Science.gov

Sample records for sheds-wood model incorporation

  1. The SHEDS-Wood Model: Incorporation of Observational Data to Estimate Exposure to Arsenic for Children Playing on CCA-Treated Wood Structures

    PubMed Central

    Barraj, Leila M.; Tsuji, Joyce S.; Scrafford, Carolyn G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) compounds has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and public playgrounds. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children’s exposure to arsenic using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The assessment relied on data derived from an experimental study conducted using adult volunteers and designed to result in maximum hand and wipe loadings to estimate the residue–skin transfer efficiency. Recent analyses of arsenic hand-loading data generated by studies of children actively involved in playing on CCA-treated structures indicate that the transfer efficiency coefficient and hand-loading estimates derived from the experimental study significantly overestimate the amount that occurs during actual play. Objectives Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using child hand-loading data in the SHEDS-Wood model and their impact on exposure estimates. Methods We used data generated by the larger of the studies of children in SHEDS-Wood, instead of the distributions used by U.S. EPA. We compared our estimates of the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and average daily dose (ADD) with those derived by the U.S. EPA. Results Our analysis indicates that data from observational studies of children can be used in SHEDS-Wood. Our estimates of the mean (and 95th percentile) LADD and ADD were 27% (10%) and 29% (15%) of the estimates derived by U.S. EPA. Conclusion We recommend that the SHEDS-Woods model use data from studies of children actively playing on playsets to more accurately estimate children’s actual exposures to CCA. PMID:17520068

  2. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  3. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  4. Incorporating immigrant flows into microsimulation models.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Building on the research on immigrant earnings reviewed in the first article of this series, "Research on Immigrant Earnings," the preceding article, "Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models," linked research results to various issues essential for incorporating immigrant earnings into microsimulation models. The discussions of that article were in terms of a closed system. That is, it examined a system in which immigrant earnings and emigration are forecast for a given population represented in the base sample in the microsimulation model. This article, the last in the series, addresses immigrant earnings projections for open systems--microsimulation models that include projections of future immigration. The article suggests a simple method to project future immigrants and their earnings. Including the future flow of immigrants in microsimulation models can dramatically affect the projected Social Security benefits of some groups.

  5. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Cyndy; Bell, Kathleen P.; Freeman, Robert C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  6. Incorporation of RAM techniques into simulation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C. Jr.; Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    This work concludes that reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analytical techniques can be incorporated into computer network simulation modeling to yield an important new analytical tool. This paper describes the incorporation of failure and repair information into network simulation to build a stochastic computer model represents the RAM Performance of two vehicles being developed for the US Army: The Advanced Field Artillery System (AFAS) and the Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV). The AFAS is the US Army`s next generation self-propelled cannon artillery system. The FARV is a resupply vehicle for the AFAS. Both vehicles utilize automation technologies to improve the operational performance of the vehicles and reduce manpower. The network simulation model used in this work is task based. The model programmed in this application requirements a typical battle mission and the failures and repairs that occur during that battle. Each task that the FARV performs--upload, travel to the AFAS, refuel, perform tactical/survivability moves, return to logistic resupply, etc.--is modeled. Such a model reproduces a model reproduces operational phenomena (e.g., failures and repairs) that are likely to occur in actual performance. Simulation tasks are modeled as discrete chronological steps; after the completion of each task decisions are programmed that determine the next path to be followed. The result is a complex logic diagram or network. The network simulation model is developed within a hierarchy of vehicle systems, subsystems, and equipment and includes failure management subnetworks. RAM information and other performance measures are collected which have impact on design requirements. Design changes are evaluated through ``what if`` questions, sensitivity studies, and battle scenario changes.

  7. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR < 0.27. Tskin simulation results were within 0.37 °C of the measured mean skin temperature. This study shows that (1) thermal reception and neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control can be captured in a mathematical model, and (2) human thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  8. Incorporating routing into reservoir planning optimization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To achieve the best overall operation result in a reservoir network, optimization models are used. For larger reservoir networks the computational cost increases, making simplification of the hydrodynamic description necessary. In-accuracy in flow prediction can be related to an incurred sub-optimality in production planning. Flow behavior in a management optimization model is often described using a constant time-lag model. A simplified hydraulic model was used, describing the stream flow in a reservoir network for short term production planning of a case-study reservoir network (Dalälven River). In this study, the importance of incorporating hydrodynamic wave diffusion for optimized hydropower production planning in a regulated water system was examined, comparing the kinematic-wave model to the constant time-lag. The receding horizon optimization procedure was applied, emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern operations. Power production was shown to deviate from the planned production while considering a single time-lag, as a function of the stream description. The simplification of using a constant time-lag could be considered acceptable for streams characterized by high Peclet number. Examining the effect of the effect of the length of the decision time-step demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for streams characterized by low Peclet numbers. Further, it was shown that the variability in flow becomes more ordered as a result of management and that the Peclet number contributes to that goal.

  9. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumadar, A. S.; Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2008-06-01

    Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  10. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  11. Multiplicative earthquake likelihood models incorporating strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, D. A.; Christophersen, A.; Gerstenberger, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe examine the potential for strain-rate variables to improve long-term earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span>. We derive a set of multiplicative hybrid earthquake likelihood <span class="hlt">models</span> in which cell rates in a spatially uniform baseline <span class="hlt">model</span> are scaled using combinations of covariates derived from earthquake catalogue data, fault data, and strain-rates for the New Zealand region. Three components of the strain rate estimated from GPS data over the period 1991-2011 are considered: the shear, rotational and dilatational strain rates. The hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are optimised for earthquakes of M 5 and greater over the period 1987-2006 and tested on earthquakes from the period 2012-2015, which is independent of the strain rate estimates. The shear strain rate is overall the most informative individual covariate, as indicated by Molchan error diagrams as well as multiplicative <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. Most <span class="hlt">models</span> including strain rates are significantly more informative than the best <span class="hlt">models</span> excluding strain rates in both the fitting and testing period. A hybrid that combines the shear and dilatational strain rates with a smoothed seismicity covariate is the most informative <span class="hlt">model</span> in the fitting period, and a simpler <span class="hlt">model</span> without the dilatational strain rate is the most informative in the testing period. These results have implications for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and can be used to improve the background <span class="hlt">model</span> component of medium-term and short-term earthquake forecasting <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22144387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22144387"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty in predictive species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beale, Colin M; Lennon, Jack J</p> <p>2012-01-19</p> <p>Motivated by the need to solve ecological problems (climate change, habitat fragmentation and biological invasions), there has been increasing interest in species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs). Predictions from these <span class="hlt">models</span> inform conservation policy, invasive species management and disease-control measures. However, predictions are subject to uncertainty, the degree and source of which is often unrecognized. Here, we review the SDM literature in the context of uncertainty, focusing on three main classes of SDM: niche-based <span class="hlt">models</span>, demographic <span class="hlt">models</span> and process-based <span class="hlt">models</span>. We identify sources of uncertainty for each class and discuss how uncertainty can be minimized or included in the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> process to give realistic measures of confidence around predictions. Because this has typically not been performed, we conclude that uncertainty in SDMs has often been underestimated and a false precision assigned to predictions of geographical distribution. We identify areas where development of new statistical tools will improve predictions from distribution <span class="hlt">models</span>, notably the development of hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> that link different types of distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> and their attendant uncertainties across spatial scales. Finally, we discuss the need to develop more defensible methods for assessing predictive performance, quantifying <span class="hlt">model</span> goodness-of-fit and for assessing the significance of <span class="hlt">model</span> covariates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4805300','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4805300"><span>A Financial Market <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Herd Behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction <span class="hlt">model</span> based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span>, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of <span class="hlt">model</span> price returns in terms of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span> corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007236"><span>A Financial Market <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Herd Behaviour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction <span class="hlt">model</span> based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is <span class="hlt">modelled</span> using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span>, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of <span class="hlt">model</span> price returns in terms of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space <span class="hlt">model</span> corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494697"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> evolutionary processes into population viability <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based <span class="hlt">models</span> with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to <span class="hlt">model</span> emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA <span class="hlt">models</span> by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418234','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418234"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> 3-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> in online articles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface <span class="hlt">models</span> in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface <span class="hlt">models</span> for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface <span class="hlt">models</span>, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface <span class="hlt">models</span> in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface <span class="hlt">models</span> are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527820"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> covariates in skewed functional data <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Meng; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Bondell, Howard D</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We introduce a class of covariate-adjusted skewed functional <span class="hlt">models</span> (cSFM) designed for functional data exhibiting location-dependent marginal distributions. We propose a semi-parametric copula <span class="hlt">model</span> for the pointwise marginal distributions, which are allowed to depend on covariates, and the functional dependence, which is assumed covariate invariant. The proposed cSFM framework provides a unifying platform for pointwise quantile estimation and trajectory prediction. We consider a computationally feasible procedure that handles densely as well as sparsely observed functional data. The methods are examined numerically using simulations and is applied to a new tractography study of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the methodology is implemented in the R package cSFM, which is publicly available on CRAN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320711000103','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320711000103"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from <span class="hlt">model</span> projections. We present a method for explicitly <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> this source of uncertainty into population <span class="hlt">models</span> to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the replication loop of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and temporal variance is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the loop for time steps in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1298E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1298E"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> agricultural land cover in conceptual rainfall runoff <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi) distributed conceptual rainfall runoff <span class="hlt">models</span>. One of the methods to do this is by using these spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. This study tests whether the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of an additional agricultural HRU in a conceptual hydrological <span class="hlt">model</span> can better reflect the spatial differences in runoff generation and therefore improve the simulation of the wetting phase in autumn. The study area is the meso-scale Ourthe catchment in Belgium. A previous study in this area showed that spatial patterns in runoff generation were already better represented by <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a wetland and a hillslope HRU, compared to a lumped <span class="hlt">model</span> structure. The influences which are considered by including an agriculture HRU are increased drainage speed due to roads, plough pans and increased infiltration excess overland flow (drainage pipes area only limited present), and variable vegetation patterns due to sowing and harvesting. In addition, the vegetation is not <span class="hlt">modelled</span> as a static resistance towards evaporation, but the Jarvis stress functions are used to increase the realism of the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> transpiration; in land-surface <span class="hlt">models</span> the Jarvis stress functions are already often used for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> transpiration. The results show that an agricultural conceptualisation in addition to wetland and hillslope conceptualisations leads to small improvements in the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> discharge. However, the influence is larger on the representation of spatial patterns and the <span class="hlt">modelled</span> contributions of different HRUs to the total discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disability&pg=7&id=EJ1032789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disability&pg=7&id=EJ1032789"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> RTI in a Hybrid <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Reading Disability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spencer, Mercedes; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Quinn, Jamie M.; Lopez, Danielle; Petscher, Yaacov</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present study seeks to evaluate a hybrid <span class="hlt">model</span> of identification that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> response to instruction and intervention (RTI) as one of the key symptoms of reading disability. The 1-year stability of alternative operational definitions of reading disability was examined in a large-scale sample of students who were followed longitudinally…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116348','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116348"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of a compost biofilter <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgenroth, E.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Scow, K.M.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Biofiltration of air streams is gaining acceptance as an air pollution control technology. Biofilters are advantageous because of low operating costs and low energy requirements. Biofilters are advantageous for the removal of biodegradable pollutants at low concentrations. In this paper steady state and dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> for biofilters are presented. Analytical steady state <span class="hlt">models</span> are useful for design purposes. The effects of changing operating conditions on removal efficiency and elimination capacity can be predicted. Dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> give a better representation of processes in a biofilter. A dynamic biofilter <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial growth was developed. The dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> accounts for higher organism density at the inlet due to higher substrate concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914684"><span>"Violent Intent <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.</p> <p>2007-08-24</p> <p>While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> can benefit from understanding that process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-19/pdf/2010-8596.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-19/pdf/2010-8596.pdf"><span>75 FR 20265 - Airworthiness Directives; Liberty Aerospace <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> XL-2 Airplanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-19</p> <p>... Aerospace <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> XL-2 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Liberty Aerospace <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> XL-2 airplanes. AD 2009-08-05 currently requires repetitively... approved the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> by reference of Liberty Aerospace, Inc. Service Document Critical...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9951527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9951527"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> qualitative knowledge in enzyme kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> using fuzzy logic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, B; Yen, J; Yang, L; Liao, J C</p> <p>1999-03-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of metabolic pathway dynamics requires detailed kinetic equations at the enzyme level. In particular, the kinetic equations must account for metabolite effectors that contribute significantly to the pathway regulation in vivo. Unfortunately, most kinetic rate laws available in the literature do not consider all the effectors simultaneously, and much kinetic information exists in a qualitative or semiquantitative form. In this article, we present a strategy to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> such information into the kinetic equation. This strategy uses fuzzy logic-based factors to modify algebraic rate laws that account for partial kinetic characteristics. The parameters introduced by the fuzzy factors are then optimized by use of a hybrid of simplex and genetic algorithms. The resulting <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a flexible form that can simulate various kinetic behaviors. Such kinetic <span class="hlt">models</span> are suitable for pathway <span class="hlt">modeling</span> without complete enzyme mechanisms. Three enzymes in Escherichia coli central metabolism are used as examples: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; and pyruvate kinase I. Results show that, with fuzzy logic-augmented <span class="hlt">models</span>, the kinetic data can be much better described. In particular, complex behavior, such as allosteric inhibition, can be captured using fuzzy rules. The resulting <span class="hlt">models</span>, even though they do not provide additional physical meaning in enzyme mechanisms, allow the <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> semiquantitative information in metabolic pathway <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA439169','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA439169"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Parameter Uncertainty into Prostate IMRT Treatment Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an...<span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> <span class="hlt">Model</span> Parameter Uncertainty into Prostate DAMD17-03-1-0019 IMRT Treatment Planning 6. AUTHOR( S ) David Y. Yang, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION...NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Stanford University REPORT NUMBER Stanford, California 94305-5401 E-Mail: yong@reyes .stanford</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5689P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5689P"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in the global biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> HAMOCC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulsen, Hanna; Ilyina, Tatiana; Six, Katharina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Nitrogen fixation by marine diazotrophs plays a fundamental role in the oceanic nitrogen and carbon cycle as it provides a major source of 'new' nitrogen to the euphotic zone that supports biological carbon export and sequestration. Since most global biogeochemical <span class="hlt">models</span> include nitrogen fixation only diagnostically, they are not able to capture its spatial pattern sufficiently. Here we present the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of an explicit, dynamic representation of diazotrophic cyanobacteria and the corresponding nitrogen fixation in the global ocean biogeochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> HAMOCC (Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle <span class="hlt">model</span>), which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth system <span class="hlt">model</span> (MPI-ESM). The parameterization of the diazotrophic growth is thereby based on available knowledge about the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp., which is considered as the most significant pelagic nitrogen fixer. Evaluation against observations shows that the <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully reproduces the main spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and nitrogen fixation, covering large parts of the tropical and subtropical oceans. Besides the role of cyanobacteria in marine biogeochemical cycles, their capacity to form extensive surface blooms induces a number of bio-physical feedback mechanisms in the Earth system. The processes driving these interactions, which are related to the alteration of heat absorption, surface albedo and momentum input by wind, are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in the biogeochemical and physical <span class="hlt">model</span> of the MPI-ESM in order to investigate their impacts on a global scale. First preliminary results will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90941"><span>Methods improvements <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the SAPHIRE ASP <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sattison, M.B.; Blackman, H.S.; Novack, S.D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has sought the assistance of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to make some significant enhancements to the SAPHIRE-based Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) <span class="hlt">models</span> recently developed by the INEL. The challenge of this project is to provide the features of a full-scale PRA within the framework of the simplified ASP <span class="hlt">models</span>. Some of these features include: (1) uncertainty analysis addressing the standard PRA uncertainties and the uncertainties unique to the ASP <span class="hlt">models</span> and methods, (2) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> and proper quantification of individual human actions and the interaction among human actions, (3) enhanced treatment of common cause failures, and (4) extension of the ASP <span class="hlt">models</span> to more closely mimic full-scale PRAs (inclusion of more initiators, explicitly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> support system failures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of the methods being used to make the above improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........44K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........44K"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Auditory <span class="hlt">Models</span> in Speech/Audio Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnamoorthi, Harish</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Following the success in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> perceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> stages. The performance of the pruned <span class="hlt">model</span> is compared to that of the original auditory <span class="hlt">model</span> for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001140','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910001140"><span>Cirrus cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> realistic ice particle generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sassen, Kenneth; Dodd, G. C.; Starr, David OC.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Recent cirrus cloud <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies have involved the application of a time-dependent, two dimensional Eulerian <span class="hlt">model</span>, with generalized cloud microphysical parameterizations drawn from experimental findings. For computing the ice versus vapor phase changes, the ice mass content is linked to the maintenance of a relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) of 105 percent; ice growth occurs both with regard to the introduction of new particles and the growth of existing particles. In a simplified cloud <span class="hlt">model</span> designed to investigate the basic role of various physical processes in the growth and maintenance of cirrus clouds, these parametric relations are justifiable. In comparison, the one dimensional cloud microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> recently applied to evaluating the nucleation and growth of ice crystals in cirrus clouds explicitly treated populations of haze and cloud droplets, and ice crystals. Although these two <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches are clearly incompatible, the goal of the present numerical study is to develop a parametric treatment of new ice particle generation, on the basis of detailed microphysical <span class="hlt">model</span> findings, for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into improved cirrus growth <span class="hlt">models</span>. For example, the relation between temperature and the relative humidity required to generate ice crystals from ammonium sulfate haze droplets, whose probability of freezing through the homogeneous nucleation mode are a combined function of time and droplet molality, volume, and temperature. As an example of this approach, the results of cloud microphysical simulations are presented showing the rather narrow domain in the temperature/humidity field where new ice crystals can be generated. The microphysical simulations point out the need for detailed CCN studies at cirrus altitudes and haze droplet measurements within cirrus clouds, but also suggest that a relatively simple treatment of ice particle generation, which includes cloud chemistry, can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into cirrus cloud growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381"><span>Geomagnetic field <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physical constraints on the secular variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Constable, Catherine; Parker, Robert L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This proposal has been concerned with methods for constructing geomagnetic field <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> physical constraints on the secular variation. The principle goal that has been accomplished is the development of flexible algorithms designed to test whether the frozen flux approximation is adequate to describe the available geomagnetic data and their secular variation throughout this century. These have been applied to geomagnetic data from both the early and middle part of this century and convincingly demonstrate that there is no need to invoke violations of the frozen flux hypothesis in order to satisfy the available geomagnetic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412319"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> groundwater-surface water interaction into river management <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to <span class="hlt">modeling</span> low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water <span class="hlt">models</span> exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management <span class="hlt">models</span>. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations <span class="hlt">model</span>, RiverWare, and the groundwater <span class="hlt">model</span>, MODFLOW, was developed to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations <span class="hlt">model</span>. An explicit approach is used in which the two <span class="hlt">models</span> run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked <span class="hlt">model</span> at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked <span class="hlt">model</span> accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63135&keyword=equations+AND+states&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90799019&CFTOKEN=79972741','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63135&keyword=equations+AND+states&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90799019&CFTOKEN=79972741"><span>USEPA SHEDS <span class="hlt">MODEL</span>: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> (<span class="hlt">SHEDS-Wood</span>: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9035E..3JN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9035E..3JN"><span>Active shape <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> isolated landmarks for medical image annotation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Stieltjes, Bram; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Apart from their robustness in anatomic surface segmentation, purely surface based 3D Active Shape <span class="hlt">Models</span> lack the ability to automatically detect and annotate non-surface key points of interest. However, annotation of anatomic landmarks is desirable, as it yields additional anatomic and functional information. Moreover, landmark detection might help to further improve accuracy during ASM segmentation. We present an extension of surface-based 3D Active Shape <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> isolated non-surface landmarks. Positions of isolated and surface landmarks are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> conjoint within a point distribution <span class="hlt">model</span> (PDM). Isolated landmark appearance is described by a set of haar-like features, supporting local landmark detection on the PDM estimates using a kNN-Classi er. Landmark detection was evaluated in a leave-one-out cross validation on a reference dataset comprising 45 CT volumes of the human liver after shape space projection. Depending on the anatomical landmark to be detected, our experiments have shown in about 1/4 up to more than 1/2 of all test cases a signi cant improvement in detection accuracy compared to the position estimates delivered by the PDM. Our results encourage further research with regard to the combination of shape priors and machine learning for landmark detection within the Active Shape <span class="hlt">Model</span> Framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036200&hterms=ultraviolet+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dultraviolet%2Bradiation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036200&hterms=ultraviolet+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dultraviolet%2Bradiation"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of multiple cloud layers for ultraviolet radiation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Charache, Darryl H.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Kuhn, William R.; Skinner, Wilbert R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Cloud data sets compiled from surface observations were used to develop an algorithm for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer <span class="hlt">model</span>. Aerosol extinction and ozone data sets were also <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> to estimate the seasonally averaged ultraviolet (UV) flux reaching the surface of the Earth in the Detroit, Michigan, region for the years 1979-1991, corresponding to Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 6 ozone observations. The calculated UV spectrum was convolved with an erythema action spectrum to estimate the effective biological exposure for erythema. Calculations show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an increase in erythemal exposure by approximately 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with previous studies. A comparison of the UV radiation budget at the surface between a single cloud layer method and a multiple cloud layer method presented here is discussed, along with limitations of each technique. With improved parameterization of cloud properties, and as knowledge of biological effects of UV exposure increase, inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017782','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017782"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of shuttle CCT parameters in computer simulation <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huntsberger, Terry</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Computer simulations of shuttle missions have become increasingly important during recent years. The complexity of mission planning for satellite launch and repair operations which usually involve EVA has led to the need for accurate visibility and access studies. The PLAID <span class="hlt">modeling</span> package used in the Man-Systems Division at Johnson currently has the necessary capabilities for such studies. In addition, the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> package is used for spatial location and orientation of shuttle components for film overlay studies such as the current investigation of the hydrogen leaks found in the shuttle flight. However, there are a number of differences between the simulation studies and actual mission viewing. These include image blur caused by the finite resolution of the CCT monitors in the shuttle and signal noise from the video tubes of the cameras. During the course of this investigation the shuttle CCT camera and monitor parameters are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the existing PLAID framework. These parameters are specific for certain camera/lens combinations and the SNR characteristics of these combinations are included in the noise <span class="hlt">models</span>. The monitor resolution is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> using a Gaussian spread function such as that found in the screen phosphors in the shuttle monitors. Another difference between the traditional PLAID generated images and actual mission viewing lies in the lack of shadows and reflections of light from surfaces. Ray tracing of the scene explicitly includes the lighting and material characteristics of surfaces. The results of some preliminary studies using ray tracing techniques for the image generation process combined with the camera and monitor effects are also reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX21002L"><span>Tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt</p> <p></p> <p>Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain rate and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> for tantalum that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. A constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for single crystal tantalum is developed based on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005567&hterms=variation+phenology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvariation%2Bphenology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005567&hterms=variation+phenology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvariation%2Bphenology"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Plant Phenology Dynamics in a Biophysical Canopy <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barata, Raquel A.; Drewry, Darren</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Multi-Layer Canopy <span class="hlt">Model</span> (MLCan) is a vegetation <span class="hlt">model</span> created to capture plant responses to environmental change. Themodel vertically resolves carbon uptake, water vapor and energy exchange at each canopy level by coupling photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf energy balance. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is forced by incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, as well as near-surface meteorological conditions. The original formulation of MLCan utilized canopy structural traits derived from observations. This project aims to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a plant phenology scheme within MLCan allowing these structural traits to vary dynamically. In the plant phenology scheme implemented here, plant growth is dependent on environmental conditions such as air temperature and soil moisture. The scheme includes functionality that <span class="hlt">models</span> plant germination, growth, and senescence. These growth stages dictate the variation in six different vegetative carbon pools: storage, leaves, stem, coarse roots, fine roots, and reproductive. The magnitudes of these carbon pools determine land surface parameters such as leaf area index, canopy height, rooting depth and root water uptake capacity. Coupling this phenology scheme with MLCan allows for a more flexible representation of the structure and function of vegetation as it responds to changing environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1651...64G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1651...64G"><span>A dengue <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> saturation incidence and human migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gakkhar, S.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper, a non-linear <span class="hlt">model</span> has been proposed to investigate the effects of human migration on dengue dynamics. Human migration has been considered between two patches having different dengue strains. Due to migration secondary infection is possible. Further, the secondary infection is considered in patch-2 only as strain-2 in patch-2 is considered to be more severe than that of strain-1 in patch-1. The saturation incidence rate has been considered to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the behavioral changes towards epidemic in human population. The basic reproduction number has been computed. Four Equilibrium states have been found and analyzed. Increasing saturation rate decreases the threshold thereby enhancing the stability of disease-free state in both the patches. Control on migration may lead to change in infection level of patches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25948393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25948393"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of molybdenum in rubredoxin: <span class="hlt">models</span> for mononuclear molybdenum enzymes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Silveira, Célia M; Todorovic, Smilja; Carreira, Cintia; Carepo, Marta S P; Grazina, Raquel; Moura, Isabel; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, José J G</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Molybdenum is found in the active site of enzymes usually coordinated by one or two pyranopterin molecules. Here, we mimic an enzyme with a mononuclear molybdenum-bis pyranopterin center by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> molybdenum in rubredoxin. In the molybdenum-substituted rubredoxin, the metal ion is coordinated by four sulfurs from conserved cysteine residues of the apo-rubredoxin and two other exogenous ligands, oxygen and thiol, forming a Mo((VI))-(S-Cys)4(O)(X) complex, where X represents -OH or -SR. The rubredoxin molybdenum center is stabilized in a Mo(VI) oxidation state, but can be reduced to Mo(IV) via Mo(V) by dithionite, being a suitable <span class="hlt">model</span> for the spectroscopic properties of resting and reduced forms of molybdenum-bis pyranopterin-containing enzymes. Preliminary experiments indicate that the molybdenum site built in rubredoxin can promote oxo transfer reactions, as exemplified with the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8390E..0IS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8390E..0IS"><span>Parking lot process <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into DIRSIG scene simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Jiangqin; Messinger, David</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool is a rst principles-based synthetic image generation <span class="hlt">model</span>, developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) over the past 20+ years. By calculating the sensor reaching radiance between the bandpass 0.2 to 20mm, it produces multi or hyperspectral remote sensing images. By integrating independent rst principles based sub-<span class="hlt">models</span>, such as MODTRAN, DIRSIG generates a representation of what a sensor would see with high radiometric delity. In order to detect temporal changes in a process within the scene, currently the eort is devoted to enhance the capacity of DIRSIG by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> process <span class="hlt">models</span>. The parking lot process <span class="hlt">model</span> is interesting to many applications. Therefore, this paper builds a parking lot process <span class="hlt">model</span> PARKVIEW based on the statistical description of the parking lot which includes parking lot occupancy, parking duration and parking spot preference. The output of PARKVIEW could then be fed into DIRSIG to enhance the scene simulation capacity of DIRSIG in terms of including temporal information of the parking lot. In order to show an accurate and ecient way of extracting the statistical description of the parking lot, an experiment is set up to record the distribution of cars in several parking lots on the RIT campus during one weekday by taking photos every ve minutes. The image data are processed to extract the parking spot status of the parking lot for each frame taken from the experiment. The parking spot status information is then described in a statistical way.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41G0133T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41G0133T"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Functional Gene Quantification into Traditional Decomposition <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todd-Brown, K. E.; Zhou, J.; Yin, H.; Wu, L.; Tiedje, J. M.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Konstantinidis, K.; Luo, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> new genetic quantification measurements into traditional substrate pool <span class="hlt">models</span> represents a substantial challenge. These decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> are built around the idea that substrate availablity, with environmental drivers, limit carbon dioxide respiration rates. In this paradigm, microbial communities optimally adapt to a given substrate and environment on much shorter time scales then the carbon flux of interest. By characterizing the relative shift in biomass of these microbial communities, we informed previously poorly constrained parameters in traditional decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this study we coupled a 9 month laboratory incubation study with quantitative gene measurements with traditional CO2 flux measurements plus initial soil organic carbon quantification. GeoChip 5.0 was used to quantify the functional genes associated with carbon cycling at 2 weeks, 3 months and 9 months. We then combined the genes which 'collapsed' over the experiment and assumed that this tracked the relative change in the biomass associated with the 'fast' pool. We further assumed that this biomass was proportional to the 'fast' SOC pool and thus were able to constrain the relative change in the fast SOC pool in our 3-pool decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span>. We found that biomass quantification described above, combined with traditional CO2 flux and SOC measurements, improve the transfer coefficient estimation in traditional decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span>. Transfer coefficients are very difficult to characterized using traditional CO2 flux measurements, thus DNA quantification provides new and significant information about the system. Over a 100 year simulation, these new biologically informed parameters resulted in an additional 10% of SOC loss over the traditionally informed parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8402P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8402P"><span>Digital terrain <span class="hlt">model</span> generalization <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> scale, semantic and cognitive constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Papadogiorgaki, Maria</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Cartographic generalization is a well-known process accommodating spatial data compression, visualization and comprehension under various scales. In the last few years, there are several international attempts to construct tangible GIS systems, forming real 3D surfaces using a vast number of mechanical parts along a matrix formation (i.e., bars, pistons, vacuums). Usually, moving bars upon a structured grid push a stretching membrane resulting in a smooth visualization for a given surface. Most of these attempts suffer either in their cost, accuracy, resolution and/or speed. Under this perspective, the present study proposes a surface generalization process that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> intrinsic constrains of tangible GIS systems including robotic-motor movement and surface stretching limitations. The main objective is to provide optimized visualizations of 3D digital terrain <span class="hlt">models</span> with minimum loss of information. That is, to minimize the number of pixels in a raster dataset used to define a DTM, while reserving the surface information. This neighborhood type of pixel relations adheres to the basics of Self Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural networks, which are often used for information abstraction since they are indicative of intrinsic statistical features contained in the input patterns and provide concise and characteristic representations. Nevertheless, SOM remains more like a black box procedure not capable to cope with possible particularities and semantics of the application at hand. E.g. for coastal monitoring applications, the near - coast areas, surrounding mountains and lakes are more important than other features and generalization should be "biased"-stratified to fulfill this requirement. Moreover, according to the application objectives, we extend the SOM algorithm to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> special types of information generalization by differentiating the underlying strategy based on topologic information of the objects included in the application. The final</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2713M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88e2713M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatial correlations into multispecies mean-field <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Markham, Deborah C.; Simpson, Matthew J.; Maini, Philip K.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Baker, Ruth E.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In biology, we frequently observe different species existing within the same environment. For example, there are many cell types in a tumour, or different animal species may occupy a given habitat. In <span class="hlt">modeling</span> interactions between such species, we often make use of the mean-field approximation, whereby spatial correlations between the locations of individuals are neglected. Whilst this approximation holds in certain situations, this is not always the case, and care must be taken to ensure the mean-field approximation is only used in appropriate settings. In circumstances where the mean-field approximation is unsuitable, we need to include information on the spatial distributions of individuals, which is not a simple task. In this paper, we provide a method that overcomes many of the failures of the mean-field approximation for an on-lattice volume-excluding birth-death-movement process with multiple species. We explicitly take into account spatial information on the distribution of individuals by including partial differential equation descriptions of lattice site occupancy correlations. We demonstrate how to derive these equations for the multispecies case and show results specific to a two-species problem. We compare averaged discrete results to both the mean-field approximation and our improved method, which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> spatial correlations. We note that the mean-field approximation fails dramatically in some cases, predicting very different behavior from that seen upon averaging multiple realizations of the discrete system. In contrast, our improved method provides excellent agreement with the averaged discrete behavior in all cases, thus providing a more reliable <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework. Furthermore, our method is tractable as the resulting partial differential equations can be solved efficiently using standard numerical techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.P11B1270D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.P11B1270D"><span><span class="hlt">Models</span> of Jupiter's Growth <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Thermal and Hydrodynamics Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Angelo, G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Hubickyj, O.; Bodenheimer, P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We have <span class="hlt">modeled</span> the growth of Jupiter <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> both thermal and hydrodynamical constraints on its accretion of gas from the circumsolar disk. We have used a planetary formation code, based on a Henyey- type stellar evolution code, to compute the planet's internal structure and a three-dimensional hydrodynamics code to calculate the planet's interactions with the protoplanetary disk. Our principal results are: (1) Three dimensional hydrodynamics calculations show that the flow of gas in the circumsolar disk limits the region occupied by the planet's tenuous gaseous envelope to within about 0.25 Rh (Hill sphere radii) of the planet's center, which is much smaller than the value of ~ 1 Rh that was assumed in previous studies. (2) This smaller size of the planet's envelope increases the planet's accretion time, but only by 5-- 10%. In general, in agreement with previous results of Hubickyj et al. [Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., 2005. Icarus, 179, 415-431], Jupiter formation times are in the range 2.5--3 Myr, assuming a protoplanetary disk with solid surface density of 10 g/cm2 and dust opacity in the protoplanet's envelope equal to 2% that of interstellar material. Thermal pressure limits the rate at which a planet less than a few dozen times as massive as Earth can accumulate gas from the protoplanetary disk, whereas hydrodynamics regulates the growth rate for more massive planets. (3) In a protoplanetary disk whose alpha-viscosity parameter is ~ 0.004, giant planets will grow to several times the mass of Jupiter unless the disk has a small local surface density when the planet begins to accrete gas hydrodynamically, or the disk is dispersed very soon thereafter. The large number of planets known with masses near Jupiter's compared with the smaller number of substantially more massive planets is more naturally explained by planetary growth within circumstellar disks whose alpha-viscosity parameter is ~ 0.0004. (4) Capture of Jupiter's irregular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015545','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015545"><span>Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Adversary Probability Perception <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> in Security Games</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-30</p> <p>security game (SSG) algorithms. Given recent work on human decision-making, we adjust the existing subjective utility function to account for...data from previous security game experiments with human subjects. Our results show the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of probability perceptions into the SUQR can...provide improvements in the ability to predict probabilities of attack in certain games .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+five+AND+model+AND+personality&pg=6&id=EJ815000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+five+AND+model+AND+personality&pg=6&id=EJ815000"><span>A Measurement <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Likert Responses that <span class="hlt">Incorporates</span> Response Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">model</span> for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic <span class="hlt">model</span> for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> together with the factor <span class="hlt">model</span> provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+level+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ430466','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sea+AND+level+AND+change&pg=5&id=EJ430466"><span>Implementing the Standards: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Mathematical <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into the Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Swetz, Frank</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Following a brief historical review of the mechanism of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, examples are included that associate a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> with given data (changes in sea level) and that <span class="hlt">model</span> a real-life situation (process of parallel parking). Also provided is the rationale for the curricular implementation of mathematical <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. (JJK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnOp...47..737K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnOp...47..737K"><span>A new nonlinear Muskingum flood routing <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> lateral flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karahan, Halil; Gurarslan, Gurhan; Geem, Zong Woo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A new nonlinear Muskingum flood routing <span class="hlt">model</span> taking the contribution from lateral flow into consideration was developed in the present study. The cuckoo search algorithm, a quite novel and robust algorithm, was used in the calibration and verification of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. The success and the dependability of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> were tested on five different sets of synthetic and real flood data. The optimal solutions for the test cases were determined by the currently proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> rather than by different <span class="hlt">models</span> taken from the literature, indicating that this <span class="hlt">model</span> could be suitable for use in flood routing problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80980&keyword=cca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89491218&CFTOKEN=34041740','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80980&keyword=cca&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89491218&CFTOKEN=34041740"><span>A PROBABILISTIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN WHO CONTACT CCA-TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE EXPOSURE SCENARIO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a probabilistic exposure and dose assessment on the arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) components of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation <span class="hlt">model</span> for wood preservatives (<span class="hlt">SHEDS-Wood</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=240091&keyword=Predation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78721075&CFTOKEN=45413152','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=240091&keyword=Predation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78721075&CFTOKEN=45413152"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Temperature-driven Seasonal Variation in Survival, Growth, and Reproduction <span class="hlt">Models</span> for Small Fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Seasonal variation in survival and reproduction can be a large source of prediction uncertainty in <span class="hlt">models</span> used for conservation and management. A seasonally varying matrix population <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> temperature-driven differences in mortality and reproduction...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024875','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024875"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty into high-resolution groundwater supply <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rahman, A.; Hartono, S.; Carlson, D.; Willson, C.S.; ,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is a useful tool for evaluating whether an acquifer system is capable of supporting groundwater withdrawals over long periods of time and what effect, if any, such activity will have on the regional flow dynamics as well as on specific public water, agricultural and industrial supplies. An overview is given of an ongoing groundwater <span class="hlt">modeling</span> study of the Chicot Aquifer in southwestern Louisiana where a low-resolution groundwater <span class="hlt">model</span> is being used to study the regional flow in the Chicot acquifer and to provide boundary conditions for higher-resolution inset <span class="hlt">models</span> created using telescopic mesh refinement (TMR).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019915','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019915"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of the planetary boundary layer in atmospheric <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary boundary layer (PBL) measurements; current problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale <span class="hlt">models</span>; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ479810','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Binomial+AND+Distribution&pg=4&id=EJ479810"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Library Book Circulations <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Loan Periods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burrell, Quentin L.; Fenton, Michael R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Proposes and explains a modification of the mixed Poisson <span class="hlt">model</span> for library circulations which takes into account the periods when a book is out on loan and therefore unavailable for borrowing. Highlights include frequency of circulation distributions; negative binomial distribution; and examples of the <span class="hlt">model</span> at two universities. (Contains 34…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA162518','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA162518"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Active Elements into the Articulated Total Body <span class="hlt">Model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-06-30</p> <p>the elbow , shoulder, hip and knee joints, 20. OISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED X SAME...Active Elements into the Articulated Total Body <span class="hlt">Model</span> Block 19 continued. Several validation studies were performed. One simulated elbow flexion with...29 V. PHASE III- <span class="hlt">MODELLING</span> THE GENERAL MUSCULATURE .... ........ ... 31 """. iii A. Elbow Joint</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...85...14G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdWR...85...14G"><span>A transient stochastic weather generator <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> climate <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glenis, Vassilis; Pinamonti, Valentina; Hall, Jim W.; Kilsby, Chris G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Stochastic weather generators (WGs), which provide long synthetic time series of weather variables such as rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET), have found widespread use in water resources <span class="hlt">modelling</span>. When conditioned upon the changes in climatic statistics (change factors, CFs) predicted by climate <span class="hlt">models</span>, WGs provide a useful tool for climate impacts assessment and adaption planning. The latest climate <span class="hlt">modelling</span> exercises have involved large numbers of global and regional climate <span class="hlt">models</span> integrations, designed to explore the implications of uncertainties in the climate <span class="hlt">model</span> formulation and parameter settings: so called 'perturbed physics ensembles' (PPEs). In this paper we show how these climate <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainties can be propagated through to impact studies by testing multiple vectors of CFs, each vector derived from a different sample from a PPE. We combine this with a new methodology to parameterise the projected time-evolution of CFs. We demonstrate how, when conditioned upon these time-dependent CFs, an existing, well validated and widely used WG can be used to generate non-stationary simulations of future climate that are consistent with probabilistic outputs from the Met Office Hadley Centre's Perturbed Physics Ensemble. The WG enables extensive sampling of natural variability and climate <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty, providing the basis for development of robust water resources management strategies in the context of a non-stationary climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26283988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26283988"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> measurement error in n = 1 psychological autoregressive <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuurman, Noémi K; Houtveen, Jan H; Hamaker, Ellen L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Measurement error is omnipresent in psychological data. However, the vast majority of applications of autoregressive time series analyses in psychology do not take measurement error into account. Disregarding measurement error when it is present in the data results in a bias of the autoregressive parameters. We discuss two <span class="hlt">models</span> that take measurement error into account: An autoregressive <span class="hlt">model</span> with a white noise term (AR+WN), and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) <span class="hlt">model</span>. In a simulation study we compare the parameter recovery performance of these <span class="hlt">models</span>, and compare this performance for both a Bayesian and frequentist approach. We find that overall, the AR+WN <span class="hlt">model</span> performs better. Furthermore, we find that for realistic (i.e., small) sample sizes, psychological research would benefit from a Bayesian approach in fitting these <span class="hlt">models</span>. Finally, we illustrate the effect of disregarding measurement error in an AR(1) <span class="hlt">model</span> by means of an empirical application on mood data in women. We find that, depending on the person, approximately 30-50% of the total variance was due to measurement error, and that disregarding this measurement error results in a substantial underestimation of the autoregressive parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0XC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0XC"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> tissue absorption and scattering in rapid ultrasound beam <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, Douglas; Almquist, Scott</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We have developed a new approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the propagation of an ultrasound beam in inhomogeneous tissues such as encountered with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treatment of various diseases. This method, called the hybrid angular spectrum (HAS) approach, alternates propagation steps between the space and the spatial frequency domains throughout the inhomogeneous regions of the body; the use of spatial Fourier transforms makes this technique considerably faster than other <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches (about 10 sec for a 141 x 141 x 121 <span class="hlt">model</span>). In HIFU thermal treatments, the acoustic absorption property of the tissues is of prime importance since it leads to temperature rise and the achievement of desired thermal dose at the treatment site. We have recently added to the HAS method the capability of independently <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tissue absorption and scattering, the two components of acoustic attenuation. These additions improve the predictive value of the beam <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and more accurately describes the thermal conditions expected during a therapeutic ultrasound exposure. Two approaches to explicitly <span class="hlt">model</span> scattering were developed: one for scattering sizes smaller than a voxel, and one when the scattering scale is several voxels wide. Some anatomically realistic examples that demonstrate the importance of independently <span class="hlt">modeling</span> absorption and scattering are given, including propagation through the human skull for noninvasive brain therapy and in the human breast for treatment of breast lesions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579834"><span>Markov modulated Poisson process <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> covariates for rainfall intensity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thayakaran, R; Ramesh, N I</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Time series of rainfall bucket tip times at the Beaufort Park station, Bracknell, in the UK are <span class="hlt">modelled</span> by a class of Markov modulated Poisson processes (MMPP) which may be thought of as a generalization of the Poisson process. Our main focus in this paper is to investigate the effects of including covariate information into the MMPP <span class="hlt">model</span> framework on statistical properties. In particular, we look at three types of time-varying covariates namely temperature, sea level pressure, and relative humidity that are thought to be affecting the rainfall arrival process. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to obtain the parameter estimates, and likelihood ratio tests are employed in <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison. Simulated data from the fitted <span class="hlt">model</span> are used to make statistical inferences about the accumulated rainfall in the discrete time interval. Variability of the daily Poisson arrival rates is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311019&keyword=computing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85822524&CFTOKEN=32976541','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311019&keyword=computing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=85822524&CFTOKEN=32976541"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> principal component analysis into air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The efficacy of standard air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Princi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617299"><span>An Approach for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Context in Building Probabilistic Predictive <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Juan Anna; Hsu, William; Bui, Alex At</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>With the increasing amount of information collected through clinical practice and scientific experimentation, a growing challenge is how to utilize available resources to construct predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> to facilitate clinical decision making. Clinicians often have questions related to the treatment and outcome of a medical problem for individual patients; however, few tools exist that leverage the large collection of patient data and scientific knowledge to answer these questions. Without appropriate context, existing data that have been collected for a specific task may not be suitable for creating new <span class="hlt">models</span> that answer different questions. This paper presents an approach that leverages available structured or unstructured data to build a probabilistic predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> that assists physicians with answering clinical questions on individual patients. Various challenges related to transforming available data to an end-user application are addressed: problem decomposition, variable selection, context representation, automated extraction of information from unstructured data sources, <span class="hlt">model</span> generation, and development of an intuitive application to query the <span class="hlt">model</span> and present the results. We describe our efforts towards building a <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts the risk of vasospasm in aneurysm patients.