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51E0873S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51E0873S"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Multi-<span class="hlt">model</span> Ensemble Techniques Into a Probabilistic Hydrologic Forecasting System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sonessa, M. Y.; Bohn, T. J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Multi-<span class="hlt">model</span> ensemble techniques have been shown to reduce bias and to aid in quantification of the effects of <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty in hydrologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. However, these techniques are only beginning to be applied in operational hydrologic forecast systems. To investigate the performance of a multi-<span class="hlt">model</span> ensemble in the context of probabilistic hydrologic forecasting, we have extended the University of Washington's West-wide Seasonal Hydrologic Forecasting System to use an ensemble of three <span class="hlt">models</span>: the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) <span class="hlt">model</span> version 4.0.6, the NCEP NOAH <span class="hlt">model</span> version 2.7.1, and the NWS grid-based Sacramento/Snow-17 <span class="hlt">model</span> (SAC). The objective of this presentation is to assess the performance of the ensemble of the three <span class="hlt">models</span> as compared to the performance of the <span class="hlt">models</span> individually. Three forecast points within the West-wide forecast system domain were used for this research: the Feather River at Oroville, CA, the Salmon River at White horse, ID, and the Colorado River at Grand Junction. The forcing and observed streamflow data are for years 1951-2005 for the Feather and Salmon Rivers; and 1951-2003 for the Colorado. The <span class="hlt">models</span> were first run for the retrospective period, then bias-corrected, and <span class="hlt">model</span> weights were then determined using multiple linear regression. We assessed the performance of the ensemble in comparison with the individual <span class="hlt">models</span> in terms of correlation with observed flows and Root Mean Square Error, and Nash-Sutcliffe. We found that for evaluations of retrospective simulations in comparison with observations, the ensemble performed better overall than any of the <span class="hlt">models</span> individually even though in few individual months individual <span class="hlt">models</span> performed slightly better than the ensemble. To test forecast skill, we performed Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) forecasts for each year of the retrospective period, using forcings from all other years, for individual <span class="hlt">models</span> and for the multi-<span class="hlt">model</span> ensemble. To form the ensemble for the ESP</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1097183','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1097183"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is a standalone <span class="hlt">model</span> that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap <span class="hlt">model</span> with a 3D STAR-CCM+ <span class="hlt">model</span> of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in <span class="hlt">Model</span>Center, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this <span class="hlt">model</span> is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28095156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28095156"><span>Lung Cancer Risk Prediction <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Lung Function: Development and Validation in the UK Biobank Prospective Cohort Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muller, David C; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul</p> <p>2017-03-10</p> <p>Purpose Several lung cancer risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed, but none to date have assessed the predictive ability of lung function in a population-based cohort. We sought to develop and internally validate a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> lung function using data from the UK Biobank prospective cohort study. Methods This analysis included 502,321 participants without a previous diagnosis of lung cancer, predominantly between 40 and 70 years of age. We used flexible parametric survival <span class="hlt">models</span> to estimate the 2-year probability of lung cancer, accounting for the competing risk of death. <span class="hlt">Models</span> included predictors previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk, including sex, variables related to smoking history and nicotine addiction, medical history, family history of lung cancer, and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]). Results During accumulated follow-up of 1,469,518 person-years, there were 738 lung cancer diagnoses. A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> all predictors had excellent discrimination (concordance (c)-statistic [95% CI] = 0.85 [0.82 to 0.87]). Internal validation suggested that the <span class="hlt">model</span> will discriminate well when applied to new data (optimism-corrected c-statistic = 0.84). The full <span class="hlt">model</span>, including FEV1, also had modestly superior discriminatory power than one that was designed solely on the basis of questionnaire variables (c-statistic = 0.84 [0.82 to 0.86]; optimism-corrected c-statistic = 0.83; pFEV1 = 3.4 × 10(-13)). The full <span class="hlt">model</span> had better discrimination than standard lung cancer screening eligibility criteria (c-statistic = 0.66 [0.64 to 0.69]). Conclusion A risk prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> that includes lung function has strong predictive ability, which could improve eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening programs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18265950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18265950"><span>A selenium-deficient Caco-2 cell <span class="hlt">model</span> for assessing differential <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of chemical or food selenium into glutathione peroxidase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Huawei; Botnen, James H; Johnson, Luann K</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Assessing the ability of a selenium (Se) sample to induce cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in Se-deficient animals is the most commonly used method to determine Se bioavailability. Our goal is to establish a Se-deficient cell culture <span class="hlt">model</span> with differential <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of Se chemical forms into GPx, which may complement the in vivo studies. In the present study, we developed a Se-deficient Caco-2 cell <span class="hlt">model</span> with a serum gradual reduction method. It is well recognized that selenomethionine (SeMet) is the major nutritional source of Se; therefore, SeMet, selenite, or methylselenocysteine (SeMSC) was added to cell culture media with different concentrations and treatment time points. We found that selenite and SeMSC induced GPx more rapidly than SeMet. However, SeMet was better retained as it is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into proteins in place of methionine; compared with 8-, 24-, or 48-h treatment, 72-h Se treatment was a more sensitive time point to measure the potential of GPx induction in all tested concentrations. Based on induction of GPx activity, the cellular bioavailability of Se from an extract of selenobroccoli after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion was comparable with that of SeMSC and SeMet. These in vitro data are, for the first time, consistent with previous published data regarding selenite and SeMet bioavailability in animal <span class="hlt">models</span> and Se chemical speciation studies with broccoli. Thus, Se-deficient Caco-2 cell <span class="hlt">model</span> with differential <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of chemical or food forms of Se into GPx provides a new tool to study the cellular mechanisms of Se bioavailability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3085318','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3085318"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> age at onset of smoking into genetic <span class="hlt">models</span> for nicotine dependence: Evidence for interaction with multiple genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grucza, Richard A.; Johnson, Eric O.; Krueger, Robert F.; Breslau, Naomi; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Derringer, Jaime; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Micheal; Bierut, Laura J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3,369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes, and investigated whether <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the interaction between allele count and age-at-onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence, and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence, and 811 non-nicotine dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main-effect <span class="hlt">models</span>, SNP x AOS interaction <span class="hlt">models</span> resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs, and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus <span class="hlt">model</span>. Some SNPs previously documented in main-effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint-analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al, PLOS Genetics, 4: e1000125, 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main-effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (p=1.5 × 10−5), which encodes a subunit of the NMDA receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic <span class="hlt">models</span> of substance-use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation, and constitutes a promising avenue for gene-discovery. PMID:20624154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6848517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6848517"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of a radiation parameterization scheme into the Naval Research Laboratory limited area dynamical weather prediction <span class="hlt">model</span>. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stewart, P.C.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>This paper describes the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the Harshvardhan et al. (1987) radiation parameterization into the Naval Research Laboratory Limited Area Dynamical Weather Prediction <span class="hlt">Model</span>. A comparison between <span class="hlt">model</span> runs with the radiation scheme and runs without the scheme was made to examine three mesoscale phenomena along the west coast of the United States during the period 0000 UTC 02 May 1990 - 1200 UTC 03 %lay 1990: the land and sea breeze, the southerly surge and the Catalina eddy. In general the updated <span class="hlt">model</span> with the radiation parameterization yielded a more accurate simulation of the layer temperatures, geopotential heights, cloud cover, and radiative processes as verified from synoptic, mesoscale: and satellite observations. Subsequently, the updated <span class="hlt">model</span> also forecast a more realistic diurnal evolution of the sea and land breeze, the southerly surge and the Catalina eddy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198219-model-incorporating-some-mechanical-biochemical-factors-underlying-clot-formation-dissolution-flowing-blood','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198219-model-incorporating-some-mechanical-biochemical-factors-underlying-clot-formation-dissolution-flowing-blood"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive <span class="hlt">model</span> for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing <span class="hlt">models</span> emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore » for clot formation and dissolution that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The <span class="hlt">model</span>, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous <span class="hlt">models</span> in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoPhC.182.1295C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoPhC.182.1295C"><span>Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of secondary electron emission and its <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in particle simulations of electron-surface interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Guoxin; Liu, Lie</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Based on Vaughan's empirical formula of secondary emission yield and the assumption of mutual exclusion of each type of secondary electron, a mathematically self-consistent secondary emission <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed. It identifies each generated secondary electron as either elastic reflected, rediffused, or true secondary, hence, it allows the use of distinct emission energy and angular distributions of each type of electron. Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented, and second-order algorithms for particle collection and ejection at the secondary-emission wall are developed in order to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the secondary electron emission process in the standard leap-frog integrator. The accuracy of these algorithms is analyzed for general fields and is confirmed by comparing the numerically computed values with the exact solution under a homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, the phenomenon of multipactor electron discharge on a dielectric is simulated to verify the usefulness of the <span class="hlt">model</span> developed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135676"><span>Integrative <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of animal movement: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> in situ habitat and behavioural information for a migratory marine predator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bestley, Sophie; Jonsen, Ian D; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît</p> <p>2013-01-07</p> <p>A fundamental goal in animal ecology is to quantify how environmental (and other) factors influence individual movement, as this is key to understanding responsiveness of populations to future change. However, quantitative interpretation of individual-based telemetry data is hampered by the complexity of, and error within, these multi-dimensional data. Here, we present an integrative hierarchical Bayesian state-space <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach where, for the first time, the mechanistic process <span class="hlt">model</span> for the movement state of animals directly <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> both environmental and other behavioural information, and observation and process <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are estimated within a single <span class="hlt">model</span>. When applied to a migratory marine predator, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), we find the switch from directed to resident movement state was associated with colder water temperatures, relatively short dive bottom time and rapid descent rates. The approach presented here can have widespread utility for quantifying movement-behaviour (diving or other)-environment relationships across species and systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300097"><span>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for maximizing the value of phase 3 drug development portfolios <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> budget constraints and risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Nitin R; Ankolekar, Suresh; Antonijevic, Zoran; Rajicic, Natasa</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p>We describe a value-driven approach to optimizing pharmaceutical portfolios. Our approach <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> inputs from research and development and commercial functions by simultaneously addressing internal and external factors. This approach differentiates itself from current practices in that it recognizes the impact of study design parameters, sample size in particular, on the portfolio value. We develop an integer programming (IP) <span class="hlt">model</span> as the basis for Bayesian decision analysis to optimize phase 3 development portfolios using expected net present value as the criterion. We show how this framework can be used to determine optimal sample sizes and trial schedules to maximize the value of a portfolio under budget constraints. We then illustrate the remarkable flexibility of the IP <span class="hlt">model</span> to answer a variety of 'what-if' questions that reflect situations that arise in practice. We extend the IP <span class="hlt">model</span> to a stochastic IP <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> uncertainty in the availability of drugs from earlier development phases for phase 3 development in the future. We show how to use stochastic IP to re-optimize the portfolio development strategy over time as new information accumulates and budget changes occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27464310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27464310"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> truncating variants in PALB2, CHEK2, and ATM into the BOADICEA breast cancer risk <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Andrew J; Cunningham, Alex P; Tischkowitz, Marc; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The proliferation of gene panel testing precipitates the need for a breast cancer (BC) risk <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the effects of mutations in several genes and family history (FH). We extended the BOADICEA <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of truncating variants in PALB2, CHEK2, and ATM. The BC incidence was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> via the explicit effects of truncating variants in BRCA1/2, PALB2, CHEK2, and ATM and other unobserved genetic effects using segregation analysis methods. The predicted average BC risk by age 80 for an ATM mutation carrier is 28%, 30% for CHEK2, 50% for PALB2, and 74% for BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, the BC risks are predicted to increase with FH burden. In families with mutations, predicted risks for mutation-negative members depend on both FH and the specific mutation. The reduction in BC risk after negative predictive testing is greatest when a BRCA1 mutation is identified in the family, but for women whose relatives carry a CHEK2 or ATM mutation, the risks decrease slightly. The <span class="hlt">model</span> may be a valuable tool for counseling women who have undergone gene panel testing for providing consistent risks and harmonizing their clinical management. A Web application can be used to obtain BC risks in clinical practice (http://ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/boadicea/).Genet Med 18 12, 1190-1198.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086091','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086091"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Truncating Variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM into the BOADICEA Breast Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Andrew J.; Cunningham, Alex P.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose The proliferation of gene-panel testing precipitates the need for a breast cancer (BC) risk <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the effects of mutations in several genes and family history (FH). We extended the BOADICEA <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of truncating variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM. Methods The BC incidence was <span class="hlt">modelled</span> via the explicit effects of truncating variants in BRCA1/2, PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM and other unobserved genetic effects using segregation analysis methods. Results The predicted average BC risk by age 80 for an ATM mutation carrier is 28%, 30% for CHEK2, 50% for PALB2, 74% for BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, the BC risks are predicted to increase with FH-burden. In families with mutations, predicted risks for mutation-negative members depend on both FH and the specific mutation. The reduction in BC risk after negative predictive-testing is greatest when a BRCA1 mutation is identified in the family, but for women whose relatives carry a CHEK2 or ATM mutation, the risks decrease slightly. Conclusions The <span class="hlt">model</span> may be a valuable tool for counselling women who have undergone gene-panel testing for providing consistent risks and harmonizing their clinical management. A web-application can be used to obtain BC- risks in clinical practice (http://ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/boadicea/). PMID:27464310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA557329','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA557329"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Chemical Contaminants into the Combined ICM/SEDZLJ <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>increased by an order of magnitude over the time required by ICM for eutrophication simulations without sediment transport. The first portion of this... eutrophication algorithms alone. As a result of the reduced time-step and additional computational demands imposed by the SEDZLJ bed <span class="hlt">model</span>, the...computation time of the combined ICM/SEDZLJ <span class="hlt">models</span> increased tremendously over the basic eutrophication <span class="hlt">model</span>. A three-year simulation of Lake George</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA220458','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA220458"><span>A Preferred Spare Decision Support System <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Life Cycle Cost <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>LCC <span class="hlt">Model</span> ... ........ 41 Validation of the CASO <span class="hlt">Models</span> ...... 41 Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Model</span> Equations. 42 Acquisition Cost. ........... 42 System...The ALCs are located at Oklahoma City, Ogden, San Antonio , Sacramento, and Warner Robins. Each ALC specializes in maintaining different aircraft and...September 1987 and February 1988 at HQ AFLC, Warner Robins, Oklahoma City, and San Antonio ALCs revealed a problem implementing the preferred spares</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020038543','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020038543"><span>A Hall Thruster Performance <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Effects of a Multiply-Charged Plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hofer, Richard R.; Jankovsky, Robert S.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A Hall thruster performance <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts anode specific impulse, anode efficiency, and thrust is discussed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived as a function of a voltage loss parameter, an electron loss parameter, and the charge state of the plasma. Experimental data from SPT and TAL type thrusters up to discharge powers of 21.6 kW are used to determine the best fit for <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. General values for the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are found, applicable to high power thrusters and irrespective of thruster type. Performance of a 50 kW thruster is calculated for an anode specific impulse of 2500 seconds or a discharge current of 100 A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESS...15.2747P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESS...15.2747P"><span>A simple 2-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> flood damage in urban drainage planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathirana, A.; Tsegaye, S.; Gersonius, B.; Vairavamoorthy, K.