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529"><span>Bayesian statistical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of disinfection byproduct (DBP) bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in the ICR database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Francis, Royce A; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M; Small, Mitchell J</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>Statistical <span class="hlt">models</span> are developed for bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of water quality conditions before, during, and post-treatment on distribution system bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into DBP mixtures. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to <span class="hlt">model</span> individual DBP concentrations and estimate the coefficients of the linear <span class="hlt">models</span> used to predict the bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> fraction for distribution system DBP mixtures in each of the four priority DBP classes. The bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">models</span> achieve good agreement with the data. The most important predictors of bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> fraction across DBP classes are alkalinity, specific UV absorption (SUVA), and the bromide to total organic carbon ratio (Br:TOC) at the first point of chlorine addition. Free chlorine residual in the distribution system, distribution system residence time, distribution system pH, turbidity, and temperature only slightly influence bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. The bromide to applied chlorine (Br:Cl) ratio is not a significant predictor of the bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> fraction (BIF) in any of the four classes studied. These results indicate that removal of natural organic matter and the location of chlorine addition are important treatment decisions that have substantial implications for bromine <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into disinfection byproduct in drinking waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA501374','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA501374"><span>A Ternary Phase-Field <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Commercial CALPHAD Software (Preprint)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-10-21</p> <p>AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2009-4033 A TERNARY PHASE-FIELD <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> COMMERCIAL CALPHAD SOFTWARE (PREPRINT) J.P. Simmons Metals...Article Preprint 01 January 2009 – 31 January 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A TERNARY PHASE-FIELD <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> COMMERCIAL CALPHAD SOFTWARE...2008 14. ABSTRACT A ternary phase-field <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9308E..0VK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9308E..0VK"><span>Macroscopic singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> photobleaching as an input parameter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A macroscopic singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">model</span> for photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used extensively to calculate the reacted singlet oxygen concentration for various photosensitizers. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]r,sh) can be found for various drugs and drug-light intervals using a fitting algorithm. The input parameters for this <span class="hlt">model</span> include the fluence, photosensitizer concentration, optical properties, and necrosis radius. An additional input variable of photobleaching was implemented in this study to optimize the results. Photobleaching was measured by using the pre-PDT and post-PDT sensitizer concentrations. Using the RIF <span class="hlt">model</span> of murine fibrosarcoma, mice were treated with a linear source with fluence rates from 12 - 150 mW/cm and total fluences from 24 - 135 J/cm. The two main drugs investigated were benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). Previously published photophysical parameters were fine-tuned and verified using photobleaching as the additional fitting parameter. Furthermore, photobleaching can be used as an indicator of the robustness of the <span class="hlt">model</span> for the particular mouse experiment by comparing the experimental and <span class="hlt">model</span>-calculated photobleaching ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61069&keyword=Bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780711&CFTOKEN=17657028','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61069&keyword=Bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780711&CFTOKEN=17657028"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING <span class="hlt">MODELS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stable isotopes are frequently used to quantify the contributions of multiple sources to a mixture; e.g., C and N isotopic signatures can be used to determine the fraction of three food sources in a consumer's diet. The standard dual isotope, three source linear mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> ass...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4167299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4167299"><span>A Mammalian Circadian Clock <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Daytime Expression Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jolley, Craig C.; Ukai-Tadenuma, Maki; Perrin, Dimitri; Ueda, Hiroki R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> of the mammalian clock have traditionally been based around two feedback loops—the self-repression of Per/Cry by interfering with activation by BMAL/CLOCK, and the repression of Bmal/Clock by the REV-ERB proteins. Recent experimental evidence suggests that the D-box, a transcription factor binding site associated with daytime expression, plays a larger role in clock function than has previously been understood. We present a simplified clock <span class="hlt">model</span> that highlights the role of the D-box and illustrate an approach for finding maximum-entropy ensembles of <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, given experimentally imposed constraints. Parameter variability can be mitigated using prior probability distributions derived from genome-wide studies of cellular kinetics. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> reproduces predictions concerning the dual regulation of Cry1 by the D-box and Rev-ErbA/ROR response element (RRE) promoter elements and allows for ensemble-based predictions of phase response curves (PRCs). Nonphotic signals such as Neuropeptide Y (NPY) may act by promoting Cry1 expression, whereas photic signals likely act by stimulating expression from the E/E' box. Ensemble generation with parameter probability restraints reveals more about a model’s behavior than a single optimal parameter set. PMID:25229153</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..82..307E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..82..307E"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> principal component analysis into air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eder, Brian; Bash, Jesse; Foley, Kristen; Pleim, Jon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The efficacy of standard air quality <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric - the <span class="hlt">model</span> bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) <span class="hlt">model</span> when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ <span class="hlt">model</span> bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station-grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the probable mechanisms responsible for the unique behavior among bias regimes. A sampling of results indicates that biases are still prevalent in both SO42- and NH4+ simulations that can be attributed to either: 1) cloud processes in the meteorological <span class="hlt">model</span> utilized by CMAQ, which are found to overestimated convective clouds and precipitation, while underestimating larger-scale resolved clouds that are less likely to precipitate, and 2) biases associated with Midwest NH3 emissions which may be partially ameliorated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6216C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> grassland management in a global vegetation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Jinfeng; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Cozic, Anne; Lardy, Romain; Graux, Anne-Isabelle; Klumpp, Katja; Martin, Raphael; Soussana, Jean-François</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Grassland is a widespread vegetation type, covering nearly one-fifth of the world's land surface (24 million km2), and playing a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Most of grasslands in Europe are cultivated to feed animals, either directly by grazing or indirectly by grass harvest (cutting). A better understanding of the C fluxes from grassland ecosystems in response to climate and management requires not only field experiments but also the aid of simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>. ORCHIDEE process-based ecosystem <span class="hlt">model</span> designed for large-scale applications treats grasslands as being unmanaged, where C / water fluxes are only subject to atmospheric CO2 and climate changes. Our study describes how management of grasslands is included in the ORCHIDEE, and how management affects <span class="hlt">modeled</span> grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new <span class="hlt">model</span>, ORCHIDEE-GM (Grassland Management) is capable with a management module inspired from a grassland <span class="hlt">model</span> (PaSim, version 5.0), of accounting for two grassland management practices (cutting and grazing). The evaluation of the results of ORCHIDEE-GM compared with those of ORCHIDEE at 11 European sites equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, show that ORCHIDEE-GM can capture realistically the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: Leaf Area Index; AGB: Aboveground Biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: Gross Primary Productivity; TER: Total Ecosystem Respiration; and NEE: Net Ecosystem Exchange). But improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM, which relates to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without management. At some sites, the <span class="hlt">model</span>-observation misfit in ORCHIDEE-GM is found to be more related to ill-constrained parameter values than to <span class="hlt">model</span> structure. Additionally, ORCHIDEE-GM is able to simulate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H11B0228B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H11B0228B"><span>The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of geomorphic information in storage-zone <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boufadel, M. C.; Gabriel, M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Three stream-tracer studies were conducted in a 190-m reach of an urban stream in Philadelphia to investigate the interactions between the main channel and transverse storage zones. Sodium chloride was used as a conservative tracer and was monitored at two downstream locations using electric conductivity measurements. The experiments were simulated using the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms that account for the transverse exchange. The fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the data was good when all the parameters were assumed to be sub-reach-averaged. When measurements of the cross sectional area at various downstream distances were introduced into the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the remaining reach-averaged parameters had to take extreme values to achieve agreement with the experimental breakthrough curve. This indicates that additional but incomplete geomorphic information does not necessarily improve the understanding of a particular stream system. The variation of the parameters with scale was also explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7825B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....7825B"><span>The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of geomorphic information in storage-zone <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boufadel, M.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Three stream-tracer studies were conducted in a 190-m reach of an urban stream in Philadelphia to investigate the interactions between the main channel and transverse storage zones. Sodium chloride was used as a conservative tracer and was monitored at two downstream locations using electric conductivity measurements. The experiments were simulated using the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms that account for the transverse exchange. The fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the data was good when all the parameters were assumed to be sub-reach-averaged. When measurements of the cross sectional area at various downstream distances were introduced into the <span class="hlt">model</span>, the remaining reach-averaged parameters had to take extreme values to achieve agreement with the experimental breakthrough curve. This indicates that additional but incomplete geomorphic information does not necessarily improve the understanding of a particular stream system. The variation of the parameters with scale was also explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA571870','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA571870"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Uncertainties in Satellite-Derived Chlorophyll into <span class="hlt">Model</span> Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>ensemble approach, similar to that used in environmental <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, to quantify errors and produce uncertainty maps for satellite-derived ocean color ...end-to-end image processing stream. For an ocean color image, we first apply realistic noise to the satellite top-of- atmosphere radiances, which...satellite and in situ values, particularly for regional comparisons. With regard to satellite ocean color image products, such as the chlorophyll</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4790418','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4790418"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Spatial <span class="hlt">Models</span> in Visual Field Test Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rubinstein, Nikki J.; McKendrick, Allison M.; Turpin, Andrew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To introduce a perimetric algorithm (Spatially Weighted Likelihoods in Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing [ZEST] [SWeLZ]) that uses spatial information on every presentation to alter visual field (VF) estimates, to reduce test times without affecting output precision and accuracy. Methods SWeLZ is a maximum likelihood Bayesian procedure, which updates probability mass functions at VF locations using a spatial <span class="hlt">model</span>. Spatial <span class="hlt">models</span> were created from empirical data, computational <span class="hlt">models</span>, nearest neighbor, random relationships, and interconnecting all locations. SWeLZ was compared to an implementation of the ZEST algorithm for perimetry using computer simulations on 163 glaucomatous and 233 normal VFs (Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2). Output measures included number of presentations and visual sensitivity estimates. Results There was no significant difference in accuracy or precision of SWeLZ for the different spatial <span class="hlt">models</span> relative to ZEST, either when collated across whole fields or when split by input sensitivity. Inspection of VF maps showed that SWeLZ was able to detect localized VF loss. SWeLZ was faster than ZEST for normal VFs: median number of presentations reduced by 20% to 38%. The number of presentations was equivalent for SWeLZ and ZEST when simulated on glaucomatous VFs. Conclusions SWeLZ has the potential to reduce VF test times in people with normal VFs, without detriment to output precision and accuracy in glaucomatous VFs. Translational Relevance SWeLZ is a novel perimetric algorithm. Simulations show that SWeLZ can reduce the number of test presentations for people with normal VFs. Since many patients have normal fields, this has the potential for significant time savings in clinical settings. PMID:26981329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33G2741W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33G2741W"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> history dependence and texture in <span class="hlt">models</span> of mantle convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wookey, J.; Walker, A. M.; Davies, R.; Davies, J. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Solid state deformation processes permitting convection of Earth's rocky mantle necessarily lead to strong feedbacks between the deformation history and the instantaneous flow field. Mechanisms leading to the history dependence include the alignment of mineral grains with the attendant generation of elastic and rheological anisotropy, as well as processes operating at larger and smaller length scales (e.g. phase separation, grain size reduction, changes to the defect chemistry and dislocation multiplication and entanglement). Despite their sophistication, current <span class="hlt">models</span> of mantle dynamics frequently ignore history dependent rheologies, and the feedback between deformation, grain size, crystal orientation, chemistry and viscosity. These processes have huge effects on viscosity: in the crust, they lead to the development of shear-zones and highly localised deformation, whilst, in the mantle, they are nearly always ignored. Here we describe an approach intended to introduce the consequences of history dependence into <span class="hlt">models</span> of whole-mantle convection. We make use of existing technology that exists in several convection codes: the ability to track markers, or particles, through the evolving flow field. Tracers have previously been used to track attributes such as the bulk chemical composition or trace element ratios. Our modification is to use this technology to track a description of the current state of the texture and microstructure (encompassing an orientation distribution function, grain size parameters and dislocation density) such that we can advance <span class="hlt">models</span> of polycrystalline deformation for many particles alongside and in sync with <span class="hlt">models</span> of mantle convection. Our approach is intended to be reasonably generic, coupling one of several mantle convection engines with a choice of polycrystalline deformation <span class="hlt">models</span>, but the initial implementation uses the TERRA convection code (Baumgardner, J. Stat. Phys. 39:501-511, 1985; Davies and Davies, EPSL 278:50-54, 2009) to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65448&keyword=Bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780711&CFTOKEN=17657028','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65448&keyword=Bears&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780711&CFTOKEN=17657028"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING <span class="hlt">MODELS</span>: A REPLY TO ROBBINS, HILDERBRAND AND FARLEY (2002)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Phillips & Koch (2002) outlined a new stable isotope mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> differences in elemental concentrations in the determinations of source proportions in a mixture. They illustrated their method with sensitivity analyses and two examples from the wildlife ecolog...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980016989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980016989"><span>Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Structural Reliability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duffy, Stephen F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineer's perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for "graceful" rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction, these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970024835','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970024835"><span>Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Structural Reliability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duffy, Stephen F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and intermetallic materials (e.g., single crystal nickel aluminide) are high performance materials that exhibit attractive mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. These materials are critically important in advancing certain performance aspects of gas turbine engines. From an aerospace engineers perspective the new generation of ceramic composites and intermetallics offers a significant potential for raising the thrust/weight ratio and reducing NO(sub x) emissions of gas turbine engines. These aspects have increased interest in utilizing these materials in the hot sections of turbine engines. However, as these materials evolve and their performance characteristics improve a persistent need exists for state-of-the-art analytical methods that predict the response of components fabricated from CMC and intermetallic material systems. This need provided the motivation for the technology developed under this research effort. Continuous ceramic fiber composites exhibit an increase in work of fracture, which allows for 'graceful' rather than catastrophic failure. When loaded in the fiber direction these composites retain substantial strength capacity beyond the initiation of transverse matrix cracking despite the fact that neither of its constituents would exhibit such behavior if tested alone. As additional load is applied beyond first matrix cracking, the matrix tends to break in a series of cracks bridged by the ceramic fibers. Any additional load is born increasingly by the fibers until the ultimate strength of the composite is reached. Thus <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts supported under this research effort have focused on predicting this sort of behavior. For single crystal intermetallics the issues that motivated the technology development involved questions relating to material behavior and component design. Thus the research effort supported by this grant had to determine the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPCM...19t5139K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPCM...19t5139K"><span>Amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanocarriers with <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuskov, A. N.; Villemson, A. L.; Shtilman, M. I.; Larionova, N. I.; Tsatsakis, A. M.; Tsikalas, I.; Rizos, A. K.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>New nanoscaled polymeric carriers have been prepared on the basis of different amphiphilic water-soluble derivatives of poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The polymer self-assembly and interaction with <span class="hlt">model</span> proteins (Bowman-Birk soybean proteinase inhibitor (BBI) and its hydrophobized derivatives) were studied in aqueous media. The possibility of inclusion of both BBI and hydrophobized oleic acid derivatives of BBI in amphiphilic PVP aggregates was investigated. It was ascertained that polymeric particles of size 50-80 nm were formed in certain concentrations of amphiphilic PVP and poorly soluble dioleic acid derivatives of BBI. Such polymeric aggregates are capable of solubilization of dioleoyl BBI with a concomitant prevention of its inactivation at low pH values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144963"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: An Approach for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Nonlinearity in Regression Analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knafl, George J; Barakat, Lamia P; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Hardie, Thomas; Knafl, Kathleen A; Li, Yimei; Deatrick, Janet A</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Although regression relationships commonly are treated as linear, this often is not the case. An adaptive approach is described for identifying nonlinear relationships based on power transforms of predictor (or independent) variables and for assessing whether or not relationships are distinctly nonlinear. It is also possible to <span class="hlt">model</span> adaptively both means and variances of continuous outcome (or dependent) variables and to adaptively power transform positive-valued continuous outcomes, along with their predictors. Example analyses are provided of data from parents in a nursing study on emotional-health-related quality of life for childhood brain tumor survivors as a function of the effort to manage the survivors' condition. These analyses demonstrate that relationships, including moderation relationships, can be distinctly nonlinear, that conclusions about means can be affected by accounting for non-constant variances, and that outcome transformation along with predictor transformation can provide distinct improvements and can resolve skewness problems.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004635','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004635"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> affective bias in <span class="hlt">models</span> of human decision making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nygren, Thomas E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this <span class="hlt">model</span> is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514596"><span>Joint <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of longitudinal and survival data: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> delayed entry and an assessment of <span class="hlt">model</span> misspecification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crowther, Michael J; Andersson, Therese M-L; Lambert, Paul C; Abrams, Keith R; Humphreys, Keith</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>A now common goal in medical research is to investigate the inter-relationships between a repeatedly measured biomarker, measured with error, and the time to an event of interest. This form of question can be tackled with a joint longitudinal-survival <span class="hlt">model</span>, with the most common approach combining a longitudinal mixed effects <span class="hlt">model</span> with a proportional hazards survival <span class="hlt">model</span>, where the <span class="hlt">models</span> are linked through shared random effects. In this article, we look at <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> delayed entry (left truncation), which has received relatively little attention. The extension to delayed entry requires a second set of numerical integration, beyond that required in a standard joint <span class="hlt">model</span>. We therefore implement two sets of fully adaptive Gauss-Hermite quadrature with nested Gauss-Kronrod quadrature (to allow time-dependent association structures), conducted simultaneously, to evaluate the likelihood. We evaluate fully adaptive quadrature compared with previously proposed non-adaptive quadrature through a simulation study, showing substantial improvements, both in terms of minimising bias and reducing computation time. We further investigate, through simulation, the consequences of misspecifying the longitudinal trajectory and its impact on estimates of association. Our scenarios showed the current value association structure to be very robust, compared with the rate of change that we found to be highly sensitive showing that assuming a simpler trend when the truth is more complex can lead to substantial bias. With emphasis on flexible parametric approaches, we generalise previous <span class="hlt">models</span> by proposing the use of polynomials or splines to capture the longitudinal trend and restricted cubic splines to <span class="hlt">model</span> the baseline log hazard function. The methods are illustrated on a dataset of breast cancer patients, <span class="hlt">modelling</span> mammographic density jointly with survival, where we show how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> density measurements prior to the at-risk period, to make use of all the available</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350632"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the life course <span class="hlt">model</span> into MCH nutrition leadership education and training programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haughton, Betsy; Eppig, Kristen; Looney, Shannon M; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Spear, Bonnie A; Spence, Marsha; Stang, Jamie S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Life course perspective, social determinants of health, and health equity have been combined into one comprehensive <span class="hlt">model</span>, the life course <span class="hlt">model</span> (LCM), for strategic planning by US Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. The purpose of this project was to describe a faculty development process; identify strategies for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the LCM into nutrition leadership education and training at the graduate and professional levels; and suggest broader implications for training, research, and practice. Nineteen representatives from 6 MCHB-funded nutrition leadership education and training programs and 10 federal partners participated in a one-day session that began with an overview of the <span class="hlt">models</span> and concluded with guided small group discussions on how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into maternal and child health (MCH) leadership training using obesity as an example. Written notes from group discussions were compiled and coded emergently. Content analysis determined the most salient themes about <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the <span class="hlt">models</span> into training. Four major LCM-related themes emerged, three of which were about training: (1) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> by training grants through LCM-framed coursework and experiences for trainees, and similarly framed continuing education and skills development for professionals; (2) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> through collaboration with other training programs and state and community partners, and through advocacy; and (3) <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> by others at the federal and local levels through policy, political, and prevention efforts. The fourth theme focused on anticipated challenges of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the <span class="hlt">model</span> in training. Multiple methods for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the LCM into MCH training and practice are warranted. Challenges to <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> include the need for research and related policy development.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..GEC.AM003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..GEC.AM003M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> swarm data into plasma <span class="hlt">models</span> and plasma surface interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makabe, Toshiaki</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Since the mid-1980s, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of non-equilibrium plasmas in a collisional region driven at radio frequency has been developed at pressure greater than ˜Pa. The collisional plasma has distinct characteristics induced by a quantum property of each of feed gas molecules through collisions with electrons or heavy particles. That is, there exists a proper function caused by chemically active radicals, negative-ions, and radiations based on a molecular quantum structure through short-range interactions mainly with electrons. This differs from high-density, collisionless plasma controlled by the long-range Coulomb interaction. The quantum property in the form of the collision cross section is the first essential through swarm parameters in order to investigate the collisional plasma structure and to predict the function. These structure and function, of course, appear under a self- organized spatiotemporal distribution of electrons and positive ions subject to electromagnetic theory, i.e., bulk-plasma and ion-sheath. In a plasma interacting with a surface, the flux, energy and angle of particles incident on a surface are basic quantities. It will be helpful to learn the limits of the swarm data in a quasi-equilibrium situation and to find a way out of the difficulty, when we predict the collisional plasma, the function, and related surface processes. In this talk we will discuss some of these experiences in the case of space and time varying radiofrequency plasma and the micro/nano-surface processes. This work is partly supported by Global-COE program in Keio University, granted by MEXT Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155915','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155915"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO2 exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate–carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate–carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts and provide suggestions for how to move forward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5314348','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5314348"><span>A new <span class="hlt">model</span> for in situ nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into 4H-SiC during epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general <span class="hlt">model</span> explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a <span class="hlt">model</span> based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface. It is shown that all the growth parameters are influencing the probability of C vacancies formation in a similar manner as they do for N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. The surface exchange <span class="hlt">model</span> proposes a new framework for explaining the experimental results even beyond the commonly accepted reactor type dependency. PMID:28211528</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743069F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...743069F"><span>A new <span class="hlt">model</span> for in situ nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into 4H-SiC during epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC during vapor phase epitaxy is still lacking of a general <span class="hlt">model</span> explaining the apparently contradictory trends obtained by different teams. In this paper, the evolutions of nitrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> (on both polar Si and C faces) as a function of the main growth parameters (C/Si ratio, temperature, pressure and growth rate) are reviewed and explained using a <span class="hlt">model</span> based on surface exchanges between the gas phase and the uppermost 4H-SiC atomic layers. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> is driven mainly by the transient formation of C vacancies, due to H2 etching, at the surface or near the surface. It is shown that all the growth parameters are influencing the probability of C vacancies formation in a similar manner as they do for N <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. The surface exchange <span class="hlt">model</span> proposes a new framework for explaining the experimental results even beyond the commonly accepted reactor type dependency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H43B0495M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H43B0495M"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> PROPACK into PEST to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Model</span> Resolution Matrix for Large Groundwater Flow <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muffels, C.; Zhang, H.; Doherty, J.; Tonkin, M.; Hunt, R.; Anderson, M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Regularized inversion of groundwater flow <span class="hlt">models</span> can be used to delineate geological heterogeneities using subspace methods like the singular value decomposition (SVD). To characterize heterogeneity, thousands of system parameters and, with appropriate regularization, thousands of observations may be necessary. The SVD method is not practical because it requires significant memory space and is time consuming. In previous work, we demonstrated the LSQR can be used to estimate the many unknown parameters in large groundwater flow inverse problems. However, in doing so, a resolution analysis is needed to characterize the reliability of the resulting <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. We adopted an approach developed for large seismic tomography problems and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the PROPACK package into PEST, a <span class="hlt">model</span> independent parameter estimation program. PROPACK estimates singular values and vectors for large sparse matrices efficiently and accurately based on the Lanczos bidiagonalization, the core of LSQR, with partial reorthogonalization. Unlike other LSQR-based resolution approaches, this PROPACK-based approach calculates the full resolution matrix. We estimate the <span class="hlt">model</span> resolution matrix for a synthetic approximation based on a regional MODFLOW <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Trout Lake Basin, Wisconsin, and compare it with results from the more commonly used SVD approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSR...11...35H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSR...11...35H"><span>A vector auto-regressive <span class="hlt">model</span> for onshore and offshore wind synthesis <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> meteorological <span class="hlt">model</span> information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, D.; Bell, K. R. W.; McMillan, D.; Infield, D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The growth of wind power production in the electricity portfolio is striving to meet ambitious targets set, for example by the EU, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020. Huge investments are now being made in new offshore wind farms around UK coastal waters that will have a major impact on the GB electrical supply. Representations of the UK wind field in syntheses which capture the inherent structure and correlations between different locations including offshore sites are required. Here, Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) <span class="hlt">models</span> are presented and extended in a novel way to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> offshore time series from a pan-European meteorological <span class="hlt">model</span> called COSMO, with onshore wind speeds from the MIDAS dataset provided by the British Atmospheric Data Centre. Forecasting ability onshore is shown to be improved with the inclusion of the offshore sites with improvements of up to 25% in RMS error at 6 h ahead. In addition, the VAR <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to synthesise time series of wind at each offshore site, which are then used to estimate wind farm capacity factors at the sites in question. These are then compared with estimates of capacity factors derived from the work of Hawkins et al. (2011). A good degree of agreement is established indicating that this synthesis tool should be useful in power system impact studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..11R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7964E..11R"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Gaussian <span class="hlt">model</span> at the catheter tip for improved registration of preoperative surface <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R., III; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia in which aberrant electrical activity cause the atria to quiver which results in irregular beating of the heart. Catheter ablation therapy is becoming increasingly popular in treating atrial fibrillation, a procedure in which an electrophysiologist guides a catheter into the left atrium and creates radiofrequency lesions to stop the arrhythmia. Typical visualization tools include bi-plane fluoroscopy, 2-D ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps, however, recently there has been increased interest in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> preoperative surface <span class="hlt">models</span> into the procedure. Typical strategies for registration include landmark-based and surface-based methods. Drawbacks of these approaches include difficulty in accurately locating corresponding landmark pairs and the time required to sample surface points with a catheter. In this paper, we describe a new approach which <span class="hlt">models</span> the catheter tip as a Gaussian kernel and eliminates the need to collect surface points by instead using the stream of continuosly tracked catheter points. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique with a left atrial phantom <span class="hlt">model</span> and compare the results with a standard surface based approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259532-physically-based-strength-model-tantalum-incorporating-effects-temperature-strain-rate-pressure','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259532-physically-based-strength-model-tantalum-incorporating-effects-temperature-strain-rate-pressure"><span>Physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> of tantalum <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; ...</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>In this work, we develop a tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the <span class="hlt">model</span> are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa.more » The proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1259532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1259532"><span>Physically-based strength <span class="hlt">model</span> of tantalum <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>In this work, we develop a tantalum strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the <span class="hlt">model</span> are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength <span class="hlt">model</span> is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength <span class="hlt">model</span> that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Group+AND+work&pg=7&id=EJ973474','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Group+AND+work&pg=7&id=EJ973474"><span>SPARC Groups: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Spiritual Psychoeducation into Group Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Christmas, Christopher; Van Horn, Stacy M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of spirituality as a resource for clients within the counseling field is growing; however, the primary focus has been on individual therapy. The purpose of this article is to provide counseling practitioners, administrators, and researchers with an approach for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> spiritual psychoeducation into group work. The proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> can…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PREY-PREDATOR&id=EJ753902','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PREY-PREDATOR&id=EJ753902"><span>Controllability and Optimal Harvesting of a Prey-Predator <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Prey Refuge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kar, Tapan Kumar</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with a prey-predator <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+dilemma&pg=2&id=EJ955653','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+dilemma&pg=2&id=EJ955653"><span>The Forced Choice Dilemma: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Idiocentric/Allocentric Cultural Orientation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gross, Miraca U. M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study developed and tested a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of the forced choice dilemma (i.e., the belief held by some intellectually gifted students that they must choose between academic achievement and peer acceptance) that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> individual-level cultural orientation variables (i.e., vertical allocentrism and vertical idiocentrism). A survey that had…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62360&keyword=michael+AND+evans&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84662360&CFTOKEN=85457407','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62360&keyword=michael+AND+evans&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84662360&CFTOKEN=85457407"><span><span class="hlt">INCORPORATION</span> OF MECHANISTIC INFORMATION IN THE ARSENIC PBPK <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> DEVELOPMENT PROCESS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS IN A PBPK <span class="hlt">MODEL</span> FOR ARSENIC<br><br>Elaina M. Kenyon, Michael F. Hughes, Marina V. Evans, David J. Thomas, U.S. EPA; Miroslav Styblo, University of North Carolina; Michael Easterling, Analytical Sciences, Inc.<br><br>A physiologically based phar...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ979605.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ979605.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> 4MAT <span class="hlt">Model</span> in Distance Instructional Material--An Innovative Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nikolaou, Alexandra; Koutsouba, Maria</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In an attempt to improve the effectiveness of distance learning, the present study aims to introduce an innovative way of creating and designing distance learning instructional material <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> Bernice McCarthy's 4MAT <span class="hlt">Model</span> based on learning styles. According to McCarthy's theory, all students can learn effectively in a cycle of learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308395&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308395&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population <span class="hlt">Models</span>:Design and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eco-evolutionary population <span class="hlt">models</span> are powerful new tools for exploring howevolutionary processes influence plant and animal population dynamics andvice-versa. The need to manage for climate change and other dynamicdisturbance regimes is creating a demand for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25843377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25843377"><span>Nine challenges in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Funk, Sebastian; Bansal, Shweta; Bauch, Chris T; Eames, Ken T D; Edmunds, W John; Galvani, Alison P; Klepac, Petra</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic <span class="hlt">models</span> of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> behavioural changes in <span class="hlt">models</span> of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such <span class="hlt">models</span>, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806o0004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806o0004B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of composite defects from ultrasonic NDE into CAD and FE <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bingol, Onur Rauf; Schiefelbein, Bryan; Grandin, Robert J.; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Fiber-reinforced composites are widely used in aerospace industry due to their combined properties of high strength and low weight. However, owing to their complex structure, it is difficult to assess the impact of manufacturing defects and service damage on their residual life. While, ultrasonic testing (UT) is the preferred NDE method to identify the presence of defects in composites, there are no reasonable ways to <span class="hlt">model</span> the damage and evaluate the structural integrity of composites. We have developed an automated framework to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> flaws and known composite damage automatically into a finite element analysis (FEA) <span class="hlt">model</span> of composites, ultimately aiding in accessing the residual life of composites and make informed decisions regarding repairs. The framework can be used to generate a layer-by-layer 3D structural CAD <span class="hlt">model</span> of the composite laminates replicating their manufacturing process. Outlines of structural defects, such as delaminations, are automatically detected from UT of the laminate and are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the CAD <span class="hlt">model</span> between the appropriate layers. In addition, the framework allows for direct structural analysis of the resulting 3D CAD <span class="hlt">models</span> with defects by automatically applying the appropriate boundary conditions. In this paper, we show a working proof-of-concept for the composite <span class="hlt">model</span> builder with capabilities of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> delaminations between laminate layers and automatically preparing the CAD <span class="hlt">model</span> for structural analysis using a FEA software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335328','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335328"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO<sub>2</sub> exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate-carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate-carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts and provide suggestions for how to move forward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335328-incorporating-phosphorus-cycling-global-modeling-efforts-worthwhile-tractable-endeavor','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335328-incorporating-phosphorus-cycling-global-modeling-efforts-worthwhile-tractable-endeavor"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling into global <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Myriad field, laboratory, and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO2 exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global <span class="hlt">models</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> coupled climate-carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate-carbon cycling <span class="hlt">model</span> development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts andmore » provide suggestions for how to move forward.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18640693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18640693"><span>A stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple types of genomic instability fitted to colon cancer data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Little, Mark P; Vineis, Paolo; Li, Guangquan</p> <p>2008-09-21</p> <p>A generalization of the two-mutation stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> of Moolgavkar, Venzon and Knudson and certain <span class="hlt">models</span> constructed by Little [Little, M.P. (1995). Are two mutations sufficient to cause cancer? Some generalizations of the two-mutation <span class="hlt">model</span> of carcinogenesis of Moolgavkar, Venzon, and Knudson, and of the multistage <span class="hlt">model</span> of Armitage and Doll. Biometrics 51, 1278-1291] and Little and Wright [Little, M.P., Wright, E.G. (2003). A stochastic carcinogenesis <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> genomic instability fitted to colon cancer data. Math. Biosci. 183, 111-134] is developed; the <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> multiple types of progressive genomic instability and an arbitrary number of mutational stages. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is fitted to US Caucasian colon cancer incidence data. On the basis of the comparison of fits to the population-based data, there is little evidence to support the hypothesis that the <span class="hlt">model</span> with more than one type of genomic instability fits better than <span class="hlt">models</span> with a single type of genomic instability. Given the good fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to this large dataset, it is unlikely that further information on presence of genomic instability or of types of genomic instability can be extracted from age-incidence data by extensions of this <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MeApp...8..297M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MeApp...8..297M"><span>River flow forecasting using a rainfall disaggregation <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> small-scale topographic effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Misumi, R.; Bell, V. A.; Moore, R. J.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>River flow forecasting using rainfall predictions from a mesoscale weather prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> in combination with a physically-based rainfall disaggregation <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> small-scale topographic variability is demonstrated. Rainfall predicted by the UK Met Office Mesoscale <span class="hlt">Model</span> on a 16.8 km grid is disaggregated onto a 2 km grid using a rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span> which adds the effect of small-scale topography. River flow is calculated by a distributed rainfall-runoff <span class="hlt">model</span> using the output from the rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span>. A thunderstorm event on 7 June 1996 over the Brue catchment in Somerset, England is used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">models</span>. The rainfall <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully forecasts the band-shaped rainfall field within the catchment and the error in the total amount of flow during the storm is only -12%. An error of -40% in the peak flow is attributed to the treatment of convective clouds in the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218410','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218410"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of uncertainty in PCB bioaccumulation factors on <span class="hlt">modeled</span> receptor doses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welsh, C.; Duncan, J.; Purucker, S.; Richardson, N.; Redfearn, A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) are regularly employed in ecological risk assessments to <span class="hlt">model</span> contaminant transfer through ecological food chains. The authors compiled data on bioaccumulation of PCBs in plants, invertebrates, birds, and mammals from published literature and used these data to develop regression equations relating soil or food concentrations to bioaccumulation. They then used Latin Hypercube simulation techniques and simple food chain <span class="hlt">models</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> uncertainty in the BAF regressions into the derivation of exposure dose estimates for selected wildlife receptors. The authors present their preliminary results in this paper. Dose estimates ranged over several orders of magnitude for herbivorous, insectivorous, and carnivorous receptors. These results suggest <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the uncertainty in BAF values into food chain exposure <span class="hlt">models</span> could provide risk assessors and risk managers with information on the probability of a given outcome that can be used in interpreting the potential risks at hazardous waste sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...139...16S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAG...139...16S"><span>2-D magnetotelluric <span class="hlt">modeling</span> using finite element method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> unstructured quadrilateral elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarakorn, Weerachai</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this research, the finite element (FE) method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> quadrilateral elements for solving 2-D MT <span class="hlt">modeling</span> was presented. The finite element software was developed, employing a paving algorithm to generate the unstructured quadrilateral mesh. The accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and flexibility of our FE forward <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are presented, compared and discussed. The numerical results indicate that our FE codes using an unstructured quadrilateral mesh provide good accuracy when the local mesh refinement is applied around sites and in the area of interest, with superior results when compared to other FE methods. The reliability of the developed codes was also confirmed when comparing both analytical solutions and COMMEMI2D <span class="hlt">model</span>. Furthermore, our developed FE codes <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an unstructured quadrilateral mesh showed useful and powerful features such as handling irregular and complex subregions and providing local refinement of the mesh for a 2-D domain as closely as unstructured triangular mesh but it requires less number of elements in a mesh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1263647-incorporating-physically-based-microstructures-materials-modeling-bridging-phase-field-crystal-plasticity-frameworks','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1263647-incorporating-physically-based-microstructures-materials-modeling-bridging-phase-field-crystal-plasticity-frameworks"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in materials <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; ...</p> <p>2016-04-25</p> <p>Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local <span class="hlt">models</span> of failure. In this study, we present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) <span class="hlt">model</span> into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF <span class="hlt">model</span> yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FEmore » meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging <span class="hlt">models</span> of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1263647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1263647"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in materials <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.</p> <p>2016-04-25</p> <p>Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local <span class="hlt">models</span> of failure. In this study, we present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) <span class="hlt">model</span> into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF <span class="hlt">model</span> yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FE meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging <span class="hlt">models</span> of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3701879','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3701879"><span>In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> electromechanical coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Adeniran, Ismail; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS) arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarization, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favorable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well-understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle <span class="hlt">models</span> to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and Results: The Rice et al. mechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell <span class="hlt">model</span>. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on [Ca2+]i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch-activated channel current (Isac). Without Isac, at a stimulation frequency of 1Hz, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of [Ca2+]i transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell <span class="hlt">models</span> were then <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into 3D human ventricular tissue <span class="hlt">models</span>. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of Isac appears to be an important consideration in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24795786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24795786"><span>Commensurate Priors for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Historical Information in Clinical Trials Using General and Generalized Linear <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hobbs, Brian P; Sargent, Daniel J; Carlin, Bradley P</p> <p>2012-08-28</p> <p>Assessing between-study variability in the context of conventional random-effects meta-analysis is notoriously difficult when <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> data from only a small number of historical studies. In order to borrow strength, historical and current data are often assumed to be fully homogeneous, but this can have drastic consequences for power and Type I error if the historical information is biased. In this paper, we propose empirical and fully Bayesian modifications of the commensurate prior <span class="hlt">model</span> (Hobbs et al., 2011) extending Pocock (1976), and evaluate their frequentist and Bayesian properties for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> patient-level historical data using general and generalized linear mixed regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our proposed commensurate prior <span class="hlt">models</span> lead to preposterior admissible estimators that facilitate alternative bias-variance trade-offs than those offered by pre-existing methodologies for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> historical data from a small number of historical studies. We also provide a sample analysis of a colon cancer trial comparing time-to-disease progression using a Weibull regression <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..170N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1403..170N"><span>A Cochlear Partition <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Realistic Electrical and Mechanical Parameters for Outer Hair Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nam, Jong-Hoon; Fettiplace, Robert</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The organ of Corti (OC) is believed to optimize the force transmission from the outer hair cell (OHC) to the basilar membrane and inner hair cell. Recent studies showed that the OC has complex modes of deformation. In an effort to understand the consequence of the OC deformation, we developed a fully deformable 3D finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> of the OC. It <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> hair bundle's mechano-transduction and the OHC electrical circuit. Geometric information was taken from the gerbil cochlea at locations with 18 and 0.7 kHz characteristic frequencies. Cochlear partitions of several hundred micrometers long were simulated. The <span class="hlt">model</span> describes the signature 3D structural arrangement in the OC, especially the tilt of OHC and Deiters cell process. Transduction channel kinetics contributed to the system's mechanics through the hair bundle. The OHC electrical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the transduction channel conductance, nonlinear capacitance and piezoelectric properties. It also <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> recent data on the voltage-dependent potassium conductance and membrane time constant. With the <span class="hlt">model</span> we simulated (1) the limiting frequencies of mechano-transduction and OHC somatic motility and (2) OC transient response to impulse stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513469"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of a double-pendulum gantry crane system <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> payload</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ismail, R. M. T. Raja; Ahmad, M. A.; Ramli, M. S.; Ishak, R.; Zawawi, M. A.</p> <p>2011-06-20</p> <p>The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. Under certain conditions, the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. This paper presents dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system. A dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1337..118I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1337..118I"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of a Double-Pendulum Gantry Crane System <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Payload</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail, R. M. T. Raja; Ahmad, M. A.; Ramli, M. S.; Ishak, R.; Zawawi, M. A.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. Under certain conditions, the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. This paper presents dynamic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system. A dynamic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the system <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012408','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012408"><span>Finite element analysis of structural engineering problems using a viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> two back stresses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of a viscoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> two back stresses and a drag strength is investigated for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural engineering problems. To demonstrate suitability for nonlinear structural analyses, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented into a finite element program and analyses for several uniaxial and multiaxial problems are performed. Good agreement is shown between the results obtained using the finite element implementation and those obtained experimentally. The advantages of using advanced viscoplastic <span class="hlt">models</span> for performing nonlinear finite element analyses of structural components are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26881961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26881961"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Mobility in Growth <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> for Multilevel and Longitudinal Item Response Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, In-Hee; Wilson, Mark</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Multilevel data often cannot be represented by the strict form of hierarchy typically assumed in multilevel <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. A common example is the case in which subjects change their group membership in longitudinal studies (e.g., students transfer schools; employees transition between different departments). In this study, cross-classified and multiple membership <span class="hlt">models</span> for multilevel and longitudinal item response data (CCMM-MLIRD) are developed to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> such mobility, focusing on students' school change in large-scale longitudinal studies. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of incorrectly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> school membership in the analysis of multilevel and longitudinal item response data. Two types of school mobility are described, and corresponding <span class="hlt">models</span> are specified. Results of the simulation studies suggested that appropriate <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the two types of school mobility using the CCMM-MLIRD yielded good recovery of the parameters and improvement over <span class="hlt">models</span> that did not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> mobility properly. In addition, the consequences of incorrectly <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the school effects on the variance estimates of the random effects and the standard errors of the fixed effects depended upon mobility patterns and <span class="hlt">model</span> specifications. Two sets of large-scale longitudinal data are analyzed to illustrate applications of the CCMM-MLIRD for each type of school mobility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H52D..08K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H52D..08K"><span>Going beyond the unitary curve: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> richer cognition into agent-based water resources <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kock, B. E.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The increased availability and understanding of agent-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> technology and techniques provides a unique opportunity for water resources <span class="hlt">modelers</span>, allowing them to go beyond traditional behavioral approaches from neoclassical economics, and add rich cognition to social-hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span>. Agent-based <span class="hlt">models</span> provide for an individual focus, and the easier and more realistic <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of learning, memory and other mechanisms for increased cognitive sophistication. We are in an age of global change impacting complex water resources systems, and social responses are increasingly recognized as fundamentally adaptive and emergent. In consideration of this, water resources <span class="hlt">models</span> and <span class="hlt">modelers</span> need to better address social dynamics in a manner beyond the capabilities of neoclassical economics theory and practice. However, going beyond the unitary curve requires unique levels of engagement with stakeholders, both to elicit the richer knowledge necessary for structuring and parameterizing agent-based <span class="hlt">models</span>, but also to make sure such <span class="hlt">models</span> are appropriately used. With the aim of encouraging epistemological and methodological convergence in the agent-based <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of water resources, we have developed a water resources-specific cognitive <span class="hlt">model</span> and an associated collaborative <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process. Our cognitive <span class="hlt">model</span> emphasizes efficiency in architecture and operation, and capacity to adapt to different application contexts. We describe a current application of this cognitive <span class="hlt">model</span> and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process in the Arkansas Basin of Colorado. In particular, we highlight the potential benefits of, and challenges to, using more sophisticated cognitive <span class="hlt">models</span> in agent-based water resources <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335209-incorporating-atmospheric-stability-effects-floris-engineering-model-wakes-wind-farms','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335209-incorporating-atmospheric-stability-effects-floris-engineering-model-wakes-wind-farms"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> atmospheric stability effects into the FLORIS engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> of wakes in wind farms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Fleming, Paul A.</p> <p>2016-10-03</p> <p>Atmospheric stability conditions have an effect on wind turbine wakes. This is an important factor in wind farms in which the wake properties affect the performance of downstream turbines. In the stable atmosphere, wind direction shear has a lateral skewing effect on the wakes. In this study, we describe changes to the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady-state (FLORIS) wake engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> and parameterize this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA376367','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA376367"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of a Magnetotail into the <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Global Saturnian Magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>Introduction to Electrodynamics , Simon & Schuster Co., 234-238, 1989. 42 Harris, E. G., On a Plasma Sheet Separating Regions of Oppositely Directed...Data Language graphing codes. Table of Contents Abstract 1 Acknowledgments 2 Table of Contents 3 I. Introduction 4 II. Background 5 A. The dipole field 5...Appendix A. 43 Appendix B. 45 Appendix C. 46 4 I. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to present a method of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a magnetotail <span class="hlt">model</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..100..168B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdWR..100..168B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> channel network information in hydrologic response <span class="hlt">modelling</span>: Development of a <span class="hlt">model</span> and inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biswal, Basudev; Singh, Riddhi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of channel network information in streamflow <span class="hlt">modelling</span> is a well-accepted scientific practice now. In particular, channel network morphology based instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUHs) are widely used for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of flood response. However, very few attempts have been made so far to use channel networks for <span class="hlt">modelling</span> total flow, not just flood flow. In this study, total flow is partitioned into pure surface flow (PSF) and mixed surface-subsurface flow (MSSF), which are then <span class="hlt">modelled</span> separately by constructing channel network morphology based IUHs. For <span class="hlt">modelling</span> total flow, the combined IUH is then obtained by introducing a splitting parameter that represents the relative proportions of PSF and MSSF. We compare the performance of the proposed geomorphology based routing structure and a variant with a commonly used routing structure - two linear reservoirs in parallel. The three routing structures are then integrated with a well-known water balance <span class="hlt">model</span> to perform continuous streamflow <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. We perform inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparison quantitatively by considering eight performance metrics within a multi-objective framework as well as qualitatively by observing the simulated storage-discharge relationships. By performing the inter-<span class="hlt">model</span> comparison for 71 catchments across the US, we find that the geomorphology based <span class="hlt">models</span> perform better than the linear <span class="hlt">model</span> for low flow related metrics. They are also better at capturing non-linear and dynamic relationship between catchment water storage and discharge. The geomorphology based <span class="hlt">models</span> perform particularly well in northeastern and midwestern US, while no such region of dominance emerges for the linear routing based <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results also indicate the possibility of using the proposed <span class="hlt">models</span> to capture the dominant flow generation processes in a basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999726"><span>Polychlorinated biphenyls in glaciers. 2. <span class="hlt">Model</span> results of deposition and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>In previous work, Alpine glaciers have been identified as a secondary source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, detailed understanding of the processes organic chemicals undergo in a glacial system was missing. Here, we present results from a chemical fate <span class="hlt">model</span> describing deposition and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into an Alpine glacier (Fiescherhorn, Switzerland) and an Arctic glacier (Lomonosovfonna, Norway). To understand PCB fate and dynamics, we investigate the interaction of deposition, sorption to ice and particles in the atmosphere and within the glacier, revolatilization, diffusion and degradation, and discuss the effects of these processes on the fate of individual PCB congeners. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce measured absolute concentrations in the two glaciers for most PCB congeners. While the <span class="hlt">model</span> generally predicts concentration profiles peaking in the 1970s, in the measurements, this behavior can only be seen for higher-chlorinated PCB congeners on Fiescherhorn glacier. We suspect seasonal melt processes are disturbing the concentration profiles of the lower-chlorinated PCB congeners. While a lower-chlorinated PCB congener is mainly deposited by dry deposition and almost completely revolatilized after deposition, a higher-chlorinated PCB congener is predominantly transferred to the glacier surface by wet deposition and then is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the glacier ice. The <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> amounts of PCBs are higher on the Alpine glacier than on the Arctic glacier due to the higher precipitation rate and aerosol particle concentration on the former. Future studies should include the effects of seasonal melt processes, calculate the quantities of PCBs <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the entire glacier surface, and estimate the quantity of chemicals released from glaciers to determine the importance of glaciers as a secondary source of organic chemicals to remote aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281931"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of stochastic engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> as prior information in Bayesian medical device trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haddad, Tarek; Himes, Adam; Thompson, Laura; Irony, Telba; Nair, Rajesh</p> <p>2017-03-10</p> <p>Evaluation of medical devices via clinical trial is often a necessary step in the process of bringing a new product to market. In recent years, device manufacturers are increasingly using stochastic engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> during the product development process. These <span class="hlt">models</span> have the capability to simulate virtual patient outcomes. This article presents a novel method based on the power prior for augmenting a clinical trial using virtual patient data. To properly inform clinical evaluation, the virtual patient <span class="hlt">model</span> must simulate the clinical outcome of interest, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> patient variability, as well as the uncertainty in the engineering <span class="hlt">model</span> and in its input parameters. The number of virtual patients is controlled by a discount function which uses the similarity between <span class="hlt">modeled</span> and observed data. This method is illustrated by a case study of cardiac lead fracture. Different discount functions are used to cover a wide range of scenarios in which the type I error rates and power vary for the same number of enrolled patients. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> as prior knowledge in a Bayesian clinical trial design can provide benefits of decreased sample size and trial length while still controlling type I error rate and power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22100577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22100577"><span>Dose convolution filter: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatial dose information into tissue response <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huang Yimei; Joiner, Michael; Zhao Bo; Liao Yixiang; Burmeister, Jay</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: A <span class="hlt">model</span> is introduced to integrate biological factors such as cell migration and bystander effects into physical dose distributions, and to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> spatial dose information in plan analysis and optimization. Methods: The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a dose convolution filter (DCF) with single parameter {sigma}. Tissue response is calculated by an existing NTCP <span class="hlt">model</span> with DCF-applied dose distribution as input. The authors determined {sigma} of rat spinal cord from published data. The authors also simulated the GRID technique, in which an open field is collimated into many pencil beams. Results: After applying the DCF, the NTCP <span class="hlt">model</span> successfully fits the rat spinal cord data with a predicted value of {sigma}=2.6{+-}0.5 mm, consistent with 2 mm migration distances of remyelinating cells. Moreover, it enables the appropriate prediction of a high relative seriality for spinal cord. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also predicts the sparing of normal tissues by the GRID technique when the size of each pencil beam becomes comparable to {sigma}. Conclusions: The DCF <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> spatial dose information and offers an improved way to estimate tissue response from complex radiotherapy dose distributions. It does not alter the prediction of tissue response in large homogenous fields, but successfully predicts increased tissue tolerance in small or highly nonuniform fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1348/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1348/"><span>Velocity and Density <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Cascadia Subduction Zone for 3D Earthquake Ground Motion Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The <span class="hlt">model</span> volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in <span class="hlt">model</span> coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these <span class="hlt">models</span>. The version of the <span class="hlt">model</span> volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the <span class="hlt">model</span> volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these <span class="hlt">model</span> volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this <span class="hlt">model</span> version, no EarthScope-specific results were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary <span class="hlt">model</span> in their research. To this end, it is intended that these <span class="hlt">models</span> will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCoPh.230.3884C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCoPh.230.3884C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Havriliak-Negami dielectric <span class="hlt">model</span> in the FD-TD method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Causley, Matthew F.; Petropoulos, Peter G.; Jiang, Shidong</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We derive and analyze an efficient algorithm to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the anomalously dispersive Havriliak-Negami dielectric <span class="hlt">model</span> of induced polarization in the Finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method. Our algorithm implements this dielectric <span class="hlt">model</span>, which in the time-domain involves fractional derivatives and fractional differential operators, with a preset error over the desired computational time interval [0, Tcomp] and correctly takes into account the singularity at t = 0 + of the corresponding time-domain dielectric susceptibility. The overall algorithm is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, and to obey the standard FD-TD stability condition. Numerical experiments confirm our analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/485996','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/485996"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> many-body effects into <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of semiconductor lasers and amplifiers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ning, C.Z.; Moloney, J.V.; Indik, R.A.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Major many-body effects that are important for semiconductor laser <span class="hlt">modeling</span> are summarized. The authors adopt a bottom-up approach to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these many-body effects into a <span class="hlt">model</span> for semiconductor lasers and amplifiers. The optical susceptibility function ({Chi}) computed from the semiconductor Bloch equations (SBEs) is approximated by a single Lorentzian, or a superposition of a few Lorentzians in the frequency domain. Their approach leads to a set of effective Bloch equations (EBEs). The authors compare this approach with the full microscopic SBEs for the case of pulse propagation. Good agreement between the two is obtained for pulse widths longer than tens of picoseconds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S14A..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S14A..01B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Micro-Mechanics Based Damage <span class="hlt">Models</span> into Earthquake Rupture Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhat, H.; Rosakis, A.; Sammis, C. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis, 1990 and generalized by Deshpande and Evans 2008 has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> an experimentally motivated new crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> this feature produces additional strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is also experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over a wide range of strain rates. <span class="hlt">Model</span> parameters determined from quasi-static experiments were used to predict the failure strength at higher loading rates. Agreement with experimental results was excellent. After this verification step the constitutive law was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a Finite Element Code focused on simulating dynamic earthquake ruptures with specific focus on the ends of the fault (fault tip process zone) and the resulting strong ground motion radiation was studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22030001','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22030001"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Markov reliability <span class="hlt">models</span> for digital instrumentation and control systems into existing PRAs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bucci, P.; Mangan, L. A.; Kirschenbaum, J.; Mandelli, D.; Aldemir, T.; Arndt, S. A.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> have the ability to capture the statistical dependence between failure events that can arise in the presence of complex dynamic interactions between components of digital instrumentation and control systems. One obstacle to the use of such <span class="hlt">models</span> in an existing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is that most of the currently available PRA software is based on the static event-tree/fault-tree methodology which often cannot represent such interactions. We present an approach to the integration of Markov reliability <span class="hlt">models</span> into existing PRAs by describing the Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> of a digital steam generator feedwater level control system, how dynamic event trees (DETs) can be generated from the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and how the DETs can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into an existing PRA with the SAPHIRE software. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6929E..1WE','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6929E..1WE"><span>Fully-coupled magnetoelastic <span class="hlt">model</span> for Galfenol alloys <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> eddy current losses and thermal relaxation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, Phillip G.; Dapino, Marcelo J.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>A general framework is developed to <span class="hlt">model</span> the nonlinear magnetization and strain response of cubic magnetostrictive materials to 3-D dynamic magnetic fields and 3-D stresses. Dynamic eddy current losses and inertial stresses are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by coupling Maxwell's equations to Newton's second law through a nonlinear constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span>. The constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived from continuum thermodynamics and <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> rate-dependent thermal effects. The framework is implemented in 1-D to describe a Tonpilz transducer in both dynamic actuation and sensing modes. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to qualitatively describe the effect of increase in magnetic hysteresis with increasing frequency, the shearing of the magnetization loops with increasing stress, and the decrease in the magnetostriction with increasing load stiffness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A22B..07R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A22B..07R"><span>A Novel Approach of Understanding and <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Error of Chemical Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> into a Geostatistical Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes, J.; Vizuete, W.; Serre, M. L.; Xu, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The EPA employs a vast monitoring network to measure ambient PM2.5 concentrations across the United States with one of its goals being to quantify exposure within the population. However, there are several areas of the country with sparse monitoring spatially and temporally. One means to fill in these monitoring gaps is to use PM2.5 <span class="hlt">modeled</span> estimates from Chemical Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> (CTMs) specifically the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) <span class="hlt">model</span>. CMAQ is able to provide complete spatial coverage but is subject to systematic and random error due to <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainty. Due to the deterministic nature of CMAQ, often these uncertainties are not quantified. Much effort is employed to quantify the efficacy of these <span class="hlt">models</span> through different metrics of <span class="hlt">model</span> performance. Currently evaluation is specific to only locations with observed data. Multiyear studies across the United States are challenging because the error and <span class="hlt">model</span> performance of CMAQ are not uniform over such large space/time domains. Error changes regionally and temporally. Because of the complex mix of species that constitute PM2.5, CMAQ error is also a function of increasing PM2.5 concentration. To address this issue we introduce a <span class="hlt">model</span> performance evaluation for PM2.5 CMAQ that is regionalized and non-linear. This <span class="hlt">model</span> performance evaluation leads to error quantification for each CMAQ grid. Areas and time periods of error being better qualified. The regionalized error correction approach is non-linear and is therefore more flexible at characterizing <span class="hlt">model</span> performance than approaches that rely on linearity assumptions and assume homoscedasticity of CMAQ predictions errors. Corrected CMAQ data are then <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the modern geostatistical framework of Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). Through cross validation it is shown that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> error-corrected CMAQ data leads to more accurate estimates than just using observed data by themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108854"><span>Lifetime growth in wild meerkats: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> life history and environmental factors into a standard growth <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>English, Sinéad; Bateman, Andrew W; Clutton-Brock, Tim H</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Lifetime records of changes in individual size or mass in wild animals are scarce and, as such, few studies have attempted to <span class="hlt">model</span> variation in these traits across the lifespan or to assess the factors that affect them. However, quantifying lifetime growth is essential for understanding trade-offs between growth and other life history parameters, such as reproductive performance or survival. Here, we used <span class="hlt">model</span> selection based on information theory to measure changes in body mass over the lifespan of wild meerkats, and compared the relative fits of several standard growth <span class="hlt">models</span> (monomolecular, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and Richards). We found that meerkats exhibit monomolecular growth, with the best <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> separate growth rates before and after nutritional independence, as well as effects of season and total rainfall in the previous nine months. Our study demonstrates how simple growth curves may be improved by considering life history and environmental factors, which may be particularly relevant when quantifying growth patterns in wild populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380361"><span>Towards a functional <span class="hlt">model</span> of mental disorders <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the laws of thermodynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, George C; McKenzie, Karen</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The current paper presents the hypothesis that the understanding of mental disorders can be advanced by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the laws of thermodynamics, specifically relating to energy conservation and energy transfer. These ideas, along with the introduction of the notion that entropic activities are symptomatic of inefficient energy transfer or disorder, were used to propose a <span class="hlt">model</span> of understanding mental ill health as resulting from the interaction of entropy, capacity and work (environmental demands). The <span class="hlt">model</span> was applied to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and was shown to be compatible with current thinking about this condition, as well as emerging <span class="hlt">models</span> of mental disorders as complex networks. A key implication of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is that it argues that all mental disorders require a systemic functional approach, with the advantage that it offers a number of routes into the assessment, formulation and treatment for mental health problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853563"><span>A data-driven <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza transmission <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Lewis; Ross, Joshua V</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have attempted to <span class="hlt">model</span> the effect of mass media on the transmission of diseases such as influenza; however, quantitative data on media engagement has until recently been difficult to obtain. With the recent explosion of 'big data' coming from online social media and the like, large volumes of data on a population's engagement with mass media during an epidemic are becoming available to researchers. In this study, we combine an online dataset comprising millions of shared messages relating to influenza with traditional surveillance data on flu activity to suggest a functional form for the relationship between the two. Using this data, we present a simple deterministic <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza dynamics <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects, and show that such a <span class="hlt">model</span> helps explain the dynamics of historical influenza outbreaks. Furthermore, through <span class="hlt">model</span> selection we show that the proposed media function fits historical data better than other media functions proposed in earlier studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098988','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098988"><span>A data-driven <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza transmission <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ross, Joshua V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have attempted to <span class="hlt">model</span> the effect of mass media on the transmission of diseases such as influenza; however, quantitative data on media engagement has until recently been difficult to obtain. With the recent explosion of ‘big data’ coming from online social media and the like, large volumes of data on a population’s engagement with mass media during an epidemic are becoming available to researchers. In this study, we combine an online dataset comprising millions of shared messages relating to influenza with traditional surveillance data on flu activity to suggest a functional form for the relationship between the two. Using this data, we present a simple deterministic <span class="hlt">model</span> for influenza dynamics <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> media effects, and show that such a <span class="hlt">model</span> helps explain the dynamics of historical influenza outbreaks. Furthermore, through <span class="hlt">model</span> selection we show that the proposed media function fits historical data better than other media functions proposed in earlier studies. PMID:27853563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0631R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0631R"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> grazing into an eco-hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span>: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span> that also <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our <span class="hlt">model</span> over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale <span class="hlt">model</span> that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters affecting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9552T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9552T"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> water scarcity over south Asia: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> crop growth and irrigation <span class="hlt">models</span> into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Large-scale hydrologic <span class="hlt">models</span>, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) <span class="hlt">model</span>, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these <span class="hlt">models</span> simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a crop growth <span class="hlt">model</span> and irrigation <span class="hlt">model</span> into the VIC <span class="hlt">model</span> in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth <span class="hlt">model</span> responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth <span class="hlt">model</span> shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP43C2294F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP43C2294F"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Sediment Compaction Into a Gravitationally Self-consistent <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Global Sea-level Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In sedimentary deltas and fans, sea-level changes are strongly modulated by the deposition and compaction of marine sediment. The deposition of sediment and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of water into the sedimentary pore space reduces sea level by increasing the elevation of the seafloor, which reduces the thickness of sea-water above the bed. In a similar manner, the compaction of sediment and purging of water out of the sedimentary pore space increases sea level by reducing the elevation of the seafloor, which increases the thickness of sea water above the bed. Here we show how one can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of sediment deposition and compaction into the global, gravitationally self-consistent sea-level <span class="hlt">model</span> of Dalca et al. (2013). <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> sediment compaction requires accounting for only one additional quantity that had not been accounted for in Dalca et al. (2013): the mean porosity in the sediment column. We provide a general analytic framework for global sea-level changes including sediment deposition and compaction, and we demonstrate how sea level responds to deposition and compaction under one simple parameterization for compaction. The compaction of sediment generates changes in sea level only by changing the elevation of the seafloor. That is, sediment compaction does not affect the mass load on the crust, and therefore does not generate perturbations in crustal elevation or the gravity field that would further perturb sea level. These results have implications for understanding sedimentary effects on sea-level changes and thus for disentangling the various drivers of sea-level change. ReferencesDalca A.V., Ferrier K.L., Mitrovica J.X., Perron J.T., Milne G.A., Creveling J.R., 2013. On postglacial sea level - III. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> sediment redistribution. Geophysical Journal International, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt089.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9219195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9219195"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> risk attitude into Markov-process decision <span class="hlt">models</span>: importance for individual decision making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cher, D J; Miyamoto, J; Lenert, L A</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Most decision <span class="hlt">models</span> published in the medical literature take a risk-neutral perspective. Under risk neutrality, the utility of a gamble is equivalent to its expected value and the marginal utility of living a given unit of time is the same regardless of when it occurs. Most patients, however, are not risk-neutral. Not only does risk aversion affect decision analyses when tradeoffs between short- and long-term survival are involved, it also affects the interpretation of time-tradeoff measures of health-state utility. The proportional time tradeoff under- or overestimates the disutility of an inferior health state, depending on whether the patient is risk-seeking or risk-averse (it is unbiased if the patient is risk-neutral). The authors review how risk attitude with respect to gambles for survival duration can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into decision <span class="hlt">models</span> using the framework of risk-adjusted quality-adjusted life years (RA-QALYs). They present a simple extension of this framework that allows RA-QALYs to be calculated for Markov-process decision <span class="hlt">models</span>. Using a previously published Markov-process <span class="hlt">model</span> of surgical vs expectant treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), they show how attitude towards risk affects the expected number of QALYs calculated by the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, under risk neutrality, surgery was the preferred option. Under mild risk aversion, expectant treatment was the preferred option. Risk attitude is an important aspect of preferences that should be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into decision <span class="hlt">models</span> where one treatment option has upfront risks of morbidity or mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27891554"><span>Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Address Psychosocial Complexity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shugar, Andrea</p> <p>2016-11-28</p> <p>Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum <span class="hlt">model</span> and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840061513&hterms=non+Newtonian+fluid&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnon%2BNewtonian%2Bfluid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840061513&hterms=non+Newtonian+fluid&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnon%2BNewtonian%2Bfluid"><span>Non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. The approach uses a Newtonian <span class="hlt">model</span> as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020183','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020183"><span>Non-Newtonian Fluid <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> into Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rectangular Contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. The approach uses a Newtonian <span class="hlt">model</span> as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a non-Newtonian fluid <span class="hlt">model</span>. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418255"><span>Evolutionary demography of iteroparous plants: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> non-lethal costs of reproduction into integral projection <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Tom E X; Williams, Jennifer L; Jongejans, Eelke; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans</p> <p>2012-07-22</p> <p>Understanding the selective forces that shape reproductive strategies is a central goal of evolutionary ecology. Selection on the timing of reproduction is well studied in semelparous organisms because the cost of reproduction (death) can be easily <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into demographic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Iteroparous organisms also exhibit delayed reproduction and experience reproductive costs, although these are not necessarily lethal. How non-lethal costs shape iteroparous life histories remains unresolved. We analysed long-term demographic data for the iteroparous orchid Orchis purpurea from two habitat types (light and shade). In both the habitats, flowering plants had lower growth rates and this cost was greater for smaller plants. We detected an additional growth cost of fruit production in the light habitat. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> these non-lethal costs into integral projection <span class="hlt">models</span> to identify the flowering size that maximizes fitness. In both habitats, observed flowering sizes were well predicted by the <span class="hlt">models</span>. We also estimated optimal parameters for size-dependent flowering effort, but found a strong mismatch with the observed flower production. Our study highlights the role of context-dependent non-lethal reproductive costs as selective forces in the evolution of iteroparous life histories, and provides a novel and broadly applicable approach to studying the evolutionary demography of iteroparous organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MPLB...3050351P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MPLB...3050351P"><span>A new macro <span class="hlt">model</span> of traffic flow by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> both timid and aggressive driving behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Guanghan; Qing, Li</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, a novel macro <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived from car-following <span class="hlt">model</span> by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the timid and aggressive effects of optimal velocity on a single lane. Numerical simulation shows that the timid and aggressive macro <span class="hlt">model</span> of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction waves and local cluster effects under small perturbation. Also, the results uncover that the aggressive effect can smoothen the front of the shock wave and the timid effect results in local press peak, which means that the timid effect hastens the process of congregation in the shock wave. The more timid traffic behaviors are, the smaller is the stable range. Furthermore, the research shows that the advantage of the aggressive effect over the timid one lies in the fact that the aggressive traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> timid and aggressive driving behaviors at the same time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5379927','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5379927"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> social contact data in spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">models</span> for infectious disease spread</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Held, Leonhard</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Summary Routine public health surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases gives rise to weekly counts of reported cases—possibly stratified by region and/or age group. We investigate how an age-structured social contact matrix can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a spatio-temporal endemic–epidemic <span class="hlt">model</span> for infectious disease counts. To illustrate the approach, we analyze the spread of norovirus gastroenteritis over six age groups within the 12 districts of Berlin, 2011–2015, using contact data from the POLYMOD study. The proposed age-structured <span class="hlt">model</span> outperforms alternative scenarios with homogeneous or no mixing between age groups. An extended contact <span class="hlt">model</span> suggests a power transformation of the survey-based contact matrix toward more within-group transmission. PMID:28025182</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3381521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3381521"><span>Generalised Linear <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Population Level Information: An Empirical Likelihood Based Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri, Sanjay; Handcock, Mark S.; Rendall, Michael S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In many situations information from a sample of individuals can be supplemented by population level information on the relationship between a dependent variable and explanatory variables. Inclusion of the population level information can reduce bias and increase the efficiency of the parameter estimates. Population level information can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> via constraints on functions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. In general the constraints are nonlinear making the task of maximum likelihood estimation harder. In this paper we develop an alternative approach exploiting the notion of an empirical likelihood. It is shown that within the framework of generalised linear <span class="hlt">models</span>, the population level information corresponds to linear constraints, which are comparatively easy to handle. We provide a two-step algorithm that produces parameter estimates using only unconstrained estimation. We also provide computable expressions for the standard errors. We give an application to demographic hazard <span class="hlt">modelling</span> by combining panel survey data with birth registration data to estimate annual birth probabilities by parity. PMID:22740776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002672','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002672"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> yearly wheat masks into the forecasting <span class="hlt">model</span>. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25648796"><span>Some considerations concerning the challenge of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> social variables into epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span> of infectious disease transmission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barnett, Tony; Fournié, Guillaume; Gupta, Sunetra; Seeley, Janet</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of 'social' variables into epidemiological <span class="hlt">models</span> remains a challenge. Too much detail and <span class="hlt">models</span> cease to be useful; too little and the very notion of infection - a highly social process in human populations - may be considered with little reference to the social. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim proposed that the scientific study of society required identification and study of 'social currents'. Such 'currents' are what we might today describe as 'emergent properties', specifiable variables appertaining to individuals and groups, which represent the perspectives of social actors as they experience the environment in which they live their lives. Here we review the ways in which one particular emergent property, hope, relevant to a range of epidemiological situations, might be used in epidemiological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of infectious diseases in human populations. We also indicate how such an approach might be extended to include a range of other potential emergent properties to represent complex social and economic processes bearing on infectious disease transmission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033994"><span>An Imaging <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Ultrasonic Transducer Properties for Three-Dimensional Optoacoustic Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Kun; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Su, Richard; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Optoacoustic Tomography (OAT) is a hybrid imaging modality that combines the advantages of optical and ultrasound imaging. Most existing reconstruction algorithms for OAT assume that the ultrasound transducers employed to record the measurement data are point-like. When transducers with large detecting areas and/or compact measurement geometries are utilized, this assumption can result in conspicuous image blurring and distortions in the reconstructed images. In this work, a new OAT imaging <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the spatial and temporal responses of an ultrasound transducer is introduced. A discrete form of the imaging <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented and its numerical properties are investigated. We demonstrate that use of the imaging <span class="hlt">model</span> in an iterative reconstruction method can improve the spatial resolution of the optoacoustic images as compared to those reconstructed assuming point-like ultrasound transducers. PMID:20813634</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25460205"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> temporal EHR data in predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> for risk stratification of renal function deterioration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Anima; Nadkarni, Girish; Gottesman, Omri; Ellis, Stephen B; Bottinger, Erwin P; Guttag, John V</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> built using temporal data in electronic health records (EHRs) can potentially play a major role in improving management of chronic diseases. However, these data present a multitude of technical challenges, including irregular sampling of data and varying length of available patient history. In this paper, we describe and evaluate three different approaches that use machine learning to build predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> using temporal EHR data of a patient. The first approach is a commonly used non-temporal approach that aggregates values of the predictors in the patient's medical history. The other two approaches exploit the temporal dynamics of the data. The two temporal approaches vary in how they <span class="hlt">model</span> temporal information and handle missing data. Using data from the EHR of Mount Sinai Medical Center, we learned and evaluated the <span class="hlt">models</span> in the context of predicting loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the most common assessment of kidney function. Our results show that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> temporal information in patient's medical history can lead to better prediction of loss of kidney function. They also demonstrate that exactly how this information is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> is important. In particular, our results demonstrate that the relative importance of different predictors varies over time, and that using multi-task learning to account for this is an appropriate way to robustly capture the temporal dynamics in EHR data. Using a case study, we also demonstrate how the multi-task learning based <span class="hlt">model</span> can yield predictive <span class="hlt">models</span> with better performance for identifying patients at high risk of short-term loss of kidney function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27045328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27045328"><span>A Direct Method for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Experimental Data into Multiscale Coarse-Grained <span class="hlt">Models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Thomas; White, Andrew D; Voth, Gregory A</p> <p>2016-05-10</p> <p>To extract meaningful data from molecular simulations, it is necessary to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> new experimental observations as they become available. Recently, a new method was developed for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> experimental observations into molecular simulations, called experiment directed simulation (EDS), which utilizes a maximum entropy argument to bias an existing <span class="hlt">model</span> to agree with experimental observations while changing the original <span class="hlt">model</span> by a minimal amount. However, there is no discussion in the literature of whether or not the minimal bias systematically and generally improves the <span class="hlt">model</span> by creating agreement with the experiment. In this work, we show that the relative entropy of the biased system with respect to an ideal target is always reduced by the application of a minimal bias, such as the one utilized by EDS. Using all-atom simulations that have been biased with EDS, one can then easily and rapidly improve a bottom-up multiscale coarse-grained (MS-CG) <span class="hlt">model</span> without the need for a time-consuming reparametrization of the underlying atomistic force field. Furthermore, the improvement given by the many-body interactions introduced by the EDS bias can be maintained after being projected down to effective two-body MS-CG interactions. The result of this analysis is a new paradigm in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation in which the "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches are combined within a single, rigorous formalism based on statistical mechanics. The utility of building the resulting EDS-MS-CG <span class="hlt">models</span> is demonstrated on two molecular systems: liquid methanol and ethylene carbonate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1144823','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1144823"><span>Advanced Methods for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Literature Review and Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion <span class="hlt">models</span>. This is a challenge because <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the electricity system--and, in particular, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> solar technologies into capacity-expansion <span class="hlt">models</span> and shows examples of how specific <span class="hlt">models</span> address those challenges. These challenges include <span class="hlt">modeling</span> non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to <span class="hlt">model</span>, choosing a spatial resolution, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305382"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty of management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salomon, Yacov; McCarthy, Michael A; Taylor, Peter; Wintle, Brendan A</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The importance of accounting for economic costs when making environmental-management decisions subject to resource constraints has been increasingly recognized in recent years. In contrast, uncertainty associated with such costs has often been ignored. We developed a method, on the basis of economic theory, that accounts for the uncertainty in population-management decisions. We considered the case where, rather than taking fixed values, <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are random variables that represent the situation when parameters are not precisely known. Hence, the outcome is not precisely known either. Instead of maximizing the expected outcome, we maximized the probability of obtaining an outcome above a threshold of acceptability. We derived explicit analytical expressions for the optimal allocation and its associated probability, as a function of the threshold of acceptability, where the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters were distributed according to normal and uniform distributions. To illustrate our approach we revisited a previous study that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> cost-efficiency analyses in management decisions that were based on perturbation analyses of matrix population <span class="hlt">models</span>. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> derivations from this study into our framework, we extended the <span class="hlt">model</span> to address potential uncertainties. We then applied these results to 2 case studies: management of a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population and conservation of an olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population. For low aspirations, that is, when the threshold of acceptability is relatively low, the optimal strategy was obtained by diversifying the allocation of funds. Conversely, for high aspirations, the budget was directed toward management actions with the highest potential effect on the population. The exact optimal allocation was sensitive to the choice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for uncertainty when making decisions and suggest that more effort should be placed on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116066"><span>An approach to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> individual personality in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> fish dispersal across in-stream barriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Thorlacius, Magnus; Brodin, Tomas; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Animal personalities are an important factor that affects the dispersal of animals. In the context of aquatic species, dispersal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> needs to consider that most freshwater ecosystems are highly fragmented by barriers reducing longitudinal connectivity. Previous research has <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> such barriers into dispersal <span class="hlt">models</span> under the neutral assumption that all migrating animals attempt to ascend at all times. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> dispersal of animals that do not perform trophic or reproductive migrations will be more realistic if it includes assumptions of which individuals attempt to overcome a barrier. We aimed to introduce personality into predictive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of whether a nonmigratory invasive freshwater fish (the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus) will disperse across an in-stream barrier. To that end, we experimentally assayed the personalities of 259 individuals from invasion fronts and established round goby populations. Based on the population differences in boldness, asociability, and activity, we defined a priori thresholds with bolder, more asocial, and more active individuals having a higher likelihood of ascent. We then combined the personality thresholds with swimming speed data from the literature and in situ measurements of flow velocities in the barrier. The resulting binary logistic regression <span class="hlt">model</span> revealed probabilities of crossing a barrier which depended not only on water flow and fish swimming speed but also on animal personalities. We conclude that risk assessment through predictive dispersal <span class="hlt">modeling</span> across fragmented landscapes can be advanced by including personality traits as parameters. The inclusion of behavior into <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the spread of invasive species can help to improve the accuracy of risk assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27943382"><span>Comparison of approaches for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> new information into existing risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grill, Sonja; Ankerst, Donna P; Gail, Mitchell H; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Pfeiffer, Ruth M</p> <p>2017-03-30</p> <p>We compare the calibration and variability of risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> that were estimated using various approaches for combining information on new predictors, termed 'markers', with parameter information available for other variables from an earlier <span class="hlt">model</span>, which was estimated from a large data source. We assess the performance of risk prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> updated based on likelihood ratio (LR) approaches that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> dependence between new and old risk factors as well as approaches that assume independence ('naive Bayes' methods). We study the impact of estimating the LR by (i) fitting a single <span class="hlt">model</span> to cases and non-cases when the distribution of the new markers is in the exponential family or (ii) fitting separate <span class="hlt">models</span> to cases and non-cases. We also evaluate a new constrained maximum likelihood method. We study updating the risk prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> when the new data arise from a cohort and extend available methods to accommodate updating when the new data source is a case-control study. To create realistic correlations between predictors, we also based simulations on real data on response to antiviral therapy for hepatitis C. From these studies, we recommend the LR method fit using a single <span class="hlt">model</span> or constrained maximum likelihood. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........18P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........18P"><span>A methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> geomechanically-based fault damage zones <span class="hlt">models</span> into reservoir simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Pijush Kanti</p> <p></p> <p>In the fault damage zone <span class="hlt">modeling</span> study for a field in the Timor Sea, I present a methodology to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> geomechanically-based fault damage zones into reservoir simulation. In the studied field, production history suggests that the mismatch between actual production and <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction is due to preferential fluid flow through the damage zones associated with the reservoir scale faults, which is not included in the baseline petrophysical <span class="hlt">model</span>. I analyzed well data to estimate stress heterogeneity and fracture distributions in the reservoir. Image logs show that stress orientations are homogenous at the field scale with a strike-slip/normal faulting stress regime and maximum horizontal stress oriented in NE-SW direction. Observed fracture zones in wells are mostly associated with well scale fault and bed boundaries. These zones do not show any anomalies in production logs or well test data, because most of the fractures are not optimally oriented to the present day stress state, and matrix permeability is high enough to mask any small anomalies from the fracture zones. However, I found that fracture density increases towards the reservoir scale faults, indicating high fracture density zones or damage zones close to these faults, which is consistent with the preferred flow direction indicated by interference and tracer test done between the wells. It is well known from geologic studies that there is a concentration of secondary fractures and faults in a damage zone adjacent to larger faults. Because there is usually inadequate data to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> damage zone fractures and faults into reservoir simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>, in this study I utilized the principles of dynamic rupture propagation from earthquake seismology to predict the nature of fractured/damage zones associated with reservoir scale faults. The implemented workflow can be used to more routinely <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> damage zones into reservoir simulation <span class="hlt">models</span>. Applying this methodology to a real reservoir utilizing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966911','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966911"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> and Compensating Cerebrospinal Fluid in Surface-Based Forward <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Magneto- and Electroencephalography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stenroos, Matti; Nummenmaa, Aapo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MEG/EEG source imaging is usually done using a three-shell (3-S) or a simpler head <span class="hlt">model</span>. Such <span class="hlt">models</span> omit cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that strongly affects the volume currents. We present a four-compartment (4-C) boundary-element (BEM) <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the CSF and is computationally efficient and straightforward to build using freely available software. We propose a way for compensating the omission of CSF by decreasing the skull conductivity of the 3-S <span class="hlt">model</span>, and study the robustness of the 4-C and 3-S <span class="hlt">models</span> to errors in skull conductivity. We generated dense boundary meshes using MRI datasets and automated SimNIBS pipeline. Then, we built a dense 4-C reference <span class="hlt">model</span> using Galerkin BEM, and 4-C and 3-S test <span class="hlt">models</span> using coarser meshes and both Galerkin and collocation BEMs. We compared field topographies of cortical sources, applying various skull conductivities and fitting conductivities that minimized the relative error in 4-C and 3-S <span class="hlt">models</span>. When the CSF was left out from the EEG <span class="hlt">model</span>, our compensated, unbiased approach improved the accuracy of the 3-S <span class="hlt">model</span> considerably compared to the conventional approach, where CSF is neglected without any compensation (mean relative error < 20% vs. > 40%). The error due to the omission of CSF was of the same order in MEG and compensated EEG. EEG has, however, large overall error due to uncertain skull conductivity. Our results show that a realistic 4-C MEG/EEG <span class="hlt">model</span> can be implemented using standard tools and basic BEM, without excessive workload or computational burden. If the CSF is omitted, compensated skull conductivity should be used in EEG. PMID:27472278</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2734404','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2734404"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> home demands into <span class="hlt">models</span> of job strain: Findings from the Work, Family & Health Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koenen, KC; Berkman, LF</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective To integrate home demands with the Demand-Control-Support <span class="hlt">model</span> to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Methods Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child under age 18 in the household signified home demands. The outcome was depressive symptoms based on a shortened version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household (child). There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Conclusions Job strain may be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands. <span class="hlt">Models</span> of job strain should expand to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> family demands. PMID:19001950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139b4703W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139b4703W"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> headgroup structure into the Poisson-Boltzmann <span class="hlt">model</span> of charged lipid membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Muyang; Chen, Er-Qiang; Yang, Shuang; May, Sylvio</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Charged lipids often possess a complex headgroup structure with several spatially separated charges and internal conformational degrees of freedom. We propose a headgroup <span class="hlt">model</span> consisting of two rod-like segments of the same length that form a flexible joint, with three charges of arbitrary sign and valence located at the joint and the two terminal positions. One terminal charge is firmly anchored at the polar-apolar interface of the lipid layer whereas the other two benefit from the orientational degrees of freedom of the two headgroup segments. This headgroup <span class="hlt">model</span> is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the mean-field continuum Poisson-Boltzmann formalism of the electric double layer. For sufficiently small lengths of the two rod-like segments a closed-form expression of the charging free energy is calculated. For three specific examples—a zwitterionic headgroup with conformational freedom and two headgroups that carry an excess charge—we analyze and discuss conformational properties and electrostatic free energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286113"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> parameter uncertainty in Bayesian segmentation <span class="hlt">models</span>: application to hippocampal subfield volumetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Van Leemput, Koen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Many successful segmentation algorithms are based on Bayesian <span class="hlt">models</span> in which prior anatomical knowledge is combined with the available image information. However, these methods typically have many free parameters that are estimated to obtain point estimates only, whereas a faithful Bayesian analysis would also consider all possible alternate values these parameters may take. In this paper, we propose to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the uncertainty of the free parameters in Bayesian segmentation <span class="hlt">models</span> more accurately by using Monte Carlo sampling. We demonstrate our technique by sampling atlas warps in a recent method for hippocampal subfield segmentation, and show a significant improvement in an Alzheimer's disease classification task. As an additional benefit, the method also yields informative "error bars" on the segmentation results for each of the individual sub-structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652650','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652650"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Social Anxiety Into a <span class="hlt">Model</span> of College Problem Drinking: Replication and Extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a <span class="hlt">model</span> of college problem drinking, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228 undergraduate volunteers. According to structural equation <span class="hlt">modeling</span> (SEM) results, social anxiety was unrelated to alcohol use and was negatively related to drinking consequences. Perceived drinking norms mediated the social anxiety–alcohol use relation and was the variable most strongly associated with problem drinking. College students appear to be unique with respect to drinking and social anxiety. Although the notion of social anxiety alone as a risk factor for problem drinking was unsupported, additional research is necessary to determine whether there is a subset of socially anxious students who have high drinking norms and are in need of intervention. PMID:16938075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318944','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318944"><span>A Loudness <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Time-Varying Sounds <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Binaural Inhibition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Glasberg, Brian R.; Varathanathan, Ajanth; Schlittenlacher, Josef</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a <span class="hlt">model</span> of loudness for time-varying sounds that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the concept of binaural inhibition, namely, that the signal applied to one ear can reduce the internal response to a signal at the other ear. For each ear, the <span class="hlt">model</span> includes the following: a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear; a short-term spectral analysis with greater frequency resolution at low than at high frequencies; calculation of an excitation pattern, representing the magnitudes of the outputs of the auditory filters as a function of center frequency; application of a compressive nonlinearity to the output of each auditory filter; and smoothing over time of the resulting instantaneous specific loudness pattern using an averaging process resembling an automatic gain control. The resulting short-term specific loudness patterns are used to calculate broadly tuned binaural inhibition functions, the amount of inhibition depending on the relative short-term specific loudness at the two ears. The inhibited specific loudness patterns are summed across frequency to give an estimate of the short-term loudness for each ear. The overall short-term loudness is calculated as the sum of the short-term loudness values for the two ears. The long-term loudness for each ear is calculated by smoothing the short-term loudness for that ear, again by a process resembling automatic gain control, and the overall loudness impression is obtained by summing the long-term loudness across ears. The predictions of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are more accurate than those of an earlier <span class="hlt">model</span> that did not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> binaural inhibition. PMID:28215113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751291"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of experimentally-derived fiber orientation into a structural constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> for planar collagenous tissues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sacks, Michael S</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Structural constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> integrate information on tissue composition and structure, avoiding ambiguities in material characterization. However, critical structural information (such as fiber orientation) must be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using assumed statistical distributions, with the distribution parameters estimated from fits to the mechanical test data. Thus, full realization of structural approaches continues to be limited without direct quantitative structural information for direct implementation or to validate <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions. In the present study, fiber orientation information obtained using small angle light scattering (SALS) was directly <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a structural constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> based on work by Lanir (J. Biomech., v. 16, pp. 1-12, 1983). Demonstration of the <span class="hlt">model</span> was performed using existing biaxial mechanical and fiber orientation data for native bovine pericardium (Sacks and Chuong, ABME, v.26, pp. 892-902, 1998). The structural constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately predicted the complete measured biaxial mechanical response. An important aspect of this approach is that only a single equibiaxial test to determine the effective fiber stress-strain response and the SALS-derived fiber orientation distribution were required to determine the complete planar biaxial mechanical response. Changes in collagen fiber crimp under equibiaxial strain suggest that, at the meso-scale, fiber deformations follow the global tissue strains. This result supports the assumption of affine strain to estimate the fiber strains. However, future evaluations will have to be performed for tissue subjected to a wider range of strain to more fully validate the current approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345550"><span>Tutorial in medical decision <span class="hlt">modeling</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> waiting lines and queues using discrete event simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jahn, Beate; Theurl, Engelbert; Siebert, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Karl-Peter</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In most decision-analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> in health care, it is assumed that there is treatment without delay and availability of all required resources. Therefore, waiting times caused by limited resources and their impact on treatment effects and costs often remain unconsidered. Queuing theory enables mathematical analysis and the derivation of several performance measures of queuing systems. Nevertheless, an analytical approach with closed formulas is not always possible. Therefore, simulation techniques are used to evaluate systems that include queuing or waiting, for example, discrete event simulation. To include queuing in decision-analytic <span class="hlt">models</span> requires a basic knowledge of queuing theory and of the underlying interrelationships. This tutorial introduces queuing theory. Analysts and decision-makers get an understanding of queue characteristics, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> features, and its strength. Conceptual issues are covered, but the emphasis is on practical issues like <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the arrival of patients. The treatment of coronary artery disease with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent placement serves as an illustrative queuing example. Discrete event simulation is applied to explicitly <span class="hlt">model</span> resource capacities, to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> waiting lines and queues in the decision-analytic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.2728W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.2728W"><span>An agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> of stock markets <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> momentum investors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, J. R.; Huang, J. P.; Hui, P. M.