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>An urban inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed and coupled with 1-D drainage network <span class="hlt">model</span> (EPA-SWMM5). The objective was to achieve a 1-D/2-D coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> that is simple and fast enough to be consistently used in planning stages of urban drainage projects. The 2-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on a non-standard simplification of the shallow water equation, lays between diffusion-wave and full dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Simplifications were made in the process representation and numerical solving mechanisms and a depth scaled Manning coefficient was introduced to achieve stability in the cell wetting-drying process. The 2-D <span class="hlt">model</span> is coupled with SWMM for simulation of both network flow and surcharge induced inundation. The coupling is archived by mass transfer from the network system to the 2-D system. A damage calculation block is integrated within the <span class="hlt">model</span> code for assessing flood damage costs in optimal planning of urban drainage networks. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is stable in dealing with complex flow conditions, and cell wetting/drying processes, as demonstrated by a number of idealised experiments. The <span class="hlt">model</span> application is demonstrated by applying to a case study in Brazil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328249','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25328249"><span>TWO-LAYER MATHEMATICAL <span class="hlt">MODELING</span> OF GENE EXPRESSION: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> DNA-LEVEL INFORMATION AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dresch, Jacqueline M; Thompson, Marc A; Arnosti, David N; Chiu, Chichia</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>High-throughput genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis have provided researchers with a quantitative basis for detailed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of gene expression using a wide variety of mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Two of the most commonly employed approaches used to <span class="hlt">model</span> eukaryotic gene regulation are systems of differential equations, which describe time-dependent interactions of gene networks, and thermodynamic equilibrium approaches that can explore DNA-level transcriptional regulation. To combine the strengths of these approaches, we have constructed a new two-layer mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> that provides a dynamical description of gene regulatory systems, using detailed DNA-based information, as well as spatial and temporal transcription factor concentration data. We also developed a semi-implicit numerical algorithm for solving the <span class="hlt">model</span> equations and demonstrate here the efficiency of this algorithm through stability and convergence analyses. To test the <span class="hlt">model</span>, we used it together with the semi-implicit algorithm to simulate a Drosophila gene regulatory circuit that drives development in the dorsal-ventral axis of the blastoderm-stage embryo, involving three genes. For <span class="hlt">model</span> validation, we have done both mathematical and statistical comparisons between the experimental data and the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s simulated data. Where protein and cis-regulatory information is available, our two-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a method for recapitulating and predicting dynamic aspects of eukaryotic transcriptional systems that will greatly improve our understanding of gene regulation at a global level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056188"><span>A Novel Method to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> the Spatial Location of the Lung Dose Distribution into Predictive Radiation Pneumonitis <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: Studies have proposed that patients who receive radiation therapy to the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis than patients who receive therapy to the apex of the lung. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop a novel method to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the lung dose spatial information into a predictive radiation pneumonitis <span class="hlt">model</span>. A secondary goal was to apply the method to a 547 lung cancer patient database to determine whether including the spatial information could improve the fit of our <span class="hlt">model</span>. Methods and Materials: The three-dimensional dose distribution of each patient was mapped onto one common coordinate system. The boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. Once all dose distributions were mapped onto the common coordinate system, the spatial information was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman predictive radiation pneumonitis <span class="hlt">model</span>. Specifically, the lung dose voxels were weighted using a user-defined spatial weighting matrix. We investigated spatial weighting matrices that linearly scaled each dose voxel according to the following orientations: superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, left-right, and radial. The <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters were fit to our patient cohort with the endpoint of severe radiation pneumonitis. The spatial dose <span class="hlt">model</span> was compared against a conventional dose-volume <span class="hlt">model</span> to determine whether adding a spatial component improved the fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. Adding in a spatial parameter did not significantly increase the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">model</span> for any of the weighting schemes. Conclusions: A novel method was developed to investigate the relationship between the location of the deposited lung dose and pneumonitis rate. The method was applied to a patient database, and we found that for our patient cohort, the spatial location does not influence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969419"><span>A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative as a <span class="hlt">model</span> molecule for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into phospholipid assemblies for skin applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández, Estibalitz; Rodríguez, Gelen; Hostachy, Sarah; Clède, Sylvain; Cócera, Mercedes; Sandt, Christophe; Lambert, François; de la Maza, Alfonso; Policar, Clotilde; López, Olga</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative (fac-[Re(CO)3Cl(2-(1-dodecyl-1H-1,2,3,triazol-4-yl)-pyridine)]) was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into phospholipid assemblies, called bicosomes, and the penetration of this molecule into skin was monitored using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR). To evaluate the capacity of bicosomes to promote the penetration of this derivative, the skin penetration of the Re(CO)3 derivative dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a typical enhancer, was also studied. Dynamic light scattering results (DLS) showed an increase in the size of the bicosomes with the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the Re(CO)3 derivative, and the FTIR microspectroscopy showed that the Re(CO)3 derivative <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in bicosomes penetrated deeper into the skin than when dissolved in DMSO. When this molecule was applied on the skin using the bicosomes, 60% of the Re(CO)3 derivative was retained in the stratum corneum (SC) and 40% reached the epidermis (Epi). Otherwise, the application of this molecule via DMSO resulted in 95% of the Re(CO)3 derivative being in the SC and only 5% reaching the Epi. Using a Re(CO)3 derivative with a dodecyl-chain as a <span class="hlt">model</span> molecule, it was possible to determine the distribution of molecules with similar physicochemical characteristics in the skin using bicosomes. This fact makes these nanostructures promising vehicles for the application of lipophilic molecules inside the skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975"><span>The Internal/External Frame of Reference <span class="hlt">Model</span> Revisited: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The internal/external frame of reference <span class="hlt">model</span> (I/E <span class="hlt">model</span>; Marsh, 1986 ) is a highly influential <span class="hlt">model</span> of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> do not typically <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> general cognitive ability or general academic self-concept. This article investigates alternative measurement <span class="hlt">models</span> for domain-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities and academic self-concepts within an extended I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> framework using representative data from 25,301 9th-grade students. Empirical support was found for the external validity of a new measurement <span class="hlt">model</span> for academic self-concepts with respect to key student characteristics (gender, school satisfaction, educational aspirations, domain-specific interests, grades). Moreover, the basic predictions of the I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> were confirmed, and the new extension of the traditional I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-general cognitive ability and domain-general academic self-concept as well as between the domain-specific elements of the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6640813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6640813"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of plant detritus within clastic accumulating interdistributary bays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gastaldo, R.A.; McCarroll, S.M.; Douglass, D.P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Plant-bearing clastic lithologies interpreted as interdistributary bay deposits are reported from rocks Devonian to Holocene in age. Often, these strata preserve accumulations of discrete, laterally continuous leaf beds or coaly horizons. Investigations within two modern inter-distributary bays in the lower delta plain of the Mobile Delta, Alabama have provided insight into the phytotaphonomic processes responsible for the generation of carbonaceous lithologies, coaly horizons and laterally continuous leaf beds. Delvan and Chacalooche Bays lie adjacent to the Tensaw River distributary channel and differ in the mode of clastic and plant detrital accumulation. Delvan Bay, lying west of the distributary channel, is accumulating detritus solely by overbank deposition. Chacaloochee Bay, lying east of the channel, presently is accumulating detritus by active crevasse-splay activity. Plant detritus is accumulating as transported assemblages in both bays, but the mode of preservation differs. In Delvan Bay, the organic component is highly degraded and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> within the clastic component resulting in a carbonaceous silt. Little identifiable plant detritus can be recovered. On the other hand, the organic component in Chacaloochee Bay is accumulating in locally restricted allochthonous peat deposits up to 2 m in thickness, and discrete leaf beds generated by flooding events. In addition, autochthonous plant accumulations occur on subaerially and aerially exposed portions of the crevasse. The resultant distribution of plant remains is a complicated array of transported and non-transported organics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537768"><span>Combined harvesting of a stage structured prey-predator <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> cannibalism in competitive environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chakraborty, Kunal; Das, Kunal; Kar, Tapan Kumar</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a prey-predator system with stage structure for predator. The proposed system <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> cannibalism for predator populations in a competitive environment. The combined fishing effort is considered as control used to harvest the populations. The steady states of the system are determined and the dynamical behavior of the system is discussed. Local stability of the system is analyzed and sufficient conditions are derived for the global stability of the system at the positive equilibrium point. The existence of the Hopf bifurcation phenomenon is examined at the positive equilibrium point of the proposed system. We consider harvesting effort as a control parameter and subsequently, characterize the optimal control parameter in order to formulate the optimal control problem under the dynamic framework towards optimal utilization of the resource. Moreover, the optimal system is solved numerically to investigate the sustainability of the ecosystem using an iterative method with a Runge-Kutta fourth-order scheme. Simulation results show that the optimal control scheme can achieve sustainable ecosystem. Results are analyzed with the help of graphical illustrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPC10131N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPC10131N"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> beam attenuation into an Integrated Data Analysis <span class="hlt">model</span> to determine Zeff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, L. M.; den Hartog, D. J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Determining the resistive dissipation of current in hot plasmas requires knowledge of the effective ionic charge, Zeff. Typically Zeff is determined from visible bremsstrahlung emission, but in limited plasmas with relatively high edge neutral density, the neutrals contribute as much to the visible spectrum as do the impurities. Using techniques from integrated data analysis (IDA), measurements of soft-x-ray emission from a region of the spectrum dominated by bremsstrahlung and impurity recombination were combined with individual impurity density profile measurements from charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, enabling determination of Zeff in MST. Attenuation of the diagnostic neutral beam used to determine those impurity densities depends on Zeff. In order to further enhance the analysis, measurements of beam attenuation are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the IDA framework. The cross sections for attenuation are determined using the Atomic Data Analysis and Structure (ADAS) code suite. This measurement takes advantage of recent detailed calibrations performed during refurbishment of our 50 kV diagnostic neutral beam. This work is supported by the US DOE.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.2145L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.2145L"><span>Anatomy-guided brain PET imaging <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a joint prior <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Lijun; Ma, Jianhua; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We proposed a maximum a posterior (MAP) framework for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction through a novel anato-functional joint prior. The characteristic of the utilized hyperbolic potential function is determinate by the voxel intensity differences within the anatomical image, while the penalization is computed based on voxel intensity differences in reconstructed PET images. Using realistic simulated 18FDG PET scan data, we optimized the performance of the proposed MAP reconstruction with the joint prior (JP-MAP) and compared its performance with conventional 3D MLEM and 3D MAP reconstructions. The proposed JP-MAP reconstruction algorithm resulted in quantitatively enhanced reconstructed images, as demonstrated in extensive FDG PET simulation study. The proposed method was also tested on a 20 min Florbetapir patient study performed on the high-resolution research tomograph. It was shown to outperform conventional methods in visual as well as quantitative accuracy assessment (in terms of regional noise versus activity value performance). The JP-MAP method was also compared with another MR-guided MAP reconstruction method, utilizing the Bowsher prior and was seen to result in some quantitative enhancements, especially in the case of MR-PET mis-registrations, and a definitive improvement in computational performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3011B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3011B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> NDVI in a gravity <span class="hlt">model</span> setting to describe spatio-temporal patterns of Lyme borreliosis incidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Farifteh, J.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J. M.; Coppin, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease in Europe and incidence growth has been reported in several European countries during the last decade. LB is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and the main vector of this pathogen in Europe is the tick Ixodes ricinus. LB incidence and spatial spread is greatly dependent on environmental conditions impacting habitat, demography and trophic interactions of ticks and the wide range of organisms ticks parasite. The landscape configuration is also a major determinant of tick habitat conditions and -very important- of the fashion and intensity of human interaction with vegetated areas, i.e. human exposure to the pathogen. Hence, spatial notions as distance and adjacency between urban and vegetated environments are related to human exposure to tick bites and, thus, to risk. This work tested the adequacy of a gravity <span class="hlt">model</span> setting to <span class="hlt">model</span> the observed spatio-temporal pattern of LB as a function of location and size of urban and vegetated areas and the seasonal and annual change in the vegetation dynamics as expressed by MODIS NDVI. Opting for this approach implies an analogy with Newton's law of universal gravitation in which the attraction forces between two bodies are directly proportional to the bodies mass and inversely proportional to distance. Similar implementations have proven useful in fields like trade <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, health care service planning, disease mapping among other. In our implementation, the size of human settlements and vegetated systems and the distance separating these landscape elements are considered the 'bodies'; and the 'attraction' between them is an indicator of exposure to pathogen. A novel element of this implementation is the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of NDVI to account for the seasonal and annual variation in risk. The importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> this indicator of vegetation activity resides in the fact that alterations of LB incidence pattern observed the last decade have been ascribed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035854','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035854"><span>LINKING MICROBES TO CLIMATE: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> MICROBIAL ACTIVITY INTO CLIMATE <span class="hlt">MODELS</span> COLLOQUIUM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeLong, Edward; Harwood, Caroline; Reid, Ann</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This report explains the connection between microbes and climate, discusses in general terms what <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is and how it applied to climate, and discusses the need for knowledge in microbial physiology, evolution, and ecology to contribute to the determination of fluxes and rates in climate <span class="hlt">models</span>. It recommends with a multi-pronged approach to address the gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319796','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319796"><span>Augmenting watershed <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration with <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of ancillary data sources and qualitative soft data sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Watershed simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> can be calibrated using “hard data” such as temporal streamflow observations; however, users may find upon examination of detailed outputs that some of the calibrated <span class="hlt">models</span> may not reflect summative actual watershed behavior. Thus, it is necessary to use “soft data” (i....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281496&keyword=depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281496&keyword=depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Eco-Evo PVAs: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We synthesize how advances in computational methods and population genomics can be combined within an Ecological-Evolutionary (Eco-Evo) PVA <span class="hlt">model</span>. Eco-Evo PVA <span class="hlt">models</span> are powerful new tools for understanding the influence of evolutionary processes on plant and animal population pe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211396"><span>A Dynamic Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Capacitive and Reverse-Bias Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, KA; Xu, CY; Jin, L; Krein, PT</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Photovoltaics (PVs) are typically <span class="hlt">modeled</span> only for their forward-biased dc characteristics, as in the commonly used single-diode <span class="hlt">model</span>. While this approach accurately <span class="hlt">models</span> the I-V curve under steady forward bias, it lacks dynamic and reverse-bias characteristics. The dynamic characteristics, primarily parallel capacitance and series inductance, affect operation when a PV cell or string interacts with switching converters or experiences sudden transients. Reverse-bias characteristics are often ignored because PV devices are not intended to operate in the reverse-biased region. However, when partial shading occurs on a string of PVs, the shaded cell can become reverse biased and develop into a hot spot that permanently degrades the cell. To fully examine PV behavior under hot spots and various other faults, reverse-bias characteristics must also be <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. This study develops a comprehensive mathematical PV <span class="hlt">model</span> based on circuit components that accounts for forward bias, reverse bias, and dynamic characteristics. Using a series of three experimental tests on an unilluminated PV cell, all required <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are determined. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented in MATLAB Simulink and accurately <span class="hlt">models</span> the measured data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+instruction+AND+school&pg=2&id=EJ1003983','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+instruction+AND+school&pg=2&id=EJ1003983"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Video <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into a School-Based Intervention for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Kaitlyn P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by school-based speech-language…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Introduction+AND+integrated+AND+science&pg=4&id=EJ943296','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Introduction+AND+integrated+AND+science&pg=4&id=EJ943296"><span>Building out a Measurement <span class="hlt">Model</span> to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Complexities of Testing in the Language Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Mark; Moore, Stephen</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides a summary of a novel and integrated way to think about the item response <span class="hlt">models</span> (most often used in measurement applications in social science areas such as psychology, education, and especially testing of various kinds) from the viewpoint of the statistical theory of generalized linear and nonlinear mixed <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+modeling+AND+autism&pg=3&id=EJ1003983','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+modeling+AND+autism&pg=3&id=EJ1003983"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Video <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into a School-Based Intervention for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Kaitlyn P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by school-based speech-language…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Introduction+AND+Linear+AND+Regression+AND+Analysis&pg=2&id=EJ943296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Introduction+AND+Linear+AND+Regression+AND+Analysis&pg=2&id=EJ943296"><span>Building out a Measurement <span class="hlt">Model</span> to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Complexities of Testing in the Language Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Mark; Moore, Stephen</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides a summary of a novel and integrated way to think about the item response <span class="hlt">models</span> (most often used in measurement applications in social science areas such as psychology, education, and especially testing of various kinds) from the viewpoint of the statistical theory of generalized linear and nonlinear mixed <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319795','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319795"><span>Applications of explicitly-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span>/post-processing measurement uncertainty in watershed <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The importance of measurement uncertainty in terms of calculation of <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation error statistics has been recently stated in the literature. The impact of measurement uncertainty on calibration results indicates the potential vague zone in the field of watershed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> where the assumption ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=positive+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ761714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=positive+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ761714"><span>A Preventative <span class="hlt">Model</span> of School Consultation: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Perspectives from Positive Psychology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Little, Steven G.; Delligatti, Nina</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Using the principles of mental health and behavioral consultation, combined with concepts from positive psychology, this paper generates a new preventative <span class="hlt">model</span> of school consultation. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has two steps: (1) the school psychologist aids the teacher in the development and use of his/her personal positive psychology (e.g., optimism,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330670&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78689916&CFTOKEN=59781804','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330670&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78689916&CFTOKEN=59781804"><span>On the importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> sampling weights in occupancy <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span> are used extensively to assess wildlife-habitat associations and to predict species distributions across large geographic regions. Occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span> were developed as a tool to properly account for imperfect detection of a species. Current guidelines on survey des...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330670&keyword=probability+AND+sampling&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330670&keyword=probability+AND+sampling&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>On the importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> sampling weights in occupancy <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span> are used extensively to assess wildlife-habitat associations and to predict species distributions across large geographic regions. Occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span> were developed as a tool to properly account for imperfect detection of a species. Current guidelines on survey des...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44684','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/44684"><span>Representing uncertainty in a spatial invasion <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> human-mediated dispersal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Robert A. Haack</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Most modes of human-mediated dispersal of invasive species are directional and vector-based. Classical spatial spread <span class="hlt">models</span> usually depend on probabilistic dispersal kernels that emphasize distance over direction and have limited ability to depict rare but influential long-distance dispersal events. These aspects are problematic if such <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to estimate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=positive+AND+psychology+AND+classroom&id=EJ761714','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=positive+AND+psychology+AND+classroom&id=EJ761714"><span>A Preventative <span class="hlt">Model</span> of School Consultation: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Perspectives from Positive Psychology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Little, Steven G.; Delligatti, Nina</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Using the principles of mental health and behavioral consultation, combined with concepts from positive psychology, this paper generates a new preventative <span class="hlt">model</span> of school consultation. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has two steps: (1) the school psychologist aids the teacher in the development and use of his/her personal positive psychology (e.g., optimism,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42576','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42576"><span>Approaches to <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> climate change effects in state and transition simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> of vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Becky K. Kerns; Miles A. Hemstrom; David Conklin; Gabriel I. Yospin; Bart Johnson; Dominique Bachelet; Scott Bridgham</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Understanding landscape vegetation dynamics often involves the use of scientifically-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools that are capable of testing alternative management scenarios given complex ecological, management, and social conditions. State-and-transition simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> (STSM) frameworks and software such as PATH and VDDT are commonly used tools that simulate how landscapes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/43322','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/43322"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> additional tree and environmental variables in a lodgepole pine stem profile <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>John C. Byrne</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new variable-form segmented stem profile <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees from the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. I improved estimates of stem diameter by predicting two of the <span class="hlt">model</span> coefficients with linear equations using a measure of tree form, defined as a ratio of dbh and total height. Additional improvements were...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ777477','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ777477"><span>An Item Response Theory <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a general item response theory <span class="hlt">model</span> for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear <span class="hlt">model</span> and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESSD...5.3061P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESSD...5.3061P"><span>A simple 2-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> flood damage in urban drainage planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathirana, A.; Tsegaye, S.; Gersonius, B.; Vairavamoorthy, K.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>In this paper a new inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> code is developed and coupled with Storm Water Management <span class="hlt">Model</span>, SWMM, to relate spatial information associated with urban drainage systems as criteria for planning of storm water drainage networks. The prime objective is to achive a <span class="hlt">model</span> code that is simple and fast enough to be consistently be used in planning stages of urban drainage projects. The formulation for the two-dimensional (2-D) surface flow <span class="hlt">model</span> algorithms is based on the Navier Stokes equation in two dimensions. An Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) finite difference numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing equations. This numerical scheme is used to express the partial differential equations with time steps split into two halves. The <span class="hlt">model</span> algorithm is written using C++ computer programming language. This 2-D surface flow <span class="hlt">model</span> is then coupled with SWMM for simulation of both pipe flow component and surcharge induced inundation in urban areas. In addition, a damage calculation block is integrated within the inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> code. The coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to be capable of dealing with various flow conditions, as well as being able to simulate wetting and drying processes that will occur as the flood flows over an urban area. It has been applied under idealized and semi-hypothetical cases to determine detailed inundation zones, depths and velocities due to surcharged water on overland surface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281496&keyword=genetic+AND+depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91045599&CFTOKEN=21954693','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281496&keyword=genetic+AND+depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91045599&CFTOKEN=21954693"><span>Eco-Evo PVAs: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We synthesize how advances in computational methods and population genomics can be combined within an Ecological-Evolutionary (Eco-Evo) PVA <span class="hlt">model</span>. Eco-Evo PVA <span class="hlt">models</span> are powerful new tools for understanding the influence of evolutionary processes on plant and animal population pe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198071','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198071"><span>TWO-LAYER MATHEMATICAL <span class="hlt">MODELING</span> OF GENE EXPRESSION: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> DNA-LEVEL INFORMATION AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DRESCH, JACQUELINE M.; THOMPSON, MARC A.; ARNOSTI, DAVID N.; CHIU, CHICHIA</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>High-throughput genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis have provided researchers with a quantitative basis for detailed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of gene expression using a wide variety of mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Two of the most commonly employed approaches used to <span class="hlt">model</span> eukaryotic gene regulation are systems of differential equations, which describe time-dependent interactions of gene networks, and thermodynamic equilibrium approaches that can explore DNA-level transcriptional regulation. To combine the strengths of these approaches, we have constructed a new two-layer mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> that provides a dynamical description of gene regulatory systems, using detailed DNA-based information, as well as spatial and temporal transcription factor concentration data. We also developed a semi-implicit numerical algorithm for solving the <span class="hlt">model</span> equations and demonstrate here the efficiency of this algorithm through stability and convergence analyses. To test the <span class="hlt">model</span>, we used it together with the semi-implicit algorithm to simulate a Drosophila gene regulatory circuit that drives development in the dorsal-ventral axis of the blastoderm-stage embryo, involving three genes. For <span class="hlt">model</span> validation, we have done both mathematical and statistical comparisons between the experimental data and the model’s simulated data. Where protein and cis-regulatory information is available, our two-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a method for recapitulating and predicting dynamic aspects of eukaryotic transcriptional systems that will greatly improve our understanding of gene regulation at a global level. PMID:25328249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H13E1369W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H13E1369W"><span>Large-Scale Sediment Routing: Development of a One-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Sand Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiele, S. M.; Wilcock, P. R.; Grams, P. E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Routing sediment through long reaches and networks requires a balance between <span class="hlt">model</span> efficiency, data availability, and accurate representation of sediment flux and storage. The first two often constrain the appropriate <span class="hlt">model</span> to one dimension, but such <span class="hlt">models</span> are unable to capture changes in sediment storage in side-channel environments, which are typically driven by two-dimensional transport fields. Side-channel environments are especially important in canyon channels. Routing of sand in canyon channels can be further complicated by transport of sand over a cobble or boulder bed and by remote locations, which can hinder measurement of channel shape. We have produced a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> that routes water and sand through the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> differs from conventional one-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> in several significant ways: (1) exchange of sand between the main downstream current and eddies, which cannot be directly represented by a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span>, is included by parameterizing predictions over a wide range of conditions from a multidimensional <span class="hlt">model</span>; (2) suspended-sand transport over an extremely rough and sparsely sand-covered bed, which is not accurately represented in conventional sand-transport relations or boundary conditions, is calculated in our <span class="hlt">model</span> with newly developed algorithms (see Grams and others, this meeting); (3) the channel is represented by reach-averaged properties, thereby reducing data requirements and increasing <span class="hlt">model</span> efficiency; and (4) the <span class="hlt">model</span> is coupled with an unsteady-flow <span class="hlt">model</span>, thereby accounting for frequent changes in discharge produced by variations in releases in this power-producing regulated river. Numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> can contribute to the explanation of observed changes in sand storage, extrapolate field observations to unobserved flows, and evaluate alternative dam-operation strategies for preserving the sand resource. <span class="hlt">Model</span> applications can address several significant management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AmJPh..82..876Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AmJPh..82..876Z"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> learning goals about <span class="hlt">modeling</span> into an upper-division physics laboratory experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Implementing a laboratory activity involves a complex interplay among learning goals, available resources, feedback about the existing course, best practices for teaching, and an overall philosophy about teaching labs. Building on our previous work, which described a process of transforming an entire lab course, we now turn our attention to how an individual lab activity on the polarization of light was redesigned to include a renewed emphasis on one broad learning goal: <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. By using this common optics lab as a concrete case study of a broadly applicable approach, we highlight many aspects of the activity development and show how <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is used to integrate sophisticated conceptual and quantitative reasoning into the experimental process through the various aspects of <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: constructing <span class="hlt">models</span>, making predictions, interpreting data, comparing measurements with predictions, and refining <span class="hlt">models</span>. One significant outcome is a natural way to integrate an analysis and discussion of systematic error into a lab activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22399153','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22399153"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for arsenic anti-site <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in GaAs grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schulte, K. L.; Kuech, T. F.</p> <p>2014-12-28</p> <p>GaAs growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) has regained interest as a potential route to low cost, high efficiency thin film photovoltaics. In order to attain the highest efficiencies, deep level defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in these materials must be understood and controlled. The arsenic anti-site defect, As{sub Ga} or EL2, is the predominant deep level defect in HVPE-grown GaAs. In the present study, the relationships between HVPE growth conditions and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of EL2 in GaAs epilayers were determined. Epitaxial n-GaAs layers were grown under a wide range of deposition temperatures (T{sub D}) and gallium chloride partial pressures (P{sub GaCl}), and the EL2 concentration, [EL2], was determined by deep level transient spectroscopy. [EL2] agreed with equilibrium thermodynamic predictions in layers grown under conditions in which the growth rate, R{sub G}, was controlled by conditions near thermodynamic equilibrium. [EL2] fell below equilibrium levels when R{sub G} was controlled by surface kinetic processes, with the disparity increasing as R{sub G} decreased. The surface chemical composition during growth was determined to have a strong influence on EL2 <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. Under thermodynamically limited growth conditions, e.g., high T{sub D} and/or low P{sub GaCl}, the surface vacancy concentration was high and the bulk crystal was close to equilibrium with the vapor phase. Under kinetically limited growth conditions, e.g., low T{sub D} and/or high P{sub GaCl}, the surface attained a high GaCl coverage, blocking As adsorption. This competitive adsorption process reduced the growth rate and also limited the amount of arsenic that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as As{sub Ga}. A defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which accounted for the surface concentration of arsenic as a function of the growth conditions, was developed. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to identify optimal growth parameters for the growth of thin films for photovoltaics, conditions in which a high growth rate and low [EL2] could be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.211..663F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.211..663F"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> sediment compaction into a gravitationally self-consistent <span class="hlt">model</span> for ice age sea-level change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrier, Ken L.; Austermann, Jacqueline; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Pico, Tamara</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Sea-level changes are of wide interest because they regulate coastal hazards, shape the sedimentary geologic record and are sensitive to climate change. In areas where rivers deliver sediment to marine deltas and fans, sea-level changes are strongly modulated by the deposition and compaction of marine sediment. Deposition affects sea level by increasing the elevation of the seafloor, by perturbing crustal elevation and gravity fields and by reducing the volume of seawater through the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of water into sedimentary pore space. In a similar manner, compaction affects sea level by lowering the elevation of the seafloor and by purging water out of sediments and into the ocean. Here we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of sediment compaction into a gravitationally self-consistent global sea-level <span class="hlt">model</span> by extending the approach of Dalca et al. (2013). We show that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> compaction requires accounting for two quantities that are not included in the Dalca et al. (2013) analysis: the mean porosity of the sediment and the degree of saturation in the sediment. We demonstrate the effects of compaction by <span class="hlt">modelling</span> sea-level responses to two simplified 122-kyr sediment transfer scenarios for the Amazon River system, one including compaction and one neglecting compaction. These simulations show that the largest effect of compaction is on the thickness of the compacting sediment, an effect that is largest where deposition rates are fastest. Compaction can also produce minor sea-level changes in coastal regions by influencing shoreline migration and the location of seawater loading, which perturbs crustal elevations. By providing a tool for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> gravitationally self-consistent sea-level responses to sediment compaction, this work offers an improved approach for interpreting the drivers of past sea-level changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H23M1053T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H23M1053T"><span>Climate-Informed Multi-Scale Stochastic (CIMSS) Hydrological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Decadal-Scale Variability Using Paleo Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thyer, M. A.; Henley, B. J.; Kuczera, G. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the influence of climate change and long-term climate variability in the estimation of drought risk is a priority for water resource planners. Australia's highly variable rainfall regime is influenced by ocean-atmosphere climate mechanisms which induce decadal-scale variability in hydrological data. This talk will summarize research on the identification of appropriate <span class="hlt">models</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> decadal scale variability into stochastic hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span>. These will include autoregressive, hidden Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> and a Bayesian hierarchical approach which combines paleo information on climate indices and hydrological data into a climate informed multi-time scale stochastic (CIMSS) framework. To characterize long-term variability for the first level of the hierarchy, paleoclimate and instrumental data describing the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) are analyzed. A new paleo IPO-PDO time series dating back 440 yr is produced, combining seven IPO-PDO paleo sources using an objective smoothing procedure to fit low-pass filters to individual records. The paleo data analysis indicates that wet/dry IPO-PDO states have a broad range of run lengths, with 90% between 3 and 33 yr and a mean of 15 yr. <span class="hlt">Model</span> selection techniques were used to determine a suitable stochastic <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate these run lengths. For the second level of the hierarchy, a seasonal rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span> is conditioned on the simulated IPO-PDO state. Application to two high quality rainfall sites close to water supply reservoirs found that mean seasonal rainfall in the IPO-PDO dry state was 15%-28% lower than the wet state. Furthermore, analysis of the impact of the CIMSS framework on drought risk analysis found that short-term drought risks conditional on IPO/PDO state were far higher than the traditional AR(1) <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..483..517K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..483..517K"><span>A spatial <span class="hlt">model</span> for conflict <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> within- and between-actor effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knipl, Diána; Davies, Toby; Baudains, Peter</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The application of ecological <span class="hlt">models</span> to human conflict scenarios has given rise to a number of <span class="hlt">models</span> which describe antagonistic relationships between adversaries. Recent work demonstrates that the spatial disaggregation of such <span class="hlt">models</span> is not only well-motivated but also gives rise to interesting dynamic behaviour, particularly with respect to the spatial distribution of resources. One feature which is largely absent from previous <span class="hlt">models</span>, however, is the ability of an adversary to coordinate activity across its various locations. Most immediately, this corresponds to the notion of 'support' - the reallocation of resources from one site to another according to need - which plays an important role in real-world conflict. In this paper, we generalise a spatially-disaggregated form of the classic Richardson <span class="hlt">model</span> of conflict escalation by adding a cross-location interaction term for the within-adversary dynamics at each location. We explore the <span class="hlt">model</span> analytically, giving conditions for the stability of the balanced equilibrium state. We then also carry out a number of numerical simulations which correspond to stylised real-world conflict scenarios. Potential further applications of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and its implications for policy, are then discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001445','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001445"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of an Energy Equation into a Pulsed Inductive Thruster Performance <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Polzin, Kurt A.; Reneau, Jarred P.; Sankaran, Kameshwaran</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration containing an energy equation to account for the various sources and sinks in such devices is presented. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a set of circuit equations coupled to an equation of motion and energy equation for the plasma. The latter two equations are obtained for the plasma current sheet by treating it as a one-element finite volume, integrating the equations over that volume, and then matching known terms or quantities already calculated in the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the resulting current sheet-averaged terms in the equations. Calculations showing the time-evolution of the various sources and sinks in the system are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, with two separate resistivity <span class="hlt">models</span> employed to show an example of how the plasma transport properties can affect the calculation. While neither resistivity <span class="hlt">model</span> is fully accurate, the demonstration shows that it is possible within this <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework to time-accurately update various plasma parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17g5009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17g5009C"><span>Development of a human eye <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> with intraocular scattering for visual performance assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yi-Chun; Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Sun, Ching-Cherng</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A biometry-based human eye <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed by using the empirical anatomic and optical data of ocular parameters. The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by concentric conicoid isoindical surfaces and was adaptive to accommodation and age. The chromatic dispersion of ocular media was described by Cauchy equations. The intraocular scattering <span class="hlt">model</span> was composed of volumetric Mie scattering in the cornea and the crystalline lens, and a diffusive-surface <span class="hlt">model</span> at the retina fundus. The retina was regarded as a Lambertian surface and was assigned its corresponding reflectance at each wavelength. The optical performance of the eye <span class="hlt">model</span> was evaluated in CodeV and ASAP and presented by the modulation transfer functions at single and multiple wavelengths. The chromatic optical powers obtained from this <span class="hlt">model</span> resembled that of the average physiological eyes. The scattering property was assessed by means of glare veiling luminance and compared with the CIE general disability glare equation. By replacing the transparent lens with a cataractous lens, the disability glare curve of cataracts was generated to compare with the normal disability glare curve. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has high potential for investigating visual performance in ordinary lighting and display conditions and under the influence of glare sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/64504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/64504"><span>A cometabolic kinetics <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> enzyme inhibition, inactivation, and recovery. 2: Trichloroethylene degradation experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ely, R.L.; Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J.; Guenther, R.B.; Williamson, K.J.</p> <p>1995-05-05</p> <p>A cometabolism enzyme kinetics <span class="hlt">model</span> has been presented which takes into account changes in bacterial activity associated with enzyme inhibition, inactivation of enzyme resulting from product toxicity, and respondent synthesis of new enzyme. Although this process is inherently unsteady-state, the <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes that cometabolic degradation of a compound exhibiting product toxicity can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as pseudo-steady-state under certain conditions. In its simplified form, the <span class="hlt">model</span> also assumes that enzyme inactivation is directly proportional to nongrowth substrate oxidation, and that recovery is directly proportional to growth substrate oxidation. In part 1, <span class="hlt">model</span> derivation, simplification, and analyses were described. In this article, <span class="hlt">model</span> assumptions are tested by analyzing data from experiments examining trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea in a quasi-stead-state bioreactor. <span class="hlt">Model</span> solution results showed TCE to be a competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, with TCE affinity for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) being about four times greater than that of ammonia for the enzyme. Inhibition was independent of TCE oxidation and occurred essentially instantly upon exposure to TCE. In contrast, inactivation of AMO occurred more gradually and was proportional to the rate and amount of TCE oxidized. Evaluation of other O{sub 2}-dependent enzymes and electron transport proteins suggested that TCE-related damage was predominantly confined to AMO. In response to inhibition and/or inactivation, bacterial recovery was initiated, even in the presence of TCE, implying that membranes and protein synthesis systems were functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029150"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> single-step strategy into random regression <span class="hlt">model</span> to enhance genomic prediction of longitudinal trait.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, H; Zhou, L; Mrode, R; Zhang, Q; Liu, J-F</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>In prediction of genomic values, single-step method has been demonstrated to outperform multi-step methods. In statistical analyses of longitudinal traits, random regression test-day <span class="hlt">model</span> (RR-TDM) has clear advantages over other <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the performance of the <span class="hlt">model</span> integrating both single-step and RR-TDM prediction methods, called single-step random regression test-day <span class="hlt">model</span> (SS RR-TDM), in comparison with the pedigree-based RR-TDM and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) <span class="hlt">model</span>. We performed extensive simulations to exploit potential advantages of SS RR-TDM over the other two <span class="hlt">models</span> under various scenarios with different level of heritability, number of quantitative trait loci as well as selection scheme. SS RR-TDM was found to achieve the highest accuracy and unbiasedness under all scenarios, exhibiting robust prediction ability in longitudinal trait analyses. Moreover, SS RR-TDM showed better persistency of accuracy over generations than GBLUP <span class="hlt">model</span>. In addition, we also found that the SS RR-TDM had advantages over RR-TDM and GBLUP in terms of a real data set of human contributed by the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. The findings in our study firstly proved the feasibility and advantages of the SS RR-TDM, and further enhanced strategies for the genomic prediction of longitudinal traits in the future.Heredity advance online publication, 28 December 2016; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.91.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3513982','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3513982"><span>Reconstruction of Biological Networks by <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Prior Knowledge into Bayesian Network <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shin, Dong-Guk</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Bayesian network <span class="hlt">model</span> is widely used for reverse engineering of biological network structures. An advantage of this <span class="hlt">model</span> is its capability to integrate prior knowledge into the <span class="hlt">model</span> learning process, which can lead to improving the quality of the network reconstruction outcome. Some previous works have explored this area with focus on using prior knowledge of the direct molecular links, except for a few recent ones proposing to examine the effects of molecular orderings. In this study, we propose a Bayesian network <span class="hlt">model</span> that can integrate both direct links and orderings into the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Random weights are assigned to these two types of prior knowledge to alleviate bias toward certain types of information. We evaluate our <span class="hlt">model</span> performance using both synthetic data and biological data for the RAF signaling network, and illustrate the significant improvement on network structure reconstruction of the proposing <span class="hlt">models</span> over the existing methods. We also examine the correlation between the improvement and the abundance of ordering prior knowledge. To address the issue of generating prior knowledge, we propose an approach to automatically extract potential molecular orderings from knowledge resources such as Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation. PMID:23210479</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28779005"><span>Improving the phenotype predictions of a yeast genome-scale metabolic <span class="hlt">model</span> by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> enzymatic constraints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez, Benjamín J; Zhang, Cheng; Nilsson, Avlant; Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Nielsen, Jens</p> <p>2017-08-03</p> <p>Genome-scale metabolic <span class="hlt">models</span> (GEMs) are widely used to calculate metabolic phenotypes. They rely on defining a set of constraints, the most common of which is that the production of metabolites and/or growth are limited by the carbon source uptake rate. However, enzyme abundances and kinetics, which act as limitations on metabolic fluxes, are not taken into account. Here, we present GECKO, a method that enhances a GEM to account for enzymes as part of reactions, thereby ensuring that each metabolic flux does not exceed its maximum capacity, equal to the product of the enzyme's abundance and turnover number. We applied GECKO to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae GEM and demonstrated that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> could correctly describe phenotypes that the previous <span class="hlt">model</span> could not, particularly under high enzymatic pressure conditions, such as yeast growing on different carbon sources in excess, coping with stress, or overexpressing a specific pathway. GECKO also allows to directly integrate quantitative proteomics data; by doing so, we significantly reduced flux variability of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, in over 60% of metabolic reactions. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">model</span> gives insight into the distribution of enzyme usage between and within metabolic pathways. The developed method and <span class="hlt">model</span> are expected to increase the use of <span class="hlt">model</span>-based design in metabolic engineering. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16341923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16341923"><span>A LabVIEW <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an open-loop arterial impedance and a closed-loop circulatory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cole, R T; Lucas, C L; Cascio, W E; Johnson, T A</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>While numerous computer <span class="hlt">models</span> exist for the circulatory system, many are limited in scope, contain unwanted features or <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> complex components specific to unique experimental situations. Our purpose was to develop a basic, yet multifaceted, computer <span class="hlt">model</span> of the left heart and systemic circulation in LabVIEW having universal appeal without sacrificing crucial physiologic features. The program we developed employs Windkessel-type impedance <span class="hlt">models</span> in several open-loop configurations and a closed-loop <span class="hlt">model</span> coupling a lumped impedance and ventricular pressure source. The open-loop impedance <span class="hlt">models</span> demonstrate afterload effects on arbitrary aortic pressure/flow inputs. The closed-loop <span class="hlt">model</span> catalogs the major circulatory waveforms with changes in afterload, preload, and left heart properties. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> provides an avenue for expanding the use of the ventricular equations through closed-loop coupling that includes a basic coronary circuit. Tested values used for the afterload components and the effects of afterload parameter changes on various waveforms are consistent with published data. We conclude that this <span class="hlt">model</span> offers the ability to alter several circulatory factors and digitally catalog the most salient features of the pressure/flow waveforms employing a user-friendly platform. These features make the <span class="hlt">model</span> a useful instructional tool for students as well as a simple experimental tool for cardiovascular research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19070147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19070147"><span>Forest type mapping using <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of spatial <span class="hlt">models</span> and ETM+ data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joibary, Shaban Shataee; Darvishsefat, Ali A; Kellenberger, Tobias W</p> <p>2007-07-15</p> <p>Results of former researches have shown that spectrally based analysis alone could not satisfy forest type classification in mountainous mixed forests. Forest type based on composed different parameters such as topography elements like aspect, elevation and slop. These elements that are affected on occurrences of forest type can be stated as spatial distribution <span class="hlt">models</span>. Using ancillary data integrated with spectral data could help to separate forest type. In order to find the abilities of using topographic spatial predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve forest type classification, an investigation was carried out to classify forest type using ETM+ data in a part of northern forests of Iran. The Tasseled Cap, Ratioing transformations and Principal Component Analysis were applied to the spectral bands. The best spectral and predictive data sets for classifying forest type using maximum likelihood classification were chosen using the Bhattacharya seperability index. Primary analysis between forest type and topographic parameters showed that elevation and aspect are most correlated with the occurrences of type. Probability occurrence rates of forest type were extracted in the aspect; elevation, integrated aspect and elevation as well as homogeneous units structured on elevation and aspect classes. Based on occurrence rates of forest type, spatial predictive distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> were generated for each type individually. Classification of the best spectral data sets was accomplished by maximum likelihood classifier and using these spatial predictive <span class="hlt">models</span>. Results were assessed using a sample ground truth of forest type. This study showed that spatial predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> could considerably improve the results compared with spectral data alone from 49 to 60%. Among spatial <span class="hlt">models</span> used, the spatial predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed based on the homogeneous units could improve results in comparison to other <span class="hlt">models</span>. Applying other parameters related to forest type like soil maps would</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3844S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3844S"><span>Ionospheric <span class="hlt">model</span>-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of SDO-EVE solar irradiances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric <span class="hlt">models</span> were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric <span class="hlt">Model</span> (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) <span class="hlt">model</span>. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither <span class="hlt">model</span> captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A <span class="hlt">model</span> sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these <span class="hlt">model</span> shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly <span class="hlt">modeled</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068084','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068084"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Electrical Systems <span class="hlt">Models</span> Into an Existing Thermodynamic Cycle Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeh, Josh</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Integration of entire system includes: Fuel cells, motors, propulsors, thermal/power management, compressors, etc. Use of existing, pre-developed NPSS capabilities includes: 1) Optimization tools; 2) Gas turbine <span class="hlt">models</span> for hybrid systems; 3) Increased interplay between subsystems; 4) Off-design <span class="hlt">modeling</span> capabilities; 5) Altitude effects; and 6) Existing transient <span class="hlt">modeling</span> architecture. Other factors inclde: 1) Easier transfer between users and groups of users; 2) General aerospace industry acceptance and familiarity; and 3) Flexible analysis tool that can also be used for ground power applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067970','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067970"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of NREL Solar Advisor <span class="hlt">Model</span> Photovoltaic Capabilities with GridLAB-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tuffner, Francis K.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Singh, Ruchi</p> <p>2012-10-19</p> <p>This report provides a summary of the work updating the photovoltaic <span class="hlt">model</span> inside GridLAB-D. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Advisor <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SAM) was utilized as a basis for algorithms and validation of the new implementation. Subsequent testing revealed that the two implementations are nearly identical in both solar impacts and power output levels. This synergized <span class="hlt">model</span> aides the system-level impact studies of GridLAB-D, but also allows more specific details of a particular site to be explored via the SAM software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B44B..