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>It has been widely accepted that there exist investors who adopt momentum strategies in real stock markets. Understanding the momentum behavior is of both academic and practical importance. For this purpose, we propose and study a simple agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> of trading <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> momentum investors and random investors. The random investors trade randomly all the time. The momentum investors could be idle, buying or selling, and they decide on their action by implementing an action threshold that assesses the most recent price movement. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to reproduce some of the stylized facts observed in real markets, including the fat-tails in returns, weak long-term correlation and scaling behavior in the kurtosis of returns. An analytic treatment of the <span class="hlt">model</span> relates the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to several quantities that can be extracted from real data sets. To illustrate how the <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied, we show that real market data can be used to constrain the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, which in turn provide information on the behavior of momentum investors in different markets.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3839642','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3839642"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> time-delays in S-System <span class="hlt">model</span> for reverse engineering genetic networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In any gene regulatory network (GRN), the complex interactions occurring amongst transcription factors and target genes can be either instantaneous or time-delayed. However, many existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches currently applied for inferring GRNs are unable to represent both these interactions simultaneously. As a result, all these approaches cannot detect important interactions of the other type. S-System <span class="hlt">model</span>, a differential equation based approach which has been increasingly applied for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> GRNs, also suffers from this limitation. In fact, all S-System based existing <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches have been designed to capture only instantaneous interactions, and are unable to infer time-delayed interactions. Results In this paper, we propose a novel Time-Delayed S-System (TDSS) <span class="hlt">model</span> which uses a set of delay differential equations to represent the system dynamics. The ability to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> time-delay parameters in the proposed S-System <span class="hlt">model</span> enables simultaneous <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of both instantaneous and time-delayed interactions. Furthermore, the delay parameters are not limited to just positive integer values (corresponding to time stamps in the data), but can also take fractional values. Moreover, we also propose a new criterion for <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation exploiting the sparse and scale-free nature of GRNs to effectively narrow down the search space, which not only reduces the computation time significantly but also improves <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy. The evaluation criterion systematically adapts the max-min in-degrees and also systematically balances the effect of network accuracy and complexity during optimization. Conclusion The four well-known performance measures applied to the experimental studies on synthetic networks with various time-delayed regulations clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can capture both instantaneous and delayed interactions correctly with high precision. The experiments carried out on two well-known real-life networks, namely IRMA and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QSRv...28..120R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009QSRv...28..120R"><span>The dilemma of disappearing diatoms: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> diatom dissolution data into palaeoenvironmental <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryves, David B.; Battarbee, Richard W.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Taphonomic issues pose fundamental challenges for Quaternary scientists to recover environmental signals from biological proxies and make accurate inferences of past environments. The problem of microfossil preservation, specifically diatom dissolution, remains an important, but often overlooked, source of error in both qualitative and quantitative reconstructions of key variables from fossil samples, especially those using relative abundance data. A first step to tackling this complex issue is establishing an objective method of assessing preservation (here, diatom dissolution) that can be applied by different analysts and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into routine counting strategies. Here, we establish a methodology for assessment of diatom dissolution under standard light microscopy (LM) illustrated with morphological criteria for a range of major diatom valve shapes. Dissolution data can be applied to numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> (transfer functions) from contemporary samples, and to fossil material to aid interpretation of stratigraphic profiles and taphonomic pathways of individual taxa. Using a surface sediment diatom-salinity training set from the Northern Great Plains (NGP) as an example, we explore a variety of approaches to include dissolution data in salinity inference <span class="hlt">models</span> indirectly and directly. Results show that dissolution data can improve <span class="hlt">models</span>, with apparent dissolution-adjusted error (RMSE) up to 15% lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Internal validation suggests improvements are more modest, with bootstrapped prediction errors (RMSEP) up to 10% lower. When tested on a short core from Devils Lake, North Dakota, which has a historical record of salinity, dissolution-adjusted <span class="hlt">models</span> infer higher values compared to unadjusted <span class="hlt">models</span> during peak salinity of the 1930s-1940s Dust Bowl but nonetheless significantly underestimate peak values. Site-specific factors at Devils Lake associated with effects of lake level change on taphonomy (preservation and re</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6965G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6965G"><span>Progressive evaluation of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> information into a <span class="hlt">model</span> building process: from scratch to FLEX-TOPO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gharari, Shervan; Gupta, Hoshin; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Although different strategies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of expert and a priori knowledge can help to improve the realism of <span class="hlt">models</span>, no systematic strategy has been presented in the literature for constraining the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters to be consistent with the (sometimes) patchy understanding of a <span class="hlt">modeler</span> regarding how the real system might work. Part of the difficulty in doing this is that expert knowledge may not always consist of explicitly quantifiable relationships between physical system characteristics and <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters; rather, it may consist of conceptual understanding about consistency relationships that must exist between various <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter or behavioral relationships that must exist among <span class="hlt">model</span> state variables and/or fluxes. Apart from aforementioned constraints, a unified strategy for measurement of information content in hierarchal <span class="hlt">model</span> building seems lacking. Firstly the <span class="hlt">model</span> structure is built by its building blocks (control volumes or state variables) as well as interconnecting fluxes (formation of control volumes and fluxes). Secondly, parameterizations of <span class="hlt">model</span> are designed, as an example the effect of a specific type of stage-discharge relation for a control volume can be explored. At the final stage the parameter values are quantified. In each step and based on assumptions made, more and more information is added to the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study we try to construct (based on hierarchal <span class="hlt">model</span> building scheme) and constrain parameters of different conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span> built on landscape units classified according to their hydrological functions and based on our logical considerations and general lessons from previous studies across the globe for a Luxembourgish catchment. Based on the result, including our basic understanding of how a system may work into hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span> appears to be a powerful tool to achieve higher <span class="hlt">model</span> realism as it leads to <span class="hlt">models</span> with higher performance. Progressive measurement of performance and uncertainty</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23826291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23826291"><span>Boosting probabilistic graphical <span class="hlt">model</span> inference by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> prior knowledge from multiple sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Praveen, Paurush; Fröhlich, Holger</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Inferring regulatory networks from experimental data via probabilistic graphical <span class="hlt">models</span> is a popular framework to gain insights into biological systems. However, the inherent noise in experimental data coupled with a limited sample size reduces the performance of network reverse engineering. Prior knowledge from existing sources of biological information can address this low signal to noise problem by biasing the network inference towards biologically plausible network structures. Although integrating various sources of information is desirable, their heterogeneous nature makes this task challenging. We propose two computational methods to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> various information sources into a probabilistic consensus structure prior to be used in graphical <span class="hlt">model</span> inference. Our first <span class="hlt">model</span>, called Latent Factor <span class="hlt">Model</span> (LFM), assumes a high degree of correlation among external information sources and reconstructs a hidden variable as a common source in a Bayesian manner. The second <span class="hlt">model</span>, a Noisy-OR, picks up the strongest support for an interaction among information sources in a probabilistic fashion. Our extensive computational studies on KEGG signaling pathways as well as on gene expression data from breast cancer and yeast heat shock response reveal that both approaches can significantly enhance the reconstruction accuracy of Bayesian Networks compared to other competing methods as well as to the situation without any prior. Our framework allows for using diverse information sources, like pathway databases, GO terms and protein domain data, etc. and is flexible enough to integrate new sources, if available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.758a2022B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.758a2022B"><span>Overall challenges in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micro-mechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> into materials design process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennoura, M.; Aboutajeddine, A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Using materials in engineering design has historically been handled using the paradigm of selecting appropriate materials from the finite set of available material databases. Recent trends, however, have moved toward the tailoring of materials that meet the overall system performance requirements, based on a process called material design. An important building block of this process is micromechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> that relate microstructure to proprieties. Unfortunately, these <span class="hlt">models</span> remain short and include a lot of uncertainties from assumptions and idealizations, which, unavoidably, impacts material design strategy. In this work, candidate methods to deal with micromechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> uncertainties and their drawbacks in material design are investigated. Robust design methods for quantifying uncertainty and managing or mitigating its impact on design performances are reviewed first. These methods include principles for classifying uncertainty, mathematical techniques for evaluating its level degree, and design methods for performing and generating design alternatives, that are relatively insensitive to sources of uncertainty and flexible for admitting design changes or variations. The last section of this paper addresses the limits of the existing approaches from material <span class="hlt">modelling</span> perspective and identifies the research opportunities to overcome the impediment of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micromechanical <span class="hlt">models</span> in material design process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...299..202L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPS...299..202L"><span>A transient electrochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the Donnan effect for all-vanadium redox flow batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Y.; Zhang, B. W.; Bai, B. F.; Zhao, T. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In a typical all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), the ion exchange membrane is directly exposed in the bulk electrolyte. Consequently, the Donnan effect occurs at the membrane/electrolyte (M/E) interfaces, which is critical for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of ion transport through the membrane and the prediction of cell performance. However, unrealistic assumptions in previous VRFB <span class="hlt">models</span>, such as electroneutrality and discontinuities of ionic potential and ion concentrations at the M/E interfaces, lead to simulated results inconsistent with the theoretical analysis of ion adsorption in the membrane. To address this issue, this work proposes a continuous-Donnan effect-<span class="hlt">model</span> using the Poisson equation coupled with the Nernst-Planck equation to describe variable distributions at the M/E interfaces. A one-dimensional transient VRFB <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the Donnan effect is developed. It is demonstrated that the present <span class="hlt">model</span> enables (i) a more realistic simulation of continuous distributions of ion concentrations and ionic potential throughout the membrane and (ii) a more comprehensive estimation for the effect of the fixed charge concentration on species crossover across the membrane and cell performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I2....7H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAn..I2....7H"><span>a Maximum Entropy <span class="hlt">Model</span> of the Bearded Capuchin Monkey Habitat <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Topography and Spectral Unmixing Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howard, A. M.; Bernardes, S.; Nibbelink, N.; Biondi, L.; Presotto, A.; Fragaszy, D. M.; Madden, M.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Movement patterns of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus) in northeastern Brazil are likely impacted by environmental features such as elevation, vegetation density, or vegetation type. Habitat preferences of these monkeys provide insights regarding the impact of environmental features on species ecology and the degree to which they <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these features in movement decisions. In order to evaluate environmental features influencing movement patterns and predict areas suitable for movement, we employed a maximum entropy <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach, using observation points along capuchin monkey daily routes as species presence points. We combined these presence points with spatial data on important environmental features from remotely sensed data on land cover and topography. A spectral mixing analysis procedure was used to generate fraction images that represent green vegetation, shade and soil of the study area. A Landsat Thematic Mapper scene of the area of study was geometrically and atmospherically corrected and used as input in a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) procedure and a linear spectral unmixing approach was used to generate the fraction images. These fraction images and elevation were the environmental layer inputs for our logistic MaxEnt <span class="hlt">model</span> of capuchin movement. Our <span class="hlt">models</span>' predictive power (test AUC) was 0.775. Areas of high elevation (>450 m) showed low probabilities of presence, and percent green vegetation was the greatest overall contributor to <span class="hlt">model</span> AUC. This work has implications for predicting daily movement patterns of capuchins in our field site, as suitability values from our <span class="hlt">model</span> may relate to habitat preference and facility of movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3335T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3335T"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating <span class="hlt">models</span> that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> climate indices using a Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Model</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive <span class="hlt">models</span> that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These <span class="hlt">models</span> then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Model</span> is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149741"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Into the Lyman <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Improve Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, Susan L.; Li Minghuan; Xu Ting; Gomez, Daniel; Yuan Xianglin; Yu Jinming; Liu Zhensheng; Yin Ming; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Lie; Wei Qingyi; Mohan, Radhe; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Martel, Mary; Liao Zhongxing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-{beta}, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) <span class="hlt">model</span> of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen SNPs from 10 different genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX1, MDM2, TGF{beta}, TNF{alpha}, TNFR, MTHFR, MTRR, and VEGF) were genotyped in 141 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. The LKB <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to estimate the risk of severe (grade {>=}3) RP as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with SNPs and patient smoking status <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the <span class="hlt">model</span> as dose-modifying factors. Multivariate analyses were performed by adding significant factors to the MLD <span class="hlt">model</span> in a forward stepwise procedure, with significance assessed using the likelihood-ratio test. Bootstrap analyses were used to assess the reproducibility of results under variations in the data. Results: Five SNPs were selected for inclusion in the multivariate NTCP <span class="hlt">model</span> based on MLD alone. SNPs associated with an increased risk of severe RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, TNF{alpha}, XRCC1 and APEX1. With smoking status included in the multivariate <span class="hlt">model</span>, the SNPs significantly associated with increased risk of RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, and XRCC3. Bootstrap analyses selected a median of 4 SNPs per <span class="hlt">model</span> fit, with the 6 genes listed above selected most often. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that SNPs can significantly improve the predictive ability of the Lyman MLD <span class="hlt">model</span>. With a small number of SNPs, it was possible to distinguish cohorts with >50% risk vs <10% risk of RP when they were exposed to high MLDs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24435736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24435736"><span>Statistical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of human liver <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the variations in shape, size, and material properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Gayzik, Scott; Untaroiu, Costin D; Beillas, Philippe</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs during motor vehicle crashes. Realistic numerical assessments of liver injury risk for the entire occupant population require <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> inter-subject variations into numerical <span class="hlt">models</span>. The main objective of this study was to quantify the shape variations of human liver in a seated posture and the statistical distributions of its material properties. Statistical shape analysis was applied to construct shape <span class="hlt">models</span> of the livers of 15 adult human subjects, recorded in a typical seated (occupant) posture. The principal component analysis was then utilized to obtain the modes of variation, the mean <span class="hlt">model</span>, and 95% statistical boundary shape <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition, a total of 52 tensile tests were performed on the parenchyma of three fresh human livers at four loading rates (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 s^-1) to characterize the rate-dependent and failure properties of the human liver. A FE-based optimization approach was employed to identify the material parameters of an Ogden material <span class="hlt">model</span> for each specimen. The mean material parameters were then determined for each loading rate from the characteristic averages of the stress-strain curves, and a stochastic optimization approach was utilized to determine the standard deviations of the material parameters. Results showed that the first five modes of the human liver shape <span class="hlt">models</span> account for more than 60% of the overall anatomical variations. The distributions of the material parameters combined with the mean and statistical boundary shape <span class="hlt">models</span> could be used to develop probabilistic finite element (FE) <span class="hlt">models</span>, which may help to better understand the variability in biomechanical responses and injuries to the abdominal organs under impact loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6206084','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6206084"><span>Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the NUVEL-1 global plate motion <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gripp, A.E.; Gordon, R.G. )</p> <p>1990-07-01</p> <p>NUVEL-1 is a new global <span class="hlt">model</span> of current relative plate velocities which differ significantly from those of prior <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here the authors <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> NUVEL-1 into HS2-NUVEL1, a new global <span class="hlt">model</span> of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. HS2-NUVEL1 was determined from the hotspot data and errors used by Minster and Jordan (1978) to determine AM1-2, which is their <span class="hlt">model</span> of plate velocities relative to the hotspots. AM1-2 is consistent with Minster and Jordan's relative plate velocity <span class="hlt">model</span> RM2. Here the authors compare HS2-NUVEL1 with AM1-2 and examine how their differences relate to differences between NUVEL-1 and RM2. HS2-NUVEL1 plate velocities relative to the hotspots are mainly similar to those of AM1-2. Minor differences between the two <span class="hlt">models</span> include the following: (1) in HS2-NUVEL1 the speed of the partly continental, apparently non-subducting Indian plate is greater than that of the purely oceanic, subducting Nazca plate; (2) in places the direction of motion of the African, Antarctic, Arabian, Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasian, North American, and South American plates differs between <span class="hlt">models</span> by more than 10{degree}; (3) in places the speed of the Australian, Caribbean, Cocos, Indian, and Nazca plates differs between <span class="hlt">models</span> by more than 8 mm/yr. Although 27 of the 30 RM2 Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of NUVEL-1, only the AM1-2 Arabia-hotspot and India-hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95% confidence from those of HS2-NUVEL1. Thus, substituting NUVEL-1 for RM2 in the inversion for plate velocities relative to the hotspots changes few Euler vectors significantly, presumably because the uncertainty in the velocity of a plate relative to the hotspots is much greater than the uncertainty in its velocity relative to other plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8899H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8899H"><span>Constraining Distributed Catchment <span class="hlt">Models</span> by <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Perceptual Understanding of Spatial Hydrologic Behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Distributed <span class="hlt">models</span> offer the potential to resolve catchment systems in more detail, and therefore simulate the hydrological impacts of spatial changes in catchment forcing (e.g. landscape change). Such <span class="hlt">models</span> tend to contain a large number of poorly defined and spatially varying <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters which are therefore computationally expensive to calibrate. Insufficient data can result in <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter and structural equifinality, particularly when calibration is reliant on catchment outlet discharge behaviour alone. Evaluating spatial patterns of internal hydrological behaviour has the potential to reveal simulations that, whilst consistent with measured outlet discharge, are qualitatively dissimilar to our perceptual understanding of how the system should behave. We argue that such understanding, which may be derived from stakeholder knowledge across different catchments for certain process dynamics, is a valuable source of information to help reject non-behavioural <span class="hlt">models</span>, and therefore identify feasible <span class="hlt">model</span> structures and parameters. The challenge, however, is to convert different sources of often qualitative and/or semi-qualitative information into robust quantitative constraints of <span class="hlt">model</span> states and fluxes, and combine these sources of information together to reject <span class="hlt">models</span> within an efficient calibration framework. Here we present the development of a framework to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> different sources of data to efficiently calibrate distributed catchment <span class="hlt">models</span>. For each source of information, an interval or inequality is used to define the behaviour of the catchment system. These intervals are then combined to produce a hyper-volume in state space, which is used to identify behavioural <span class="hlt">models</span>. We apply the methodology to calibrate the Penn State Integrated Hydrological <span class="hlt">Model</span> (PIHM) at the Wye catchment, Plynlimon, UK. Outlet discharge behaviour is successfully simulated when perceptual understanding of relative groundwater levels between lowland peat, upland peat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143x3128L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143x3128L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of memory effects in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) <span class="hlt">models</span> and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> memory effects into CG <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG <span class="hlt">models</span> with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493375"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of memory effects in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Karniadakis, George Em; Li, Xiantao</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) <span class="hlt">models</span> and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> memory effects into CG <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG <span class="hlt">models</span> with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723613"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of memory effects in coarse-grained <span class="hlt">modeling</span> via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) <span class="hlt">models</span> and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> memory effects into CG <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG <span class="hlt">models</span> with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475996"><span>Development of QTc prolongation <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> circadian rhythm using harmonic <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Back, Hyun-moon; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Kwon, Kwang-il</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>1. QT prolongation is one of the major safety tests used in the development of a new drug. The ICH guidelines for the evaluation of QT prolongation recommend the use of the in vitro hERG assay and the in vivo telemetry test. However, QT intervals change under normal conditions due to circadian rhythm and can affect the results of the tests. In this study, we developed a PK/PD <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe the QT interval after the administration of astemizole allowing for the normal changes by circadian rhythm. 2. The typical PK parameters of absorption rate constant (ka), volume of distribution (Vc and Vm), metabolism (km), and elimination rate constant (kel and kel-m) were 0.49 h(-1), 4950 L, 20 L, 0.0127 h(-1), 0.0095 h(-1), and 0.95 h(-1), respectively. The final PK/PD <span class="hlt">model</span> was the biophase <span class="hlt">model</span> with the modified harmonic <span class="hlt">model</span>. The typical PK/PD parameters, base QTc interval (QT0), amplitude (T1, T3), period of QTc interval changing (T2, T4), and EC50 were 233 ms, 3.31, 1.5, -9.24 h, 1.85 h, and 0.81 ng/ml, respectively. 3. The PK/PD <span class="hlt">model</span> to explain the changes of the QT interval that allows normal changes in the circadian rhythm after the administration of astemizole was developed successfully. This final <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied to the development of a human <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1173103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1173103"><span>Methodology for the <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Passive Component Aging <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into the RAVEN/ RELAP-7 Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mandelli, Diego; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Alfonsi, Andrea; Askin Guler; Tunc Aldemir</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Passive system, structure and components (SSCs) will degrade over their operation life and this degradation may cause to reduction in the safety margins of a nuclear power plant. In traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the event-tree/fault-tree methodology, passive SSC failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data and the true state of a specific plant is not reflected realistically. To address aging effects of passive SSCs in the traditional PRA methodology [1] does consider physics based <span class="hlt">models</span> that account for the operating conditions in the plant, however, [1] does not include effects of surveillance/inspection. This paper represents an overall methodology for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of aging <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of passive components into the RAVEN/RELAP-7 environment which provides a framework for performing dynamic PRA. Dynamic PRA allows consideration of both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties (including those associated with maintenance activities) in a consistent phenomenological and probabilistic framework and is often needed when there is complex process/hardware/software/firmware/ human interaction [2]. Dynamic PRA has gained attention recently due to difficulties in the traditional PRA <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of aging effects of passive components using physics based <span class="hlt">models</span> and also in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of digital instrumentation and control systems. RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control Environment) [3] is a software package under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as an online control logic driver and post-processing tool. It is coupled to the plant transient code RELAP-7 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) also currently under development at INL [3], as well as RELAP 5 [4]. The overall methodology aims to: • Address multiple aging mechanisms involving large number of components in a computational feasible manner where sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149419"><span>Applying a Hypoxia-<span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> TCP <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Experimental Data on Rat Sarcoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruggieri, Ruggero; Stavreva, Nadejda; Naccarato, Stefania; Stavrev, Pavel</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Purpose: To verify whether a tumor control probability (TCP) <span class="hlt">model</span> which mechanistically <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> acute and chronic hypoxia is able to describe animal in vivo dose-response data, exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. Methods and Materials: The investigated TCP <span class="hlt">model</span> accounts for tumor repopulation, reoxygenation of chronic hypoxia, and fluctuating oxygenation of acute hypoxia. Using the maximum likelihood method, the <span class="hlt">model</span> is fitted to Fischer-Moulder data on Wag/Rij rats, inoculated with rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112, and irradiated in vivo using different fractionation schemes. This data set is chosen because two of the experimental dose-response curves exhibit an inverse dose behavior, which is interpreted as due to reoxygenation. The tested TCP <span class="hlt">model</span> is complex, and therefore, in vivo cell survival data on the same BA1112 cell line from Reinhold were added to Fischer-Moulder data and fitted simultaneously with a corresponding cell survival function. Results: The obtained fit to the combined Fischer-Moulder-Reinhold data was statistically acceptable. The best-fit values of the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters for which information exists were in the range of published values. The cell survival curves of well-oxygenated and hypoxic cells, computed using the best-fit values of the radiosensitivities and the initial number of clonogens, were in good agreement with the corresponding in vitro and in situ experiments of Reinhold. The best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters were used to recompute the TCP for non-small cell lung cancer patients as a function of the number of fractions, TCP(n). Conclusions: The investigated TCP <span class="hlt">model</span> adequately describes animal in vivo data exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. The TCP(n) curve computed for non-small cell lung cancer patients with the best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters confirms previously obtained abrupt reduction in TCP for n < 10, thus warning against the adoption of severely hypofractionated schedules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452926"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> ecological data and associated uncertainty in bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">modeling</span>: methodology development and case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Laender, Frederik; Van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J; Soetaert, Karline</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">models</span> predict internal concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> key gain/loss processes reflecting the ecology of the exposed species and the characteristics of the chemical. Here, we propose a new methodology that uses ecological data and the principle of mass balance in food webs to estimate bioaccumulation in food webs. To this end, we combine linear inverse <span class="hlt">models</span> (LIMs) that estimate food web flows based on mass balance with a mechanistic bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">model</span> (OMEGA). In a case study we show that uncertainty ranges on bioaccumulation predictions were on average estimated a factor of 4 lower by LIM-OMEGA than by an OMEGA application that does not consider mass balance within food webs, most notably for chemicals with log Kow > 5, reflecting an increasing importance of uptake through food ingestion for those chemicals. Ranges of internal concentrations predicted by LIM-OMEGA were smaller in enclosures with fish, as strong predation pressure from the latter on mesozooplankton constrains food web flows and thus bioaccumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006775','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006775"><span>Supersonic propulsion simulation by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> component <span class="hlt">models</span> in the large perturbation inlet (LAPIN) computer code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cole, Gary L.; Richard, Jacques C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An approach to simulating the internal flows of supersonic propulsion systems is presented. The approach is based on a fairly simple modification of the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code. LAPIN uses a quasi-one dimensional, inviscid, unsteady formulation of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved using a shock capturing, finite difference algorithm. The original code, developed for simulating supersonic inlets, includes engineering <span class="hlt">models</span> of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and variable duct geometry, by means of source terms in the equations. The source terms also provide a mechanism for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span>, with the inlet, propulsion system components such as compressor stages, combustors, and turbine stages. This requires each component to be distributed axially over a number of grid points. Because of the distributed nature of such components, this representation should be more accurate than a lumped parameter <span class="hlt">model</span>. Components can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by performance map(s), which in turn are used to compute the source terms. The general approach is described. Then, simulation of a compressor/fan stage is discussed to show the approach in detail.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22525664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22525664"><span>EVOLUTIONARY <span class="hlt">MODELS</span> OF SUPER-EARTHS AND MINI-NEPTUNES <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> COOLING AND MASS LOSS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We construct <span class="hlt">models</span> of the structural evolution of super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type exoplanets with H{sub 2}–He envelopes, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> radiative cooling and XUV-driven mass loss. We conduct a parameter study of these <span class="hlt">models</span>, focusing on initial mass, radius, and envelope mass fractions, as well as orbital distance, metallicity, and the specific prescription for mass loss. From these calculations, we investigate how the observed masses and radii of exoplanets today relate to the distribution of their initial conditions. Orbital distance and the initial envelope mass fraction are the most important factors determining planetary evolution, particularly radius evolution. Initial mass also becomes important below a “turnoff mass,” which varies with orbital distance, with mass–radius curves being approximately flat for higher masses. Initial radius is the least important parameter we study, with very little difference between the hot start and cold start limits after an age of 100 Myr. <span class="hlt">Model</span> sets with no mass loss fail to produce results consistent with observations, but a plausible range of mass-loss scenarios is allowed. In addition, we present scenarios for the formation of the Kepler-11 planets. Our best fit to observations of Kepler-11b and Kepler-11c involves formation beyond the snow line, after which they moved inward, circularized, and underwent a reduced degree of mass loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992758"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span>-Based Detection of Radioactive Contraband for Harbor Defense <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Compton Scattering Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M</p> <p>2010-03-02</p> <p>The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem is maintaining national security for any country. Photon emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. This problem becomes especially important when ships are intercepted by U.S. Coast Guard harbor patrols searching for contraband. The development of a sequential <span class="hlt">model</span>-based processor that captures both the underlying transport physics of gamma-ray emissions including Compton scattering and the measurement of photon energies offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. The inclusion of a basic radionuclide representation of absorbed/scattered photons at a given energy along with interarrival times is used to extract the physics information available from the noisy measurements portable radiation detection systems used to interdict contraband. It is shown that this physics representation can <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> scattering physics leading to an 'extended' <span class="hlt">model</span>-based structure that can be used to develop an effective sequential detection technique. The resulting <span class="hlt">model</span>-based processor is shown to perform quite well based on data obtained from a controlled experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475685"><span>The Laminar Cortex <span class="hlt">Model</span>: A New Continuum Cortex <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Laminar Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Du, Jiaxin; Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Local field potentials (LFPs) are widely used to study the function of local networks in the brain. They are also closely correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal, the predominant contrast mechanism in functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed a new laminar cortex <span class="hlt">model</span> (LCM) to simulate the amplitude and frequency of LFPs. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> combines the laminar architecture of the cerebral cortex and multiple continuum <span class="hlt">models</span> to simulate the collective activity of cortical neurons. The five cortical layers (layer I, II/III, IV, V, and VI) are simulated as separate continuum <span class="hlt">models</span> between which there are synaptic connections. The LCM was used to simulate the dynamics of the visual cortex under different conditions of visual stimulation. LFPs are reported for two kinds of visual stimulation: general visual stimulation and intermittent light stimulation. The power spectra of LFPs were calculated and compared with existing empirical data. The LCM was able to produce spontaneous LFPs exhibiting frequency-inverse (1/ƒ) power spectrum behaviour. Laminar profiles of current source density showed similarities to experimental data. General stimulation enhanced the oscillation of LFPs corresponding to gamma frequencies. During simulated intermittent light stimulation, the LCM captured the fundamental as well as high order harmonics as previously reported. The power spectrum expected with a reduction in layer IV neurons, often observed with focal cortical dysplasias associated with epilepsy was also simulated. PMID:23093925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=membership&pg=4&id=EJ886602','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=membership&pg=4&id=EJ886602"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Student Mobility in Achievement Growth <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grady, Matthew W.; Beretvas, S. Natasha</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Multiple membership random effects <span class="hlt">models</span> (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28078716"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> food web dynamics into ecological restoration: a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for river ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellmore, J Ryan; Benjamin, Joseph R; Newsom, Michael; Bountry, Jennifer A; Dombroski, Daniel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these complexities into river restoration planning, we constructed a <span class="hlt">model</span> that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the Methow River, Washington, USA, a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon. Three restoration strategies were simulated: riparian vegetation restoration, nutrient augmentation via salmon carcass addition, and side channel reconnection. We also added populations of nonnative aquatic snails and fish to the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> food web to explore how changes in food web structure mediate responses to restoration. Simulations suggest that side channel reconnection may be a better strategy than carcass addition and vegetation planting for improving conditions for salmon in this river segment. However, <span class="hlt">modeled</span> responses were strongly sensitive to changes in the structure of the food web. The addition of nonnative snails and fish modified pathways of energy through the food web, which negated restoration improvements. This finding illustrates that forecasting responses to restoration may require accounting for the structure of food webs, and that changes in this structure, as might be expected with the spread of invasive species, could compromise restoration outcomes. Unlike habitat-based approaches to restoration assessment that focus on the direct effects of physical habitat conditions on single species of interest, our approach dynamically links the success of target organisms to the success of competitors, predators, and prey. By elucidating the direct and indirect pathways by which restoration affects target species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23513446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23513446"><span>A land use regression <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> data on industrial point source pollution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Li; Wang, Yuming; Li, Peiwu; Ji, Yaqin; Kong, Shaofei; Li, Zhiyong; Bai, Zhipeng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Advancing the understanding of the spatial aspects of air pollution in the city regional environment is an area where improved methods can be of great benefit to exposure assessment and policy support. We created land use regression (LUR) <span class="hlt">models</span> for SO2, NO2 and PM10 for Tianjin, China. Traffic volumes, road networks, land use data, population density, meteorological conditions, physical conditions and satellite-derived greenness, brightness and wetness were used for predicting SO2, NO2 and PM10 concentrations. We <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> data on industrial point sources to improve LUR <span class="hlt">model</span> performance. In order to consider the impact of different sources, we calculated the PSIndex, LSIndex and area of different land use types (agricultural land, industrial land, commercial land, residential land, green space and water area) within different buffer radii (1 to 20 km). This method makes up for the lack of consideration of source impact based on the LUR <span class="hlt">model</span>. Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with gaseous pollutant concentrations such as SO2 and NO2. R2 values of the multiple linear regression equations for SO2, NO2 and PM10 were 0.78, 0.89 and 0.84, respectively, and the RMSE values were 0.32, 0.18 and 0.21, respectively. <span class="hlt">Model</span> predictions at validation monitoring sites went well with predictions generally within 15% of measured values. Compared to the relationship between dependent variables and simple variables (such as traffic variables or meteorological condition variables), the relationship between dependent variables and integrated variables was more consistent with a linear relationship. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall <span class="hlt">model</span> prediction and health effects assessment on the spatial distribution of air pollution in the city region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180018','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70180018"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> food web dynamics into ecological restoration: A <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for river ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bellmore, J. Ryan; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Newsom, Michael; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Dombroski, Daniel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a <span class="hlt">model</span> that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon. Three restoration strategies were simulated: riparian vegetation restoration, nutrient augmentation via salmon carcass addition, and side-channel reconnection. We also added populations of nonnative aquatic snails and fish to the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> food web to explore how changes in food web structure mediate responses to restoration. Simulations suggest that side-channel reconnection may be a better strategy than carcass addition and vegetation planting for improving conditions for salmon in this river segment. However, <span class="hlt">modeled</span> responses were strongly sensitive to changes in the structure of the food web. The addition of nonnative snails and fish modified pathways of energy through the food web, which negated restoration improvements. This finding illustrates that forecasting responses to restoration may require accounting for the structure of food webs, and that changes in this structure—as might be expected with the spread of invasive species—could compromise restoration outcomes. Unlike habitat-based approaches to restoration assessment that focus on the direct effects of physical habitat conditions on single species of interest, our approach dynamically links the success of target organisms to the success of competitors, predators, and prey. By elucidating the direct and indirect pathways by which restoration affects target species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2487..190C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2487..190C"><span>ROC analysis of ATR from SAR images using a <span class="hlt">model</span>-based recognizer <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> pose information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cyganski, David; King, Brian M.; Vaz, Richard F.; Orr, John A.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>An automatic taget recognition (ATR) technique developed by the authors features analytically derived object <span class="hlt">models</span> which are formed from entire image suites, yet are compact and allow a direct target recognition and pose determination procedure. In contrast to the pose-invariant information used to form the <span class="hlt">models</span> in conventional approaches, view-dependent information is retained in the formation of the compact <span class="hlt">models</span> for this new approach. All <span class="hlt">model</span>-based ATR systems are confronted with the problem of image variation as a function of viewing angle. This problem can be addressed by use of an exhaustive library of views, at the expense of a large suite of literal images and a computationally intensive search-based recognition process. Means for overcoming these storage and processing obstacles have traditionally invloved some type of view-independent target representation, often developed from some composite view of the target over the viewing angles of interest. This results in a much more compact target <span class="hlt">model</span>, and a more direct recognition process. Unfortunately, the gains in storage and computational requirements of these invariant algorithms come at the price of diminished target discrimination capability. The new algorithm <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> pose as a fundamental parameter which is solved for as part of the recognition process, and does not discard the pose-related information which is relevant to target recognition. In this paper, the newly developed technique is applied to synthetic aperture radar images to develop receiver operating characteristic curves in the presence of both multiplicative noise and clutter. Comparative curves are also developed for a conventional generalized quandratic classifier ATR system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3818279"><span>Bias in Diet Determination: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Traditional Methods in Bayesian Mixing <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There are not “universal methods” to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing <span class="hlt">models</span> (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators’ diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal’s diet the sea lion’s did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP’s diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs’ estimates, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys’ contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators’ diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24224031"><span>Bias in diet determination: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> traditional methods in Bayesian mixing <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There are not "universal methods" to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing <span class="hlt">models</span> (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators' diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal's diet the sea lion's did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP's diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs' estimates, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys' contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators' diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6183P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6183P"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> H2 Dynamics and Inhibition into a Microbially Based Methanogenesis <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Restored Wetland Sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pal, David; Jaffe, Peter</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Estimates of global CH4 emissions from wetlands indicate that wetlands are the largest natural source of CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper, we propose that there is a missing component to these <span class="hlt">models</span> that should be addressed. CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are multiple sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane <span class="hlt">models</span> propionate is used as a <span class="hlt">model</span> carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2, while the H2 and CO2 are used to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. Changing planted species, or genetically modifying new species of plants may control this transport of soil gases. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. The results of an incubation study were combined with a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of propionate degradation for methanogenesis that also examines other natural parameters (i.e. gas transport through plants). This presentation examines how we would expect this <span class="hlt">model</span> to behave in a natural field setting with changing sulfate and carbon loading schemes. These changes can be controlled through new plant species and other management practices. Next, we compare the behavior of two variations of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, with or without the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of H2 interactions, with changing sulfate, carbon loading and root volatilization. Results show that while the <span class="hlt">models</span> behave similarly there may be a discrepancy of nearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500195','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500195"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> measured valve properties into a numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> of a lymphatic vessel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Macaskill, C.; Moore, J.E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An existing lumped-parameter <span class="hlt">model</span> of multiple lymphangions (lymphatic vascular segments) in series is adapted for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of recent physiological measurements of lymphatic vascular properties. The new data show very marked nonlinearity of the passive pressure-diameter relation during distension, relative to comparable blood vessels, and complex valve behaviour. Since lymph is transported as a result of either the active contraction or the passive squeezing of vascular segments situated between two one-way valves, the performance of these valves is of primary importance. The valves display hysteresis (the opening and closing pressure-drop thresholds differ), a bias to staying open (both state changes occur when the trans-valve pressure drop is adverse), and pressure-drop threshold dependence on transmural pressure. These properties, in combination with the strong nonlinearity that valve operation represents, have in turn caused intriguing numerical problems in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and we describe numerical stratagems by which we have overcome the problems. The principal problem is also generalised into a relatively simple mathematical example, for which solution detail is provided using two different solvers. PMID:23387996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294283"><span>Anisotropic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple damage mechanisms for multiscale simulation of dental enamel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>An anisotropic constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed in the framework of finite deformation to capture several damage mechanisms occurring in the microstructure of dental enamel, a hierarchical bio-composite. It provides the basis for a homogenization approach for an efficient multiscale (in this case: multiple hierarchy levels) investigation of the deformation and damage behavior. The influence of tension-compression asymmetry and fiber-matrix interaction on the nonlinear deformation behavior of dental enamel is studied by 3D micromechanical simulations under different loading conditions and fiber lengths. The complex deformation behavior and the characteristics and interaction of three damage mechanisms in the damage process of enamel are well captured. The proposed constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> anisotropic damage is applied to the first hierarchical level of dental enamel and validated by experimental results. The effect of the fiber orientation on the damage behavior and compressive strength is studied by comparing micro-pillar experiments of dental enamel at the first hierarchical level in multiple directions of fiber orientation. A very good agreement between computational and experimental results is found for the damage evolution process of dental enamel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594041"><span>Alternative Methods of Classifying Eating Disorders: <span class="hlt">Models</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Comorbid Psychopathology and Associated Features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing recognition of the limitations of current approaches to psychiatric classification. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the eating disorders (EDs). Several alternative methods of classifying EDs have been proposed, which can be divided into two major groups: 1) those that have classified individuals on the basis of disordered eating symptoms; and, 2) those that have classified individuals on the basis of comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Several reviews have addressed symptom-based approaches to ED classification, but we are aware of no paper that has critically examined comorbidity-based systems. Thus, in this paper, we review <span class="hlt">models</span> of classifying EDs that <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> information about comorbid psychopathology and associated features. Early approaches are described first, followed by more recent scholarly contributions to comorbidity-based ED classification. Importantly, several areas of overlap among the classification schemes are identified that may have implications for future research. In particular, we note similarities between early <span class="hlt">models</span> and newer studies in the salience of impulsivity, compulsivity, distress, and inhibition versus risk taking. Finally, we close with directions for future work, with an emphasis on neurobiologically-informed research to elucidate basic behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of comorbidity-based ED classes, as well as implications for treatment. PMID:23416343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3697904"><span>A Bayesian <span class="hlt">model</span> of lightness perception that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> spatial variation in the illumination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allred, Sarah R.; Brainard, David H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The lightness of a test stimulus depends in a complex manner on the context in which it is viewed. To predict lightness, it is necessary to leverage measurements of a feasible number of contextual configurations into predictions for a wider range of configurations. Here we pursue this goal, using the idea that lightness results from the visual system's attempt to provide stable information about object surface reflectance. We develop a Bayesian algorithm that estimates both illumination and reflectance from image luminance, and link perceived lightness to the algorithm's estimates of surface reflectance. The algorithm resolves ambiguity in the image through the application of priors that specify what illumination and surface reflectances are likely to occur in viewed scenes. The prior distributions were chosen to allow spatial variation in both illumination and surface reflectance. To evaluate our <span class="hlt">model</span>, we compared its predictions to a data set of judgments of perceived lightness of test patches embedded in achromatic checkerboards (Allred, Radonjić, Gilchrist, & Brainard, 2012). The checkerboard stimuli <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the large variation in luminance that is a pervasive feature of natural scenes. In addition, the luminance profile of the checks both near to and remote from the central test patches was systematically manipulated. The manipulations provided a simplified version of spatial variation in illumination. The <span class="hlt">model</span> can account for effects of overall changes in image luminance and the dependence of such changes on spatial location as well as some but not all of the more detailed features of the data. PMID:23814073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208168','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208168"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Wheeled Vehicle <span class="hlt">Model</span> in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> a wheeled vehicle <span class="hlt">model</span> for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle <span class="hlt">model</span> to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120u3101W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120u3101W"><span>Exciton delocalization <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> drift-diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zi Shuai; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the charge-generation process is highly important to understand device physics and optimize power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Free carriers are generated by both ultrafast exciton delocalization and slow exciton diffusion and dissociation at the heterojunction interface. In this work, we developed a systematic numerical simulation to describe the charge-generation process by a modified drift-diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span>. The transport, recombination, and collection of free carriers are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> to fully capture the device response. The theoretical results match well with the state-of-the-art high-performance organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the increase of exciton delocalization ratio reduces the energy loss in the exciton diffusion-dissociation process, and thus, significantly improves the device efficiency, especially for the short-circuit current. By changing the exciton delocalization ratio, OSC performances are comprehensively investigated under the conditions of short-circuit and open-circuit. Particularly, bulk recombination dependent fill factor saturation is unveiled and understood. As a fundamental electrical analysis of the delocalization mechanism, our work is important to understand and optimize the high-performance OSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118276','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118276"><span>Conditional spectrum computation <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple causal earthquakes and ground-motion prediction <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lin, Ting; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The conditional spectrum (CS) is a target spectrum (with conditional mean and conditional standard deviation) that links seismic hazard information with ground-motion selection for nonlinear dynamic analysis. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) estimates the ground-motion hazard by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the aleatory uncertainties in all earthquake scenarios and resulting ground motions, as well as the epistemic uncertainties in ground-motion prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> (GMPMs) and seismic source <span class="hlt">models</span>. Typical CS calculations to date are produced for a single earthquake scenario using a single GMPM, but more precise use requires consideration of at least multiple causal earthquakes and multiple GMPMs that are often considered in a PSHA computation. This paper presents the mathematics underlying these more precise CS calculations. Despite requiring more effort to compute than approximate calculations using a single causal earthquake and GMPM, the proposed approach produces an exact output that has a theoretical basis. To demonstrate the results of this approach and compare the exact and approximate calculations, several example calculations are performed for real sites in the western United States. The results also provide some insights regarding the circumstances under which approximate results are likely to closely match more exact results. To facilitate these more precise calculations for real applications, the exact CS calculations can now be performed for real sites in the United States using new deaggregation features in the U.S. Geological Survey hazard mapping tools. Details regarding this implementation are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5223858','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5223858"><span>Development and application of a mark-recapture <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> predicted sex and transitory behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber <span class="hlt">models</span> to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become ' untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, <span class="hlt">model</span> selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021591','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021591"><span>Development and application of a mark-recapture <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> predicted sex and transitory behaviour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber <span class="hlt">models</span> to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become 'untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, <span class="hlt">model</span> selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030322&hterms=Hawaii+Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHawaii%2BPlate%2BTectonics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030322&hterms=Hawaii+Plate+Tectonics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHawaii%2BPlate%2BTectonics"><span>No-net-rotation <span class="hlt">model</span> of current plate velocities <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> plate motion <span class="hlt">model</span> NUVEL-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>NNR-NUVEL1 is presented which is a <span class="hlt">model</span> of plate velocities relative to the unique reference frame defined by requiring no-net-rotation of the lithosphere while constraining relative plate velocities to equal those in global plate motion <span class="hlt">model</span> NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al., 1990). In NNR-NUVEL1, the Pacific plate rotates in a right-handed sense relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 0.67 deg/m.y. about 63 deg S, 107 deg E. At Hawaii the Pacific plate moves relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 70 mm/yr, which is 25 mm/yr slower than the Pacific plate moves relative to the hotspots. Differences between NNR-NUVEL1 and HS2-NUVEL1 are described. The no-net-rotation reference frame differs significantly from the hotspot reference frame. If the difference between reference frames is caused by motion of the hotspots relative to a mean-mantle reference frame, then hotspots beneath the Pacific plate move with coherent motion towards the east-southeast. Alternatively, the difference between reference frames can show that the uniform drag, no-net-torque reference frame, which is kinematically equivalent to the no-net-rotation reference frame, is based on a dynamically incorrect premise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B21D0347A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B21D0347A"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Geochemical And Microbial Kinetics In Reactive Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> For Generation Of Acid Rock Drainage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.; Silverstein, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> at the scale of a single rock is developed <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the proposed kinetic rate expressions. Simulations of initiation, washout and AMD flows are discussed to gain a better understanding of the role of porosity, effective diffusivity and reactive surface area in generating AMD. Simulations indicate that flow boundary conditions control generation of acid rock drainage as porosity increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+reasoned+AND+action&id=EJ1000299','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=theory+AND+reasoned+AND+action&id=EJ1000299"><span>Adolescent Decision-Making Processes regarding University Entry: A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cultural Orientation, Motivation and Occupational Variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jung, Jae Yup</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study tested a newly developed <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry. The <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations. A…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1340/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1340/"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>, Capitol Lake, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p> lab with Sedflume, an apparatus for measuring sediment erosion-parameters. In this report, we present results of the characterization of fine-grained sediment erodibility within Capitol Lake. The erodibility data were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the previously developed hydrodynamic and sediment transport <span class="hlt">model</span>. <span class="hlt">Model</span> simulations using the measured erodibility parameters were conducted to provide more robust estimates of the overall magnitudes and spatial patterns of sediment transport resulting from restoration of the Deschutes Estuary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760792"><span>The metabolic pace-of-life <span class="hlt">model</span>: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> ectothermic organisms into the theory of vertebrate ecoimmunology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sandmeier, Franziska C; Tracy, Richard C</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We propose a new heuristic <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> metabolic rate and pace of life to predict a vertebrate species' investment in adaptive immune function. Using reptiles as an example, we hypothesize that animals with low metabolic rates will invest more in innate immunity compared with adaptive immunity. High metabolic rates and body temperatures should logically optimize the efficacy of the adaptive immune system--through rapid replication of T and B cells, prolific production of induced antibodies, and kinetics of antibody--antigen interactions. In current theory, the precise mechanisms of vertebrate immune function oft are inadequately considered as diverse selective pressures on the evolution of pathogens. We propose that the strength of adaptive immune function and pace of life together determine many of the important dynamics of host-pathogen evolution, namely, that hosts with a short lifespan and innate immunity or with a long lifespan and strong adaptive immunity are expected to drive the rapid evolution of their populations of pathogens. Long-lived hosts that rely primarily on innate immune functions are more likely to use defense mechanisms of tolerance (instead of resistance), which are not expected to act as a selection pressure for the rapid evolution of pathogens' virulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220535','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26220535"><span>Bayesian hierarchical <span class="hlt">models</span> for network meta-analysis <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> nonignorable missingness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing; Chu, Haitao; Hong, Hwanhee; Virnig, Beth A; Carlin, Bradley P</p> <p>2015-07-28</p> <p>Network meta-analysis expands the scope of a conventional pairwise meta-analysis to simultaneously compare multiple treatments, synthesizing both direct and indirect information and thus strengthening inference. Since most of trials only compare two treatments, a typical data set in a network meta-analysis managed as a trial-by-treatment matrix is extremely sparse, like an incomplete block structure with significant missing data. Zhang et al. proposed an arm-based method accounting for correlations among different treatments within the same trial and assuming that absent arms are missing at random. However, in randomized controlled trials, nonignorable missingness or missingness not at random may occur due to deliberate choices of treatments at the design stage. In addition, those undertaking a network meta-analysis may selectively choose treatments to include in the analysis, which may also lead to missingness not at random. In this paper, we extend our previous work to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> missingness not at random using selection <span class="hlt">models</span>. The proposed method is then applied to two network meta-analyses and evaluated through extensive simulation studies. We also provide comprehensive comparisons of a commonly used contrast-based method and the arm-based method via simulations in a technical appendix under missing completely at random and missing at random.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41F1384S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41F1384S"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of GRACE Data into a Bayesian <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Groundwater Drought Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.; Porter, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Groundwater drought, defined as the sustained occurrence of below average availability of groundwater, is marked by below average water levels in aquifers and reduced flows to groundwater-fed rivers and wetlands. The impact of groundwater drought on ecosystems, agriculture, municipal water supply, and the energy sector is an increasingly important global issue. However, current drought monitors heavily rely on precipitation and vegetative stress indices to characterize the timing, duration, and severity of drought events. The paucity of in situ observations of aquifer levels is a substantial obstacle to the development of systems to monitor groundwater drought in drought-prone areas, particularly in developing countries. Observations from the NASA/German Space Agency's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been used to estimate changes in groundwater storage over areas with sparse point measurements. This study <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> GRACE total water storage observations into a Bayesian framework to assess the performance of a probabilistic <span class="hlt">model</span> for monitoring groundwater drought based on remote sensing data. Overall, it is hoped that these methods will improve global drought preparedness and risk reduction by providing information on groundwater drought necessary to manage its impacts on ecosystems, as well as on the agricultural, municipal, and energy sectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A31A0049L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A31A0049L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated International Monitoring System (IMS) is being deployed. Recent global scale observations recorded by this network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using empirical yield-scaling relations which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, strong variability remains in the yield estimate. Today, numerical <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. In this study, the effects of the source frequency and the stratospheric wind speed are simulated. In order to characterize fine-scale atmospheric structures which are excluded from the current atmospheric specifications, <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions are further enhanced by the addition of perturbation terms. Thus, a theoretical attenuation relation is developed from massive numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. Compared with previous studies, our approach provides a more realistic physical description of infrasound propagation. We obtain a new relation combining a near-field and far-field term which account for the effects of both geometrical spreading and dissipation on the pressure wave attenuation. By <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> real ambient infrasound noise at the receivers which significantly limits the ability to detect and identify signals of interest, the minimum detectable source amplitude can be derived in a broad frequency range. Empirical relations between the source spectrum and the yield of explosions are used to infer detection thresholds in tons of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, the obtained attenuation relation quantifies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=299110&keyword=depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78761653&CFTOKEN=77702924','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=299110&keyword=depression&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78761653&CFTOKEN=77702924"><span>NexGen PVAs: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We examine how the integration of evolutionary and ecological processes in population dynamics – an emerging framework in ecology – could be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into population viability analysis (PVA). Driven by parallel, complementary advances in population genomics and computational ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920015075','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920015075"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the servovalves <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in the servo hydraulic system of the 70-meter DSN antennas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartos, R. D.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>As the pointing accuracy and service life requirements of the DSN 70 meter antenna increase, it is necessary to gain a more complete understanding of the servo hydraulic system in order to improve system designs to meet the new requirements. A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed for the servovalve <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the hydraulic system of the 70 meter antenna and uses experimental data to verify the validity of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and to identify the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210750B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210750B"><span>Water <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in spinel: <span class="hlt">modelling</span> hydrogen storage in the transition zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bromiley, Geoffrey; Nestola, Fabrizio; Redfern, Simon A. T.; Zhang, Ming</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Under conditions of the lower part of Earth's mantle transition zone, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 adopts a spinel type structure as the mineral ringwoodite. This structure, although nominally anhydrous, has the capacity to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> significant amounts of water (up to several weight percent) in the form of structurally-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> OH groups. This has led to the suggestion that a significant volume of water could be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in Earth's mantle transition zone, and even that this reservoir might be connected to water present on the surface of the Earth. Characterising the cause and effects of hydrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in ringwoodite remains difficult due to the high-pressure/temperature conditions under which it is stable. In order to characterise mechanisms for H <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in spinel-type structures we have investigated H <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in natural and synthetic MgAl2O4 spinel in a series of high-pressure/temperature annealing experiments. In contrast to most other nominally anhydrous minerals, natural spinel appears to be completely anhydrous. On the other hand, non-stoichiometric Al-rich synthetic (defect) spinel can accommodate several hundred ppm water in the form of structurally-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> hydrogen. Infrared (IR) spectra of hydrated defect spinel contain one main O-H stretching band at 3343-3352 cm-1 and a doublet consisting of two distinct O-H bands at 3505-3517 cm-1 and 3557-3566 cm-1. IR spectra and structural refinements based on single-crystal X-ray data are consistent with hydrogen <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in defect spinel onto both octahedral and tetrahedral O-O edges. Fine structure of O-H bands in IR spectra can be explained by partial coupling of interstitial hydrogen with cation vacancies, or by the effects of Mg-Al disorder on the tetrahedral site. The concentration of cation vacancies in defect spinel is a major control on hydrogen affinity. The commercial availability of large single crystals of defect spinel coupled with high water solubility and similarities in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22486278"><span>Metal-organic frameworks with phosphotungstate <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> for hydrolytic cleavage of a DNA-<span class="hlt">model</span> phosphodiester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Qiuxia; Zhang, Lejie; He, Cheng; Niu, Jiangyang; Duan, Chunying</p> <p>2012-05-07</p> <p>Five phosphotungstate-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> metal-organic frameworks {[Eu(4)(dpdo)(9)(H(2)O)(16)PW(12)O(40)]}(PW(12)O(40))(2)·(dpdo)(3)·Cl(3) (1); {ZnNa(2)(μ-OH)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(4)[PW(12)O(40)]}·3H(2)O (2); {Zn(3)(dpdo)(7)}[PW(12)O(40)](2)·3H(2)O (3); and [Ln(2)H(μ-O)(2)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(2)][PW(12)O(40)]·3H(2)O (Ln = Ho for 4 and Yb for 5) (dpdo = 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide) have been synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural analyses indicate that 1-5 display diversity structure from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) series of hybrids. Kinetic experiments for the hydrolytic cleavage of DNA-<span class="hlt">model</span> phosphodiester BNPP (bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate) were followed spectrophotometrically for the absorbance increase at 400 nm in EPPS (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-propane sulfonic acid) buffer solution, because of the formation of p-nitrophenoxide with 1-5 under conditions of pH 4.0 and 50 °C. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy indicate that the cleavage of the phosphodiester bond proceeds with the pseudo-first-order rate constant in the range of 10(-7)-10(-6) s(-1), giving an inorganic phosphate and p-nitrophenol as the final products of hydrolysis. The results demonstrate that 1-5 have good catalytic activity and reusability for hydrolytic cleavage of BNPP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290234"><span>A passive movement method for parameter estimation of a musculo-skeletal arm <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a modified hill muscle <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Tung Fai; Wilson, Adrian J</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this paper we present an experimental method of parameterising the passive mechanical characteristics of the bicep and tricep muscles in vivo, by fitting the dynamics of a two muscle arm <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> anatomically meaningful and structurally identifiable modified Hill muscle <span class="hlt">models</span> to measured elbow movements. Measurements of the passive flexion and extension of the elbow joint were obtained using 3D motion capture, from which the elbow angle trajectories were determined and used to obtain the spring constants and damping coefficients in the <span class="hlt">model</span> through parameter estimation. Four healthy subjects were used in the experiments. Anatomical lengths and moment of inertia values of the subjects were determined by direct measurement and calculation. There was good reproducibility in the measured arm movement between trials, and similar joint angle trajectory characteristics were seen between subjects. Each subject had their own set of fitted parameter values determined and the results showed good agreement between measured and simulated data. The average fitted muscle parallel spring constant across all subjects was 143 N/m and the average fitted muscle parallel damping constant was 1.73 Ns/m. The passive movement method was proven to be successful, and can be applied to other joints in the human body, where muscles with similar actions are grouped together.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=female+AND+sexuality&pg=7&id=EJ837264','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=female+AND+sexuality&pg=7&id=EJ837264"><span>Strategies for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Women-Specific Sexuality Education into Addiction Treatment <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>James, Raven</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This paper advocates for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a women-specific sexuality curriculum in the addiction treatment process to aid in sexual healing and provide for aftercare issues. Sexuality in addiction treatment modalities is often approached from a sex-negative stance, or that of sexual victimization. Sexual issues are viewed as addictive in and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10689564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10689564"><span>The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of dyes into hair as a <span class="hlt">model</span> for drug binding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DeLauder, S F; Kidwell, D A</p> <p>2000-01-10</p> <p>The binding of charged substances from external aqueous media to hair has been investigated through the use of fluorescence microscopy. Eleven hair samples, reflecting various ethnic groups and cosmetic treatments, were tested. Rhodamine 6G, a cationic dye representative of drugs such as cocaine and opiates, showed <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> throughout the hair of all samples except one. In contrast, fluorescein, an anionic dye representative of drugs such as THC carboxylic acid, was not readily <span class="hlt">incorporated</span>. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of rhodamine 6G was faster for chemically 'straightened' and bleached African-American female hair than for untreated hair. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of rhodamine 6G followed a pH dependence, but an ionic strength dependence could not be established. These studies support three postulates: (1) electrostatic interactions explain the preferential binding of cationic drugs of abuse to hair; (2) the hair matrix, or the non-helical portion of hair, is accessible to external solutions and thus subject to contamination; and (3) cosmetic treatments may alter the helical portion of hair thereby increasing its accessibility to external contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/835188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/835188"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the effects of habitat edges into landscape <span class="hlt">models</span>: Effective area <span class="hlt">models</span> for cross-boundary management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>T.D. Sisk; N.M. Haddad</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Sisk, T.D., and N.M. Haddad. 2002. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the effects of habitat edges into landscape <span class="hlt">models</span>: Effective area <span class="hlt">models</span> for cross-boundary management. Chapter 8, Pp. 208-240 in J. Liu and W.W. Taylor, Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Abstract: Natural resource managers are increasingly charged with meeting multiple, often conflicting goals in landscapes undergoing significant change due to shifts in land use. Conservation from native to anthropogenic habitats typically fragments the landscape, reducing the size and increasing the isolation of the resulting patches, with profound ecological impacts. These impacts occur both within and adjacent to areas under active management, creating extensive edges between habitat types. Boundaries established between management areas, for example, between timber harvest units or between reserves and adjacent agricultural fields, inevitably lead to differences in the quality of habitats on either side of the boundary, and a habitat edge results. Although edges are common components of undisturbed landscapes, the amount of edge proliferates rapidly as landscapes are fragmented. Insightful analysis of the complex issues associated with cross-boundary management necessitates an explicit focus on habitat quality in the boundary regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9682403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9682403"><span>Pesticide deposition in hair: preliminary results of a <span class="hlt">model</span> study of methomyl <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into rabbit hair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M I; Tzatzarakis, M N; Psaroudakis, K; Dolapsakis, G P; Michalodimitrakis, M N</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>This work studied the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide, into the hair of New Zealand white rabbits. A total of 600 mg methomyl was administered by drinking water over 4 mo, and acetylcholinesterase activity in serum was monitored. At the end of the dosing period, hair from the back of the rabbits was cut off, and the methomyl concentration was measured using ELISA and HPLC. A decrease of serum acetylcholinesterase occurred. The top cm of hair contained no methomyl, the second cm contained 0.9 ng/mg and the 3rd cm of hair contained 3 ng methomyl/mg. Methomyl was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the rabbit hair in a process independent of gender but dependent on the hair growth rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116x3504S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...116x3504S"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for arsenic anti-site <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in GaAs grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulte, K. L.; Kuech, T. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>GaAs growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) has regained interest as a potential route to low cost, high efficiency thin film photovoltaics. In order to attain the highest efficiencies, deep level defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in these materials must be understood and controlled. The arsenic anti-site defect, AsGa or EL2, is the predominant deep level defect in HVPE-grown GaAs. In the present study, the relationships between HVPE growth conditions and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of EL2 in GaAs epilayers were determined. Epitaxial n-GaAs layers were grown under a wide range of deposition temperatures (TD) and gallium chloride partial pressures (PGaCl), and the EL2 concentration, [EL2], was determined by deep level transient spectroscopy. [EL2] agreed with equilibrium thermodynamic predictions in layers grown under conditions in which the growth rate, RG, was controlled by conditions near thermodynamic equilibrium. [EL2] fell below equilibrium levels when RG was controlled by surface kinetic processes, with the disparity increasing as RG decreased. The surface chemical composition during growth was determined to have a strong influence on EL2 <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. Under thermodynamically limited growth conditions, e.g., high TD and/or low PGaCl, the surface vacancy concentration was high and the bulk crystal was close to equilibrium with the vapor phase. Under kinetically limited growth conditions, e.g., low TD and/or high PGaCl, the surface attained a high GaCl coverage, blocking As adsorption. This competitive adsorption process reduced the growth rate and also limited the amount of arsenic that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as AsGa. A defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which accounted for the surface concentration of arsenic as a function of the growth conditions, was developed. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to identify optimal growth parameters for the growth of thin films for photovoltaics, conditions in which a high growth rate and low [EL2] could be attained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461111"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> environmental attitudes in discrete choice <span class="hlt">models</span>: an exploration of the utility of the awareness of consequences scale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoyos, David; Mariel, Petr; Hess, Stephane</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding how people cognitively organise their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action. In this paper, we explore the utility of a commonly used psychometric scale, the awareness of consequences (AC) scale, in order to better understand stated choices. The main contribution of the paper is that it provides a novel approach to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> attitudinal information into discrete choice <span class="hlt">models</span> for environmental valuation: firstly, environmental attitudes are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> using a reinterpretation of the classical AC scale recently proposed by Ryan and Spash (2012); and, secondly, attitudinal data is <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as latent variables under a hybrid choice <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework. This novel approach is applied to data from a survey conducted in the Basque Country (Spain) in 2008 aimed at valuing land-use policies in a Natura 2000 Network site. The results are relevant to policy-making because choice <span class="hlt">models</span> that are able to accommodate underlying environmental attitudes may help in designing more effective environmental policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSCom.252...11D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSCom.252...11D"><span>Ab initio <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of point defects, self-diffusion, and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of impurities in thorium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daroca, D. Pérez</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Research on Generation-IV nuclear reactors has boosted the investigation of thorium as nuclear fuel. By means of first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, structural properties and phonon dispersion curves of Th are obtained. These results agreed very well with previous ones. The stability and formation energies of vacancies, interstitial and divacancies are studied. It is found that vacancies are the energetically preferred defects. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> energies of He, Xe, and Kr atoms in Th defects are analyzed. Self-diffusion, migration paths and activation energies are also calculated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21363874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21363874"><span>Glucose oxidase <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> collagen matrices for dermal wound repair in diabetic rat <span class="hlt">models</span>: a biochemical study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arul, V; Masilamoni, J G; Jesudason, E P; Jaji, P J; Inayathullah, M; Dicky John, D G; Vignesh, S; Jayakumar, R</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Impaired wound healing in diabetes is a well-documented phenomenon. Emerging data favor the involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of diabetic wound healing. We investigated the beneficial role of the sustained release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic dermal wound healing. In order to achieve the sustained delivery of ROS in the wound bed, we have <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> glucose oxidase in the collagen matrix (GOIC), which is applied to the healing diabetic wound. Our in vitro proteolysis studies on <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> GOIC show increased stability against the proteases in the collagen matrix. In this study, GOIC film and collagen film (CF) are used as dressing material on the wound of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A significant increase in ROS (p < 0.05) was observed in the fibroblast of GOIC group during the inflammation period compared to the CF and control groups. This elevated level up regulated the antioxidant status in the granulation tissue and improved cellular proliferation in the GOIC group. Interestingly, our biochemical parameters nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, uronic acid, protein, and DNA content in the healing wound showed that there is an increase in proliferation of cells in GOIC when compared to the control and CF groups. In addition, evidence from wound contraction and histology reveals faster healing in the GOIC group. Our observations document that GOIC matrices could be effectively used for diabetic wound healing therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6969300','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6969300"><span>[<span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of an organic MAGIC (<span class="hlt">Model</span> of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised <span class="hlt">model</span> using independent data sources]. [MAGIC <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, T.J.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC <span class="hlt">model</span> of acidification response, and (2) test the revised <span class="hlt">model</span> using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid <span class="hlt">model</span> with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940116"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Transmission Into Causal <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Infectious Diseases for Improved Understanding of the Effect and Impact of Risk Factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paynter, Stuart</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Conventional measures of causality (which compare risks between exposed and unexposed individuals) do not factor in the population-scale dynamics of infectious disease transmission. We used mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> of 2 childhood infections (respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus) to illustrate this problem. These <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> 3 causal pathways whereby malnutrition could act to increase the incidence of severe infection: increasing the proportion of infected children who develop severe infection, increasing the children's susceptibility to infection, and increasing infectiousness. For risk factors that increased the proportion of infected children who developed severe infection, the population attributable fraction (PAF) calculated conventionally was the same as the PAF calculated directly from the <span class="hlt">models</span>. However, for risk factors that increased transmission (by either increasing susceptibility to infection or increasing infectiousness), the PAF calculated directly from the <span class="hlt">models</span> was much larger than that predicted by the conventional PAF calculation. The <span class="hlt">models</span> also showed that even when conventional studies find no association between a risk factor and an outcome, risk factors that increase transmission can still have a large impact on disease burden. For a complete picture of infectious disease causality, transmission effects must be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into causal <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770015154','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770015154"><span>Computer simulation <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a helicopter <span class="hlt">model</span> for evaluation of aircraft avionics systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostroff, A. J.; Wood, R. B.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A computer program was developed to integrate avionics research in navigation, guidance, controls, and displays with a realistic aircraft <span class="hlt">model</span>. A user oriented program is described that allows a flexible combination of user supplied <span class="hlt">models</span> to perform research in any avionics area. A preprocessor technique for selecting various <span class="hlt">models</span> without significantly changing the memory storage is included. Also included are mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> for several avionics error <span class="hlt">models</span> and for the CH-47 helicopter used in this program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746499"><span>A new general methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physico-chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lizarralde, I; Fernández-Arévalo, T; Brouckaert, C; Vanrolleghem, P; Ikumi, D S; Ekama, G A; Ayesa, E; Grau, P</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a new general methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> physico-chemical and chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process <span class="hlt">models</span> in a systematic and rigorous way under a Plant-Wide <span class="hlt">modelling</span> (PWM) framework. The methodology presented in this paper requires the selection of the relevant biochemical, chemical and physico-chemical transformations taking place and the definition of the mass transport for the co-existing phases. As an example a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> has been constructed to describe a system for biological COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, liquid-gas transfer, precipitation processes, and chemical reactions. The capability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> has been tested by comparing simulated and experimental results for a nutrient removal system with sludge digestion. Finally, a scenario analysis has been undertaken to show the potential of the obtained mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> to study phosphorus recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4660903','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4660903"><span>Nanofibers for drug delivery – <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> and release of <span class="hlt">model</span> molecules, influence of molecular weight and polymer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hrib, Jakub; Hobzova, Radka; Hampejsova, Zuzana; Bosakova, Zuzana; Munzarova, Marcela; Michalek, Jiri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Nanofibers were prepared from polycaprolactone, polylactide and polyvinyl alcohol using NanospiderTM technology. Polyethylene glycols with molecular weights of 2 000, 6 000, 10 000 and 20 000 g/mol, which can be used to moderate the release profile of <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> pharmacologically active compounds, served as <span class="hlt">model</span> molecules. They were terminated by aromatic isocyanate and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the nanofibers. The release of these molecules into an aqueous environment was investigated. The influences of the molecular length and chemical composition of the nanofibers on the release rate and the amount of released polyethylene glycols were evaluated. Longer molecules released faster, as evidenced by a significantly higher amount of released molecules after 72 hours. However, the influence of the chemical composition of nanofibers was even more distinct – the highest amount of polyethylene glycol molecules released from polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers, the lowest amount from polylactide nanofibers. PMID:26665065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA445003','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA445003"><span>The Aerosol <span class="hlt">Models</span> in MODTRAN: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Selected Measurements From Northern Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>tropopause. These include a background stratospheric aerosol <span class="hlt">model</span>, volcanic aerosol <span class="hlt">models</span> and an upper atmosphere aerosol <span class="hlt">model</span>. These <span class="hlt">models</span> will not...scaling factor is a function of VIS, the season and the volcanic conditions. The normalised attenuation coefficients are defined as ratios of the...different values of VIS: 2, 5, 10, 23 and 50 km. The upper altitude profiles are computed as a function of the season and volcanic conditions and stored</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1097183','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1097183"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer <span class="hlt">model</span> of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is a standalone <span class="hlt">model</span> that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap <span class="hlt">model</span> with a 3D STAR-CCM+ <span class="hlt">model</span> of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in <span class="hlt">Model</span>Center, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this <span class="hlt">model</span> is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3085318','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3085318"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> age at onset of smoking into genetic <span class="hlt">models</span> for nicotine dependence: Evidence for interaction with multiple genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grucza, Richard A.; Johnson, Eric O.; Krueger, Robert F.; Breslau, Naomi; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Derringer, Jaime; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Micheal; Bierut, Laura J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3,369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes, and investigated whether <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> the interaction between allele count and age-at-onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence, and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence, and 811 non-nicotine dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main-effect <span class="hlt">models</span>, SNP x AOS interaction <span class="hlt">models</span> resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs, and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus <span class="hlt">model</span>. Some SNPs previously documented in main-effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint-analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al, PLOS Genetics, 4: e1000125, 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main-effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (p=1.5 × 10−5), which encodes a subunit of the NMDA receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic <span class="hlt">models</span> of substance-use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation, and constitutes a promising avenue for gene-discovery. PMID:20624154</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoPhC.182.1295C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoPhC.182.1295C"><span>Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of secondary electron emission and its <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in particle simulations of electron-surface interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Guoxin; Liu, Lie</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Based on Vaughan's empirical formula of secondary emission yield and the assumption of mutual exclusion of each type of secondary electron, a mathematically self-consistent secondary emission <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed. It identifies each generated secondary electron as either elastic reflected, rediffused, or true secondary, hence, it allows the use of distinct emission energy and angular distributions of each type of electron. Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> is presented, and second-order algorithms for particle collection and ejection at the secondary-emission wall are developed in order to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the secondary electron emission process in the standard leap-frog integrator. The accuracy of these algorithms is analyzed for general fields and is confirmed by comparing the numerically computed values with the exact solution under a homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, the phenomenon of multipactor electron discharge on a dielectric is simulated to verify the usefulness of the <span class="hlt">model</span> developed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198219-model-incorporating-some-mechanical-biochemical-factors-underlying-clot-formation-dissolution-flowing-blood','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198219-model-incorporating-some-mechanical-biochemical-factors-underlying-clot-formation-dissolution-flowing-blood"><span>A <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive <span class="hlt">model</span> for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing <span class="hlt">models</span> emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore » for clot formation and dissolution that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The <span class="hlt">model</span>, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous <span class="hlt">models</span> in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135676"><span>Integrative <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of animal movement: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> in situ habitat and behavioural information for a migratory marine predator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bestley, Sophie; Jonsen, Ian D; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît</p> <p>2013-01-07</p> <p>A fundamental goal in animal ecology is to quantify how environmental (and other) factors influence individual movement, as this is key to understanding responsiveness of populations to future change. However, quantitative interpretation of individual-based telemetry data is hampered by the complexity of, and error within, these multi-dimensional data. Here, we present an integrative hierarchical Bayesian state-space <span class="hlt">modelling</span> approach where, for the first time, the mechanistic process <span class="hlt">model</span> for the movement state of animals directly <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> both environmental and other behavioural information, and observation and process <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are estimated within a single <span class="hlt">model</span>. When applied to a migratory marine predator, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), we find the switch from directed to resident movement state was associated with colder water temperatures, relatively short dive bottom time and rapid descent rates. The approach presented here can have widespread utility for quantifying movement-behaviour (diving or other)-environment relationships across species and systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086091','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086091"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Truncating Variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM into the BOADICEA Breast Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Andrew J.; Cunningham, Alex P.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose The proliferation of gene-panel testing precipitates the need for a breast cancer (BC) risk <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the effects of mutations in several genes and family history (FH). We extended the BOADICEA <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the effects of truncating variants in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM. Methods The BC incidence was <span class="hlt">modelled</span> via the explicit effects of truncating variants in BRCA1/2, PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM and other unobserved genetic effects using segregation analysis methods. Results The predicted average BC risk by age 80 for an ATM mutation carrier is 28%, 30% for CHEK2, 50% for PALB2, 74% for BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, the BC risks are predicted to increase with FH-burden. In families with mutations, predicted risks for mutation-negative members depend on both FH and the specific mutation. The reduction in BC risk after negative predictive-testing is greatest when a BRCA1 mutation is identified in the family, but for women whose relatives carry a CHEK2 or ATM mutation, the risks decrease slightly. Conclusions The <span class="hlt">model</span> may be a valuable tool for counselling women who have undergone gene-panel testing for providing consistent risks and harmonizing their clinical management. A web-application can be used to obtain BC- risks in clinical practice (http://ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/boadicea/). PMID:27464310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300097"><span>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for maximizing the value of phase 3 drug development portfolios <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> budget constraints and risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Nitin R; Ankolekar, Suresh; Antonijevic, Zoran; Rajicic, Natasa</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p>We describe a value-driven approach to optimizing pharmaceutical portfolios. Our approach <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> inputs from research and development and commercial functions by simultaneously addressing internal and external factors. This approach differentiates itself from current practices in that it recognizes the impact of study design parameters, sample size in particular, on the portfolio value. We develop an integer programming (IP) <span class="hlt">model</span> as the basis for Bayesian decision analysis to optimize phase 3 development portfolios using expected net present value as the criterion. We show how this framework can be used to determine optimal sample sizes and trial schedules to maximize the value of a portfolio under budget constraints. We then illustrate the remarkable flexibility of the IP <span class="hlt">model</span> to answer a variety of 'what-if' questions that reflect situations that arise in practice. We extend the IP <span class="hlt">model</span> to a stochastic IP <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> uncertainty in the availability of drugs from earlier development phases for phase 3 development in the future. We show how to use stochastic IP to re-optimize the portfolio development strategy over time as new information accumulates and budget changes occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056188"><span>A Novel Method to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> the Spatial Location of the Lung Dose Distribution into Predictive Radiation Pneumonitis <span class="hlt">Modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: Studies have proposed that patients who receive radiation therapy to the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis than patients who receive therapy to the apex of the lung. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop a novel method to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the lung dose spatial information into a predictive radiation pneumonitis <span class="hlt">model</span>. A secondary goal was to apply the method to a 547 lung cancer patient database to determine whether including the spatial information could improve the fit of our <span class="hlt">model</span>. Methods and Materials: The three-dimensional dose distribution of each patient was mapped onto one common coordinate system. The boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. Once all dose distributions were mapped onto the common coordinate system, the spatial information was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman predictive radiation pneumonitis <span class="hlt">model</span>. Specifically, the lung dose voxels were weighted using a user-defined spatial weighting matrix. We investigated spatial weighting matrices that linearly scaled each dose voxel according to the following orientations: superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, left-right, and radial. The <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters were fit to our patient cohort with the endpoint of severe radiation pneumonitis. The spatial dose <span class="hlt">model</span> was compared against a conventional dose-volume <span class="hlt">model</span> to determine whether adding a spatial component improved the fit of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. Adding in a spatial parameter did not significantly increase the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">model</span> for any of the weighting schemes. Conclusions: A novel method was developed to investigate the relationship between the location of the deposited lung dose and pneumonitis rate. The method was applied to a patient database, and we found that for our patient cohort, the spatial location does not influence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969419"><span>A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative as a <span class="hlt">model</span> molecule for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into phospholipid assemblies for skin applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández, Estibalitz; Rodríguez, Gelen; Hostachy, Sarah; Clède, Sylvain; Cócera, Mercedes; Sandt, Christophe; Lambert, François; de la Maza, Alfonso; Policar, Clotilde; López, Olga</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A rhenium tris-carbonyl derivative (fac-[Re(CO)3Cl(2-(1-dodecyl-1H-1,2,3,triazol-4-yl)-pyridine)]) was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into phospholipid assemblies, called bicosomes, and the penetration of this molecule into skin was monitored using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR). To evaluate the capacity of bicosomes to promote the penetration of this derivative, the skin penetration of the Re(CO)3 derivative dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a typical enhancer, was also studied. Dynamic light scattering results (DLS) showed an increase in the size of the bicosomes with the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the Re(CO)3 derivative, and the FTIR microspectroscopy showed that the Re(CO)3 derivative <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in bicosomes penetrated deeper into the skin than when dissolved in DMSO. When this molecule was applied on the skin using the bicosomes, 60% of the Re(CO)3 derivative was retained in the stratum corneum (SC) and 40% reached the epidermis (Epi). Otherwise, the application of this molecule via DMSO resulted in 95% of the Re(CO)3 derivative being in the SC and only 5% reaching the Epi. Using a Re(CO)3 derivative with a dodecyl-chain as a <span class="hlt">model</span> molecule, it was possible to determine the distribution of molecules with similar physicochemical characteristics in the skin using bicosomes. This fact makes these nanostructures promising vehicles for the application of lipophilic molecules inside the skin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975"><span>The Internal/External Frame of Reference <span class="hlt">Model</span> Revisited: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The internal/external frame of reference <span class="hlt">model</span> (I/E <span class="hlt">model</span>; Marsh, 1986 ) is a highly influential <span class="hlt">model</span> of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> do not typically <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> general cognitive ability or general academic self-concept. This article investigates alternative measurement <span class="hlt">models</span> for domain-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities and academic self-concepts within an extended I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> framework using representative data from 25,301 9th-grade students. Empirical support was found for the external validity of a new measurement <span class="hlt">model</span> for academic self-concepts with respect to key student characteristics (gender, school satisfaction, educational aspirations, domain-specific interests, grades). Moreover, the basic predictions of the I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> were confirmed, and the new extension of the traditional I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-general cognitive ability and domain-general academic self-concept as well as between the domain-specific elements of the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3011B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3011B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> NDVI in a gravity <span class="hlt">model</span> setting to describe spatio-temporal patterns of Lyme borreliosis incidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Farifteh, J.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J. M.; Coppin, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease in Europe and incidence growth has been reported in several European countries during the last decade. LB is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and the main vector of this pathogen in Europe is the tick Ixodes ricinus. LB incidence and spatial spread is greatly dependent on environmental conditions impacting habitat, demography and trophic interactions of ticks and the wide range of organisms ticks parasite. The landscape configuration is also a major determinant of tick habitat conditions and -very important- of the fashion and intensity of human interaction with vegetated areas, i.e. human exposure to the pathogen. Hence, spatial notions as distance and adjacency between urban and vegetated environments are related to human exposure to tick bites and, thus, to risk. This work tested the adequacy of a gravity <span class="hlt">model</span> setting to <span class="hlt">model</span> the observed spatio-temporal pattern of LB as a function of location and size of urban and vegetated areas and the seasonal and annual change in the vegetation dynamics as expressed by MODIS NDVI. Opting for this approach implies an analogy with Newton's law of universal gravitation in which the attraction forces between two bodies are directly proportional to the bodies mass and inversely proportional to distance. Similar implementations have proven useful in fields like trade <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, health care service planning, disease mapping among other. In our implementation, the size of human settlements and vegetated systems and the distance separating these landscape elements are considered the 'bodies'; and the 'attraction' between them is an indicator of exposure to pathogen. A novel element of this implementation is the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of NDVI to account for the seasonal and annual variation in risk. The importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> this indicator of vegetation activity resides in the fact that alterations of LB incidence pattern observed the last decade have been ascribed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA557329','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA557329"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Chemical Contaminants into the Combined ICM/SEDZLJ <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>increased by an order of magnitude over the time required by ICM for eutrophication simulations without sediment transport. The first portion of this... eutrophication algorithms alone. As a result of the reduced time-step and additional computational demands imposed by the SEDZLJ bed <span class="hlt">model</span>, the...computation time of the combined ICM/SEDZLJ <span class="hlt">models</span> increased tremendously over the basic eutrophication <span class="hlt">model</span>. A three-year simulation of Lake George</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020038543','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020038543"><span>A Hall Thruster Performance <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Effects of a Multiply-Charged Plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hofer, Richard R.; Jankovsky, Robert S.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A Hall thruster performance <span class="hlt">model</span> that predicts anode specific impulse, anode efficiency, and thrust is discussed. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is derived as a function of a voltage loss parameter, an electron loss parameter, and the charge state of the plasma. Experimental data from SPT and TAL type thrusters up to discharge powers of 21.6 kW are used to determine the best fit for <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters. General values for the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are found, applicable to high power thrusters and irrespective of thruster type. Performance of a 50 kW thruster is calculated for an anode specific impulse of 2500 seconds or a discharge current of 100 A.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESS...15.2747P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HESS...15.2747P"><span>A simple 2-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> flood damage in urban drainage planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathirana, A.; Tsegaye, S.; Gersonius, B.; Vairavamoorthy, K.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>An urban inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed and coupled with 1-D drainage network <span class="hlt">model</span> (EPA-SWMM5). The objective was to achieve a 1-D/2-D coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> that is simple and fast enough to be consistently used in planning stages of urban drainage projects. The 2-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on a non-standard simplification of the shallow water equation, lays between diffusion-wave and full dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span>. Simplifications were made in the process representation and numerical solving mechanisms and a depth scaled Manning coefficient was introduced to achieve stability in the cell wetting-drying process. The 2-D <span class="hlt">model</span> is coupled with SWMM for simulation of both network flow and surcharge induced inundation. The coupling is archived by mass transfer from the network system to the 2-D system. A damage calculation block is integrated within the <span class="hlt">model</span> code for assessing flood damage costs in optimal planning of urban drainage networks. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is stable in dealing with complex flow conditions, and cell wetting/drying processes, as demonstrated by a number of idealised experiments. The <span class="hlt">model</span> application is demonstrated by applying to a case study in Brazil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.2145L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.2145L"><span>Anatomy-guided brain PET imaging <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a joint prior <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Lijun; Ma, Jianhua; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We proposed a maximum a posterior (MAP) framework for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction through a novel anato-functional joint prior. The characteristic of the utilized hyperbolic potential function is determinate by the voxel intensity differences within the anatomical image, while the penalization is computed based on voxel intensity differences in reconstructed PET images. Using realistic simulated 18FDG PET scan data, we optimized the performance of the proposed MAP reconstruction with the joint prior (JP-MAP) and compared its performance with conventional 3D MLEM and 3D MAP reconstructions. The proposed JP-MAP reconstruction algorithm resulted in quantitatively enhanced reconstructed images, as demonstrated in extensive FDG PET simulation study. The proposed method was also tested on a 20 min Florbetapir patient study performed on the high-resolution research tomograph. It was shown to outperform conventional methods in visual as well as quantitative accuracy assessment (in terms of regional noise versus activity value performance). The JP-MAP method was also compared with another MR-guided MAP reconstruction method, utilizing the Bowsher prior and was seen to result in some quantitative enhancements, especially in the case of MR-PET mis-registrations, and a definitive improvement in computational performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6640813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6640813"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span> for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of plant detritus within clastic accumulating interdistributary bays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gastaldo, R.A.; McCarroll, S.M.; Douglass, D.P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Plant-bearing clastic lithologies interpreted as interdistributary bay deposits are reported from rocks Devonian to Holocene in age. Often, these strata preserve accumulations of discrete, laterally continuous leaf beds or coaly horizons. Investigations within two modern inter-distributary bays in the lower delta plain of the Mobile Delta, Alabama have provided insight into the phytotaphonomic processes responsible for the generation of carbonaceous lithologies, coaly horizons and laterally continuous leaf beds. Delvan and Chacalooche Bays lie adjacent to the Tensaw River distributary channel and differ in the mode of clastic and plant detrital accumulation. Delvan Bay, lying west of the distributary channel, is accumulating detritus solely by overbank deposition. Chacaloochee Bay, lying east of the channel, presently is accumulating detritus by active crevasse-splay activity. Plant detritus is accumulating as transported assemblages in both bays, but the mode of preservation differs. In Delvan Bay, the organic component is highly degraded and <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> within the clastic component resulting in a carbonaceous silt. Little identifiable plant detritus can be recovered. On the other hand, the organic component in Chacaloochee Bay is accumulating in locally restricted allochthonous peat deposits up to 2 m in thickness, and discrete leaf beds generated by flooding events. In addition, autochthonous plant accumulations occur on subaerially and aerially exposed portions of the crevasse. The resultant distribution of plant remains is a complicated array of transported and non-transported organics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537768"><span>Combined harvesting of a stage structured prey-predator <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> cannibalism in competitive environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chakraborty, Kunal; Das, Kunal; Kar, Tapan Kumar</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a prey-predator system with stage structure for predator. The proposed system <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> cannibalism for predator populations in a competitive environment. The combined fishing effort is considered as control used to harvest the populations. The steady states of the system are determined and the dynamical behavior of the system is discussed. Local stability of the system is analyzed and sufficient conditions are derived for the global stability of the system at the positive equilibrium point. The existence of the Hopf bifurcation phenomenon is examined at the positive equilibrium point of the proposed system. We consider harvesting effort as a control parameter and subsequently, characterize the optimal control parameter in order to formulate the optimal control problem under the dynamic framework towards optimal utilization of the resource. Moreover, the optimal system is solved numerically to investigate the sustainability of the ecosystem using an iterative method with a Runge-Kutta fourth-order scheme. Simulation results show that the optimal control scheme can achieve sustainable ecosystem. Results are analyzed with the help of graphical illustrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPC10131N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPC10131N"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> beam attenuation into an Integrated Data Analysis <span class="hlt">model</span> to determine Zeff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, L. M.; den Hartog, D. J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Determining the resistive dissipation of current in hot plasmas requires knowledge of the effective ionic charge, Zeff. Typically Zeff is determined from visible bremsstrahlung emission, but in limited plasmas with relatively high edge neutral density, the neutrals contribute as much to the visible spectrum as do the impurities. Using techniques from integrated data analysis (IDA), measurements of soft-x-ray emission from a region of the spectrum dominated by bremsstrahlung and impurity recombination were combined with individual impurity density profile measurements from charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, enabling determination of Zeff in MST. Attenuation of the diagnostic neutral beam used to determine those impurity densities depends on Zeff. In order to further enhance the analysis, measurements of beam attenuation are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the IDA framework. The cross sections for attenuation are determined using the Atomic Data Analysis and Structure (ADAS) code suite. This measurement takes advantage of recent detailed calibrations performed during refurbishment of our 50 kV diagnostic neutral beam. This work is supported by the US DOE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22399153','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22399153"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for arsenic anti-site <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in GaAs grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schulte, K. L.; Kuech, T. F.</p> <p>2014-12-28</p> <p>GaAs growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) has regained interest as a potential route to low cost, high efficiency thin film photovoltaics. In order to attain the highest efficiencies, deep level defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> in these materials must be understood and controlled. The arsenic anti-site defect, As{sub Ga} or EL2, is the predominant deep level defect in HVPE-grown GaAs. In the present study, the relationships between HVPE growth conditions and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of EL2 in GaAs epilayers were determined. Epitaxial n-GaAs layers were grown under a wide range of deposition temperatures (T{sub D}) and gallium chloride partial pressures (P{sub GaCl}), and the EL2 concentration, [EL2], was determined by deep level transient spectroscopy. [EL2] agreed with equilibrium thermodynamic predictions in layers grown under conditions in which the growth rate, R{sub G}, was controlled by conditions near thermodynamic equilibrium. [EL2] fell below equilibrium levels when R{sub G} was controlled by surface kinetic processes, with the disparity increasing as R{sub G} decreased. The surface chemical composition during growth was determined to have a strong influence on EL2 <span class="hlt">incorporation</span>. Under thermodynamically limited growth conditions, e.g., high T{sub D} and/or low P{sub GaCl}, the surface vacancy concentration was high and the bulk crystal was close to equilibrium with the vapor phase. Under kinetically limited growth conditions, e.g., low T{sub D} and/or high P{sub GaCl}, the surface attained a high GaCl coverage, blocking As adsorption. This competitive adsorption process reduced the growth rate and also limited the amount of arsenic that <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> as As{sub Ga}. A defect <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> which accounted for the surface concentration of arsenic as a function of the growth conditions, was developed. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to identify optimal growth parameters for the growth of thin films for photovoltaics, conditions in which a high growth rate and low [EL2] could be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330670&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78689916&CFTOKEN=59781804','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=330670&keyword=space&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78689916&CFTOKEN=59781804"><span>On the importance of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> sampling weights in occupancy <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span> are used extensively to assess wildlife-habitat associations and to predict species distributions across large geographic regions. Occupancy <span class="hlt">models</span> were developed as a tool to properly account for imperfect detection of a species. Current guidelines on survey des...