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B44B..07K"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> representation of agricultural ecosystems and management within a dynamic biosphere <span class="hlt">model</span>: Approach, validation, and significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kucharik, C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>At the scale of individual fields, crop <span class="hlt">models</span> have long been used to examine the interactions between soils, vegetation, the atmosphere and human management, using varied levels of numerical sophistication. While previous efforts have contributed significantly towards the advancement of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools, the <span class="hlt">models</span> themselves are not typically applied across larger continental scales due to a lack of crucial data. Furthermore, many times crop <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to study a single quantity, process, or cycle in isolation, limiting their value in considering the important tradeoffs between competing ecosystem services such as food production, water quality, and sequestered carbon. In response to the need for a more integrated agricultural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach across the continental scale, an updated agricultural version of a dynamic biosphere <span class="hlt">model</span> (IBIS) now integrates representations of land-surface physics and soil physics, canopy physiology, terrestrial carbon and nitrogen balance, crop phenology, solute transport, and farm management into a single framework. This version of the IBIS <span class="hlt">model</span> (Agro-IBIS) uses a short 20 to 60-minute timestep to simulate the rapid exchange of energy, carbon, water, and momentum between soils, vegetative canopies, and the atmosphere. The <span class="hlt">model</span> can be driven either by site-specific meteorological data or by gridded climate datasets. Mechanistic crop <span class="hlt">models</span> for corn, soybean, and wheat use physiologically-based representations of leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and plant respiration. <span class="hlt">Model</span> validation has been performed using a variety of temporal scale data collected at the following spatial scales: (1) the precision-agriculture scale (5 m), (2) the individual field experiment scale (AmeriFlux), and (3) regional and continental scales using annual USDA county-level yield data and monthly satellite (AVHRR) observations of vegetation characteristics at 0.5 degree resolution. To date, the <span class="hlt">model</span> has been used with great success to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMT....29..311H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMT....29..311H"><span>Thermodynamically consistent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of granular-fluid mixtures <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heß, Julian; Wang, Yongqi; Hutter, Kolumban</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new, thermodynamically consistent <span class="hlt">model</span> for granular-fluid mixtures, derived with the entropy principle of Müller and Liu. Including a pressure diffusion equation combined with the concept of extra pore pressure, and hypoplastic material behavior, thermodynamic restrictions are imposed on the constitutive quantities. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to a granular-fluid flow, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the fluid pressure. While the focal point of the work is the conceptional part, i.e. the thermodynamic consistent <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, numerical simulations with physically reasonable results for simple shear flow are also carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2793"><span>On Boundary Misorientation Distribution Functions and How to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> them into 3D <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Microstructural Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Godfrey, A.W.; Holm, E.A.; Hughes, D.A.; Miodownik, M.</p> <p>1998-12-23</p> <p>The fundamental difficulties <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> experimentally obtained-boundary disorientation distributions (BMD) into 3D microstructural <span class="hlt">models</span> are discussed. An algorithm is described which overcomes these difficulties. The boundary misorientations are treated as a statistical ensemble which is evolved toward the desired BMD using a Monte Carlo method. The application of this algorithm to a number complex arbitrary BMDs shows that the approach is effective for both conserved and non-conserved textures. The algorithm is successfully used to create the BMDs observed in deformation microstructure containing both incidental dislocation boundaries (IDBs) and geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EJASP2010..258Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EJASP2010..258Z"><span>On Optimizing H. 264/AVC Rate Control by Improving R-D <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> HVS Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zhongjie; Wang, Yuer; Bai, Yongqiang; Jiang, Gangyi</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The state-of-the-art JVT-G012 rate control algorithm of H.264 is improved from two aspects. First, the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) <span class="hlt">model</span> is modified based on both empirical observations and theoretical analysis. Second, based on the existing physiological and psychological research findings of human vision, the rate control algorithm is optimized by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the main characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) such as contrast sensitivity, multichannel theory, and masking effect. Experiments are conducted, and experimental results show that the improved algorithm can simultaneously enhance the overall subjective visual quality and improve the rate control precision effectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377350"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Geriatric Assessment into a Nephrology Clinic: Preliminary Data from Two <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hall, Rasheeda K; Haines, Carol; Gorbatkin, Steven M; Schlanger, Lynn; Shaban, Hesham; Schell, Jane O; Gurley, Susan B; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Bowling, C Barrett</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Older adults with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience functional impairment that can complicate CKD management. Failure to recognize functional impairment may put these individuals at risk of further functional decline, nursing home placement, and missed opportunities for timely goals-of-care conversations. Routine geriatric assessment could be a useful tool for identifying older adults with CKD who are at risk of functional decline and provide contextual information to guide clinical decision-making. Two innovative programs were implemented in the Veterans Health Administration that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> geriatric assessment into a nephrology visit. In one program, a geriatrician embedded in a nephrology clinic used standardized geriatric assessment tools with individuals with CKD aged 70 and older (Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for CKD) (CGA-4-CKD). In the second program, a nephrology clinic used comprehensive appointments for individuals aged 75 and older to conduct geriatric assessments and CKD care (Renal Silver). Data on 68 veterans who had geriatric assessments through these programs between November 2013 and May 2015 are reported. In CGA-4-CKD, difficulty with one or more activities of daily living (ADLs), history of falls, and cognitive impairment were each found in 27.3% of participants. ADL difficulty was found in 65.7%, falls in 28.6%, and cognitive impairment in 51.6% of participants in Renal Silver. Geriatric assessment guided care processes in 45.4% (n = 15) of veterans in the CGA-4-CKD program and 37.1% (n = 13) of those in Renal Silver. Findings suggest there is a significant burden of functional impairment in older adults with CKD. Knowledge of this impairment is applicable to CKD management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451016"><span>A physiologically based pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of mitoxantrone in mice and scale-up to humans: a semi-mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> DNA and protein binding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>An, Guohua; Morris, Marilyn E</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of mitoxantrone (Novantrone®), a clinically well-established anticancer agent, in mice and developed a mechanism-based PBPK (physiologically based pharmacokinetic) <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe its disposition. Mitoxantrone concentrations in plasma and six organs (lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and brain) were determined after a 5 mg/kg i.v. dose. We evaluated three different PBPK <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to characterize our experimental data: <span class="hlt">model</span> 1 containing Kp values, <span class="hlt">model</span> 2 <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a deep binding compartment, and <span class="hlt">model</span> 3 <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> binding of mitoxantrone to DNA and protein. Among the three <span class="hlt">models</span>, only <span class="hlt">model</span> 3 with DNA and protein binding captured all the experimental data well. The estimated binding affinity for DNA (K (DNA)) and protein (K (macro)) were 0.0013 and 1.44 μM, respectively. Predicted plasma and tissue AUC values differed from observed values by <19 %, except for heart (60 %). <span class="hlt">Model</span> 3 was further used to simulate plasma mitoxantrone concentrations in humans for a 12-mg/m(2) dose, using human physiological parameters. The simulated results generally agreed with the observed time course of mitoxantrone plasma concentrations in patients after a standard dose of 12 mg/m(2). In summary, we reported for the first time a mechanism-based PBPK <span class="hlt">model</span> of mitoxantrone <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> macromolecule binding which may have clinical applicability in optimizing clinical therapy. Since mitoxantrone is a substrate of the efflux transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1, the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of efflux transporters may also be necessary to characterize the data obtained in low-dose studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=167843&keyword=1984&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=167843&keyword=1984&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Results of Avian Toxicity Tests into a <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Annual Reproductive Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript presents a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for translating results from laboratory avian reproduction tests into an estimate of pesticide-caused change in the annual reproductive success of birds, also known as fecundity rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889432"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> hidden Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Wu, Li-Cheng; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Tsae</p> <p>2005-07-30</p> <p>Protein phosphorylation, which is an important mechanism in posttranslational modification, affects essential cellular processes such as metabolism, cell signaling, differentiation, and membrane transportation. Proteins are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. In this investigation, we develop a novel tool to computationally predict catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the concepts of profile Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Models</span> (HMM), computational <span class="hlt">models</span> are trained from the kinase-specific groups of phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the trained <span class="hlt">models</span>, we select the <span class="hlt">model</span> with highest accuracy in each kinase-specific group and provide a Web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. The main contribution here is that we have developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MmSAI..85..321H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MmSAI..85..321H"><span>Chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies based on <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> observed star formation histories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Homma, H.; Murayama, T.</p> <p></p> <p>We investigate the chemical evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> explaining the chemical composition and the star formation histories (SFHs) simultaneously for the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Recently, wide imaging photometry and multi-object spectroscopy give us a large number of data. Therefore, we start to develop the chemical evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> based on an SFH given by photometric observations and estimates a metallicity distribution function (MDF) comparing with spectroscopic observations. With this new <span class="hlt">model</span> we calculate the chemical evolution for 4 dSphs (Fornax, Sculptor, Leo II, Sextans), and then we found that the <span class="hlt">model</span> of 0.1 Gyr for the delay time of type Ia SNe is too short to explain the observed [alpha /Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagrams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=167843&keyword=1984&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=86177739&CFTOKEN=20281131','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=167843&keyword=1984&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=86177739&CFTOKEN=20281131"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Results of Avian Toxicity Tests into a <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Annual Reproductive Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript presents a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for translating results from laboratory avian reproduction tests into an estimate of pesticide-caused change in the annual reproductive success of birds, also known as fecundity rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSMSE..19a5005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSMSE..19a5005M"><span>A creep <span class="hlt">model</span> for austenitic stainless steels <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> cavitation and wedge cracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahesh, S.; Alur, K. C.; Mathew, M. D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> of damage evolution in austenitic stainless steels under creep loading at elevated temperatures is proposed. The initial microstructure is idealized as a space-tiling aggregate of identical rhombic dodecahedral grains, which undergo power-law creep deformation. Damage evolution in the form of cavitation and wedge cracking on grain-boundary facets is considered. Both diffusion- and deformation-driven grain-boundary cavity growth are treated. Cavity and wedge-crack length evolution are derived from an energy balance argument that combines and extends the <span class="hlt">models</span> of Cottrell (1961 Trans. AIME 212 191-203), Williams (1967 Phil. Mag. 15 1289-91) and Evans (1971 Phil Mag. 23 1101-12). The time to rupture predicted by the <span class="hlt">model</span> is in good agreement with published experimental data for a type 316 austenitic stainless steel under uniaxial creep loading. Deformation and damage evolution at the microscale predicted by the present <span class="hlt">model</span> are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990WRR....26....5D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990WRR....26....5D"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Daily Flood Control Objectives Into a Monthly Stochastic Dynamic Programing <span class="hlt">Model</span> for a Hydroelectric Complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Druce, Donald J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A monthly stochastic dynamic programing <span class="hlt">model</span> was recently developed and implemented at British Columbia (B.C.) Hydro to provide decision support for short-term energy exports and, if necessary, for flood control on the Peace River in northern British Columbia. The <span class="hlt">model</span> establishes the marginal cost of supplying energy from the B.C. Hydro system, as well as a monthly operating policy for the G.M. Shrum and Peace Canyon hydroelectric plants and the Williston Lake storage reservoir. A simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> capable of following the operating policy then determines the probability of refilling Williston Lake and possible spill rates and volumes. Reservoir inflows are input to both <span class="hlt">models</span> in daily and monthly formats. The results indicate that flood control can be accommodated without sacrificing significant export revenue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/23261','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/23261"><span>A qualitative comparison of fire spread <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> wind and slope effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>David R. Weise; Gregory S. Biging</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Wind velocity and slope are two critical variables that affect wildland fire rate of spread. The effects of these variables on rate of spread are often combined in rate-of-spread <span class="hlt">models</span> using vector addition. The various methods used to combine wind and slope effects have seldom been validated or compared due to differences in the <span class="hlt">models</span> or to lack of data. In this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.194..164L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.194..164L"><span>Simulation of a severe convective storm using a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> with explicitly <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> aerosols</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lompar, Miloš; Ćurić, Mladjen; Romanic, Djordje</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Despite an important role the aerosols play in all stages of cloud lifecycle, their representation in numerical weather prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> is often rather crude. This paper investigates the effects the explicit versus implicit inclusion of aerosols in a microphysics parameterization scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) <span class="hlt">model</span> has on cloud dynamics and microphysics. The testbed selected for this study is a severe mesoscale convective system with supercells that struck west and central parts of Serbia in the afternoon of July 21, 2014. Numerical products of two <span class="hlt">model</span> runs, i.e. one with aerosols explicitly (WRF-AE) included and another with aerosols implicitly (WRF-AI) assumed, are compared against precipitation measurements from surface network of rain gauges, as well as against radar and satellite observations. The WRF-AE <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately captured the transportation of dust from the north Africa over the Mediterranean and to the Balkan region. On smaller scales, both <span class="hlt">models</span> displaced the locations of clouds situated above west and central Serbia towards southeast and under-predicted the maximum values of composite radar reflectivity. Similar to satellite images, WRF-AE shows the mesoscale convective system as a merged cluster of cumulonimbus clouds. Both <span class="hlt">models</span> over-predicted the precipitation amounts; WRF-AE over-predictions are particularly pronounced in the zones of light rain, while WRF-AI gave larger outliers. Unlike WRF-AI, the WRF-AE approach enables the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of time evolution and influx of aerosols into the cloud which could be of practical importance in weather forecasting and weather modification. Several likely causes for discrepancies between <span class="hlt">models</span> and observations are discussed and prospects for further research in this field are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA445003','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA445003"><span>The Aerosol <span class="hlt">Models</span> in MODTRAN: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Selected Measurements From Northern Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>search and rescue. The condition of the atmosphere is a significant factor that impacts on the performance of EO systems. This report focuses on...that the impact of aerosol attenuation starts to impact on visible and mid wave infrared (3-5 micrometres (μm)) wavebands in this region. The results...2.2.1.1 Rural <span class="hlt">Model</span> This <span class="hlt">model</span> is intended to represent regions of the atmosphere not impacted upon by urban or industrial processes. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51H1617T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51H1617T"><span>Improving River Flow Predictions from the NOAA NCRFC Forecasting <span class="hlt">Model</span> by <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tuttle, S. E.; Jacobs, J. M.; Restrepo, P. J.; Deweese, M. M.; Connelly, B.; Buan, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The NOAA National Weather Service North Central River Forecast Center (NCRFC) is responsible for issuing river flow forecasts for parts of the Upper Mississippi, Great Lakes, and Hudson Bay drainages, including the Red River of the North basin (RRB). The NCRFC uses an operational hydrologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> infrastructure called the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) for its operational forecasts, which currently links the SNOW-17 snow accumulation and ablation <span class="hlt">model</span>, to the Sacramento-Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) rainfall-runoff <span class="hlt">model</span>, to a number of hydrologic and hydraulic flow routing <span class="hlt">models</span>. The operational <span class="hlt">model</span> is lumped and requires only area-averaged precipitation and air temperature as inputs. NCRFC forecasters use observational data of hydrological state variables as a source of supplemental information during forecasting, and can use professional judgment to modify the <span class="hlt">model</span> states in real time. In a few recent years (e.g. 2009, 2013), the RRB exhibited unexpected anomalous hydrologic behavior, resulting in overestimation of peak flood discharge by up to 70% and highlighting the need for observations with high temporal and spatial coverage. Unfortunately, observations of hydrological states (e.g. soil moisture, snow water equivalent (SWE)) are relatively scarce in the RRB. Satellite remote sensing can fill this need. We use Minnesota's Buffalo River watershed within the RRB as a test case and update the operational CHPS <span class="hlt">model</span> using modifications based on satellite observations, including AMSR-E SWE and SMOS soil moisture estimates. We evaluate the added forecasting skill of the satellite-enhanced <span class="hlt">model</span> compared to measured streamflow using hindcasts from 2010-2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22948107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22948107"><span>Creating a process for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> epidemiological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> into outbreak management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akselrod, Hana; Mercon, Monica; Kirkeby Risoe, Petter; Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; McGovern, Joanne; Bogucki, Sandy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Modern computational <span class="hlt">models</span> of infectious diseases greatly enhance our ability to understand new infectious threats and assess the effects of different interventions. The recently-released CDC Framework for Preventing Infectious Diseases calls for increased use of predictive <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of epidemic emergence for public health preparedness. Currently, the utility of these technologies in preparedness and response to outbreaks is limited by gaps between <span class="hlt">modelling</span> output and information requirements for incident management. The authors propose an operational structure that will facilitate integration of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capabilities into action planning for outbreak management, using the Incident Command System (ICS) and Synchronization Matrix framework. It is designed to be adaptable and scalable for use by state and local planners under the National Response Framework (NRF) and Emergency Support Function #8 (ESF-8). Specific epidemiological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> requirements are described, and integrated with the core processes for public health emergency decision support. These methods can be used in checklist format to align prospective or real-time <span class="hlt">modelling</span> output with anticipated decision points, and guide strategic situational assessments at the community level. It is anticipated that formalising these processes will facilitate translation of the CDC's policy guidance from theory to practice during public health emergencies involving infectious outbreaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3323..602F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3323..602F"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> finite element techniques to simplify the impedance <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of active structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fairweather, James A.; Craig, Kevin C.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>An impedance <span class="hlt">model</span> is formulated for the prediction of the response of structures to induced-strain actuation. The approach utilizes finite element analysis (FEA) to determine the host- structure mechanical impedance. The method couples the numerically obtained impedance to an analytical vibration solution of the induced-strain actuator to determine the dynamic response of the active structure. The methodology is demonstrated in the computation of the dynamic response of a beam structure to induced-strain actuation. This system has been extensively explored by the active structures community. Comparisons of the predicted dynamic response of this structure are made to the predictions of <span class="hlt">models</span> previously documented in the literature. Experiments are conducted for the purpose of <span class="hlt">model</span> validation, and an excellent agreement is demonstrated between the predictions of the FEA-based impedance <span class="hlt">model</span> and measurements made on physical systems. It is anticipated that the formulation extends the FEA-based impedance <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach to a broader class of active structures, those for which closed-form expressions of host-structure mechanical impedance are non- existent. Use of the FEA-based impedance approach is suggested when <span class="hlt">modeling</span> generic distributed structures possessing material anisotropy, mass loading, and non-uniform boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108579','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108579"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> two variability sources for describing motor evoked potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goetz, Stefan M.; Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) play a pivotal role in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), e.g., for determining the motor threshold and probing cortical excitability. Sampled across the range of stimulation strengths, MEPs outline an input–output (IO) curve, which is often used to characterize the corticospinal tract. More detailed understanding of the signal generation and variability of MEPs would provide insight into the underlying physiology and aid correct statistical treatment of MEP data. Methods A novel regression <span class="hlt">model</span> is tested using measured IO data of twelve subjects. The <span class="hlt">model</span> splits MEP variability into two independent contributions, acting on both sides of a strong sigmoidal nonlinearity that represents neural recruitment. Traditional sigmoidal regression with a single variability source after the nonlinearity is used for comparison. Results The distribution of MEP amplitudes varied across different stimulation strengths, violating statistical assumptions in traditional regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to the conventional regression <span class="hlt">model</span>, the dual variability source <span class="hlt">model</span> better described the IO characteristics including phenomena such as changing distribution spread and skewness along the IO curve. Conclusions MEP variability is best described by two sources that most likely separate variability in the initial excitation process from effects occurring later on. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> enables more accurate and sensitive estimation of the IO curve characteristics, enhancing its power as a detection tool, and may apply to other brain stimulation modalities. Furthermore, it extracts new information from the IO data concerning the neural variability—information that has previously been treated as noise. PMID:24794287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CNSNS..47..139L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CNSNS..47..139L"><span>Enhanced stability of car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> upon <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of short-term driving memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Da-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke; Ai, Wen-Huan</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Based on the full velocity difference <span class="hlt">model</span>, a new car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed to investigate the effect of short-term driving memory on traffic flow in this paper. Short-term driving memory is introduced as the influence factor of driver's anticipation behavior. The stability condition of the newly developed <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is constructed to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point. Via numerical method, evolution of a small perturbation is investigated firstly. The results show that the improvement of this new car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> over the previous ones lies in the fact that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> can improve the traffic stability. Starting and breaking processes of vehicles in the signalized intersection are also investigated. The numerical simulations illustrate that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> can successfully describe the driver's anticipation behavior, and that the efficiency and safety of the vehicles passing through the signalized intersection are improved by considering short-term driving memory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684950"><span>A stoichiometric producer-grazer <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effects of excess food-nutrient content on consumer dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peace, Angela; Zhao, Yuqin; Loladze, Irakli; Elser, James J; Kuang, Yang</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. For example, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> under this framework allows food quality to affect consumer dynamics. While the effects of nutrient deficiency on consumer growth are well understood, recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that consumer dynamics are not only affected by insufficient food nutrient content (low phosphorus (P): carbon (C) ratio) but also by excess food nutrient content (high P:C). This phenomenon is known as the stoichiometric knife edge, in which animal growth is reduced not only by food with low P content but also by food with high P content, and needs to be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we present a Lotka-Volterra type <span class="hlt">model</span> to investigate the growth response of Daphnia to algae of varying P:C ratios capturing the mechanism of the stoichiometric knife edge.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGS....18..205L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGS....18..205L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> GIS data into an agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents an extension to the agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9223T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9223T"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> rainfall uncertainty in a SWAT <span class="hlt">model</span>: the river Zenne basin (Belgium) case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tolessa Leta, Olkeba; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) called its member countries to achieve a good ecological status for all inland and coastal water bodies by 2015. According to recent studies, the river Zenne (Belgium) is far from this objective. Therefore, an interuniversity and multidisciplinary project "Towards a Good Ecological Status in the river Zenne (GESZ)" was launched to evaluate the effects of wastewater management plans on the river. In this project, different <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed and integrated using the Open <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Interface (OpenMI). The hydrologic, semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is hereby used as one of the <span class="hlt">model</span> components in the integrated <span class="hlt">modelling</span> chain in order to <span class="hlt">model</span> the upland catchment processes. The assessment of the uncertainty of SWAT is an essential aspect of the decision making process, in order to design robust management strategies that take the predicted uncertainties into account. <span class="hlt">Model</span> uncertainty stems from the uncertainties on the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, the input data (e.g, rainfall), the calibration data (e.g., stream flows) and on the <span class="hlt">model</span> structure itself. The objective of this paper is to assess the first three sources of uncertainty in a SWAT <span class="hlt">model</span> of the river Zenne basin. For the assessment of rainfall measurement uncertainty, first, we identified independent rainfall periods, based on the daily precipitation and stream flow observations and using the Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO). Secondly, we assigned a rainfall multiplier parameter for each of the independent rainfall periods, which serves as a multiplicative input error corruption. Finally, we treated these multipliers as latent parameters in the <span class="hlt">model</span> optimization and uncertainty analysis (UA). For parameter uncertainty assessment, due to the high number of parameters of the SWAT <span class="hlt">model</span>, first, we screened out its most sensitive parameters using the Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) technique</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24697528"><span>Development of a real-time crash risk prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the various crash mechanisms across different traffic states.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Chengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Fangwei</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to identify the traffic flow variables contributing to crash risks under different traffic states and to develop a real-time crash risk <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the varying crash mechanisms across different traffic states. The crash, traffic, and geometric data were collected on the I-880N freeway in California in 2008 and 2009. This study considered 4 different traffic states in Wu's 4-phase traffic theory. They are free fluid traffic, bunched fluid traffic, bunched congested traffic, and standing congested traffic. Several different statistical methods were used to accomplish the research objective. The preliminary analysis showed that traffic states significantly affected crash likelihood, collision type, and injury severity. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (NLCCA) was conducted to identify the underlying phenomena that made certain traffic states more hazardous than others. The results suggested that different traffic states were associated with various collision types and injury severities. The matching of traffic flow characteristics and crash characteristics in NLCCA revealed how traffic states affected traffic safety. The logistic regression analyses showed that the factors contributing to crash risks were quite different across various traffic states. To <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the varying crash mechanisms across different traffic states, random parameters logistic regression was used to develop a real-time crash risk <span class="hlt">model</span>. Bayesian inference based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations was used for <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation. The parameters of traffic flow variables in the <span class="hlt">model</span> were allowed to vary across different traffic states. Compared with the standard logistic regression <span class="hlt">model</span>, the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> significantly improved the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance. These results can promote a better understanding of the relationship between traffic flow characteristics and crash risks, which is valuable knowledge in the pursuit of improving</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/ny/cargill-incorporated','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/ny/cargill-incorporated"><span>Cargill <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cargill, <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span>, 518 East Fourth Street, Watkins Glen, New York 14891 has applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et. seq (the Act), for a new Underground Injection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...50..362N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...50..362N"><span>Structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span> updating of cavity systems <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> vibro-acoustic coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> updating techniques are used to update the finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> of a structure in order to improve its correlation with the experimental dynamic test data. These techniques are well developed and extensively studied for the case of purely structural dynamic systems. However, the cavities encountered in automotive, aerospace and other transportation applications represent a class of structures in which an elastic structure encloses an acoustic medium. In such systems the dynamic characteristics of the structure are influenced by the acoustic loading due to the acoustic response in the cavity. The existing structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span> updating approaches assume the structure to be under in-vacuo condition and hence if used for updating cavity structural FE <span class="hlt">models</span> would not allow taking into account the effect of acoustic loading on the structural dynamic characteristics. This may adversely affect the effectiveness of updating in yielding an accurate updated FE <span class="hlt">model</span>. This paper addresses the above issue and presents a structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span> updating method, called 'coupled inverse eigen-sensitivity method', which takes into account the acoustic loading on the structure. The method uses the experimentally identified coupled modal data on the structure as the reference data. A numerical case study of a 3D rectangular cavity backed by a flexible plate is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach to obtain an accurate structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span>. Updating is also carried out using the existing (uncoupled) inverse eigen-sensitivity method to study the influence of acoustic loading on the updating process and to study the accuracy with which the updating parameters are identified. The results obtained are also compared with those obtained by the proposed coupled inverse eigen-sensitivity method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A14A..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A14A..03B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Detailed Chemical Characterization of Biomass Burning Emissions into Air Quality <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barsanti, K.; Hatch, L. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Orlando, J. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Knote, C. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Approximately 500 Tg/yr of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) are emitted by biomass burning (BB) to the global atmosphere, leading to the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary particulate matter (PM). Until recently, in studies of BB emissions, a significant mass fraction of NMOCs (up to 80%) remained uncharacterized or unidentified. <span class="hlt">Models</span> used to simulate the air quality impacts of BB thus have relied on very limited chemical characterization of the emitted compounds. During the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-IV), an unprecedented fraction of emitted NMOCs were identified and quantified through the application of advanced analytical techniques. Here we use FLAME-IV data to improve BB emissions speciation profiles for individual fuel types. From box <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations we evaluate the sensitivity of predicted precursor and pollutant concentrations (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and terpene oxidation products) to differences in the emission speciation profiles, for a range of ambient conditions (e.g., high vs. low NOx). Appropriate representation of emitted NMOCs in <span class="hlt">models</span> is critical for the accurate prediction of downwind air quality. Explicit simulation of hundreds of NMOCs is not feasible; therefore we also investigate the consequences of using existing assumptions and lumping schemes to map individual NMOCs to <span class="hlt">model</span> surrogates and we consider alternative strategies. The updated BB emissions speciation profiles lead to markedly different surrogate compound distributions than the default speciation profiles, and box <span class="hlt">model</span> results suggest that these differences are likely to affect predictions of PM and important gas-phase species in chemical transport <span class="hlt">models</span>. This study highlights the potential for further BB emissions characterization studies, with concerted <span class="hlt">model</span> development efforts, to improve the accuracy of BB predictions using necessarily simplified mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.102...14O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.102...14O"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> floating surface objects into a fully dispersive surface wave <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orzech, Mark D.; Shi, Fengyan; Veeramony, Jayaram; Bateman, Samuel; Calantoni, Joseph; Kirby, James T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The shock-capturing, non-hydrostatic, three-dimensional (3D) finite-volume <span class="hlt">model</span> NHWAVE was originally developed to simulate wave propagation and landslide-generated tsunamis in finite water depth (Ma, G., Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., 2012. Ocean <span class="hlt">Model</span>. 43-44, 22-35). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in which the z-axis is transformed to a σ-coordinate that tracks the bed and surface. As part of an ongoing effort to simulate waves in polar marginal ice zones (MIZs), the <span class="hlt">model</span> has now been adapted to allow objects of arbitrary shape and roughness to float on or near its water surface. The shape of the underside of each floating object is mapped onto an upper σ-level slightly below the surface. In areas without floating objects, this σ-level continues to track the surface and bed as before. Along the sides of each floating object, an immersed boundary method is used to interpolate the effects of the object onto the neighboring fluid volume. Provided with the object's shape, location, and velocity over time, NHWAVE determines the fluid fluxes and pressure variations from the corresponding accelerations at neighboring cell boundaries. The system was validated by comparison with analytical solutions and a VOF <span class="hlt">model</span> for a 2D floating box and with laboratory measurements of wave generation by a vertically oscillating sphere. A steep wave simulation illustrated the high efficiency of NHWAVE relative to a VOF <span class="hlt">model</span>. In a more realistic MIZ simulation, the adapted <span class="hlt">model</span> produced qualitatively reasonable results for wave attenuation, diffraction, and scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4241256','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4241256"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Mode Choice Behavior <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Household and Individual Sociodemographics and Travel Attributes Based on Rough Sets Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most traditional mode choice <span class="hlt">models</span> are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice <span class="hlt">modeling</span> can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to <span class="hlt">model</span> travel mode choices <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets <span class="hlt">model</span> shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL <span class="hlt">model</span> also proves that the rough sets <span class="hlt">model</span> gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. PMID:25431585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431585"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> mode choice behavior <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> household and individual sociodemographics and travel attributes based on rough sets theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Long; Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most traditional mode choice <span class="hlt">models</span> are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice <span class="hlt">modeling</span> can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to <span class="hlt">model</span> travel mode choices <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets <span class="hlt">model</span> shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL <span class="hlt">model</span> also proves that the rough sets <span class="hlt">model</span> gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..465..472Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..465..472Y"><span>A kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> in Lagrangian coordinates <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> capacity drop: Application to homogeneous road stretches and discontinuities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a <span class="hlt">model</span> exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a Lagrangian kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span>. "Lagrangian" denotes that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> is solved in Lagrangian coordinates. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied in a network operation. In this Lagrangian kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span>, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the Lagrangian kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512027N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512027N"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> channel geometric uncertainty into a regional scale flood inundation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neal, Jeffrey; Odoni, Nick; Trigg, Mark; Freer, Jim; Bates, Paul</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> that simulate the dynamics of river and floodplain water surface elevations over large regions have a wide range of applications including regional scale flood risk estimation and simulating wetland inundation dynamics, while potential emerging applications include estimating river discharge from level observations as part of a data assimilation system. The river routing schemes used by global land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> are often relatively simple in that they are based on wave speed, kinematic and diffusive physics. However, as the research on large scale river <span class="hlt">modelling</span> matures, approaches are being developed that resemble scaled-up versions of the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> traditionally applied to rivers at the reach scale. These developments are not surprising given that such <span class="hlt">models</span> can be significantly more accurate than traditional routing schemes at simulating water surface elevation. This presentation builds on the work of Neal et al. (2012) who adapted a reach scale dynamic flood inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for large scale application with the addition of a sub-grid parameterisation for channel flow. The scheme was shown to be numerically stable and scalable, with the aid of some simple test cases, before it was applied to an 800 km reach of the River Niger that includes the complex waterways and lakes of the Niger Inland Delta in Mali. However, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was significantly less accurate at low to moderate flows than at high flow due, in part, to assuming that the channel geometry was rectangular. Furthermore, this made it difficult to calibrate channel parameters with water levels during typical flow conditions. This presentation will describe an extension of this sub-grid <span class="hlt">model</span> that allows the channel shape to be defined as an exponent of width, along with a regression based approach to approximate the wetted perimeter length for the new geometry. By treating the geometry in this way uncertainty in the channel shape can be considered as a <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter, which for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173756','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173756"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> harvest rates into the sex-age-kill <span class="hlt">model</span> for white-tailed deer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population <span class="hlt">models</span> to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, <span class="hlt">models</span> must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population <span class="hlt">models</span> for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these <span class="hlt">models</span> when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population <span class="hlt">model</span> using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK <span class="hlt">model</span> robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK <span class="hlt">model</span> was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK <span class="hlt">model</span>. Because obtaining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNEng..12d6018S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNEng..12d6018S"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> advanced language <span class="hlt">models</span> into the P300 speller using particle filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram <span class="hlt">models</span>. While more sophisticated language <span class="hlt">models</span> are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language <span class="hlt">model</span>. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007715','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007715"><span>A magnetospheric field <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the OGO 3 and 5 magnetic field observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A magnetospheric field <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented in which the usually assumed toroidal ring current is replaced by a circular disk current of finite thickness that extends from the tail to geocentric distances less than 3 earth radii. The drastic departure of this <span class="hlt">model</span> from the concept of the conventional ring current lies in the fact that the current is continuous from the tail to the inner magnetosphere. This conceptual change was required to account for the recent results of analysis of the OGO 3 and 5 magnetic field observations. In the present <span class="hlt">model</span> the cross-tail current flows along circular arcs concentric with the earth and completes circuit via surface currents on the magnetopause. Apart from these return currents in the tail magnetopause, Mead's <span class="hlt">model</span> is used for the field from the magnetopause current. The difference scalar field, delta B, defined as the difference between the scalar field calculated from the present <span class="hlt">model</span> and the magnitude of the dipole field is found to be in gross agreement with the observed delta B. An updated version of the delta B contours from the OGO 3 and 5 observations, which is used for the comparison, is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730058891&hterms=conceptual+change+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconceptual%2Bchange%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730058891&hterms=conceptual+change+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconceptual%2Bchange%2Bmodel"><span>A magnetospheric field <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the OGO 3 and 5 magnetic field observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A magnetospheric field <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented in which the usually assumed toroidal ring current is replaced by a circular disk current of finite thickness that extends from the tail to geocentric distances less than 3 earth radii. The drastic departure of this <span class="hlt">model</span> from the concept of the conventional ring current lies in that the current is continuous from the tail to the inner magnetosphere. This conceptual change was required to account for the recent results of analysis of the OGO 3 and 5 magnetic field observations. In the present <span class="hlt">model</span> the cross-tail current flows along circular arcs concentric with the earth and completes circuit via surface currents on the magnetopause. Apart from these return currents in the tail magnetopause, Mead's (1964) <span class="hlt">model</span> is used for the field from the magnetopause current. The difference scalar field, Delta B, defined as the difference between the scalar field calculated from the present <span class="hlt">model</span> and the magnitude of the dipole field, is found to be in gross agreement with the observed Delta B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661953"><span>Hierarchical Bayesian inference for HIV dynamic differential equation <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple treatment factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yangxin; Wu, Hulin; Acosta, Edward P</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Studies on HIV dynamics in AIDS research are very important in understanding the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and also in assessing the effectiveness of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Viral dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> can be formulated through a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE), but there has been only limited development of statistical methodologies for inference. This article, motivated by an AIDS clinical study, discusses a hierarchical Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach to dynamic ODE <span class="hlt">models</span> without a closed-form solution. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, we fully integrate viral load, medication adherence, drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, baseline covariates and time-dependent drug efficacy into the data analysis for characterizing long-term virologic responses. Our method is implemented by a data set from an AIDS clinical study. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">modeling</span> HIV dynamics and virologic responses with consideration of time-varying clinical factors as well as baseline characteristics may be important for HIV/AIDS studies in providing quantitative guidance to better understand the virologic responses to ARV treatment and to help the evaluation of clinical trial design in response to existing therapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852412"><span>New systematic methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> dynamic heat transfer <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in multi-phase biochemical reactors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Grau, P; Ayesa, E</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methodology for dynamically predicting the heat produced or consumed in the transformations of any biological reactor using Hess's law. Starting from a complete description of <span class="hlt">model</span> components stoichiometry and formation enthalpies, the proposed <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methodology has integrated successfully the simultaneous calculation of both the conventional mass balances and the enthalpy change of reaction in an expandable multi-phase matrix structure, which facilitates a detailed prediction of the main heat fluxes in the biochemical reactors. The methodology has been implemented in a plant-wide <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methodology in order to facilitate the dynamic description of mass and heat throughout the plant. After validation with literature data, as illustrative examples of the capability of the methodology, two case studies have been described. In the first one, a predenitrification-nitrification dynamic process has been analysed, with the aim of demonstrating the easy integration of the methodology in any system. In the second case study, the simulation of a thermal <span class="hlt">model</span> for an ATAD has shown the potential of the proposed methodology for analysing the effect of ventilation and influent characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..549..452H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..549..452H"><span>Analytical solutions for a soil vapor extraction <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> gas phase dispersion and molecular diffusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Junqi; Goltz, Mark N.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>To greatly simplify their solution, the equations describing radial advective/dispersive transport to an extraction well in a porous medium typically neglect molecular diffusion. While this simplification is appropriate to simulate transport in the saturated zone, it can result in significant errors when <span class="hlt">modeling</span> gas phase transport in the vadose zone, as might be applied when simulating a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system to remediate vadose zone contamination. A new analytical solution for the equations describing radial gas phase transport of a sorbing contaminant to an extraction well is presented. The equations <span class="hlt">model</span> advection, dispersion (including both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion), and rate-limited mass transfer of dissolved, separate phase, and sorbed contaminants into the gas phase. The <span class="hlt">model</span> equations are analytically solved by using the Laplace transform with respect to time. The solutions are represented by confluent hypergeometric functions in the Laplace domain. The Laplace domain solutions are then evaluated using a numerical Laplace inversion algorithm. The solutions can be used to simulate the spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of contaminant concentrations during operation of a soil vapor extraction well. Results of <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations show that the effect of gas phase molecular diffusion upon concentrations at the extraction well is relatively small, although the effect upon the distribution of concentrations in space is significant. This study provides a tool that can be useful in designing SVE remediation strategies, as well as verifying numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> used to simulate SVE system performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.451a2040P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.451a2040P"><span>Ultrasonically assisted drilling: A finite-element <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> acoustic softening effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phadnis, V. A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) is a novel machining technique suitable for drilling in hard-to-machine quasi-brittle materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP). UAD has been shown to possess several advantages compared to conventional drilling (CD), including reduced thrust forces, diminished burr formation at drill exit and an overall improvement in roundness and surface finish of the drilled hole. Recently, our in-house experiments of UAD in CFRP composites demonstrated remarkable reductions in thrust-force and torque measurements (average force reductions in excess of 80%) when compared to CD with the same machining parameters. In this study, a 3D finite-element <span class="hlt">model</span> of drilling in CFRP is developed. In order to <span class="hlt">model</span> acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects, a phenomenological <span class="hlt">model</span>, which accounts for ultrasonically induced plastic strain, was implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also accounts for dynamic frictional effects, which also contribute to the overall improved machining characteristics in UAD. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated with experimental findings, where an excellent correlation between the reduced thrust force and torque magnitude was achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDE28002Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDE28002Y"><span>A new class of actuator surface <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> wind turbine blade and nacelle geometry effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>It was shown by Kang, Yang and Sotiropoulos that the nacelle has significant effects on the turbine wake even in the far wake region, which the standard actuator line <span class="hlt">model</span> is not able to predict. We develop a new class of actuator surface <span class="hlt">models</span> for the blades and nacelle, which is able to resolve the effects of both tip vortices and nacelle vortex. The new nacelle <span class="hlt">model</span>, which is based on distributing forces from the actual nacelle geometry as in the diffused interface immersed boundary methods, is first tested by carrying out LES of the flow past a sphere and demonstrating good agreement with available in the literature DNS results. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is subsequently validated by simulating the flow past the hydrokinetic turbine used in the simulations of Kang et al. and good agreement with the measurements is demonstrated. Finally, the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to utility scale wind turbines to elucidate the role of nacelle vortex dynamics on turbine wake meandering. This work was supported by Department of Energy DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), and Sandia National Laboratories. Computational resources were provided by SNL and MSI.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415332','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415332"><span>Hybrid Cone-Beam Tomographic Reconstruction: <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Prior Anatomical <span class="hlt">Models</span> to Compensate for Missing Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sadowsky, Ofri; Lee, Junghoon; Sutter, E. Grant; Wall, Simon J.; Prince, Jerry L.; Taylor, Russell H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We propose a method for improving the quality of cone-beam tomographic reconstruction done with a C-arm. C-arm scans frequently suffer from incomplete information due to image truncation, limited scan length, or other limitations. Our proposed “hybrid reconstruction” method injects information from a prior anatomical <span class="hlt">model</span>, derived from a subject-specific CT or from a statistical database (atlas), where the C-arm x-ray data is missing. This significantly reduces reconstruction artifacts with little loss of true information from the x-ray projections. The methods consist of constructing anatomical <span class="hlt">models</span>, fast rendering of digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) projections of the <span class="hlt">models</span>, rigid or deformable registration of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and the x-ray images, and fusion of the DRR and x-ray projections, all prior to a conventional filtered back-projection algorithm. Our experiments, conducted with a mobile image intensifier C-arm, demonstrate visually and quantitatively the contribution of data fusion to image quality, which we assess through comparison to a “ground truth” CT. Importantly, we show that a significantly improved reconstruction can be obtained from a C-arm scan as short as 90° by complementing the observed projections with DRRs of two prior <span class="hlt">models</span>, namely an atlas and a pre-operative same-patient CT. The hybrid reconstruction principles are applicable to other types of C-arms as well. PMID:20667807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H34E..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H34E..08M"><span>A <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Framework to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Effects of Infrastructure in Sociohydrological Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muneepeerakul, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In studying coupled natural-human systems, most <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts focus on humans and the natural resources. In reality, however, humans rarely interact with these resources directly; the relationships between humans and resources are mediated by infrastructures. In sociohydrological systems, these include, for example, dams and irrigation canals. These infrastructures have important characteristics such as threshold behavior and a separate entity/organization tasked with maintaining them. These characteristics influence social dynamics within the system, which in turn determines the state of infrastructure and water usage, thereby exerting feedbacks onto the hydrological processes. Infrastructure is thus a necessary ingredient for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> co-evolution of human and water in sociohydrological systems. A conceptual framework to address this gap has been proposed by Anderies, Janssen, and Ostrom (2004). Here we develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> to operationalize the framework and report some preliminary results. Simple in its setup, the <span class="hlt">model</span> highlights the structure of the social dilemmas and how it affects the system's sustainability. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also offers a platform to explore how the system's sustainability may respond to external shocks from globalization and global climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606298"><span>Simulated masking of right whale sounds by shipping noise: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a <span class="hlt">model</span> of the auditory periphery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Kane A; Mountain, David C</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Many species of large, mysticete whales are known to produce low-frequency communication sounds. These low-frequency sounds are susceptible to communication masking by shipping noise, which also tends to be low frequency in nature. The size of these species makes behavioral assessment of auditory capabilities in controlled, captive environments nearly impossible, and field-based playback experiments are expensive and necessarily limited in scope. Hence, it is desirable to produce a masking <span class="hlt">model</span> for these species that can aid in determining the potential effects of shipping and other anthropogenic noises on these protected animals. The aim of this study was to build a <span class="hlt">model</span> that combines a sophisticated representation of the auditory periphery with a spectrogram-based decision stage to predict masking levels. The output of this <span class="hlt">model</span> can then be combined with a habitat-appropriate propagation <span class="hlt">model</span> to calculate the potential effects of noise on communication range. For this study, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was tested on three common North Atlantic right whale communication sounds, both to demonstrate the method and to probe how shipping noise affects the detection of sounds with varying spectral and temporal characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25892739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25892739"><span>Estimation of a Semiparametric Natural Direct Effect <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Baseline Covariates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tchetgen Tchetgen, E J; Shpitser, I</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Establishing cause-effect relationships is a standard goal of empirical science. Once the presence of a causal relationship is established, the precise causal mechanism involved becomes a topic of interest. A particularly popular type of mechanism analysis concerns questions of mediation, that is to what extent an effect is direct, and to what extent it is mediated by a third variable. A semiparametric theory has recently been proposed which allows multiply robust estimation of direct and mediated marginal effect functionals in observational studies (Tchetgen Tchetgen & Shpitser, 2012). In this paper we extend the new theory to handle parametric <span class="hlt">models</span> of natural direct and indirect effects within levels of pre-exposure variables with an identity or log link function, where the <span class="hlt">model</span> for the observed data likelihood is otherwise unrestricted. We show that estimation is generally not feasible in this <span class="hlt">model</span> because of the curse of dimensionality associated with the required estimation of auxiliary conditional densities or expectations, given high-dimensional covariates. Thus, we consider multiply robust estimation and propose a more general <span class="hlt">model</span> which assumes that a subset but not all of several working <span class="hlt">models</span> holds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4509796','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4509796"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> advanced language <span class="hlt">models</span> into the P300 speller using particle filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Speier, W; Arnold, CW; Deshpande, A; Knall, J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective The P300 speller is a common brain–computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram <span class="hlt">models</span>. While more sophisticated language <span class="hlt">models</span> are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language <span class="hlt">model</span>. Main Result This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance. PMID:26061188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51I1637S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51I1637S"><span>High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> Land-water Management in United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology <span class="hlt">model</span> named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework for human-water-climate interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586250"><span>A theory and <span class="hlt">model</span> of conflict detection in air traffic control: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> environmental constraints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S; Neal, Andrew</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a <span class="hlt">model</span> that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to ensure separation between aircraft. These safety margins are formed through experience and reflect the biasing of decisions to favor safety over accuracy, as well as expectations regarding uncertainty in aircraft trajectory. In 2 experiments, controllers indicated whether they would intervene to ensure separation between pairs of aircraft. The <span class="hlt">model</span> closely predicted the probability of controller intervention across the geometry of problems and as a function of controller experience. When controller safety margins were manipulated via task instructions, the parameters of the <span class="hlt">model</span> changed in the predicted direction. The strength of the <span class="hlt">model</span> over existing and alternative <span class="hlt">models</span> is that it better captures the uncertainty and decision biases involved in the process of conflict detection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1355881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1355881"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> microbial dormancy dynamics into soil decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve quantification of soil carbon dynamics of northern temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>He, Yujie; Yang, Jinyan; Zhuang, Qianlai; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, Anthony D.; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Gangsheng; Gu, Lianhong</p> <p>2015-11-20</p> <p>Soil carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> have seen much growth recently for quantifying this role, yet dormancy as a common strategy used by microorganisms has not usually been represented and tested in these <span class="hlt">models</span> against field observations. Here in this study we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span> and examined <span class="hlt">model</span> performance with and without representation of microbial dormancy at six temperate forest sites of different forest types. We then extrapolated the <span class="hlt">model</span> to global temperate forest ecosystems to investigate biogeochemical controls on soil heterotrophic respiration and microbial dormancy dynamics at different temporal-spatial scales. The dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently produced better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil CO<sub>2</sub> efflux (R<sub>H</sub>) than the no dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our regional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results further indicated that <span class="hlt">models</span> with dormancy were able to produce more realistic magnitude of microbial biomass (<2% of soil organic carbon) and soil R<sub>H</sub> (7.5 ± 2.4 PgCyr<sup>-1</sup>). Spatial correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content was the dominating factor (correlation coefficient = 0.4-0.6) in the simulated spatial pattern of soil R<sub>H</sub> with both <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to strong temporal and local controls of soil temperature and moisture on microbial dormancy, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results showed that soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) was a major regulating factor at regional scales (correlation coefficient = -0.43 to -0.58), indicating scale-dependent biogeochemical controls on microbial dynamics. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial dormancy could improve the realism of microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> and enhance the integration of soil experiments and mechanistically based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1355881-incorporating-microbial-dormancy-dynamics-soil-decomposition-models-improve-quantification-soil-carbon-dynamics-northern-temperate-forests','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1355881-incorporating-microbial-dormancy-dynamics-soil-decomposition-models-improve-quantification-soil-carbon-dynamics-northern-temperate-forests"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> microbial dormancy dynamics into soil decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve quantification of soil carbon dynamics of northern temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>He, Yujie; Yang, Jinyan; Zhuang, Qianlai; ...</p> <p>2015-11-20</p> <p>Soil carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> have seen much growth recently for quantifying this role, yet dormancy as a common strategy used by microorganisms has not usually been represented and tested in these <span class="hlt">models</span> against field observations. Here in this study we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span> and examined <span class="hlt">model</span> performance with and without representation of microbial dormancy at six temperate forest sites of different forest types. We then extrapolated the <span class="hlt">model</span> to global temperate forest ecosystems to investigate biogeochemical controls on soil heterotrophic respiration and microbialmore » dormancy dynamics at different temporal-spatial scales. The dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently produced better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil CO2 efflux (RH) than the no dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our regional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results further indicated that <span class="hlt">models</span> with dormancy were able to produce more realistic magnitude of microbial biomass (<2% of soil organic carbon) and soil RH (7.5 ± 2.4 PgCyr-1). Spatial correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content was the dominating factor (correlation coefficient = 0.4-0.6) in the simulated spatial pattern of soil RH with both <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to strong temporal and local controls of soil temperature and moisture on microbial dormancy, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results showed that soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) was a major regulating factor at regional scales (correlation coefficient = -0.43 to -0.58), indicating scale-dependent biogeochemical controls on microbial dynamics. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial dormancy could improve the realism of microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> and enhance the integration of soil experiments and mechanistically based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2596H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2596H"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> microbial dormancy dynamics into soil decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve quantification of soil carbon dynamics of northern temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Yujie; Yang, Jinyan; Zhuang, Qianlai; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, Anthony D.; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Gangsheng; Gu, Lianhong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> have seen much growth recently for quantifying this role, yet dormancy as a common strategy used by microorganisms has not usually been represented and tested in these <span class="hlt">models</span> against field observations. Here we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span> and examined <span class="hlt">model</span> performance with and without representation of microbial dormancy at six temperate forest sites of different forest types. We then extrapolated the <span class="hlt">model</span> to global temperate forest ecosystems to investigate biogeochemical controls on soil heterotrophic respiration and microbial dormancy dynamics at different temporal-spatial scales. The dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently produced better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil CO2 efflux (RH) than the no dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our regional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results further indicated that <span class="hlt">models</span> with dormancy were able to produce more realistic magnitude of microbial biomass (<2% of soil organic carbon) and soil RH (7.5 ± 2.4 Pg C yr-1). Spatial correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content was the dominating factor (correlation coefficient = 0.4-0.6) in the simulated spatial pattern of soil RH with both <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to strong temporal and local controls of soil temperature and moisture on microbial dormancy, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results showed that soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) was a major regulating factor at regional scales (correlation coefficient = -0.43 to -0.58), indicating scale-dependent biogeochemical controls on microbial dynamics. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial dormancy could improve the realism of microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> and enhance the integration of soil experiments and mechanistically based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168357"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> microbial dormancy dynamics into soil decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve quantification of soil carbon dynamics of northern temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>He, Yujie; Yang, Jinyan; Zhuang, Qianlai; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, Anthony; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Gangsheng; Gu, Lianhong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> have seen much growth recently for quantifying this role, yet dormancy as a common strategy used by microorganisms has not usually been represented and tested in these <span class="hlt">models</span> against field observations. Here we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span> and examined <span class="hlt">model</span> performance with and without representation of microbial dormancy at six temperate forest sites of different forest types. We then extrapolated the <span class="hlt">model</span> to global temperate forest ecosystems to investigate biogeochemical controls on soil heterotrophic respiration and microbial dormancy dynamics at different temporal-spatial scales. The dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently produced better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil CO2 efflux (RH) than the no dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our regional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results further indicated that <span class="hlt">models</span> with dormancy were able to produce more realistic magnitude of microbial biomass (<2% of soil organic carbon) and soil RH (7.5 ± 2.4 Pg C yr−1). Spatial correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content was the dominating factor (correlation coefficient = 0.4–0.6) in the simulated spatial pattern of soil RHwith both <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to strong temporal and local controls of soil temperature and moisture on microbial dormancy, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results showed that soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) was a major regulating factor at regional scales (correlation coefficient = −0.43 to −0.58), indicating scale-dependent biogeochemical controls on microbial dynamics. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial dormancy could improve the realism of microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> and enhance the integration of soil experiments and mechanistically based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27900588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27900588"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics at Vertex Pharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span>: our philosophy for sustained impact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McGaughey, Georgia; Patrick Walters, W</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Molecular <span class="hlt">modelers</span> and informaticians have the unique opportunity to integrate cross-functional data using a myriad of tools, methods and visuals to generate information. Using their drug discovery expertise, information is transformed to knowledge that impacts drug discovery. These insights are often times formulated locally and then applied more broadly, which influence the discovery of new medicines. This is particularly true in an organization where the members are exposed to projects throughout an organization, such as in the case of the global <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. From its inception, Vertex has been a leader in the development and use of computational methods for drug discovery. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex and the underlying philosophy, which has driven this team to sustain impact on the discovery of first-in-class transformative medicines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCAMD..31..293M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCAMD..31..293M"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics at Vertex Pharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span>: our philosophy for sustained impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGaughey, Georgia; Patrick Walters, W.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Molecular <span class="hlt">modelers</span> and informaticians have the unique opportunity to integrate cross-functional data using a myriad of tools, methods and visuals to generate information. Using their drug discovery expertise, information is transformed to knowledge that impacts drug discovery. These insights are often times formulated locally and then applied more broadly, which influence the discovery of new medicines. This is particularly true in an organization where the members are exposed to projects throughout an organization, such as in the case of the global <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. From its inception, Vertex has been a leader in the development and use of computational methods for drug discovery. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex and the underlying philosophy, which has driven this team to sustain impact on the discovery of first-in-class transformative medicines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAMD.tmp...19M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAMD.tmp...19M"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics at Vertex Pharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span>: our philosophy for sustained impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGaughey, Georgia; Patrick Walters, W.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Molecular <span class="hlt">modelers</span> and informaticians have the unique opportunity to integrate cross-functional data using a myriad of tools, methods and visuals to generate information. Using their drug discovery expertise, information is transformed to knowledge that impacts drug discovery. These insights are often times formulated locally and then applied more broadly, which influence the discovery of new medicines. This is particularly true in an organization where the members are exposed to projects throughout an organization, such as in the case of the global <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. From its inception, Vertex has been a leader in the development and use of computational methods for drug discovery. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex and the underlying philosophy, which has driven this team to sustain impact on the discovery of first-in-class transformative medicines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008394"><span>On <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> damping and gravity effects in <span class="hlt">models</span> of structural dynamics of the SCOLE configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Larry; Leary, Terry; Stewart, Eric</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The damping for structural dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> of flexible spacecraft is usually ignored and then added after modal frequencies and mode shapes are calculated. It is common practice to assume the same damping ratio for all modes, although it is known that damping due to bending and that due to torsion are sometimes ignored. Two methods of including damping in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process from its onset are examined. First, the partial derivative equations of motion are analyzed for a pinned-pinned beam with damping. The end conditions are altered to handle bodies with mass and inertia for the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) configuration. Second, a massless beam approximation is used for the modes with low frequencies, and a clamped-clamped system is used to approximate the modes for arbitrarily high frequency. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then modified to include gravity effects and is compared with experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430792"><span>Approximate world <span class="hlt">models</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> qualitative and linguistic information into vision systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pinhanez, C.S.; Bobick, A.F.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Approximate world <span class="hlt">models</span> are coarse descriptions of the elements of a scene, and are intended to be used in the selection and control of vision routines in a vision system. In this paper we present a control architecture in which the approximate <span class="hlt">models</span> represent the complex relationships among the objects in the world, allowing the vision routines to be situation or context specific. Moreover, because of their reduced accuracy requirements, approximate world <span class="hlt">models</span> can employ qualitative information such as those provided by linguistic descriptions of the scene. The concept is demonstrated in the development of automatic cameras for a TV studio-SmartCams. Results are shown where SmartCams use vision processing of real imagery and information written in the script of a TV show to achieve TV-quality framing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770067671&hterms=3815&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D3815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770067671&hterms=3815&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D3815"><span>Behavior of volatiles in Mars' polar areas - A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> new experimental data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davies, D. W.; Farmer, C. B.; Laporte, D. D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed to explain the north polar water vapor results obtained by the Viking orbiter Mars atmospheric water detector; it has also been used to compute the thickness of seasonally deposited CO2 frost, the variation of the total atmospheric pressure, and wind velocities due to mass motions associated with CO2 condensation. A north polar water ice thickness in excess of 1 m and an ice albedo a of 0.34(+0.06,-0.03) are inferred from a comparison of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and experimental data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results confirm an earlier conclusion that the atmosphere over the ice is saturated. It is suggested that concentration of the atmospheric inert gases in the polar region, combined with local topography and arctic circulation patterns, could be responsible for the south remnant cap not being at the south pole</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...336..115R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...336..115R"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of lithium-sulfur batteries <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effect of Li2S precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Y. X.; Zhao, T. S.; Liu, M.; Tan, P.; Zeng, Y. K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this work, we present a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> for the discharge behavior of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In addition to the consideration of multiple-step polysulfide dissolution and reductions, the surface nucleation and growth kinetics coupled with electrochemical reactions is particularly exploited for describing the Li2S precipitation. Unlike previous <span class="hlt">models</span> that overlook the rate-dependent precipitation phenomenon, our <span class="hlt">model</span> reveals that discrete Li2S particle growth becomes suppressed at higher rates, resulting in smaller Li2S precipitates with a more uniform particle size distribution and a limited discharge capacity.