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319796','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319796"><span>Augmenting watershed <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration with <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of ancillary data sources and qualitative soft data sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Watershed simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> can be calibrated using “hard data” such as temporal streamflow observations; however, users may find upon examination of detailed outputs that some of the calibrated <span class="hlt">models</span> may not reflect summative actual watershed behavior. Thus, it is necessary to use “soft data” (i....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035854','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035854"><span>LINKING MICROBES TO CLIMATE: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> MICROBIAL ACTIVITY INTO CLIMATE <span class="hlt">MODELS</span> COLLOQUIUM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeLong, Edward; Harwood, Caroline; Reid, Ann</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This report explains the connection between microbes and climate, discusses in general terms what <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is and how it applied to climate, and discusses the need for knowledge in microbial physiology, evolution, and ecology to contribute to the determination of fluxes and rates in climate <span class="hlt">models</span>. It recommends with a multi-pronged approach to address the gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319795','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=319795"><span>Applications of explicitly-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span>/post-processing measurement uncertainty in watershed <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The importance of measurement uncertainty in terms of calculation of <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation error statistics has been recently stated in the literature. The impact of measurement uncertainty on calibration results indicates the potential vague zone in the field of watershed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> where the assumption ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211396"><span>A Dynamic Photovoltaic <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Capacitive and Reverse-Bias Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, KA; Xu, CY; Jin, L; Krein, PT</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Photovoltaics (PVs) are typically <span class="hlt">modeled</span> only for their forward-biased dc characteristics, as in the commonly used single-diode <span class="hlt">model</span>. While this approach accurately <span class="hlt">models</span> the I-V curve under steady forward bias, it lacks dynamic and reverse-bias characteristics. The dynamic characteristics, primarily parallel capacitance and series inductance, affect operation when a PV cell or string interacts with switching converters or experiences sudden transients. Reverse-bias characteristics are often ignored because PV devices are not intended to operate in the reverse-biased region. However, when partial shading occurs on a string of PVs, the shaded cell can become reverse biased and develop into a hot spot that permanently degrades the cell. To fully examine PV behavior under hot spots and various other faults, reverse-bias characteristics must also be <span class="hlt">modeled</span>. This study develops a comprehensive mathematical PV <span class="hlt">model</span> based on circuit components that accounts for forward bias, reverse bias, and dynamic characteristics. Using a series of three experimental tests on an unilluminated PV cell, all required <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters are determined. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is implemented in MATLAB Simulink and accurately <span class="hlt">models</span> the measured data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Introduction+AND+Linear+AND+Regression+AND+Analysis&pg=2&id=EJ943296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Introduction+AND+Linear+AND+Regression+AND+Analysis&pg=2&id=EJ943296"><span>Building out a Measurement <span class="hlt">Model</span> to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Complexities of Testing in the Language Domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Mark; Moore, Stephen</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides a summary of a novel and integrated way to think about the item response <span class="hlt">models</span> (most often used in measurement applications in social science areas such as psychology, education, and especially testing of various kinds) from the viewpoint of the statistical theory of generalized linear and nonlinear mixed <span class="hlt">models</span>. In addition,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=positive+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ761714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=positive+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ761714"><span>A Preventative <span class="hlt">Model</span> of School Consultation: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Perspectives from Positive Psychology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Little, Steven G.; Delligatti, Nina</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Using the principles of mental health and behavioral consultation, combined with concepts from positive psychology, this paper generates a new preventative <span class="hlt">model</span> of school consultation. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has two steps: (1) the school psychologist aids the teacher in the development and use of his/her personal positive psychology (e.g., optimism,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+modeling+AND+autism&pg=3&id=EJ1003983','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+modeling+AND+autism&pg=3&id=EJ1003983"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Video <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> into a School-Based Intervention for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Kaitlyn P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> is an intervention strategy that has been shown to be effective in improving the social and communication skills of students with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs. The purpose of this tutorial is to outline empirically supported, step-by-step instructions for the use of video <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by school-based speech-language…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281496&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281496&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905"><span>Eco-Evo PVAs: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We synthesize how advances in computational methods and population genomics can be combined within an Ecological-Evolutionary (Eco-Evo) PVA <span class="hlt">model</span>. Eco-Evo PVA <span class="hlt">models</span> are powerful new tools for understanding the influence of evolutionary processes on plant and animal population pe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ777477','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ777477"><span>An Item Response Theory <span class="hlt">Model</span> for <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a general item response theory <span class="hlt">model</span> for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear <span class="hlt">model</span> and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198071','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4198071"><span>TWO-LAYER MATHEMATICAL <span class="hlt">MODELING</span> OF GENE EXPRESSION: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> DNA-LEVEL INFORMATION AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DRESCH, JACQUELINE M.; THOMPSON, MARC A.; ARNOSTI, DAVID N.; CHIU, CHICHIA</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>High-throughput genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis have provided researchers with a quantitative basis for detailed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of gene expression using a wide variety of mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Two of the most commonly employed approaches used to <span class="hlt">model</span> eukaryotic gene regulation are systems of differential equations, which describe time-dependent interactions of gene networks, and thermodynamic equilibrium approaches that can explore DNA-level transcriptional regulation. To combine the strengths of these approaches, we have constructed a new two-layer mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> that provides a dynamical description of gene regulatory systems, using detailed DNA-based information, as well as spatial and temporal transcription factor concentration data. We also developed a semi-implicit numerical algorithm for solving the <span class="hlt">model</span> equations and demonstrate here the efficiency of this algorithm through stability and convergence analyses. To test the <span class="hlt">model</span>, we used it together with the semi-implicit algorithm to simulate a Drosophila gene regulatory circuit that drives development in the dorsal-ventral axis of the blastoderm-stage embryo, involving three genes. For <span class="hlt">model</span> validation, we have done both mathematical and statistical comparisons between the experimental data and the model’s simulated data. Where protein and cis-regulatory information is available, our two-layer <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a method for recapitulating and predicting dynamic aspects of eukaryotic transcriptional systems that will greatly improve our understanding of gene regulation at a global level. PMID:25328249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESSD...5.3061P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HESSD...5.3061P"><span>A simple 2-D inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> flood damage in urban drainage planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathirana, A.; Tsegaye, S.; Gersonius, B.; Vairavamoorthy, K.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>In this paper a new inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> code is developed and coupled with Storm Water Management <span class="hlt">Model</span>, SWMM, to relate spatial information associated with urban drainage systems as criteria for planning of storm water drainage networks. The prime objective is to achive a <span class="hlt">model</span> code that is simple and fast enough to be consistently be used in planning stages of urban drainage projects. The formulation for the two-dimensional (2-D) surface flow <span class="hlt">model</span> algorithms is based on the Navier Stokes equation in two dimensions. An Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) finite difference numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing equations. This numerical scheme is used to express the partial differential equations with time steps split into two halves. The <span class="hlt">model</span> algorithm is written using C++ computer programming language. This 2-D surface flow <span class="hlt">model</span> is then coupled with SWMM for simulation of both pipe flow component and surcharge induced inundation in urban areas. In addition, a damage calculation block is integrated within the inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> code. The coupled <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to be capable of dealing with various flow conditions, as well as being able to simulate wetting and drying processes that will occur as the flood flows over an urban area. It has been applied under idealized and semi-hypothetical cases to determine detailed inundation zones, depths and velocities due to surcharged water on overland surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H13E1369W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H13E1369W"><span>Large-Scale Sediment Routing: Development of a One-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Sand Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiele, S. M.; Wilcock, P. R.; Grams, P. E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Routing sediment through long reaches and networks requires a balance between <span class="hlt">model</span> efficiency, data availability, and accurate representation of sediment flux and storage. The first two often constrain the appropriate <span class="hlt">model</span> to one dimension, but such <span class="hlt">models</span> are unable to capture changes in sediment storage in side-channel environments, which are typically driven by two-dimensional transport fields. Side-channel environments are especially important in canyon channels. Routing of sand in canyon channels can be further complicated by transport of sand over a cobble or boulder bed and by remote locations, which can hinder measurement of channel shape. We have produced a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> that routes water and sand through the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> differs from conventional one-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> in several significant ways: (1) exchange of sand between the main downstream current and eddies, which cannot be directly represented by a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span>, is included by parameterizing predictions over a wide range of conditions from a multidimensional <span class="hlt">model</span>; (2) suspended-sand transport over an extremely rough and sparsely sand-covered bed, which is not accurately represented in conventional sand-transport relations or boundary conditions, is calculated in our <span class="hlt">model</span> with newly developed algorithms (see Grams and others, this meeting); (3) the channel is represented by reach-averaged properties, thereby reducing data requirements and increasing <span class="hlt">model</span> efficiency; and (4) the <span class="hlt">model</span> is coupled with an unsteady-flow <span class="hlt">model</span>, thereby accounting for frequent changes in discharge produced by variations in releases in this power-producing regulated river. Numerical <span class="hlt">models</span> can contribute to the explanation of observed changes in sand storage, extrapolate field observations to unobserved flows, and evaluate alternative dam-operation strategies for preserving the sand resource. <span class="hlt">Model</span> applications can address several significant management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16341923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16341923"><span>A LabVIEW <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an open-loop arterial impedance and a closed-loop circulatory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cole, R T; Lucas, C L; Cascio, W E; Johnson, T A</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>While numerous computer <span class="hlt">models</span> exist for the circulatory system, many are limited in scope, contain unwanted features or <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> complex components specific to unique experimental situations. Our purpose was to develop a basic, yet multifaceted, computer <span class="hlt">model</span> of the left heart and systemic circulation in LabVIEW having universal appeal without sacrificing crucial physiologic features. The program we developed employs Windkessel-type impedance <span class="hlt">models</span> in several open-loop configurations and a closed-loop <span class="hlt">model</span> coupling a lumped impedance and ventricular pressure source. The open-loop impedance <span class="hlt">models</span> demonstrate afterload effects on arbitrary aortic pressure/flow inputs. The closed-loop <span class="hlt">model</span> catalogs the major circulatory waveforms with changes in afterload, preload, and left heart properties. Our <span class="hlt">model</span> provides an avenue for expanding the use of the ventricular equations through closed-loop coupling that includes a basic coronary circuit. Tested values used for the afterload components and the effects of afterload parameter changes on various waveforms are consistent with published data. We conclude that this <span class="hlt">model</span> offers the ability to alter several circulatory factors and digitally catalog the most salient features of the pressure/flow waveforms employing a user-friendly platform. These features make the <span class="hlt">model</span> a useful instructional tool for students as well as a simple experimental tool for cardiovascular research.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EJASP2010..258Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EJASP2010..258Z"><span>On Optimizing H. 264/AVC Rate Control by Improving R-D <span class="hlt">Model</span> and <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> HVS Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zhongjie; Wang, Yuer; Bai, Yongqiang; Jiang, Gangyi</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The state-of-the-art JVT-G012 rate control algorithm of H.264 is improved from two aspects. First, the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) <span class="hlt">model</span> is modified based on both empirical observations and theoretical analysis. Second, based on the existing physiological and psychological research findings of human vision, the rate control algorithm is optimized by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the main characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) such as contrast sensitivity, multichannel theory, and masking effect. Experiments are conducted, and experimental results show that the improved algorithm can simultaneously enhance the overall subjective visual quality and improve the rate control precision effectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2793"><span>On Boundary Misorientation Distribution Functions and How to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> them into 3D <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Microstructural Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Godfrey, A.W.; Holm, E.A.; Hughes, D.A.; Miodownik, M.</p> <p>1998-12-23</p> <p>The fundamental difficulties <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> experimentally obtained-boundary disorientation distributions (BMD) into 3D microstructural <span class="hlt">models</span> are discussed. An algorithm is described which overcomes these difficulties. The boundary misorientations are treated as a statistical ensemble which is evolved toward the desired BMD using a Monte Carlo method. The application of this algorithm to a number complex arbitrary BMDs shows that the approach is effective for both conserved and non-conserved textures. The algorithm is successfully used to create the BMDs observed in deformation microstructure containing both incidental dislocation boundaries (IDBs) and geometrically necessary boundaries (GNBs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22451016"><span>A physiologically based pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of mitoxantrone in mice and scale-up to humans: a semi-mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> DNA and protein binding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>An, Guohua; Morris, Marilyn E</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of mitoxantrone (Novantrone®), a clinically well-established anticancer agent, in mice and developed a mechanism-based PBPK (physiologically based pharmacokinetic) <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe its disposition. Mitoxantrone concentrations in plasma and six organs (lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and brain) were determined after a 5 mg/kg i.v. dose. We evaluated three different PBPK <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to characterize our experimental data: <span class="hlt">model</span> 1 containing Kp values, <span class="hlt">model</span> 2 <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a deep binding compartment, and <span class="hlt">model</span> 3 <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> binding of mitoxantrone to DNA and protein. Among the three <span class="hlt">models</span>, only <span class="hlt">model</span> 3 with DNA and protein binding captured all the experimental data well. The estimated binding affinity for DNA (K (DNA)) and protein (K (macro)) were 0.0013 and 1.44 μM, respectively. Predicted plasma and tissue AUC values differed from observed values by <19 %, except for heart (60 %). <span class="hlt">Model</span> 3 was further used to simulate plasma mitoxantrone concentrations in humans for a 12-mg/m(2) dose, using human physiological parameters. The simulated results generally agreed with the observed time course of mitoxantrone plasma concentrations in patients after a standard dose of 12 mg/m(2). In summary, we reported for the first time a mechanism-based PBPK <span class="hlt">model</span> of mitoxantrone <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> macromolecule binding which may have clinical applicability in optimizing clinical therapy. Since mitoxantrone is a substrate of the efflux transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1, the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of efflux transporters may also be necessary to characterize the data obtained in low-dose studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001445','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001445"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of an Energy Equation into a Pulsed Inductive Thruster Performance <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Polzin, Kurt A.; Reneau, Jarred P.; Sankaran, Kameshwaran</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration containing an energy equation to account for the various sources and sinks in such devices is presented. The <span class="hlt">model</span> consists of a set of circuit equations coupled to an equation of motion and energy equation for the plasma. The latter two equations are obtained for the plasma current sheet by treating it as a one-element finite volume, integrating the equations over that volume, and then matching known terms or quantities already calculated in the <span class="hlt">model</span> to the resulting current sheet-averaged terms in the equations. Calculations showing the time-evolution of the various sources and sinks in the system are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the <span class="hlt">model</span>, with two separate resistivity <span class="hlt">models</span> employed to show an example of how the plasma transport properties can affect the calculation. While neither resistivity <span class="hlt">model</span> is fully accurate, the demonstration shows that it is possible within this <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework to time-accurately update various plasma parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28029150"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> single-step strategy into random regression <span class="hlt">model</span> to enhance genomic prediction of longitudinal trait.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, H; Zhou, L; Mrode, R; Zhang, Q; Liu, J-F</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>In prediction of genomic values, single-step method has been demonstrated to outperform multi-step methods. In statistical analyses of longitudinal traits, random regression test-day <span class="hlt">model</span> (RR-TDM) has clear advantages over other <span class="hlt">models</span>. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the performance of the <span class="hlt">model</span> integrating both single-step and RR-TDM prediction methods, called single-step random regression test-day <span class="hlt">model</span> (SS RR-TDM), in comparison with the pedigree-based RR-TDM and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) <span class="hlt">model</span>. We performed extensive simulations to exploit potential advantages of SS RR-TDM over the other two <span class="hlt">models</span> under various scenarios with different level of heritability, number of quantitative trait loci as well as selection scheme. SS RR-TDM was found to achieve the highest accuracy and unbiasedness under all scenarios, exhibiting robust prediction ability in longitudinal trait analyses. Moreover, SS RR-TDM showed better persistency of accuracy over generations than GBLUP <span class="hlt">model</span>. In addition, we also found that the SS RR-TDM had advantages over RR-TDM and GBLUP in terms of a real data set of human contributed by the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18. The findings in our study firstly proved the feasibility and advantages of the SS RR-TDM, and further enhanced strategies for the genomic prediction of longitudinal traits in the future.Heredity advance online publication, 28 December 2016; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.91.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/64504','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/64504"><span>A cometabolic kinetics <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> enzyme inhibition, inactivation, and recovery. 2: Trichloroethylene degradation experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ely, R.L.; Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J.; Guenther, R.B.; Williamson, K.J.</p> <p>1995-05-05</p> <p>A cometabolism enzyme kinetics <span class="hlt">model</span> has been presented which takes into account changes in bacterial activity associated with enzyme inhibition, inactivation of enzyme resulting from product toxicity, and respondent synthesis of new enzyme. Although this process is inherently unsteady-state, the <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes that cometabolic degradation of a compound exhibiting product toxicity can be <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as pseudo-steady-state under certain conditions. In its simplified form, the <span class="hlt">model</span> also assumes that enzyme inactivation is directly proportional to nongrowth substrate oxidation, and that recovery is directly proportional to growth substrate oxidation. In part 1, <span class="hlt">model</span> derivation, simplification, and analyses were described. In this article, <span class="hlt">model</span> assumptions are tested by analyzing data from experiments examining trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea in a quasi-stead-state bioreactor. <span class="hlt">Model</span> solution results showed TCE to be a competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, with TCE affinity for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) being about four times greater than that of ammonia for the enzyme. Inhibition was independent of TCE oxidation and occurred essentially instantly upon exposure to TCE. In contrast, inactivation of AMO occurred more gradually and was proportional to the rate and amount of TCE oxidized. Evaluation of other O{sub 2}-dependent enzymes and electron transport proteins suggested that TCE-related damage was predominantly confined to AMO. In response to inhibition and/or inactivation, bacterial recovery was initiated, even in the presence of TCE, implying that membranes and protein synthesis systems were functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17g5009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JBO....17g5009C"><span>Development of a human eye <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> with intraocular scattering for visual performance assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yi-Chun; Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Sun, Ching-Cherng</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A biometry-based human eye <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed by using the empirical anatomic and optical data of ocular parameters. The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens was <span class="hlt">modeled</span> by concentric conicoid isoindical surfaces and was adaptive to accommodation and age. The chromatic dispersion of ocular media was described by Cauchy equations. The intraocular scattering <span class="hlt">model</span> was composed of volumetric Mie scattering in the cornea and the crystalline lens, and a diffusive-surface <span class="hlt">model</span> at the retina fundus. The retina was regarded as a Lambertian surface and was assigned its corresponding reflectance at each wavelength. The optical performance of the eye <span class="hlt">model</span> was evaluated in CodeV and ASAP and presented by the modulation transfer functions at single and multiple wavelengths. The chromatic optical powers obtained from this <span class="hlt">model</span> resembled that of the average physiological eyes. The scattering property was assessed by means of glare veiling luminance and compared with the CIE general disability glare equation. By replacing the transparent lens with a cataractous lens, the disability glare curve of cataracts was generated to compare with the normal disability glare curve. This <span class="hlt">model</span> has high potential for investigating visual performance in ordinary lighting and display conditions and under the influence of glare sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3844S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3844S"><span>Ionospheric <span class="hlt">model</span>-observation comparisons: E layer at Arecibo <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of SDO-EVE solar irradiances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sojka, Jan J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; David, Michael; Schunk, Robert W.; Woods, Tom; Eparvier, Frank; Sulzer, Michael P.; Gonzalez, Sixto A.; Eccles, J. Vincent</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This study evaluates how the new irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) can, with its high spectral resolution and 10 s cadence, improve the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of the E region. To demonstrate this a campaign combining EVE observations with that of the NSF Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was conducted. The ISR provides E region electron density observations with high-altitude resolution, 300 m, and absolute densities using the plasma line technique. Two independent ionospheric <span class="hlt">models</span> were used, the Utah State University Time-Dependent Ionospheric <span class="hlt">Model</span> (TDIM) and Space Environment Corporation's Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) <span class="hlt">model</span>. Each used the same EVE irradiance spectrum binned at 1 nm resolution from 0.1 to 106 nm. At the E region peak the <span class="hlt">modeled</span> TDIM density is 20% lower and that of the DDDR is 6% higher than observed. These differences could correspond to a 36% lower (TDIM) and 12% higher (DDDR) production rate if the differences were entirely attributed to the solar irradiance source. The detailed profile shapes that included the E region altitude and that of the valley region were only qualitatively similar to observations. Differences on the order of a neutral-scale height were present. Neither <span class="hlt">model</span> captured a distinct dawn to dusk tilt in the E region peak altitude. A <span class="hlt">model</span> sensitivity study demonstrated how future improved spectral resolution of the 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance could account for some of these <span class="hlt">model</span> shortcomings although other relevant processes are also poorly <span class="hlt">modeled</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMT....29..311H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMT....29..311H"><span>Thermodynamically consistent <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of granular-fluid mixtures <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heß, Julian; Wang, Yongqi; Hutter, Kolumban</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new, thermodynamically consistent <span class="hlt">model</span> for granular-fluid mixtures, derived with the entropy principle of Müller and Liu. Including a pressure diffusion equation combined with the concept of extra pore pressure, and hypoplastic material behavior, thermodynamic restrictions are imposed on the constitutive quantities. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is applied to a granular-fluid flow, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the fluid pressure. While the focal point of the work is the conceptional part, i.e. the thermodynamic consistent <span class="hlt">modeling</span>, numerical simulations with physically reasonable results for simple shear flow are also carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B44B..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B44B..07K"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> representation of agricultural ecosystems and management within a dynamic biosphere <span class="hlt">model</span>: Approach, validation, and significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kucharik, C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>At the scale of individual fields, crop <span class="hlt">models</span> have long been used to examine the interactions between soils, vegetation, the atmosphere and human management, using varied levels of numerical sophistication. While previous efforts have contributed significantly towards the advancement of <span class="hlt">modeling</span> tools, the <span class="hlt">models</span> themselves are not typically applied across larger continental scales due to a lack of crucial data. Furthermore, many times crop <span class="hlt">models</span> are used to study a single quantity, process, or cycle in isolation, limiting their value in considering the important tradeoffs between competing ecosystem services such as food production, water quality, and sequestered carbon. In response to the need for a more integrated agricultural <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach across the continental scale, an updated agricultural version of a dynamic biosphere <span class="hlt">model</span> (IBIS) now integrates representations of land-surface physics and soil physics, canopy physiology, terrestrial carbon and nitrogen balance, crop phenology, solute transport, and farm management into a single framework. This version of the IBIS <span class="hlt">model</span> (Agro-IBIS) uses a short 20 to 60-minute timestep to simulate the rapid exchange of energy, carbon, water, and momentum between soils, vegetative canopies, and the atmosphere. The <span class="hlt">model</span> can be driven either by site-specific meteorological data or by gridded climate datasets. Mechanistic crop <span class="hlt">models</span> for corn, soybean, and wheat use physiologically-based representations of leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and plant respiration. <span class="hlt">Model</span> validation has been performed using a variety of temporal scale data collected at the following spatial scales: (1) the precision-agriculture scale (5 m), (2) the individual field experiment scale (AmeriFlux), and (3) regional and continental scales using annual USDA county-level yield data and monthly satellite (AVHRR) observations of vegetation characteristics at 0.5 degree resolution. To date, the <span class="hlt">model</span> has been used with great success to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067970','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067970"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of NREL Solar Advisor <span class="hlt">Model</span> Photovoltaic Capabilities with GridLAB-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tuffner, Francis K.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Singh, Ruchi</p> <p>2012-10-19</p> <p>This report provides a summary of the work updating the photovoltaic <span class="hlt">model</span> inside GridLAB-D. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Advisor <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SAM) was utilized as a basis for algorithms and validation of the new implementation. Subsequent testing revealed that the two implementations are nearly identical in both solar impacts and power output levels. This synergized <span class="hlt">model</span> aides the system-level impact studies of GridLAB-D, but also allows more specific details of a particular site to be explored via the SAM software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068084','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030068084"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Electrical Systems <span class="hlt">Models</span> Into an Existing Thermodynamic Cycle Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeh, Josh</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Integration of entire system includes: Fuel cells, motors, propulsors, thermal/power management, compressors, etc. Use of existing, pre-developed NPSS capabilities includes: 1) Optimization tools; 2) Gas turbine <span class="hlt">models</span> for hybrid systems; 3) Increased interplay between subsystems; 4) Off-design <span class="hlt">modeling</span> capabilities; 5) Altitude effects; and 6) Existing transient <span class="hlt">modeling</span> architecture. Other factors inclde: 1) Easier transfer between users and groups of users; 2) General aerospace industry acceptance and familiarity; and 3) Flexible analysis tool that can also be used for ground power applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23684950"><span>A stoichiometric producer-grazer <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effects of excess food-nutrient content on consumer dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peace, Angela; Zhao, Yuqin; Loladze, Irakli; Elser, James J; Kuang, Yang</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. For example, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> under this framework allows food quality to affect consumer dynamics. While the effects of nutrient deficiency on consumer growth are well understood, recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that consumer dynamics are not only affected by insufficient food nutrient content (low phosphorus (P): carbon (C) ratio) but also by excess food nutrient content (high P:C). This phenomenon is known as the stoichiometric knife edge, in which animal growth is reduced not only by food with low P content but also by food with high P content, and needs to be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we present a Lotka-Volterra type <span class="hlt">model</span> to investigate the growth response of Daphnia to algae of varying P:C ratios capturing the mechanism of the stoichiometric knife edge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGS....18..205L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGS....18..205L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> GIS data into an agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents an extension to the agent-based <span class="hlt">model</span> "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved <span class="hlt">model</span> exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSMSE..19a5005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSMSE..19a5005M"><span>A creep <span class="hlt">model</span> for austenitic stainless steels <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> cavitation and wedge cracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahesh, S.; Alur, K. C.; Mathew, M. D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> of damage evolution in austenitic stainless steels under creep loading at elevated temperatures is proposed. The initial microstructure is idealized as a space-tiling aggregate of identical rhombic dodecahedral grains, which undergo power-law creep deformation. Damage evolution in the form of cavitation and wedge cracking on grain-boundary facets is considered. Both diffusion- and deformation-driven grain-boundary cavity growth are treated. Cavity and wedge-crack length evolution are derived from an energy balance argument that combines and extends the <span class="hlt">models</span> of Cottrell (1961 Trans. AIME 212 191-203), Williams (1967 Phil. Mag. 15 1289-91) and Evans (1971 Phil Mag. 23 1101-12). The time to rupture predicted by the <span class="hlt">model</span> is in good agreement with published experimental data for a type 316 austenitic stainless steel under uniaxial creep loading. Deformation and damage evolution at the microscale predicted by the present <span class="hlt">model</span> are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MmSAI..85..321H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MmSAI..85..321H"><span>Chemical evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies based on <span class="hlt">model</span> calculations <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> observed star formation histories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Homma, H.; Murayama, T.</p> <p></p> <p>We investigate the chemical evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> explaining the chemical composition and the star formation histories (SFHs) simultaneously for the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Recently, wide imaging photometry and multi-object spectroscopy give us a large number of data. Therefore, we start to develop the chemical evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> based on an SFH given by photometric observations and estimates a metallicity distribution function (MDF) comparing with spectroscopic observations. With this new <span class="hlt">model</span> we calculate the chemical evolution for 4 dSphs (Fornax, Sculptor, Leo II, Sextans), and then we found that the <span class="hlt">model</span> of 0.1 Gyr for the delay time of type Ia SNe is too short to explain the observed [alpha /Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagrams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15889432"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> hidden Markov <span class="hlt">models</span> for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Wu, Li-Cheng; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Tsae</p> <p>2005-07-30</p> <p>Protein phosphorylation, which is an important mechanism in posttranslational modification, affects essential cellular processes such as metabolism, cell signaling, differentiation, and membrane transportation. Proteins are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. In this investigation, we develop a novel tool to computationally predict catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the concepts of profile Hidden Markov <span class="hlt">Models</span> (HMM), computational <span class="hlt">models</span> are trained from the kinase-specific groups of phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the trained <span class="hlt">models</span>, we select the <span class="hlt">model</span> with highest accuracy in each kinase-specific group and provide a Web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. The main contribution here is that we have developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=167843&keyword=1984&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90595024&CFTOKEN=25779213','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=167843&keyword=1984&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90595024&CFTOKEN=25779213"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Results of Avian Toxicity Tests into a <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Annual Reproductive Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript presents a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for translating results from laboratory avian reproduction tests into an estimate of pesticide-caused change in the annual reproductive success of birds, also known as fecundity rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108579','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108579"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> two variability sources for describing motor evoked potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goetz, Stefan M.; Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) play a pivotal role in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), e.g., for determining the motor threshold and probing cortical excitability. Sampled across the range of stimulation strengths, MEPs outline an input–output (IO) curve, which is often used to characterize the corticospinal tract. More detailed understanding of the signal generation and variability of MEPs would provide insight into the underlying physiology and aid correct statistical treatment of MEP data. Methods A novel regression <span class="hlt">model</span> is tested using measured IO data of twelve subjects. The <span class="hlt">model</span> splits MEP variability into two independent contributions, acting on both sides of a strong sigmoidal nonlinearity that represents neural recruitment. Traditional sigmoidal regression with a single variability source after the nonlinearity is used for comparison. Results The distribution of MEP amplitudes varied across different stimulation strengths, violating statistical assumptions in traditional regression <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to the conventional regression <span class="hlt">model</span>, the dual variability source <span class="hlt">model</span> better described the IO characteristics including phenomena such as changing distribution spread and skewness along the IO curve. Conclusions MEP variability is best described by two sources that most likely separate variability in the initial excitation process from effects occurring later on. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> enables more accurate and sensitive estimation of the IO curve characteristics, enhancing its power as a detection tool, and may apply to other brain stimulation modalities. Furthermore, it extracts new information from the IO data concerning the neural variability—information that has previously been treated as noise. PMID:24794287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22948107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22948107"><span>Creating a process for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> epidemiological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> into outbreak management decisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akselrod, Hana; Mercon, Monica; Kirkeby Risoe, Petter; Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; McGovern, Joanne; Bogucki, Sandy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Modern computational <span class="hlt">models</span> of infectious diseases greatly enhance our ability to understand new infectious threats and assess the effects of different interventions. The recently-released CDC Framework for Preventing Infectious Diseases calls for increased use of predictive <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of epidemic emergence for public health preparedness. Currently, the utility of these technologies in preparedness and response to outbreaks is limited by gaps between <span class="hlt">modelling</span> output and information requirements for incident management. The authors propose an operational structure that will facilitate integration of <span class="hlt">modelling</span> capabilities into action planning for outbreak management, using the Incident Command System (ICS) and Synchronization Matrix framework. It is designed to be adaptable and scalable for use by state and local planners under the National Response Framework (NRF) and Emergency Support Function #8 (ESF-8). Specific epidemiological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> requirements are described, and integrated with the core processes for public health emergency decision support. These methods can be used in checklist format to align prospective or real-time <span class="hlt">modelling</span> output with anticipated decision points, and guide strategic situational assessments at the community level. It is anticipated that formalising these processes will facilitate translation of the CDC's policy guidance from theory to practice during public health emergencies involving infectious outbreaks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9223T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9223T"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> rainfall uncertainty in a SWAT <span class="hlt">model</span>: the river Zenne basin (Belgium) case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tolessa Leta, Olkeba; Nossent, Jiri; van Griensven, Ann; Bauwens, Willy</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) called its member countries to achieve a good ecological status for all inland and coastal water bodies by 2015. According to recent studies, the river Zenne (Belgium) is far from this objective. Therefore, an interuniversity and multidisciplinary project "Towards a Good Ecological Status in the river Zenne (GESZ)" was launched to evaluate the effects of wastewater management plans on the river. In this project, different <span class="hlt">models</span> have been developed and integrated using the Open <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Interface (OpenMI). The hydrologic, semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is hereby used as one of the <span class="hlt">model</span> components in the integrated <span class="hlt">modelling</span> chain in order to <span class="hlt">model</span> the upland catchment processes. The assessment of the uncertainty of SWAT is an essential aspect of the decision making process, in order to design robust management strategies that take the predicted uncertainties into account. <span class="hlt">Model</span> uncertainty stems from the uncertainties on the <span class="hlt">model</span> parameters, the input data (e.g, rainfall), the calibration data (e.g., stream flows) and on the <span class="hlt">model</span> structure itself. The objective of this paper is to assess the first three sources of uncertainty in a SWAT <span class="hlt">model</span> of the river Zenne basin. For the assessment of rainfall measurement uncertainty, first, we identified independent rainfall periods, based on the daily precipitation and stream flow observations and using the Water Engineering Time Series PROcessing tool (WETSPRO). Secondly, we assigned a rainfall multiplier parameter for each of the independent rainfall periods, which serves as a multiplicative input error corruption. Finally, we treated these multipliers as latent parameters in the <span class="hlt">model</span> optimization and uncertainty analysis (UA). For parameter uncertainty assessment, due to the high number of parameters of the SWAT <span class="hlt">model</span>, first, we screened out its most sensitive parameters using the Latin Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) technique</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25431585"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> mode choice behavior <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> household and individual sociodemographics and travel attributes based on rough sets theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Long; Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most traditional mode choice <span class="hlt">models</span> are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice <span class="hlt">modeling</span> can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to <span class="hlt">model</span> travel mode choices <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for <span class="hlt">model</span> estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets <span class="hlt">model</span> shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL <span class="hlt">model</span> also proves that the rough sets <span class="hlt">model</span> gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..465..472Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..465..472Y"><span>A kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> in Lagrangian coordinates <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> capacity drop: Application to homogeneous road stretches and discontinuities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Kai; Knoop, Victor L.; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>On freeways, congestion always leads to capacity drop. This means the queue discharge rate is lower than the pre-queue capacity. Our recent research findings indicate that the queue discharge rate increases with the speed in congestion, that is the capacity drop is strongly correlated with the congestion state. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> this varying capacity drop into a kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> is essential for assessing consequences of control strategies. However, to the best of authors' knowledge, no such a <span class="hlt">model</span> exists. This paper fills the research gap by presenting a Lagrangian kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span>. "Lagrangian" denotes that the new <span class="hlt">model</span> is solved in Lagrangian coordinates. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> can give capacity drops accompanying both of stop-and-go waves (on homogeneous freeway section) and standing queues (at nodes) in a network. The new <span class="hlt">model</span> can be applied in a network operation. In this Lagrangian kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span>, the queue discharge rate (or the capacity drop) is a function of vehicular speed in traffic jams. Four case studies on links as well as at lane-drop and on-ramp nodes show that the Lagrangian kinematic wave <span class="hlt">model</span> can give capacity drops well, consistent with empirical observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A14A..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A14A..03B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Detailed Chemical Characterization of Biomass Burning Emissions into Air Quality <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barsanti, K.; Hatch, L. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Orlando, J. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Knote, C. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Approximately 500 Tg/yr of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) are emitted by biomass burning (BB) to the global atmosphere, leading to the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary particulate matter (PM). Until recently, in studies of BB emissions, a significant mass fraction of NMOCs (up to 80%) remained uncharacterized or unidentified. <span class="hlt">Models</span> used to simulate the air quality impacts of BB thus have relied on very limited chemical characterization of the emitted compounds. During the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-IV), an unprecedented fraction of emitted NMOCs were identified and quantified through the application of advanced analytical techniques. Here we use FLAME-IV data to improve BB emissions speciation profiles for individual fuel types. From box <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations we evaluate the sensitivity of predicted precursor and pollutant concentrations (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and terpene oxidation products) to differences in the emission speciation profiles, for a range of ambient conditions (e.g., high vs. low NOx). Appropriate representation of emitted NMOCs in <span class="hlt">models</span> is critical for the accurate prediction of downwind air quality. Explicit simulation of hundreds of NMOCs is not feasible; therefore we also investigate the consequences of using existing assumptions and lumping schemes to map individual NMOCs to <span class="hlt">model</span> surrogates and we consider alternative strategies. The updated BB emissions speciation profiles lead to markedly different surrogate compound distributions than the default speciation profiles, and box <span class="hlt">model</span> results suggest that these differences are likely to affect predictions of PM and important gas-phase species in chemical transport <span class="hlt">models</span>. This study highlights the potential for further BB emissions characterization studies, with concerted <span class="hlt">model</span> development efforts, to improve the accuracy of BB predictions using necessarily simplified mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.102...14O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.102...14O"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> floating surface objects into a fully dispersive surface wave <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orzech, Mark D.; Shi, Fengyan; Veeramony, Jayaram; Bateman, Samuel; Calantoni, Joseph; Kirby, James T.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The shock-capturing, non-hydrostatic, three-dimensional (3D) finite-volume <span class="hlt">model</span> NHWAVE was originally developed to simulate wave propagation and landslide-generated tsunamis in finite water depth (Ma, G., Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., 2012. Ocean <span class="hlt">Model</span>. 43-44, 22-35). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in which the z-axis is transformed to a σ-coordinate that tracks the bed and surface. As part of an ongoing effort to simulate waves in polar marginal ice zones (MIZs), the <span class="hlt">model</span> has now been adapted to allow objects of arbitrary shape and roughness to float on or near its water surface. The shape of the underside of each floating object is mapped onto an upper σ-level slightly below the surface. In areas without floating objects, this σ-level continues to track the surface and bed as before. Along the sides of each floating object, an immersed boundary method is used to interpolate the effects of the object onto the neighboring fluid volume. Provided with the object's shape, location, and velocity over time, NHWAVE determines the fluid fluxes and pressure variations from the corresponding accelerations at neighboring cell boundaries. The system was validated by comparison with analytical solutions and a VOF <span class="hlt">model</span> for a 2D floating box and with laboratory measurements of wave generation by a vertically oscillating sphere. A steep wave simulation illustrated the high efficiency of NHWAVE relative to a VOF <span class="hlt">model</span>. In a more realistic MIZ simulation, the adapted <span class="hlt">model</span> produced qualitatively reasonable results for wave attenuation, diffraction, and scattering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...50..362N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MSSP...50..362N"><span>Structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span> updating of cavity systems <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> vibro-acoustic coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> updating techniques are used to update the finite element <span class="hlt">model</span> of a structure in order to improve its correlation with the experimental dynamic test data. These techniques are well developed and extensively studied for the case of purely structural dynamic systems. However, the cavities encountered in automotive, aerospace and other transportation applications represent a class of structures in which an elastic structure encloses an acoustic medium. In such systems the dynamic characteristics of the structure are influenced by the acoustic loading due to the acoustic response in the cavity. The existing structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span> updating approaches assume the structure to be under in-vacuo condition and hence if used for updating cavity structural FE <span class="hlt">models</span> would not allow taking into account the effect of acoustic loading on the structural dynamic characteristics. This may adversely affect the effectiveness of updating in yielding an accurate updated FE <span class="hlt">model</span>. This paper addresses the above issue and presents a structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span> updating method, called 'coupled inverse eigen-sensitivity method', which takes into account the acoustic loading on the structure. The method uses the experimentally identified coupled modal data on the structure as the reference data. A numerical case study of a 3D rectangular cavity backed by a flexible plate is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach to obtain an accurate structural FE <span class="hlt">model</span>. Updating is also carried out using the existing (uncoupled) inverse eigen-sensitivity method to study the influence of acoustic loading on the updating process and to study the accuracy with which the updating parameters are identified. The results obtained are also compared with those obtained by the proposed coupled inverse eigen-sensitivity method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2596H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2596H"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> microbial dormancy dynamics into soil decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve quantification of soil carbon dynamics of northern temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Yujie; Yang, Jinyan; Zhuang, Qianlai; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, Anthony D.; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Gangsheng; Gu, Lianhong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> have seen much growth recently for quantifying this role, yet dormancy as a common strategy used by microorganisms has not usually been represented and tested in these <span class="hlt">models</span> against field observations. Here we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span> and examined <span class="hlt">model</span> performance with and without representation of microbial dormancy at six temperate forest sites of different forest types. We then extrapolated the <span class="hlt">model</span> to global temperate forest ecosystems to investigate biogeochemical controls on soil heterotrophic respiration and microbial dormancy dynamics at different temporal-spatial scales. The dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently produced better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil CO2 efflux (RH) than the no dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our regional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results further indicated that <span class="hlt">models</span> with dormancy were able to produce more realistic magnitude of microbial biomass (<2% of soil organic carbon) and soil RH (7.5 ± 2.4 Pg C yr-1). Spatial correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content was the dominating factor (correlation coefficient = 0.4-0.6) in the simulated spatial pattern of soil RH with both <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to strong temporal and local controls of soil temperature and moisture on microbial dormancy, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results showed that soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) was a major regulating factor at regional scales (correlation coefficient = -0.43 to -0.58), indicating scale-dependent biogeochemical controls on microbial dynamics. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial dormancy could improve the realism of microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> and enhance the integration of soil experiments and mechanistically based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168357"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> microbial dormancy dynamics into soil decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> to improve quantification of soil carbon dynamics of northern temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>He, Yujie; Yang, Jinyan; Zhuang, Qianlai; Harden, Jennifer W.; McGuire, Anthony; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Gangsheng; Gu, Lianhong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> have seen much growth recently for quantifying this role, yet dormancy as a common strategy used by microorganisms has not usually been represented and tested in these <span class="hlt">models</span> against field observations. Here we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition <span class="hlt">model</span> and examined <span class="hlt">model</span> performance with and without representation of microbial dormancy at six temperate forest sites of different forest types. We then extrapolated the <span class="hlt">model</span> to global temperate forest ecosystems to investigate biogeochemical controls on soil heterotrophic respiration and microbial dormancy dynamics at different temporal-spatial scales. The dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span> consistently produced better match with field-observed heterotrophic soil CO2 efflux (RH) than the no dormancy <span class="hlt">model</span>. Our regional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results further indicated that <span class="hlt">models</span> with dormancy were able to produce more realistic magnitude of microbial biomass (<2% of soil organic carbon) and soil RH (7.5 ± 2.4 Pg C yr−1). Spatial correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content was the dominating factor (correlation coefficient = 0.4–0.6) in the simulated spatial pattern of soil RHwith both <span class="hlt">models</span>. In contrast to strong temporal and local controls of soil temperature and moisture on microbial dormancy, our <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results showed that soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) was a major regulating factor at regional scales (correlation coefficient = −0.43 to −0.58), indicating scale-dependent biogeochemical controls on microbial dynamics. Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> microbial dormancy could improve the realism of microbial-based decomposition <span class="hlt">models</span> and enhance the integration of soil experiments and mechanistically based <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512027N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512027N"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> channel geometric uncertainty into a regional scale flood inundation <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neal, Jeffrey; Odoni, Nick; Trigg, Mark; Freer, Jim; Bates, Paul</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Models</span> that simulate the dynamics of river and floodplain water surface elevations over large regions have a wide range of applications including regional scale flood risk estimation and simulating wetland inundation dynamics, while potential emerging applications include estimating river discharge from level observations as part of a data assimilation system. The river routing schemes used by global land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> are often relatively simple in that they are based on wave speed, kinematic and diffusive physics. However, as the research on large scale river <span class="hlt">modelling</span> matures, approaches are being developed that resemble scaled-up versions of the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> traditionally applied to rivers at the reach scale. These developments are not surprising given that such <span class="hlt">models</span> can be significantly more accurate than traditional routing schemes at simulating water surface elevation. This presentation builds on the work of Neal et al. (2012) who adapted a reach scale dynamic flood inundation <span class="hlt">model</span> for large scale application with the addition of a sub-grid parameterisation for channel flow. The scheme was shown to be numerically stable and scalable, with the aid of some simple test cases, before it was applied to an 800 km reach of the River Niger that includes the complex waterways and lakes of the Niger Inland Delta in Mali. However, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was significantly less accurate at low to moderate flows than at high flow due, in part, to assuming that the channel geometry was rectangular. Furthermore, this made it difficult to calibrate channel parameters with water levels during typical flow conditions. This presentation will describe an extension of this sub-grid <span class="hlt">model</span> that allows the channel shape to be defined as an exponent of width, along with a regression based approach to approximate the wetted perimeter length for the new geometry. By treating the geometry in this way uncertainty in the channel shape can be considered as a <span class="hlt">model</span> parameter, which for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173756','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173756"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> harvest rates into the sex-age-kill <span class="hlt">model</span> for white-tailed deer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population <span class="hlt">models</span> to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, <span class="hlt">models</span> must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population <span class="hlt">models</span> for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these <span class="hlt">models</span> when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population <span class="hlt">model</span> using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK <span class="hlt">model</span> robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK <span class="hlt">model</span> was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK <span class="hlt">model</span>. Because obtaining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661953"><span>Hierarchical Bayesian inference for HIV dynamic differential equation <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple treatment factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yangxin; Wu, Hulin; Acosta, Edward P</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Studies on HIV dynamics in AIDS research are very important in understanding the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and also in assessing the effectiveness of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Viral dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> can be formulated through a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE), but there has been only limited development of statistical methodologies for inference. This article, motivated by an AIDS clinical study, discusses a hierarchical Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach to dynamic ODE <span class="hlt">models</span> without a closed-form solution. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, we fully integrate viral load, medication adherence, drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, baseline covariates and time-dependent drug efficacy into the data analysis for characterizing long-term virologic responses. Our method is implemented by a data set from an AIDS clinical study. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">modeling</span> HIV dynamics and virologic responses with consideration of time-varying clinical factors as well as baseline characteristics may be important for HIV/AIDS studies in providing quantitative guidance to better understand the virologic responses to ARV treatment and to help the evaluation of clinical trial design in response to existing therapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852412"><span>New systematic methodology for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> dynamic heat transfer <span class="hlt">modelling</span> in multi-phase biochemical reactors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Grau, P; Ayesa, E</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methodology for dynamically predicting the heat produced or consumed in the transformations of any biological reactor using Hess's law. Starting from a complete description of <span class="hlt">model</span> components stoichiometry and formation enthalpies, the proposed <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methodology has integrated successfully the simultaneous calculation of both the conventional mass balances and the enthalpy change of reaction in an expandable multi-phase matrix structure, which facilitates a detailed prediction of the main heat fluxes in the biochemical reactors. The methodology has been implemented in a plant-wide <span class="hlt">modelling</span> methodology in order to facilitate the dynamic description of mass and heat throughout the plant. After validation with literature data, as illustrative examples of the capability of the methodology, two case studies have been described. In the first one, a predenitrification-nitrification dynamic process has been analysed, with the aim of demonstrating the easy integration of the methodology in any system. In the second case study, the simulation of a thermal <span class="hlt">model</span> for an ATAD has shown the potential of the proposed methodology for analysing the effect of ventilation and influent characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNEng..12d6018S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNEng..12d6018S"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> advanced language <span class="hlt">models</span> into the P300 speller using particle filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram <span class="hlt">models</span>. While more sophisticated language <span class="hlt">models</span> are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language <span class="hlt">model</span>. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4509796','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4509796"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> advanced language <span class="hlt">models</span> into the P300 speller using particle filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Speier, W; Arnold, CW; Deshpande, A; Knall, J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective The P300 speller is a common brain–computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram <span class="hlt">models</span>. While more sophisticated language <span class="hlt">models</span> are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language <span class="hlt">model</span>. Main Result This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov <span class="hlt">model</span> (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance. PMID:26061188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.451a2040P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.451a2040P"><span>Ultrasonically assisted drilling: A finite-element <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> acoustic softening effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phadnis, V. A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) is a novel machining technique suitable for drilling in hard-to-machine quasi-brittle materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP). UAD has been shown to possess several advantages compared to conventional drilling (CD), including reduced thrust forces, diminished burr formation at drill exit and an overall improvement in roundness and surface finish of the drilled hole. Recently, our in-house experiments of UAD in CFRP composites demonstrated remarkable reductions in thrust-force and torque measurements (average force reductions in excess of 80%) when compared to CD with the same machining parameters. In this study, a 3D finite-element <span class="hlt">model</span> of drilling in CFRP is developed. In order to <span class="hlt">model</span> acoustic (ultrasonic) softening effects, a phenomenological <span class="hlt">model</span>, which accounts for ultrasonically induced plastic strain, was implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also accounts for dynamic frictional effects, which also contribute to the overall improved machining characteristics in UAD. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is validated with experimental findings, where an excellent correlation between the reduced thrust force and torque magnitude was achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415332','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415332"><span>Hybrid Cone-Beam Tomographic Reconstruction: <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Prior Anatomical <span class="hlt">Models</span> to Compensate for Missing Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sadowsky, Ofri; Lee, Junghoon; Sutter, E. Grant; Wall, Simon J.; Prince, Jerry L.; Taylor, Russell H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We propose a method for improving the quality of cone-beam tomographic reconstruction done with a C-arm. C-arm scans frequently suffer from incomplete information due to image truncation, limited scan length, or other limitations. Our proposed “hybrid reconstruction” method injects information from a prior anatomical <span class="hlt">model</span>, derived from a subject-specific CT or from a statistical database (atlas), where the C-arm x-ray data is missing. This significantly reduces reconstruction artifacts with little loss of true information from the x-ray projections. The methods consist of constructing anatomical <span class="hlt">models</span>, fast rendering of digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) projections of the <span class="hlt">models</span>, rigid or deformable registration of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and the x-ray images, and fusion of the DRR and x-ray projections, all prior to a conventional filtered back-projection algorithm. Our experiments, conducted with a mobile image intensifier C-arm, demonstrate visually and quantitatively the contribution of data fusion to image quality, which we assess through comparison to a “ground truth” CT. Importantly, we show that a significantly improved reconstruction can be obtained from a C-arm scan as short as 90° by complementing the observed projections with DRRs of two prior <span class="hlt">models</span>, namely an atlas and a pre-operative same-patient CT. The hybrid reconstruction principles are applicable to other types of C-arms as well. PMID:20667807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25892739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25892739"><span>Estimation of a Semiparametric Natural Direct Effect <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Baseline Covariates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tchetgen Tchetgen, E J; Shpitser, I</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Establishing cause-effect relationships is a standard goal of empirical science. Once the presence of a causal relationship is established, the precise causal mechanism involved becomes a topic of interest. A particularly popular type of mechanism analysis concerns questions of mediation, that is to what extent an effect is direct, and to what extent it is mediated by a third variable. A semiparametric theory has recently been proposed which allows multiply robust estimation of direct and mediated marginal effect functionals in observational studies (Tchetgen Tchetgen & Shpitser, 2012). In this paper we extend the new theory to handle parametric <span class="hlt">models</span> of natural direct and indirect effects within levels of pre-exposure variables with an identity or log link function, where the <span class="hlt">model</span> for the observed data likelihood is otherwise unrestricted. We show that estimation is generally not feasible in this <span class="hlt">model</span> because of the curse of dimensionality associated with the required estimation of auxiliary conditional densities or expectations, given high-dimensional covariates. Thus, we consider multiply robust estimation and propose a more general <span class="hlt">model</span> which assumes that a subset but not all of several working <span class="hlt">models</span> holds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H34E..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H34E..08M"><span>A <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Framework to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Effects of Infrastructure in Sociohydrological Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muneepeerakul, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In studying coupled natural-human systems, most <span class="hlt">modeling</span> efforts focus on humans and the natural resources. In reality, however, humans rarely interact with these resources directly; the relationships between humans and resources are mediated by infrastructures. In sociohydrological systems, these include, for example, dams and irrigation canals. These infrastructures have important characteristics such as threshold behavior and a separate entity/organization tasked with maintaining them. These characteristics influence social dynamics within the system, which in turn determines the state of infrastructure and water usage, thereby exerting feedbacks onto the hydrological processes. Infrastructure is thus a necessary ingredient for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> co-evolution of human and water in sociohydrological systems. A conceptual framework to address this gap has been proposed by Anderies, Janssen, and Ostrom (2004). Here we develop a <span class="hlt">model</span> to operationalize the framework and report some preliminary results. Simple in its setup, the <span class="hlt">model</span> highlights the structure of the social dilemmas and how it affects the system's sustainability. The <span class="hlt">model</span> also offers a platform to explore how the system's sustainability may respond to external shocks from globalization and global climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606298"><span>Simulated masking of right whale sounds by shipping noise: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a <span class="hlt">model</span> of the auditory periphery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Kane A; Mountain, David C</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Many species of large, mysticete whales are known to produce low-frequency communication sounds. These low-frequency sounds are susceptible to communication masking by shipping noise, which also tends to be low frequency in nature. The size of these species makes behavioral assessment of auditory capabilities in controlled, captive environments nearly impossible, and field-based playback experiments are expensive and necessarily limited in scope. Hence, it is desirable to produce a masking <span class="hlt">model</span> for these species that can aid in determining the potential effects of shipping and other anthropogenic noises on these protected animals. The aim of this study was to build a <span class="hlt">model</span> that combines a sophisticated representation of the auditory periphery with a spectrogram-based decision stage to predict masking levels. The output of this <span class="hlt">model</span> can then be combined with a habitat-appropriate propagation <span class="hlt">model</span> to calculate the potential effects of noise on communication range. For this study, the <span class="hlt">model</span> was tested on three common North Atlantic right whale communication sounds, both to demonstrate the method and to probe how shipping noise affects the detection of sounds with varying spectral and temporal characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19586250"><span>A theory and <span class="hlt">model</span> of conflict detection in air traffic control: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> environmental constraints.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S; Neal, Andrew</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a <span class="hlt">model</span> that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to ensure separation between aircraft. These safety margins are formed through experience and reflect the biasing of decisions to favor safety over accuracy, as well as expectations regarding uncertainty in aircraft trajectory. In 2 experiments, controllers indicated whether they would intervene to ensure separation between pairs of aircraft. The <span class="hlt">model</span> closely predicted the probability of controller intervention across the geometry of problems and as a function of controller experience. When controller safety margins were manipulated via task instructions, the parameters of the <span class="hlt">model</span> changed in the predicted direction. The strength of the <span class="hlt">model</span> over existing and alternative <span class="hlt">models</span> is that it better captures the uncertainty and decision biases involved in the process of conflict detection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008394','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008394"><span>On <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> damping and gravity effects in <span class="hlt">models</span> of structural dynamics of the SCOLE configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Larry; Leary, Terry; Stewart, Eric</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The damping for structural dynamic <span class="hlt">models</span> of flexible spacecraft is usually ignored and then added after modal frequencies and mode shapes are calculated. It is common practice to assume the same damping ratio for all modes, although it is known that damping due to bending and that due to torsion are sometimes ignored. Two methods of including damping in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> process from its onset are examined. First, the partial derivative equations of motion are analyzed for a pinned-pinned beam with damping. The end conditions are altered to handle bodies with mass and inertia for the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) configuration. Second, a massless beam approximation is used for the modes with low frequencies, and a clamped-clamped system is used to approximate the modes for arbitrarily high frequency. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is then modified to include gravity effects and is compared with experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430792"><span>Approximate world <span class="hlt">models</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> qualitative and linguistic information into vision systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pinhanez, C.S.; Bobick, A.F.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Approximate world <span class="hlt">models</span> are coarse descriptions of the elements of a scene, and are intended to be used in the selection and control of vision routines in a vision system. In this paper we present a control architecture in which the approximate <span class="hlt">models</span> represent the complex relationships among the objects in the world, allowing the vision routines to be situation or context specific. Moreover, because of their reduced accuracy requirements, approximate world <span class="hlt">models</span> can employ qualitative information such as those provided by linguistic descriptions of the scene. The concept is demonstrated in the development of automatic cameras for a TV studio-SmartCams. Results are shown where SmartCams use vision processing of real imagery and information written in the script of a TV show to achieve TV-quality framing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...336..115R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...336..115R"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of lithium-sulfur batteries <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effect of Li2S precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Y. X.; Zhao, T. S.; Liu, M.; Tan, P.; Zeng, Y. K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this work, we present a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">model</span> for the discharge behavior of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In addition to the consideration of multiple-step polysulfide dissolution and reductions, the surface nucleation and growth kinetics coupled with electrochemical reactions is particularly exploited for describing the Li2S precipitation. Unlike previous <span class="hlt">models</span> that overlook the rate-dependent precipitation phenomenon, our <span class="hlt">model</span> reveals that discrete Li2S particle growth becomes suppressed at higher rates, resulting in smaller Li2S precipitates with a more uniform particle size distribution and a limited discharge capacity. Experimental discharge curves and discharge product observation adequately confirm our numerical results. It is further predicted that promoting the growth of Li2S particles, including lowering the initial nucleation rate and providing a suitable amount of initial nucleation sites, can efficiently prolong the Li-S battery's discharge capacity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770067671&hterms=3815&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D3815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770067671&hterms=3815&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D3815"><span>Behavior of volatiles in Mars' polar areas - A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> new experimental data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davies, D. W.; Farmer, C. B.; Laporte, D. D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed to explain the north polar water vapor results obtained by the Viking orbiter Mars atmospheric water detector; it has also been used to compute the thickness of seasonally deposited CO2 frost, the variation of the total atmospheric pressure, and wind velocities due to mass motions associated with CO2 condensation. A north polar water ice thickness in excess of 1 m and an ice albedo a of 0.34(+0.06,-0.03) are inferred from a comparison of the <span class="hlt">model</span> and experimental data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> results confirm an earlier conclusion that the atmosphere over the ice is saturated. It is suggested that concentration of the atmospheric inert gases in the polar region, combined with local topography and arctic circulation patterns, could be responsible for the south remnant cap not being at the south pole</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAMD.tmp...19M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAMD.tmp...19M"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics at Vertex Pharmaceuticals <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span>: our philosophy for sustained impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGaughey, Georgia; Patrick Walters, W.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Molecular <span class="hlt">modelers</span> and informaticians have the unique opportunity to integrate cross-functional data using a myriad of tools, methods and visuals to generate information. Using their drug discovery expertise, information is transformed to knowledge that impacts drug discovery. These insights are often times formulated locally and then applied more broadly, which influence the discovery of new medicines. This is particularly true in an organization where the members are exposed to projects throughout an organization, such as in the case of the global <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex Pharmaceuticals. From its inception, Vertex has been a leader in the development and use of computational methods for drug discovery. In this paper, we describe the <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> & Informatics group at Vertex and the underlying philosophy, which has driven this team to sustain impact on the discovery of first-in-class transformative medicines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820041619&hterms=maraz&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmaraz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820041619&hterms=maraz&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmaraz"><span>The design of a wind tunnel VSTOL fighter <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> turbine powered engine simulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bailey, R. O.; Maraz, M. R.; Hiley, P. E.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A wind-tunnel <span class="hlt">model</span> of a supersonic VSTOL fighter aircraft configuration has been developed for use in the evaluation of airframe-propulsion system aerodynamic interactions. The <span class="hlt">model</span> may be employed with conventional test techniques, where configuration aerodynamics are measured in a flow-through mode and incremental nozzle-airframe interactions are measured in a jet-effects mode, and with the Compact Multimission Aircraft Propulsion Simulator which is capable of the simultaneous simulation of inlet and exhaust nozzle flow fields so as to allow the evaluation of the extent of inlet and nozzle flow field coupling. The basic configuration of the twin-engine <span class="hlt">model</span> has a geometrically close-coupled canard and wing, and a moderately short nacelle with nonaxisymmetric vectorable exhaust nozzles near the wing trailing edge, and may be converted to a canardless configuration with an extremely short nacelle. Testing is planned to begin in the summer of 1982.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..447..292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..447..292C"><span>Development of a used fuel cladding damage <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> circumferential and radial hydride responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Qiushi; Ostien, Jakob T.; Hansen, Glen</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>At the completion of the fuel drying process, used fuel Zry4 cladding typically exhibits a significant population of δ-hydride inclusions. These inclusions are in the form of small platelets that are generally oriented both circumferentially and radially within the cladding material. There is concern that radially-oriented hydride inclusions may weaken the cladding material and lead to issues during used fuel storage and transportation processes. A high fidelity <span class="hlt">model</span> of the mechanical behavior of hydrides has utility in both designing fuel cladding to be more resistant to this hydride-induced weakening and also in suggesting modifications to drying, storage, and transport operations to reduce the impact of hydride formation and/or the avoidance of loading scenarios that could overly stress the radial inclusions. We develop a mechanical <span class="hlt">model</span> for the Zry4-hydride system that, given a particular morphology of hydride inclusions, allows the calculation of the response of the hydrided cladding under various loading scenarios. The <span class="hlt">model</span> treats the Zry4 matrix material as J2 elastoplastic, and treats the hydrides as platelets oriented in predefined directions (e.g., circumferentially and radially). The <span class="hlt">model</span> is hosted by the Albany analysis framework, where a finite element approximation of the weak form of the cladding boundary value problem is solved using a preconditioned Newton-Krylov approach. Instead of forming the required system Jacobian operator directly or approximating its action with a differencing operation, Albany leverages the Trilinos Sacado package to form the Jacobian via automatic differentiation. We present results that describe the performance of the <span class="hlt">model</span> in comparison with as-fabricated Zry4 as well as HB Robinson fuel cladding. Further, we also present performance results that demonstrate the efficacy of the overall solution method employed to host the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51...78P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51...78P"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of groundwater pumping in a global Land Surface <span class="hlt">Model</span> with the representation of human impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Koirala, Sujan; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Hanasaki, Naota; Longuevergne, Laurent; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Observations indicate that groundwater levels are declining in many regions around the world. Simulating such depletion of groundwater at the global scale still remains a challenge because most global Land Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span> (LSMs) lack the physical representation of groundwater dynamics in general and well pumping in particular. Here we present an integrated hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span>, which explicitly simulates groundwater dynamics and pumping within a global LSM that also accounts for human activities such as irrigation and reservoir operation. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to simulate global water fluxes and storages with a particular focus on groundwater withdrawal and depletion in the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) and Central Valley Aquifer (CVA). Simulated global groundwater withdrawal and depletion for the year 2000 are 570 and 330 km3 yr-1, respectively; the depletion agrees better with observations than our previous <span class="hlt">model</span> result without groundwater representation, but may still contain certain uncertainties and is on the higher side of other estimates. Groundwater withdrawals from the HPA and CVA are ˜22 and ˜9 km3 yr-1, respectively, which are also consistent with the observations of ˜24 and ˜13 km3 yr-1. The <span class="hlt">model</span> simulates a significant decline in total terrestrial water storage in both regions as caused mainly by groundwater storage depletion. Groundwater table declined by ˜14 cm yr-1 in the HPA during 2003-2010; the rate is even higher (˜71 cm yr-1) in the CVA. These results demonstrate the potential of the developed <span class="hlt">model</span> to study the dynamic relationship between human water use, groundwater storage, and the entire hydrologic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31J0769Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31J0769Z"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Hydrologic Routing into Reservoir Optimization <span class="hlt">Model</span>: Implications for Hydropower Production Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zmijewski, N.; Worman, A. L. E.; Bottacin-Busolin, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Renewable and intermittent energy sources are likely to become more important in the future and consequently lead to a change in the production strategies of hydropower to account for expected production fluctuations. Optimization <span class="hlt">models</span> are used as a tool to achieve the best overall result in a network of reservoirs and hydropower plants. The computational demand increases for large networks, making simplification of the physical description of the stream flows necessary. In management optimization <span class="hlt">models</span>, the flows behavior is often described using a constant time-lag for water on flow stretches, i.e., the release of water mass from an upstream reservoir is time-shifted as inflow to the subsequent reservoir. We developed an optimization <span class="hlt">model</span> that included the kinematic-diffusion wave equation for flow on stretches, which was used to evaluate the role of the <span class="hlt">model</span> improvement for short term production planning in Dalälven River, a study case with 36 hydropower stations and 13 major reservoirs . The increased complexity of the time-lag distributions of the streams resulting from the kinematic-diffusion wave equation compared to the constant time-lag <span class="hlt">model</span> was found to be highly important for many situation of hydropower production planning in a regulated water system. The deviation of optimized power production resulting from the two <span class="hlt">models</span> (time-lag and kinematic-diffusive) increases with decreasing Peclet number for the flow stretches - the latter being evaluated for all included stretches. A procedure emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern systems, using the receding horizon approach, was used in order to describe the dynamic effect of the resulting flow prediction deviation. The procedure also demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for highly effected streams, which implies that the error in predicted power production decreases with decreasing time step of forecast updating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402680','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402680"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> of high efficiency solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lumb, Matthew P.; Steiner, Myles A.; Geisz, John F.; Walters, Robert J.</p> <p>2014-11-21</p> <p>The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells. In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we outline an approach to account for photon recycling in the analytical Hovel <span class="hlt">model</span> and compare analytical <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions to GaAs-based experimental devices operating close to the fundamental efficiency limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23470251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23470251"><span>Absolute stability and Hopf bifurcation in a Plasmodium falciparum malaria <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> discrete immune response delay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ncube, Israel</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We consider the absolute stability of the disease-free equilibrium of an intra-host Plasmodium falciparum malarial <span class="hlt">model</span> allowing for antigenic variation within a single species. Antigenic variation can be viewed as an adaptation of the parasite to evade host defence [2]. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was recently developed in [3-6]. The host's immune response is compartmentalised into reactions to major and minor epitopes. The immune response mounted by the human host is delayed, where, for simplicity, the delay is assumed to be discrete. We investigate the resulting characteristic equation, with a view to establishing absolute stability criteria and computing the Hopf bifurcation of the disease-free equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4135489','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4135489"><span>Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription123</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thomas, Diana M; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lettieri, Steven; Levine, James A; Bouchard, Claude; Schoeller, Dale A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: Clinical weight loss in individuals typically stabilizes at 6 mo. However, validated <span class="hlt">models</span> of dynamic energy balance have consistently shown weight plateaus between 1 and 2 y. The cause for this discrepancy is unclear. Objective: We developed 2 mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics to investigate plausible explanations for reaching an early weight plateau at 6 mo. Design: The first <span class="hlt">model</span> was an energy-expenditure adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span> and was applied to determine the degree of metabolic adaptation required to generate this plateau. The second <span class="hlt">model</span> was an intermittent lack-of-adherence <span class="hlt">model</span> formulated by using a randomly fluctuating energy intake term accounting for intermittent noncompliance in dietary intake to reach this plateau. To set <span class="hlt">model</span> variables, validate <span class="hlt">models</span>, and compare free-living weight-loss patterns to in-residence supervised programs, we applied the following 4 different studies: The US NHANES 1999–2004, Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) weight-loss study, the Bouchard Twin overfeeding study, and the Minnesota Starvation Experiment. Results: The metabolic adaptation <span class="hlt">model</span> increased final weight but did not affect the predicted plateau time point. The intermittent lack-of-adherence <span class="hlt">model</span> generated oscillating weight graphs that have been frequently observed in weight-loss studies. The <span class="hlt">model</span> showed that a 6-mo weight-loss plateau can be attained despite what can be considered as high diet adherence. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was programmed as a downloadable application. Conclusions: An intermittent lack of diet adherence, not metabolic adaptation, is a major contributor to the frequently observed early weight-loss plateau. The new weight-loss prediction software, which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> an intermittent lack of adherence, can be used to guide and inform patients on realistic levels of adherence on the basis of patient lifestyle. The CALERIE study was registered at clinicaltrials</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908..949S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..908..949S"><span>Computationally Efficient Finite Element Analysis Method <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Virtual Equivalent Projected <span class="hlt">Model</span> For Metallic Sandwich Panels With Pyramidal Truss Cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seong, Dae-Yong; Jung, ChangGyun; Yang, Dong-Yol</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Metallic sandwich panels composed of two face sheets and cores with low relative density have lightweight characteristics and various static and dynamic load bearing functions. To predict the forming characteristics, performance, and formability of these structured materials, full 3D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analysis involving tremendous computational time and memory are required. Some constitutive continuum <span class="hlt">models</span> including homogenization approaches to solve these problems have limitations with respect to the prediction of local buckling of face sheets and inner structures. In this work, a computationally efficient FE-analysis method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a virtual equivalent projected <span class="hlt">model</span> that enables the simulation of local buckling modes is newly introduced for analysis of metallic sandwich panels. Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> using the projected shapes of 3D structures have the same equivalent elastic-plastic properties with original geometries that have anisotropic stiffness, yield strength, and hardening function. The sizes and isotropic properties of the virtual equivalent projected <span class="hlt">model</span> have been estimated analytically with the same equivalent properties and face buckling strength of the full <span class="hlt">model</span>. The 3-point bending processes with quasi-two-dimensional loads and boundary conditions are simulated to establish the validity of the proposed method. The deformed shapes and load-displacement curves of the virtual equivalent projected <span class="hlt">model</span> are found to be almost the same as those of a full three-dimensional FE-analysis while reducing computational time drastically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21061781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21061781"><span>Computationally Efficient Finite Element Analysis Method <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Virtual Equivalent Projected <span class="hlt">Model</span> For Metallic Sandwich Panels With Pyramidal Truss Cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seong, Dae-Yong; Jung, Chang Gyun; Yang, Dong-Yol</p> <p>2007-05-17</p> <p>Metallic sandwich panels composed of two face sheets and cores with low relative density have lightweight characteristics and various static and dynamic load bearing functions. To predict the forming characteristics, performance, and formability of these structured materials, full 3D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analysis involving tremendous computational time and memory are required. Some constitutive continuum <span class="hlt">models</span> including homogenization approaches to solve these problems have limitations with respect to the prediction of local buckling of face sheets and inner structures. In this work, a computationally efficient FE-analysis method <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a virtual equivalent projected <span class="hlt">model</span> that enables the simulation of local buckling modes is newly introduced for analysis of metallic sandwich panels. Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">models</span> using the projected shapes of 3D structures have the same equivalent elastic-plastic properties with original geometries that have anisotropic stiffness, yield strength, and hardening function. The sizes and isotropic properties of the virtual equivalent projected <span class="hlt">model</span> have been estimated analytically with the same equivalent properties and face buckling strength of the full <span class="hlt">model</span>. The 3-point bending processes with quasi-two-dimensional loads and boundary conditions are simulated to establish the validity of the proposed method. The deformed shapes and load-displacement curves of the virtual equivalent projected <span class="hlt">model</span> are found to be almost the same as those of a full three-dimensional FE-analysis while reducing computational time drastically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..467K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..467K"><span>The three-dimensional global numerical <span class="hlt">model</span> CHARM-I: The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of processes in the ionospheric D-region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivolutsky, A. A.; Cherepanova, L. A.; V'yushkova, T. Yu.; Repnev, A. I.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We describe the three-dimensional numerical global photochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> CHARM-I (CHemical Atmospheric Research <span class="hlt">Model</span> with Ions) and the results of numerical calculations of global distributions of neutral and charged atmospheric trace gases (in the height range of up to 90 km), such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, electrons, and positive and negative ions. This <span class="hlt">model</span> is an improved version of the CHARM three-dimensional photochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> of neutral components with additional reactions with the involvement of ions (a total of 200 photochemical reactions). The <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> UV-radiation fluxes on the Lyman-α line and galactic cosmic rays as ionizing factors. The neutral components are calculated with the method of "chemical families" and the concentrations of charged components are calculated by the electroneutrality condition at each time step. The spatial transport of chemically active species is described in the <span class="hlt">model</span> by the Prather scheme. The developed <span class="hlt">model</span> makes it also possible to take into account solar flares and particle precipitations in the ionospheric D-region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..22..427T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CNSNS..22..427T"><span>A density dependent delayed predator-prey <span class="hlt">model</span> with Beddington-DeAngelis type function response <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a prey refuge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tripathi, Jai Prakash; Abbas, Syed; Thakur, Manoj</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This paper describes a predator-prey <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a prey refuge. The feeding rate of consumers (predators) per consumer (i.e. functional response) is considered to be of Beddington-DeAngelis type. The Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is similar to the Holling-type II functional response but contains an extra term describing mutual interference by predators. We investigate the role of prey refuge and degree of mutual interference among predators in the dynamics of system. The dynamics of the system is discussed mainly from the point of view of permanence and stability. We obtain conditions that affect the persistence of the system. Local and global asymptotic stability of various equilibrium solutions is explored to understand the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">model</span> system. The global asymptotic stability of positive interior equilibrium solution is established using suitable Lyapunov functional. The dynamical behaviour of the delayed system is further analyzed through <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> discrete type gestation delay of predator. It is found that Hopf bifurcation occurs when the delay parameter τ crosses some critical value. The analytical results found in the paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000799','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000799"><span>Numerical Computation of a Continuous-thrust State Transition Matrix <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Accurate Hardware and Ephemeris <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellison, Donald; Conway, Bruce; Englander, Jacob</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A significant body of work exists showing that providing a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver with expressions for the problem constraint gradient substantially increases the speed of program execution and can also improve the robustness of convergence, especially for local optimizers. Calculation of these derivatives is often accomplished through the computation of spacecraft's state transition matrix (STM). If the two-body gravitational <span class="hlt">model</span> is employed as is often done in the context of preliminary design, closed form expressions for these derivatives may be provided. If a high fidelity dynamics <span class="hlt">model</span>, that might include perturbing forces such as the gravitational effect from multiple third bodies and solar radiation pressure is used then these STM's must be computed numerically. We present a method for the power hardward <span class="hlt">model</span> and a full ephemeris <span class="hlt">model</span>. An adaptive-step embedded eight order Dormand-Prince numerical integrator is discussed and a method for the computation of the time of flight derivatives in this framework is presented. The use of these numerically calculated derivatieves offer a substantial improvement over finite differencing in the context of a global optimizer. Specifically the inclusion of these STM's into the low thrust missiondesign tool chain in use at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center allows for an increased preliminary mission design cadence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.3796S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.3796S"><span>Optimizing hydrological consistency by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> hydrological signatures into <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration objectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shafii, Mahyar; Tolson, Bryan A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The simulated outcome of a calibrated hydrologic <span class="hlt">model</span> should be hydrologically consistent with the measured response data. Hydrologic <span class="hlt">modelers</span> typically calibrate <span class="hlt">models</span> to optimize residual-based goodness-of-fit measures, e.g., the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency measure, and then evaluate the obtained results with respect to hydrological signatures, e.g., the flow duration curve indices. The literature indicates that the consideration of a large number of hydrologic signatures has not been addressed in a full multiobjective optimization context. This research develops a <span class="hlt">model</span> calibration methodology to achieve hydrological consistency using goodness-of-fit measures, many hydrological signatures, as well as a level of acceptability for each signature. The proposed framework relies on a scoring method that transforms any hydrological signature to a calibration objective. These scores are used to develop the hydrological consistency metric, which is maximized to obtain hydrologically consistent parameter sets during calibration. This consistency metric is implemented in different signature-based calibration formulations that adapt the sampling according to hydrologic signature values. These formulations are compared with the traditional formulations found in the literature for seven case studies. The results reveal that Pareto dominance-based multiobjective optimization yields the highest level of consistency among all formulations. Furthermore, it is found that the choice of optimization algorithms does not affect the findings of this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mental+AND+Practice&pg=5&id=EJ1011560','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mental+AND+Practice&pg=5&id=EJ1011560"><span>Teaching Note--<span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Journal Clubs into Social Work Education: An Exploratory <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Megan; Fawley-King, Kya; Stone, Susan I.; Accomazzo, Sarah M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article outlines the implementation of a journal club for master's and doctoral social work students interested in mental health practice. It defines educational journal clubs and discusses the history of journal clubs in medical education and the applicability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> to social work education. The feasibility of implementing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2600907','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2600907"><span>Socially informed random walks: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> group dynamics into <span class="hlt">models</span> of population spread and growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haydon, Daniel T; Morales, Juan M; Yott, Adelle; Jenkins, Deborah A; Rosatte, Rick; Fryxell, John M</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Simple correlated random walk (CRW) <span class="hlt">models</span> are rarely sufficient to describe movement of animals over more than the shortest time scales. However, CRW approaches can be used to <span class="hlt">model</span> more complex animal movement trajectories by assuming individuals move in one of several different behavioural or movement states, each characterized by a different CRW. The spatial and social context an individual experiences may influence the proportion of time spent in different movement states, with subsequent effects on its spatial distribution, survival and fecundity. While methods to study habitat influences on animal movement have been previously developed, social influences have been largely neglected. Here, we fit a ‘socially informed’ movement <span class="hlt">model</span> to data from a population of over 100 elk (Cervus canadensis) reintroduced into a new environment, radio-collared and subsequently tracked over a 4-year period. The analysis shows how elk move further when they are solitary than when they are grouped and incur a higher rate of mortality the further they move away from the release area. We use the <span class="hlt">model</span> to show how the spatial distribution and growth rate of the population depend on the balance of fission and fusion processes governing the group structure of the population. The results are briefly discussed with respect to the design of species reintroduction programmes. PMID:18270158</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Cryo...70....9C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Cryo...70....9C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Artificial Neural Networks in the dynamic thermal-hydraulic <span class="hlt">model</span> of a controlled cryogenic circuit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carli, S.; Bonifetto, R.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">model</span> based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is developed for the heated line portion of a cryogenic circuit, where supercritical helium (SHe) flows and that also includes a cold circulator, valves, pipes/cryolines and heat exchangers between the main loop and a saturated liquid helium (LHe) bath. The heated line mimics the heat load coming from the superconducting magnets to their cryogenic cooling circuits during the operation of a tokamak fusion reactor. An ANN is trained, using the output from simulations of the circuit performed with the 4C thermal-hydraulic (TH) code, to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the heated line, including for the first time also scenarios where different types of controls act on the circuit. The ANN is then implemented in the 4C circuit <span class="hlt">model</span> as a new component, which substitutes the original 4C heated line <span class="hlt">model</span>. For different operational scenarios and control strategies, a good agreement is shown between the simplified ANN <span class="hlt">model</span> results and the original 4C results, as well as with experimental data from the HELIOS facility confirming the suitability of this new approach which, extended to an entire magnet systems, can lead to real-time control of the cooling loops and fast assessment of control strategies for heat load smoothing to the cryoplant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264629','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264629"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Monitoring Systems to <span class="hlt">Model</span> Irrigated Cotton at a Landscape Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Advances in computer speed, industry IT core capabilities, and available soils and weather information have resulted in the need for “cropping system models” that address in detail the spatial and temporal water, energy and carbon balance of the system at a landscape scale. Many of these <span class="hlt">models</span> have...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554869"><span>Novel method for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainties into gravitational wave parameter estimates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Christopher J; Gair, Jonathan R</p> <p>2014-12-19</p> <p>Posterior distributions on parameters computed from experimental data using Bayesian techniques are only as accurate as the <span class="hlt">models</span> used to construct them. In many applications, these <span class="hlt">models</span> are incomplete, which both reduces the prospects of detection and leads to a systematic error in the parameter estimates. In the analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors, for example, accurate waveform templates can be computed using numerical methods, but the prohibitive cost of these simulations means this can only be done for a small handful of parameters. In this Letter, a novel method to fold <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainties into data analysis is proposed; the waveform uncertainty is analytically marginalized over using with a prior distribution constructed by using Gaussian process regression to interpolate the waveform difference from a small training set of accurate templates. The method is well motivated, easy to implement, and no more computationally expensive than standard techniques. The new method is shown to perform extremely well when applied to a toy problem. While we use the application to gravitational wave data analysis to motivate and illustrate the technique, it can be applied in any context where <span class="hlt">model</span> uncertainties exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=227238','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=227238"><span>Process <span class="hlt">model</span> for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic <span class="hlt">model</span> integrating ammonia ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246591&keyword=Pubmed&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90539950&CFTOKEN=18755832','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246591&keyword=Pubmed&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90539950&CFTOKEN=18755832"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Biological, Chemical and Toxicological Knowledge into Predictive <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Toxicity: Letter to the Editor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thomas et al. (2012) recently published an evaluation of statistical <span class="hlt">models</span> for classifying in vivo toxicity endpoints from ToxRefDB (Knudsen et al. 2009; Martin et al. 2009a and 2009b) using ToxCast in vitro bioactivity data (Judson et al. 2010) and chemical structure descriptor...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bridge+AND+structures&pg=5&id=EJ1006401','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bridge+AND+structures&pg=5&id=EJ1006401"><span>A Probabilistic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Visual Working Memory: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal <span class="hlt">models</span> of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=272938&keyword=Air+AND+force&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90509454&CFTOKEN=94348237','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=272938&keyword=Air+AND+force&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90509454&CFTOKEN=94348237"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Retention Time to Refine <span class="hlt">Models</span> Predicting Thermal Regimes of Stream Networks Across New England</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermal regimes are a critical factor in <span class="hlt">models</span> predicting effects of watershed management activities on fish habitat suitability. We have assembled a database of lotic temperature time series across New England (> 7000 station-year combinations) from state and Federal data s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086252.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1086252.pdf"><span>Teaching for Art Criticism: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Feldman's Critical Analysis Learning <span class="hlt">Model</span> in Students' Studio Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Subramaniam, Maithreyi; Hanafi, Jaffri; Putih, Abu Talib</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study adopted 30 first year graphic design students' artwork, with critical analysis using Feldman's <span class="hlt">model</span> of art criticism. Data were analyzed quantitatively; descriptive statistical techniques were employed. The scores were viewed in the form of mean score and frequencies to determine students' performances in their critical ability.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234439&keyword=Guillermo&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89570696&CFTOKEN=12011087','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=234439&keyword=Guillermo&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89570696&CFTOKEN=12011087"><span>Scale and hierarchical relationships when <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> observed data into fish <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Identifying correlations between environmental variables and fish presence or density is usually the main focus of efforts to <span class="hlt">model</span> fish-habitat relationships. These relationships, however, can be confounded by scale and hierarchical effects. In particular the strength of fish –...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft&pg=2&id=EJ847005','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aircraft&pg=2&id=EJ847005"><span>A Theory and <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Conflict Detection in Air Traffic Control: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Environmental Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S.; Neal, Andrew</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a <span class="hlt">model</span> that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SSEle..50.1299B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SSEle..50.1299B"><span>An explicit surface-potential-based MOSFET <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the quantum mechanical effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu, Dipanjan; Dutta, Aloke K.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>An explicit surface-potential-based MOSFET <span class="hlt">model</span> has been proposed in this work here, which takes into account the quantum mechanical effects that arise in deep-submicron MOSFETs. The coupled Schrödinger's and Poisson's equations have been solved by using a variational wave function approach, as proposed by Fang and Howard. The resulting surface potential <span class="hlt">model</span> is analytical, technology mapped, and completely continuous over the entire range of operation. The surface potential and the inversion charge density calculated using the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> show good match with the results of the numerical simulations obtained from a self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson solver for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. The simulated values of the drain current match closely with the experimental results published elsewhere. The device small-signal parameters, e.g., transconductance, output conductance, etc., pass the standard benchmark tests suggested by Suyama and Tsividis qualitatively, thereby validating the approach of the <span class="hlt">model</span> presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4862506','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4862506"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Stage-Specific Drug Action into Pharmacological <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Antimalarial Drug Treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pharmacological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of antiparasitic treatment based on a drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties plays an increasingly important role in identifying optimal drug dosing regimens and predicting their potential impact on control and elimination programs. Conventional <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of treatment relies on methods that do not distinguish between parasites at different developmental stages. This is problematic for malaria parasites, as their sensitivity to drugs varies substantially during their 48-h developmental cycle. We investigated four drug types (short or long half-lives with or without stage-specific killing) to quantify the accuracy of the standard methodology. The treatment dynamics of three drug types were well characterized with standard <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. The exception were short-half-life drugs with stage-specific killing (i.e., artemisinins) because, depending on time of treatment, parasites might be in highly drug-sensitive stages or in much less sensitive stages. We describe how to bring such drugs into pharmacological <span class="hlt">modeling</span> by including additional variation into the drug's maximal killing rate. Finally, we show that artemisinin kill rates may have been substantially overestimated in previous <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies because (i) the parasite reduction ratio (PRR) (generally estimated to be 104) is based on observed changes in circulating parasite numbers, which generally overestimate the “true” PRR, which should include both circulating and sequestered parasites, and (ii) the third dose of artemisinin at 48 h targets exactly those stages initially hit at time zero, so it is incorrect to extrapolate the PRR measured over 48 h to predict the impact of doses at 48 h and later. PMID:26902760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047986"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Stakeholder Decision Support Needs into an Integrated Regional Earth System <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rice, Jennie S.; Moss, Richard H.; Runci, Paul J.; Anderson, K. L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.</p> <p>2012-03-21</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">modeling</span> effort exploring the opportunities, constraints, and interactions between mitigation and adaptation at regional scale is utilizing stakeholder engagement in an innovative approach to guide <span class="hlt">model</span> development and demonstration, including uncertainty characterization, to effectively inform regional decision making. This project, the integrated Regional Earth System <span class="hlt">Model</span> (iRESM), employs structured stakeholder interactions and literature reviews to identify the most relevant adaptation and mitigation alternatives and decision criteria for each regional application of the framework. The information is used to identify important <span class="hlt">model</span> capabilities and to provide a focus for numerical experiments. This paper presents the stakeholder research results from the first iRESM pilot region. The pilot region includes the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwest portion of the United States as well as other contiguous states. This geographic area (14 states in total) permits cohesive <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of hydrologic systems while also providing gradients in climate, demography, land cover/land use, and energy supply and demand. The results from the stakeholder research indicate that iRESM should prioritize addressing adaptation alternatives in the water resources, urban infrastructure, and agriculture sectors, such as water conservation, expanded water quality monitoring, altered reservoir releases, lowered water intakes, urban infrastructure upgrades, increased electric power reserves in urban areas, and land use management/crop selection changes. Regarding mitigation alternatives, the stakeholder research shows a need for iRESM to focus on policies affecting the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and the costs and effectiveness of energy efficiency, bioenergy production, wind energy, and carbon capture and sequestration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B53F0752C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B53F0752C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into <span class="hlt">Models</span> of Coupled Human-Natural Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. <span class="hlt">Models</span> can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most <span class="hlt">models</span> of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study <span class="hlt">models</span> that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research <span class="hlt">model</span> linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process <span class="hlt">model</span> Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP43D..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP43D..04B"><span>A numerical landscape evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> slow, deep-seated landslides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Booth, A. M.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In many mountainous landscapes, deep-seated landslides transport large volumes of sediment and exert a strong control on topographic development. Specifically, they tend to reduce slope angles and catchment relief, disrupt the channel network, and form topographic benches, which are often underlain by deep zones of weathered material. Remote sensing studies frequently utilize these characteristics to compile landslide inventories and assess the role landslides play in shaping topography, but quantitative process <span class="hlt">models</span> capable of generating deep-seated landslide features are comparably sparse. Here, we present a numerical landscape evolution <span class="hlt">model</span> that generates these deep-seated landslide-related features at the drainage basin scale (~1 km2) by coupling equations for soil creep, fluvial incision, and bedrock weathering with a novel treatment of deep-seated landslide processes. Soil creep sediment flux is proportional to the local topographic gradient, fluvial incision is proportional to stream power, and the weathering rate is assumed to decay exponentially with the depth of weathered material. In the <span class="hlt">model</span>, deep-seated landslides transport weathered material through a combination of basal sliding at the bedrock interface and internal deformation in a manner analogous to glacial movement. As a <span class="hlt">model</span> landscape evolves from an initial surface with meter-scale roughness, deep-seated landslides localize where fluvial incision is rapid, such as near knickpoints and in the headwaters of incipient drainages, and develop into long-lived, persistently active features. Superimposed on these features are episodes of increased landslide activity lasting for hundreds to thousands of years that often force lateral migration of fluvial channels and inhibit formation of new channels. This landslide activity leaves a legacy in the landscape of broad, bench-type topography underlain by deep pockets of weathered material that persists for millions of years. We quantify the above</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251077','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251077"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> single-side sparing in <span class="hlt">models</span> for predicting parotid dose sparing in head and neck IMRT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yuan, Lulin Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yoo, David; Jiang, Yuliang; Ge, Yaorong</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>Purpose: Sparing of single-side parotid gland is a common practice in head-and-neck (HN) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. It is a special case of dose sparing tradeoff between different organs-at-risk. The authors describe an improved mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for predicting achievable dose sparing in parotid glands in HN IMRT planning that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> single-side sparing considerations based on patient anatomy and learning from prior plan data. Methods: Among 68 HN cases analyzed retrospectively, 35 cases had physician prescribed single-side parotid sparing preferences. The single-side sparing <span class="hlt">model</span> was trained with cases which had single-side sparing preferences, while the standard <span class="hlt">model</span> was trained with the remainder of cases. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the best criterion that separates the two case groups using the physician's single-side sparing prescription as ground truth. The final predictive <span class="hlt">model</span> (combined <span class="hlt">model</span>) takes into account the single-side sparing by switching between the standard and single-side sparing <span class="hlt">models</span> according to the single-side sparing criterion. The <span class="hlt">models</span> were tested with 20 additional cases. The significance of the improvement of prediction accuracy by the combined <span class="hlt">model</span> over the standard <span class="hlt">model</span> was evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Using the ROC analysis, the best single-side sparing criterion is (1) the predicted median dose of one parotid is higher than 24 Gy; and (2) that of the other is higher than 7 Gy. This criterion gives a true positive rate of 0.82 and a false positive rate of 0.19, respectively. For the bilateral sparing cases, the combined and the standard <span class="hlt">models</span> performed equally well, with the median of the prediction errors for parotid median dose being 0.34 Gy by both <span class="hlt">models</span> (p = 0.81). For the single-side sparing cases, the standard <span class="hlt">model</span> overestimates the median dose by 7.8 Gy on average, while the predictions by the combined</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890015116','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890015116"><span>Time dependent reliability <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> continuum damage mechanics for high-temperature ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duffy, Stephen F.; Gyekenyesi, John P.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Presently there are many opportunities for the application of ceramic materials at elevated temperatures. In the near future ceramic materials are expected to supplant high temperature metal alloys in a number of applications. It thus becomes essential to develop a capability to predict the time-dependent response of these materials. The creep rupture phenomenon is discussed, and a time-dependent reliability <span class="hlt">model</span> is outlined that integrates continuum damage mechanics principles and Weibull analysis. Several features of the <span class="hlt">model</span> are presented in a qualitative fashion, including predictions of both reliability and hazard rate. In addition, a comparison of the continuum and the microstructural kinetic equations highlights a strong resemblance in the two approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26238964"><span>Representation and <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Close Others' Responses: The RICOR <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Social Influence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M</p> <p>2015-08-03</p> <p>We propose a new <span class="hlt">model</span> of social influence, which can occur spontaneously and in the absence of typically assumed motives. We assume that perceivers routinely construct representations of other people's experiences and responses (beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors), when observing others' responses or simulating the responses of unobserved others. Like representations made accessible by priming, these representations may then influence the process that generates perceivers' own responses, without intention or awareness, especially when there is a strong social connection to the other. We describe evidence for the basic properties and important moderators of this process, which distinguish it from other mechanisms such as informational, normative, or social identity influence. The <span class="hlt">model</span> offers new perspectives on the role of others' values in producing cultural differences, the persistence and power of stereotypes, the adaptive reasons for being influenced by others' responses, and the impact of others' views about the self.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20031283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20031283"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a research apprenticeship <span class="hlt">model</span> in a Canadian nursing Honors Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reutter, Linda; Paul, Pauline; Sales, Anne; Jerke, Hannah; Lee, Anra; McColl, Meighan; Stafford, Erin; Visram, Alysha</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe the development of a BScN (Honors) Program in a large Canadian university. We describe the elements of the program, including the application of a research apprenticeship <span class="hlt">model</span> as the core of the program. We provide examples of student learning experiences culminating in the Honors project. Recruitment, balancing clinical and research interests, financial support, and manageability of the Honors project emerged as key challenges in our first offerings of the program. Overall, students perceived that experiential research learning enhanced their research skills, increased appreciation of the process and outcomes of nursing research, and inspired confidence to pursue graduate education. We conclude that an apprenticeship <span class="hlt">model</span> providing students with experiential research learning with established faculty researchers is an effective and efficient way to deliver the Honors Program in the context of a research-intensive nursing faculty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........28R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........28R"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of an energy equation into a pulsed inductive plasma acceleration <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reneau, Jarred</p> <p></p> <p>Electric propulsion systems utilize electrical energy to produce thrust for spacecraft propulsion. These systems have multiple applications ranging from Earth orbit North-South station keeping to solar system exploratory missions such as NASA's Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship class missions that focus on exploring scientifically interesting targets. In an electromagnetic thruster, a magnetic field interacting with current in an ionized gas (plasma) accelerates the propellant to produce thrust. Pulsed inductive thrusters rely on an electrodeless discharge where both the magnetic field in the plasma and the plasma current are induced by a time-varying current in an external circuit. The multi-dimensional acceleration <span class="hlt">model</span> for a pulsed inductive plasma thruster consists of a set of circuit equations describing the electrical behavior of the thruster coupled to a one-dimensional momentum equation that allow for estimating thruster performance. Current <span class="hlt">models</span> lack a method to account for the time-varying energy distribution in an inductive plasma accelerator.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70177753','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70177753"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> imperfect detection into joint <span class="hlt">models</span> of communites: A response to Warton et al.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Beissinger, Steven R.; Iknayan, Kelly J.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Zipkin, Elise; Dorazio, Robert; Royle, Andy; Kery, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Warton et al. [1] advance community ecology by describing a statistical framework that can jointly <span class="hlt">model</span> abundances (or distributions) across many taxa to quantify how community properties respond to environmental variables. This framework specifies the effects of both measured and unmeasured (latent) variables on the abundance (or occurrence) of each species. Latent variables are random effects that capture the effects of both missing environmental predictors and correlations in parameter values among different species. As presented in Warton et al., however, the joint <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework fails to account for the common problem of detection or measurement errors that always accompany field sampling of abundance or occupancy, and are well known to obscure species- and community-level inferences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9929353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9929353"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> constraint-based shape <span class="hlt">models</span> into an interactive system for functional brain mapping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hinshaw, K P; Brinkley, J F</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Through intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, it is possible to identify sites on the surface of the brain that are essential for language function. Interesting correlations have been found between the distribution of these sites and behavioral traits such as verbal IQ. In previous work, tools were developed for building a reconstruction of a patient's cortical surface and using it to recover coordinates of essential language sites. However, considerable expertise was required to produce good reconstructions. This paper describes an improved version of the mapping procedure, in which segmentation is driven by a 3-D shape <span class="hlt">model</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span>-based approach provides more intuitive control over the system, allowing a trained user to complete a surface reconstruction and mapping in about two hours. This level of performance makes it feasible to gather language maps for a large number of patients, which hopefully will lead to significant new findings about language organization in the brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.740E.172L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.740E.172L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Process-Based Land Use Variable into Species- Distribution <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> and an Estimated Probability of Species Occurrence Into a Land Change <span class="hlt">Model</span>: A Case of Albania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laze, Kuenda</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> of land use may be improved by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the results of species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span> may be upgraded if a variable of the process-based variable of forest cover change or accessibility of forest from human settlement is included. This work presents the results of spatially explicit analyses of the changes in forest cover from 2000 to 2007 using the method of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and of the species distribution for protected species of Lynx lynx martinoi, Ursus arctos using Generalized Linear <span class="hlt">Models</span> (GLMs). The methodological approach is separately searching for a parsimonious <span class="hlt">model</span> for forest cover change and species distribution for the entire territory of Albania. The findings of this work show that <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of land change and of species distribution is indeed value-added by showing higher values of <span class="hlt">model</span> selection of corrected Akaike Information Criterion. These results provide evidences on the effects of process-based variables on species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span> and on the performance of species distribution <span class="hlt">modelling</span> as well as show an example of the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of estimated probability of species occurrences in a land change <span class="hlt">modelling</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090198&hterms=pharmacy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpharmacy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090198&hterms=pharmacy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpharmacy"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> biologically based <span class="hlt">models</span> into assessments of risk from chemical contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bull, R. J.; Conolly, R. B.; De Marini, D. M.; MacPhail, R. C.; Ohanian, E. V.; Swenberg, J. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The general approach to assessment of risk from chemical contaminants in drinking water involves three steps: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and dose-response assessment. Traditionally, the risks to humans associated with different levels of a chemical have been derived from the toxic responses observed in animals. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that further information is needed if risks to humans are to be assessed accurately. Biologically based <span class="hlt">models</span> help clarify the dose-response relationship and reduce uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9465D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9465D"><span>Towards an improvement of carbon accounting for wildfires: <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of charcoal production into carbon emission <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doerr, Stefan H.; Santin, Cristina; de Groot, Bill</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Every year fires release to the atmosphere the equivalent to 20-30% of the carbon (C) emissions from fossil fuel consumption, with future emissions from wildfires expected to increase under a warming climate. Critically, however, part of the biomass C affected by fire is not emitted during burning, but converted into charcoal, which is very resistant to environmental degradation and, thus, contributes to long-term C sequestration. The magnitude of charcoal production from wildfires as a long-term C sink remains essentially unknown and, to the date, charcoal production has not been included in wildfire emission and C budget <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here we present complete inventories of charcoal production in two fuel-rich, but otherwise very different ecosystems: i) a boreal conifer forest (experimental stand-replacing crown fire; Canada, 2012) and a dry eucalyptus forest (high-intensity fuel reduction burn; Australia 2014). Our data show that, when considering all the fuel components and quantifying all the charcoal produced from each (i.e. bark, dead wood debris, fine fuels), the overall amount of charcoal produced is significant: up to a third of the biomass C affected by fire. These findings indicate that charcoal production from wildfires could represent a major and currently unaccounted error in the estimation of the effects of wildfires in the global C balance. We suggest an initial approach to include charcoal production in C emission <span class="hlt">models</span>, by using our case study of a boreal forest fire and the Canadian Fire Effects <span class="hlt">Model</span> (CanFIRE). We also provide recommendations of how a 'conversion factor' for charcoal production could be relatively easily estimated when emission factors for different types of fuels and fire conditions are experimentally obtained. Ultimately, this presentation is a call for integrative collaboration between the fire emission <span class="hlt">modelling</span> community and the charcoal community to work together towards the improvement of C accounting for wildfires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12220849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12220849"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of lipophilic pathways into the porous pathway <span class="hlt">model</span> for describing skin permeabilization during low-frequency sonophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tezel, Ahmet; Sens, Ashley; Mitragotri, Samir</p> <p>2002-09-18</p> <p>Application of low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) has been shown to increase skin permeability, thereby facilitating delivery of hydrophilic solutes. We have previously shown that the modified porous pathway <span class="hlt">model</span> provides an adequate theoretical description of transdermal delivery of hydrophilic solutes through pores in the presence and absence of ultrasound. However, small hydrophilic solutes (M(w)<400 Da) that exhibit a moderate partition coefficient, K(o/w) (0.1<K(o/w)<1), may also have a substantial contribution to permeability from transport through intercellular lipid bilayers. The aim of this note is to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the lipophilic pathway into the porous pathway <span class="hlt">model</span> to describe transdermal drug transport in the absence and presence of ultrasound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..469..334R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..469..334R"><span>Information spreading on mobile communication networks: A new <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> human behaviors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Liu, Chuang</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Recently, there is a growing interest in the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and simulation based on real social networks among researchers in multi-disciplines. Using an empirical social network constructed from the calling records of a Chinese mobile service provider, we here propose a new <span class="hlt">model</span> to simulate the information spreading process. This <span class="hlt">model</span> takes into account two important ingredients that exist in real human behaviors: information prevalence and preferential spreading. The fraction of informed nodes when the system reaches an asymptotically stable state is primarily determined by information prevalence, and the heterogeneity of link weights would slow down the information diffusion. Moreover, the sizes of blind clusters which consist of connected uninformed nodes show a power-law distribution, and these uninformed nodes correspond to a particular portion of nodes which are located at special positions in the network, namely at the edges of large clusters or inside the clusters connected through weak links. Since the simulations are performed on a real world network, the results should be useful in the understanding of the influences of social network structures and human behaviors on information propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000InvPr..16..223M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000InvPr..16..223M"><span>A mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effects of detector width in 2D PET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mair, B. A.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>For decades, the Radon transform has been used as an approximate <span class="hlt">model</span> for two-dimensional (2D) positron emission tomography (PET). Since this <span class="hlt">model</span> assumes that detector tubes are represented by lines (hence have no area), PET reconstruction algorithms need to be modified to account for the nonzero width of detectors. To date, these modifications have been obtained by computational methods, so fail to exhibit any inherent mathematical structure of the PET transform which takes emission intensity to detector tube means. This paper contains a precise mathematical representation of this PET transform and exploits this representation to propose a new method for reconstructing PET images. This representation is achieved by expressing the probability that an emission at a point is detected in a detector tube, in terms of the Green function and Poisson kernel for Laplace's equation on the unit disc. This new PET transform involves four weighted line integrals of the emission intensity function, instead of the single unweighted line integral defining the 2D Radon transform. Despite the complexity of this <span class="hlt">model</span>, a reconstruction method is obtained by using classical orthogonal series representations of the emission intensity and detection means in terms of circular harmonics, Bessel functions and Chebyshev polynomials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25147868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25147868"><span>A partition-based active contour <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> local information for image segmentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Jiao; Wu, Jiaji; Paul, Anand; Jiao, Licheng; Gong, Maoguo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Active contour <span class="hlt">models</span> are always designed on the assumption that images are approximated by regions with piecewise-constant intensities. This assumption, however, cannot be satisfied when describing intensity inhomogeneous images which frequently occur in real world images and induced considerable difficulties in image segmentation. A milder assumption that the image is statistically homogeneous within different local regions may better suit real world images. By taking local image information into consideration, an enhanced active contour <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed to overcome difficulties caused by intensity inhomogeneity. In addition, according to curve evolution theory, only the region near contour boundaries is supposed to be evolved in each iteration. We try to detect the regions near contour boundaries adaptively for satisfying the requirement of curve evolution theory. In the proposed method, pixels within a selected region near contour boundaries have the opportunity to be updated in each iteration, which enables the contour to be evolved gradually. Experimental results on synthetic and real world images demonstrate the advantages of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> when dealing with intensity inhomogeneity images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24187581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24187581"><span>Finite element surface registration <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> curvature, volume preservation, and statistical <span class="hlt">model</span> information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Thomas; Dedner, Andreas; Lüthi, Marcel; Vetter, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We present a novel method for nonrigid registration of 3D surfaces and images. The method can be used to register surfaces by means of their distance images, or to register medical images directly. It is formulated as a minimization problem of a sum of several terms representing the desired properties of a registration result: smoothness, volume preservation, matching of the surface, its curvature, and possible other feature images, as well as consistency with previous registration results of similar objects, represented by a statistical deformation <span class="hlt">model</span>. While most of these concepts are already known, we present a coherent continuous formulation of these constraints, including the statistical deformation <span class="hlt">model</span>. This continuous formulation renders the registration method independent of its discretization. The finite element discretization we present is, while independent of the registration functional, the second main contribution of this paper. The local discontinuous Galerkin method has not previously been used in image registration, and it provides an efficient and general framework to discretize each of the terms of our functional. Computational efficiency and modest memory consumption are achieved thanks to parallelization and locally adaptive mesh refinement. This allows for the first time the use of otherwise prohibitively large 3D statistical deformation <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3804361','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3804361"><span>Finite Element Surface Registration <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Curvature, Volume Preservation, and Statistical <span class="hlt">Model</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lüthi, Marcel; Vetter, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We present a novel method for nonrigid registration of 3D surfaces and images. The method can be used to register surfaces by means of their distance images, or to register medical images directly. It is formulated as a minimization problem of a sum of several terms representing the desired properties of a registration result: smoothness, volume preservation, matching of the surface, its curvature, and possible other feature images, as well as consistency with previous registration results of similar objects, represented by a statistical deformation <span class="hlt">model</span>. While most of these concepts are already known, we present a coherent continuous formulation of these constraints, including the statistical deformation <span class="hlt">model</span>. This continuous formulation renders the registration method independent of its discretization. The finite element discretization we present is, while independent of the registration functional, the second main contribution of this paper. The local discontinuous Galerkin method has not previously been used in image registration, and it provides an efficient and general framework to discretize each of the terms of our functional. Computational efficiency and modest memory consumption are achieved thanks to parallelization and locally adaptive mesh refinement. This allows for the first time the use of otherwise prohibitively large 3D statistical deformation <span class="hlt">models</span>. PMID:24187581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176698','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176698"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions into a somatic growth <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Evaluating environmental effects on fish growth can be challenging because environmental conditions may vary at relatively fine temporal scales compared to sampling occasions. Here we develop a Bayesian state-space growth <span class="hlt">model</span> to evaluate effects of monthly environmental data on growth of fish that are observed less frequently (e.g., from mark-recapture data where time between captures can range from months to years). We assess effects of temperature, turbidity duration, food availability, flow variability, and trout abundance on subadult humpback chub (Gila cypha) growth in two rivers, the Colorado River (CR) and the Little Colorado River (LCR), and we use out-of-sample prediction to rank competing <span class="hlt">models</span>. Environmental covariates explained a high proportion of the variation in growth in both rivers; however, the best growth <span class="hlt">models</span> were river-specific and included either positive temperature and turbidity duration effects (CR) or positive temperature and food availability effects (LCR). Our approach to analyzing environmental controls on growth should be applicable in other systems where environmental data vary over relatively short time scales compared to animal observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27925228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27925228"><span>A Mock Circulatory System <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Compliant 3D-Printed Anatomical <span class="hlt">Model</span> to Investigate Pulmonary Hemodynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knoops, Paul G M; Biglino, Giovanni; Hughes, Alun D; Parker, Kim H; Xu, Linzhang; Schievano, Silvia; Torii, Ryo</p> <p>2016-12-07</p> <p>A realistic mock circulatory system (MCS) could be a valuable in vitro testbed to study human circulatory hemodynamics. The objective of this study was to design a MCS replicating the pulmonary arterial circulation, <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an anatomically representative arterial <span class="hlt">model</span> suitable for testing clinically relevant scenarios. A second objective of the study was to ensure the system's compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for additional measurements. A latex pulmonary arterial <span class="hlt">model</span> with two generations of bifurcations was manufactured starting from a 3D-printed mold reconstructed from patient data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a MCS for in vitro hydrodynamic measurements. The setup was tested under physiological pulsatile flow conditions and results were evaluated using wave intensity analysis (WIA) to investigate waves traveling in the arterial system. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (IPVR) was simulated as an example of one pathological scenario. Flow split between right and left pulmonary artery was found to be realistic (54 and 46%, respectively). No substantial difference in pressure waveform was observed throughout the various generations of bifurcations. Based on WIA, three main waves were identified in the main pulmonary artery (MPA), that is, forward compression wave, backward compression wave, and forward expansion wave. For IPVR, a rise in mean pressure was recorded in the MPA, within the clinical range of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The feasibility of using the MCS in the MRI scanner was demonstrated with the MCS running 2 h consecutively while acquiring preliminary MRI data. This study shows the development and verification of a pulmonary MCS, including an anatomically correct, compliant latex phantom. The setup can be useful to explore a wide range of hemodynamic questions, including the development of patient- and pathology-specific <span class="hlt">models</span>, considering the ease and low cost of producing rapid prototyping molds, and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100030591','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100030591"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of SemiSpan SuperSonic Transport (S4T) Aeroservoelastic <span class="hlt">Models</span> into SAREC-ASV Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christhilf, David M.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Stevens, William L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Simulink-based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) was modified to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> linear <span class="hlt">models</span> representing aeroservoelastic characteristics of the SemiSpan SuperSonic Transport (S4T) wind-tunnel <span class="hlt">model</span>. The S4T planform is for a Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) design from the 1990s. The <span class="hlt">model</span> has three control surfaces and is instrumented with accelerometers and strain gauges. Control laws developed for wind-tunnel testing for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression System functions were implemented in the simulation. The simulation <span class="hlt">models</span> open- and closed-loop response to turbulence and to control excitation. It provides time histories for closed-loop stable conditions above the open-loop flutter boundary. The simulation is useful for assessing the potential impact of closed-loop control rate and position saturation. It also provides a means to assess fidelity of system identification procedures by providing time histories for a known plant <span class="hlt">model</span>, with and without unmeasured turbulence as a disturbance. Sets of linear <span class="hlt">models</span> representing different Mach number and dynamic pressure conditions were implemented as MATLAB Linear Time Invariant (LTI) objects. Configuration changes were implemented by selecting which LTI object to use in a Simulink template block. A limited comparison of simulation versus wind-tunnel results is shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5173361','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5173361"><span>The Eatwell Guide: <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> the Health Implications of <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> New Sugar and Fibre Guidelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scarborough, Peter; Kaur, Asha; Rayner, Mike</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective To <span class="hlt">model</span> population health impacts of dietary changes associated with the redevelopment of the UK food-based dietary guidelines (the ‘Eatwell Guide’). Method Using multi-state lifetable methods, we <span class="hlt">modelled</span> the impact of dietary changes on cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers over the lifetime of the current UK population. From this <span class="hlt">model</span>, we determined change in life expectancy and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) that could be averted. Results Changing the average diet to that recommended in the new Eatwell Guide, without increasing total energy intake, could increase average life expectancy by 5.4 months (95% uncertainty interval: 4.7 to 6.2) for men and 4.0 months (3.4 to 4.6) for women; and avert 17.9 million (17.6 to 18.2) DALYs over the lifetime of the current population. A large proportion of the health benefits are from prevention of type 2 diabetes, with 440,000 (400,000 to 480,000) new cases prevented in men and 340,000 (310,000 to 370,000) new cases prevented in women, over the next ten years. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer is also large. However, if the diet recommended in the new Eatwell Guide is achieved with an accompanying increase in energy intake (and thus an increase in body mass index), around half the potential improvements in population health will not be realised. Conclusions The dietary changes required to meet recommendations in the Eatwell Guide, which include eating more fruits and vegetables and less red and processed meats and dairy products, are large. However, the potential population health benefits are substantial. PMID:27997546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811523C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811523C"><span>A 3-D probabilistic stability <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the variability of root reinforcement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cislaghi, Alessio; Chiaradia, Enrico; Battista Bischetti, Gian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Process-oriented <span class="hlt">models</span> of hillslope stability have a great potentiality to improve spatially-distributed landslides hazard analyses. At the same time, they may have severe limitations and among them the variability and uncertainty of the parameters play a key role. In this context, the application of a probabilistic approach through Monte Carlo techniques can be the right practice to deal with the variability of each input parameter by considering a proper probability distribution. In forested areas an additional point must be taken into account: the reinforcement due to roots permeating the soil and its variability and uncertainty. While the probability distributions of geotechnical and hydrological parameters have been widely investigated, little is known concerning the variability and the spatial heterogeneity of root reinforcement. Moreover, there are still many difficulties in measuring and in evaluating such a variable. In our study we aim to: i) implement a robust procedure to evaluate the variability of root reinforcement as a probabilistic distribution, according to the stand characteristics of forests, such as the trees density, the average diameter at breast height, the minimum distance among trees, and (ii) combine a multidimensional process-oriented <span class="hlt">model</span> with a Monte Carlo Simulation technique, to obtain a probability distribution of the Factor of Safety. The proposed approach has been applied to a small Alpine area, mainly covered by a coniferous forest and characterized by steep slopes and a high landslide hazard. The obtained results show a good reliability of the <span class="hlt">model</span> according to the landslide inventory map. At the end, our findings contribute to improve the reliability of landslide hazard mapping in forested areas and help forests managers to evaluate different management scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021954','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021954"><span>Improving Public Health DSSs by Including Saharan Dust Forecasts Through <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of NASA's GOCART <span class="hlt">Model</span> Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berglund, Judith</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Approximately 2-3 billion metric tons of soil dust are estimated to be transported in the Earth's atmosphere each year. Global transport of desert dust is believed to play an important role in many geochemical, climatological, and environmental processes. This dust carries minerals and nutrients, but it has also been shown to carry pollutants and viable microorganisms capable of harming human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health. Saharan dust, which impacts the eastern United States (especially Florida and the southeast) and U.S. Territories in the Caribbean primarily during the summer months, has been linked to increases in respiratory illnesses in this region and has been shown to carry other human, animal, and plant pathogens. For these reasons, this candidate solution recommends integrating Saharan dust distribution and concentration forecasts from the NASA GOCART global dust cycle <span class="hlt">model</span> into a public health DSS (decision support system), such as the CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's) EPHTN (Environmental Public Health Tracking Network), for the eastern United States and Caribbean for early warning purposes regarding potential increases in respiratory illnesses or asthma attacks, potential disease outbreaks, or bioterrorism. This candidate solution pertains to the Public Health National Application but also has direct connections to Air Quality and Homeland Security. In addition, the GOCART <span class="hlt">model</span> currently uses the NASA MODIS aerosol product as an input and uses meteorological forecasts from the NASA GEOS-DAS (Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System) GEOS-4 AGCM. In the future, VIIRS aerosol products and perhaps CALIOP aerosol products could be assimilated into the GOCART <span class="hlt">model</span> to improve the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C43G..07G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C43G..07G"><span>Conditional simulation of Thwaites Glacier bed topography for flow <span class="hlt">models</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> inhomogeneous statistics and channelized morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goff, J. A.; Powell, E.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Thwaites Glacier, Antarctica, is a large glacier experiencing rapid change whose mass could, if disgorged into the ocean, lead to global sea level rise on the order of 1 m. Efforts to <span class="hlt">model</span> flow for Thwaites Glacier are strongly dependent on an accurate topographic <span class="hlt">model</span> of the ice bed. Airborne radar data collected in 2004/5 provides 35,000 line km of bed topography measurements sampled 20 m along track on a grid survey covering much of the glacier. However, at ~15 km track spacing, this extensive data set nevertheless misses considerable important detail, particularly: (1) resolution of mesoscale channelized morphology that can guide glacier flow; and (2) resolution of small-scale roughness between the track lines that is critical for determining topographic resistance to flow. Both issues are addressed using a hybrid conditional simulation methodology that merges an unconditional stochastic realization surface with a mean surface. Channelized morphology is established in the mean surface using an algorithm developed earlier for interpolating sinuous river channels. This algorithm applies a coordinate transformation to channel picks, where the X-axis is distance along-channel, and the Y-axis is distance across-channel. Interpolation in channel space ensures along-channel continuity where interpolation in Cartesian space would not. Inverse transformation brings the interpolated channel back into Cartesian space, where a spline-in-tension interpolation completes the mean surface for areas not identified as channels. The statistical characteristics of the bed topography are <span class="hlt">modeled</span> with an isotropic von Kármán spectrum, which specifies rms height, characteristic scale, and fractal dimension. These parameters are estimated from the data using a covariance analysis, and are determined as a function of position across the grid. RMS heights and characteristic scales are well resolved by this estimation, whereas fractal dimension is better constrained through an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5223664','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5223664"><span>Eatwell Guide: <span class="hlt">modelling</span> the dietary and cost implications of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> new sugar and fibre guidelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scarborough, Peter; Cobiac, Linda; Owens, Paul; Parlesak, Alexandr; Sweeney, Kate; Rayner, Mike</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To <span class="hlt">model</span> food group consumption and price of diet associated with achieving UK dietary recommendations while deviating as little as possible from the current UK diet, in order to support the redevelopment of the UK food-based dietary guidelines (now called the Eatwell Guide). Design Optimisation <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, minimising an objective function of the difference between population mean <span class="hlt">modelled</span> and current consumption of 125 food groups, and constraints of nutrient and food-based recommendations. Setting The UK. Population Adults aged 19 years and above from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–2011. Main outcome measures Proportion of diet consisting of major foods groups and price of the optimised diet. Results The optimised diet has an increase in consumption of ‘potatoes, bread, rice, pasta and other starchy carbohydrates’ (+69%) and ‘fruit and vegetables’ (+54%) and reductions in consumption of ‘beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins’ (−24%), ‘dairy and alternatives’ (−21%) and ‘foods high in fat and sugar’ (−53%). Results within food groups show considerable variety (eg, +90% for beans and pulses, −78% for red meat). The <span class="hlt">modelled</span> diet would cost £5.99 (£5.93 to £6.05) per adult per day, very similar to the cost of the current diet: £6.02 (£5.96 to £6.08). The optimised diet would result in increased consumption of n-3 fatty acids and most micronutrients (including iron and folate), but decreased consumption of zinc and small decreases in consumption of calcium and riboflavin. Conclusions To achieve the UK dietary recommendations would require large changes in the average diet of UK adults, including in food groups where current average consumption is well within the recommended range (eg, processed meat) or where there are no current recommendations (eg, dairy). These large changes in the diet will not lead to significant changes in the price of the diet. PMID:28003292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448559','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448559"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Hopkins variable wind <span class="hlt">model</span> into a population-dose fallout code. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>St. Ledger, J.W.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>Hopkins variable wind fallout <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to predict the dose and population insult across the United States from a nuclear attack. The dose calculation is performed by two programs written in Fortran V for a CYBER 845 computer. Hopkins hotline locator program was modified to reduce its run time, and it is used to locate the fallout hotline as trace particles are translated to the ground in a spatially varying wind field. The second program analytically smears fallout activity along the hotline. To reduce run time and to match the population <span class="hlt">model</span>, the dose program uses a computational grid of one degree latitude by one degree longitude. A difference of cumulative normal functions gives the average dose across a grid cell. An analytical method was developed to treat multiple bursts against an area target as one cloud. For the winds of 0000 Universal Time on 16 January 1982, a hypothetical attack against twenty-five air bases and six Minuteman missile fields results in 26.9 million fallout deaths. This calculation used 407 seconds of computer time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4810518W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4810518W"><span>Quantifying the regional water footprint of biofuel production by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> hydrologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, M.; Chiu, Y.; Demissie, Y.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A spatially explicit life cycle water analysis framework is proposed, in which a standardized water footprint methodology is coupled with hydrologic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> to assess blue water, green water (rainfall), and agricultural grey water discharge in the production of biofuel feedstock at county-level resolution. Grey water is simulated via SWAT, a watershed <span class="hlt">model</span>. Evapotranspiration (ET) estimates generated with the Penman-Monteith equation and crop parameters were verified by using remote sensing results, a satellite-imagery-derived data set, and other field measurements. Crop irrigation survey data are used to corroborate the estimate of irrigation ET. An application of the concept is presented in a case study for corn-stover-based ethanol grown in Iowa (United States) within the Upper Mississippi River basin. Results show vast spatial variations in the water footprint of stover ethanol from county to county. Producing 1 L of ethanol from corn stover growing in the Iowa counties studied requires from 4.6 to 13.1 L of blue water (with an average of 5.4 L), a majority (86%) of which is consumed in the biorefinery. The county-level green water (rainfall) footprint ranges from 760 to 1000 L L-1. The grey water footprint varies considerably, ranging from 44 to 1579 L, a 35-fold difference, with a county average of 518 L. This framework can be a useful tool for watershed- or county-level biofuel sustainability metric analysis to address the heterogeneity of the water footprint for biofuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720015330','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720015330"><span>Study of an intraurban travel demand <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> commuter preference variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holligan, P. E.; Coote, M. A.; Rushmer, C. R.; Fanning, M. L.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on the substantial travel data base for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is of the abstract type, and makes use of commuter attitudes towards modes and simple demographic characteristics of zones in a region to predict interzonal travel by mode for the region. A characterization of the STOL/VTOL mode was extrapolated by means of a subjective comparison of its expected characteristics with those of modes characterized by the survey. Predictions of STOL demand were made for the Bay Area and an aircraft network was developed to serve this demand. When this aircraft system is compared to the base case system, the demand for STOL service has increased five fold and the resulting economics show considerable benefit from the increased scale of operations. In the previous study all systems required subsidy in varying amounts. The new system shows a substantial profit at an average fare of $3.55 per trip.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13C1539C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13C1539C"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Information on (micro)Topography when <span class="hlt">Modelling</span> Soil Erosion at the Watershed Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cerdan, O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the context of shallow flows, the spatial distribution of the flow is highly influenced by the micro-topography. For instance, local oriented depressions may exist in which the flow depth and velocity may exceed the threshold for soil erosion initiation. If a mean uniform flow shear stress is used to characterize the area, it would be smaller and therefore may not initiate erosion. However, management of water and sediment fluxes requires analysis and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> at the watershed scale in order to integrate the relations between upstream and downstream areas. At this scale, high resolution information on the microtopography is usually not always available and would anyway require too extensive computation resources to be explicitly integrated in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> attempt. Moreover, in agricultural context, this information is likely to change during the year depending on the agricultural practices. In this context, the objective of this study is to propose a parameterisation of the influence of microtopography on erosion into the framework of the shallow water equation. For each cell, the proportion of wetted area is used as a microtopography indicator. For the case of erosion, the system is coupled to the sediment transport equations. In such context, an additional equation describing the micro-topography evolution caused by erosion is introduced. Different case study will be presented to investigate the potential of the approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411884','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411884"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Religiosity into a Developmental <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Positive Family Functioning across Generations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Spilman, Sarah K.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluated a developmental <span class="hlt">model</span> of intergenerational continuity in religiosity and its association with observed competency in romantic and parent-child relationships across two generations. Using multi-informant data from the Family Transitions Project, a 20-year longitudinal study of families that began during early adolescence (N = 451), we found that parental religiosity assessed during the youth’s adolescence was positively related to the youth’s own religiosity during adolescence which, in turn, predicted their religiosity after the transition to adulthood. The findings also supported the theoretical <span class="hlt">model</span> guiding the study, which proposes that religiosity acts as a personal resource that will be uniquely and positively associated with the quality of family relationships. Especially important, the findings demonstrate support for the role of religiosity in a developmental process that promotes positive family functioning after addressing earlier methodological limitations in this area of study, such as cross-sectional research designs, single informant measurement, retrospective reports, and the failure to control for other individual differences. PMID:22545832</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22160747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22160747"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> what promotoras learn: becoming role <span class="hlt">models</span> to effect positive change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucio, Rose L; Zuniga, Genny Carrillo; Seol, Yoon-Ho; Garza, Norma; Mier, Nelda; Trevino, Laura</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Promotoras (community health workers) play an important health promotion role and must be continuously trained, but little is known about how much of their learning they actually put into practice. This non-randomized, longitudinal study examined knowledge and home environmental outcomes of an asthma and healthy homes training offered to promotoras using a train-the-trainer <span class="hlt">model</span>. Eighty-five promotoras received the training and pre- and post-test surveys were used to measure training outcomes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in asthma and healthy home-related knowledge (P < .001). At 12-months post-intervention, a majority of the promotoras (69%) reported they made household changes to improve their indoor environment as a result of the training. This study suggests that effective trainings can improve promotoras knowledge and behaviors for the promotion of healthy homes in the community. Further evaluation is needed to investigate whether these trainings allow promotoras to serve as role <span class="hlt">models</span> within their communities "by educating through example" and thereby enhance their credibility as health educators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4691H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4691H"><span>A process-based evapotranspiration <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> coupled soil water-atmospheric controls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haghighi, Erfan; Kirchner, James</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Despite many efforts to develop evapotranspiration <span class="hlt">models</span> (in the framework of the Penman-Monteith equation) with improved parametrizations of various resistance terms to water vapor transfer into the atmosphere, evidence suggests that estimates of evapotranspiration and its partitioning are prone to bias. Much of this bias could arise from the exclusion of surface hydro-thermal properties and of physical interactions close to the surface where heat and water vapor fluxes originate. Recent progress has been made in mechanistic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of surface-turbulence interactions, accounting for localized heat and mass exchange rates from bare soil surfaces covered by protruding obstacles. We seek to extend these results partially vegetated surfaces, to improve predictive capabilities and accuracy of remote sensing techniques quantifying evapotranspiration fluxes. The governing equations of liquid water, water vapor, and energy transport dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere system are coupled to resolve diffusive vapor fluxes from isolated pores (plant stomata and soil pores) across a near-surface viscous sublayer, explicitly accounting for pore-scale transport mechanisms and environmental forcing. Preliminary results suggest that this approach offers unique opportunities for directly linking transport properties in plants and adjacent bare soil with resulting plant transpiration and localized bare soil evaporation rates. It thus provides an essential building block for interpreting and upscaling results to field and landscape scales for a range of vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27693525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27693525"><span>A stage structured mosquito <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> effects of precipitation and daily temperature fluctuations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>An outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong province in 2014 was the most serious outbreak ever recorded in China. Given the known positive correlation between the abundance of mosquitoes and the number of dengue fever cases, a stage structured mosquito <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed to investigate the cause of the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 and its implications for outbreaks of the disease. Data on the Breteau index (number of containers positive for larvae per 100 premises investigated), temperature and precipitation were used for <span class="hlt">model</span> fitting. The egg laying rate, the development rate and the mortality rates of immatures and adults were obtained from the estimated parameters. Moreover, effects of daily fluctuations of temperature on these parameters were obtained and the effects of temperature and precipitation were analyzed by simulations. Our results indicated that the abundance of mosquitoes depended not only on the total annual precipitation but also on the distribution of the precipitation. The daily mean temperature had a nonlinear relationship with the abundance of mosquitoes, and large diurnal temperature differences can reduce the abundance of mosquitoes. In addition, effects of increasing precipitation and temperature were interdependent. Our findings suggest that the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 was mainly caused by the distribution of the precipitation. In the perspective of mosquito control, our results reveal that it is better to clear water early and spray insecticide between April and August in case of limited resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140553','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140553"><span>On the tectonics and metallogenesis of West Africa: a <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> new geophysical data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hastings, David A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The gold, diamond and manganese deposits of Ghana have attracted commercial interest, but appropriate geophysical data to delineate the tectonic setting of these and other deposits have been lacking until recently. Recent gravity surveys, however, now cover about 75% of the country. When used in a synthesis of the sometimes contradictory existing theories about the geology and metallogenesis of West Africa, the available gravity, magnetic, and seismic data lead to a preliminary tectonic <span class="hlt">model</span> that postulates rifting at the time of the (1800-2000 m.y. old) Eburnean orogeny and is consistent with the occurrences of mineral deposits in the region. In this <span class="hlt">model</span>, diamond-bearing kimberlites formed during the commencement of rifting during the Eburnean orogenesis. Later emplacement of kimberlites was associated with the initiation of Mesozoic rifting of Gondwanaland. Primary gold vein deposits were probably formed by the migration of hydrothermal fluids (associated with the formation of granitoids) into dilatant zones, such as rift-related faults and anticlinal axial areas, toward the end of the Eburnean orogeny. At this time, the major concordant granitoids were formed, with smaller plutonic granitoids forming on the fringes of the concordant masses as partial melting fractions of the latter. Sedimentary manganese deposits were formed along the margins of rift lakes toward the end of the orogeny.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3293917','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3293917"><span>The Effect of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Severe Acute Pancreatitis in a Porcine <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Ni, Hai-bin; Ding, Wei-wei; Sun, Jia-kui; Li, Wei-qin; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-shou</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra abdominal hypertension(IAH) are common clinical findings in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). It is thought that an increased intra abdominal pressure(IAP) is associated with poor prognosis in SAP patients. But the detailed effect of IAH/ACS on different organ system is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SAP combined with IAH on hemodynamics, systemic oxygenation, and organ damage in a 12 h lasting porcine <span class="hlt">model</span>. Measurements and Methods Following baseline registrations, a total of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups (6 animals in each group): SAP+IAP30 group, SAP+IAP20 group, SAP group, IAP30 group(sham-operated but without SAP) and sham-operated group. We used a N2 pneumoperitoneum to induce different levels of IAH and retrograde intra-ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate to induce SAP. The investigation period was 12 h. Hemodynamic parameters (CO, HR, MAP, CVP), urine output, oxygenation parameters(e.g., SvO2, PO2, PaCO2), peak inspiratory pressure, as well as serum parameters (e.g., ALT, amylase, lactate, creatinine) were recorded. Histological examination of liver, intestine, pancreas, and lung was performed. Main Results Cardiac output significantly decreased in the SAP+IAH animals compared with other groups. Furthermore, AST, creatinine, SUN and lactate showed similar increasing tendency paralleled with profoundly decrease in SvO2. The histopathological analyses also revealed higher grade injury of liver, intestine, pancreas and lung in the SAP+IAH groups. However, few differences were found between the two SAP+IAH groups with different levels of IAP. Conclusions Our newly developed porcine SAP+IAH <span class="hlt">model</span> demonstrated that there were remarkable effects on global hemodynamics, oxygenation and organ function in response to sustained IAH of 12 h combined with SAP. Moreover, our <span class="hlt">model</span> should be helpful to study the mechanisms of IAH/ACS-induced exacerbation and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821817"><span>Etoposide <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine <span class="hlt">model</span>. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5875885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5875885"><span>Generalized kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> of catalyzed hydroliquefaction of coal <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> tetralin dehydrogenation reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ghosh, A.K.; Prasad, G.N.; Sridhar, T.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>A three-component kinetic <span class="hlt">model</span> previously reported for uncatalyzed liquefaction has been used to simulate hydroliquefaction of Victorian brown coal with three different types of catalysts: iron-tin; iron; and haematite. The presence of catalyst is found to enhance hydrogenation of coal as well as the equilibrium hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions involving donor solvent. The thermal dissolution and autohydrogenation reaction rates are independent of catalyst used. Iron-tin-based catalyst has been found to be most effective for the hydrogenation reaction step. The simulation shows that the reactions producing hydrogen from tetralin are much slower than the coal-hydrogen reactions; hence, efforts aimed at efficient abstraction of hydrogen from the hydrogen donors may be beneficial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990004341','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990004341"><span>Constitutive <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Physical Aging at Elevated Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Veazie, David R.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Advanced polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are desirable for structural materials in diverse applications such as aircraft, civil infrastructure and biomedical implants because of their improved strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. For example, the next generation military and commercial aircraft requires applications for high strength, low weight structural components subjected to elevated temperatures. A possible disadvantage of polymer-based composites is that the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix often change significantly over time due to the exposure of elevated temperatures and environmental factors. For design, long term exposure (i.e. aging) of PMC's must be accounted for through constitutive <span class="hlt">models</span> in order to accurately assess the effects of aging on performance, crack initiation and remaining life. One particular aspect of this aging process, physical aging, is considered in this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390300','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390300"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Plasticity of the Interfibrillar Matrix in Shear Lag <span class="hlt">Models</span> is Necessary to Replicate the Multiscale Mechanics of Tendon Fascicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Szczesny, Spencer E.; Elliott, Dawn M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite current knowledge of tendon structure, the fundamental deformation mechanisms underlying tendon mechanics and failure are unknown. We recently showed that a shear lag <span class="hlt">model</span>, which explicitly assumed plastic interfibrillar load transfer between discontinuous fibrils, could explain the multiscale fascicle mechanics, suggesting that fascicle yielding is due to plastic deformation of the interfibrillar matrix. However, it is unclear whether alternative physical mechanisms, such as elastic interfibrillar deformation or fibril yielding, also contribute to fascicle mechanical behavior. The objective of the current work was to determine if plasticity of the interfibrillar matrix is uniquely capable of explaining the multiscale mechanics of tendon fascicles including the tissue post-yield behavior. This was examined by comparing the predictions of a continuous fibril <span class="hlt">model</span> and three separate shear lag <span class="hlt">models</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an elastic, plastic, or elastoplastic interfibrillar matrix with multiscale experimental data. The predicted effects of fibril yielding on each of these <span class="hlt">models</span> were also considered. The results demonstrated that neither the continuous fibril <span class="hlt">model</span> nor the elastic shear lag <span class="hlt">model</span> can successfully predict the experimental data, even if fibril yielding is included. Only the plastic or elastoplastic shear lag <span class="hlt">models</span> were capable of reproducing the multiscale tendon fascicle mechanics. Differences between these two <span class="hlt">models</span> were small, although the elastoplastic <span class="hlt">model</span> did improve the fit of the experimental data at low applied tissue strains. These findings suggest that while interfibrillar elasticity contributes to the initial stress response, plastic deformation of the interfibrillar matrix is responsible for tendon fascicle post-yield behavior. This information sheds light on the physical processes underlying tendon failure, which is essential to improve our understanding of tissue pathology and guide the development of successful repair. PMID:25262202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.5121L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.5121L"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Vergoz, J.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated International Monitoring System (IMS) is being deployed. Recent global scale observations recorded by this network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using empirical yield-scaling relations which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, strong variability remains in the yield estimate. Today, numerical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. In this study, the effects of the source frequency and the stratospheric wind speed are simulated. In order to characterize fine-scale atmospheric structures which are excluded from the current atmospheric specifications, <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions are further enhanced by the addition of perturbation terms. A theoretical attenuation relation is thus developed from massive numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. Compared with previous studies, our approach provides a more realistic physical description of long-range infrasound propagation. We obtain a new relation combining a near-field and a far-field term, which account for the effects of both geometrical spreading and absorption. In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, the derived attenuation relation quantifies the spatial and temporal variability of the IMS infrasound network performance in higher resolution, and will be helpful for the design and prioritizing maintenance of any arbitrary infrasound monitoring network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6873253','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6873253"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of an explosive cloud rise code into ARAC's (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) ADPIC transport and diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, K.T.; Freis, R.P. ); Nasstrom, J.S. )</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>The US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) supports various government agencies by <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the transport and diffusion of radiological material released into the atmosphere. ARAC provides this support principally in the form of computer-generated isopleths of radionuclide concentrations. In order to supply these concentration estimates in a timely manner, a suite of operational computer <span class="hlt">models</span> is maintained by the ARAC staff. One primary tools used by ARAC is the ADPIC transport and diffusion computer <span class="hlt">model</span>. This three-dimensional, particle-in-cell code simulates the release of a pollutant into the atmosphere, by injecting marker particles into a gridded, mass-consistent <span class="hlt">modeled</span> wind field. The particles are then moved through the gridded domain by applying the appropriate advection, diffusion, and gravitational fall velocities. A cloud rise module has been <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into ARAC's ADPIC dispersion <span class="hlt">model</span> to allow better simulation of particle distribution early after an explosive release of source material. The module is based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, which are solved for the cloud radius, height, temperature, and velocity as a function of time. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.7485G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.7485G"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of advanced aerosol activation treatments into CESM/CAM5: <span class="hlt">model</span> evaluation and impacts on aerosol indirect effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gantt, B.; He, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Nenes, A.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in the science of anthropogenic climate change is from aerosol-cloud interactions. The activation of aerosols into cloud droplets is a direct microphysical linkage between aerosols and clouds; parameterizations of this process link aerosol with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the resulting indirect effects. Small differences between parameterizations can have a large impact on the spatiotemporal distributions of activated aerosols and the resulting cloud properties. In this work, we <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> a series of aerosol activation schemes into the Community Atmosphere <span class="hlt">Model</span> version 5.1.1 within the Community Earth System <span class="hlt">Model</span> version 1.0.5 (CESM/CAM5) which include factors such as insoluble aerosol adsorption and giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation kinetics to understand their individual impacts on global-scale cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). Compared to the existing activation scheme in CESM/CAM5, this series of activation schemes increase the computation time by ~10% but leads to predicted CDNC in better agreement with satellite-derived/in situ values in many regions with high CDNC but in worse agreement for some regions with low CDNC. Large percentage changes in predicted CDNC occur over desert and oceanic regions, owing to the enhanced activation of dust from insoluble aerosol adsorption and reduced activation of sea spray aerosol after accounting for giant CCN activation kinetics. Comparison of CESM/CAM5 predictions against satellite-derived cloud optical thickness and liquid water path shows that the updated activation schemes generally improve the low biases. Globally, the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of all updated schemes leads to an average increase in column CDNC of 150% and an increase (more negative) in shortwave cloud forcing of 12%. With the improvement of <span class="hlt">model</span>-predicted CDNCs and better agreement with most satellite-derived cloud properties in many regions, the inclusion of these aerosol activation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18686586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18686586"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> covariates into fisheries stock assessment <span class="hlt">models</span> with application to Pacific herring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deriso, Richard B; Maunder, Mark N; Pearson, Walter H</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We present a framework for evaluating the cause of fishery declines by integrating covariates into a fisheries stock assessment <span class="hlt">model</span>. This allows the evaluation of fisheries' effects vs. natural and other human impacts. The analyses presented are based on integrating ecological science and statistics and form the basis for environmental decision-making advice. Hypothesis tests are described to rank hypotheses and determine the size of a multiple covariate <span class="hlt">model</span>. We extend recent developments in integrated analysis and use novel methods to produce effect size estimates that are relevant to policy makers and include estimates of uncertainty. Results can be directly applied to evaluate trade-offs among alternative management decisions. The methods and results are also broadly applicable outside fisheries stock assessment. We show that multiple factors influence populations and that analysis of factors in isolation can be misleading. We illustrate the framework by applying it to Pacific herring of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA). The Pacific herring stock that spawns in Prince William Sound is a stock that has collapsed, but there are several competing or alternative hypotheses to account for the initial collapse and subsequent lack of recovery. Factors failing the initial screening tests for statistical significance included indicators of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, coho salmon predation, sea lion predation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Northern Oscillation Index, and effects of containment in the herring egg-on-kelp pound fishery. The overall results indicate that the most statistically significant factors related to the lack of recovery of the herring stock involve competition or predation by juvenile hatchery pink salmon on herring juveniles. Secondary factors identified in the analysis were poor nutrition in the winter, ocean (Gulf of Alaska) temperature in the winter, the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, and the pathogen Ichthyophonus hoferi. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1070/pdf/ofr2015-1070.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1070/pdf/ofr2015-1070.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> induced seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span>: results of the 2014 workshop and sensitivity studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Ellsworth, William L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Holland, Austin A.; Anderson, John G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span> for the conterminous United States was updated in 2014 to account for new methods, input <span class="hlt">models</span>, and data necessary for assessing the seismic ground shaking hazard from natural (tectonic) earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span> project uses probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to quantify the rate of exceedance for earthquake ground shaking (ground motion). For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span> assessment, the seismic hazard from potentially induced earthquakes was intentionally not considered because we had not determined how to properly treat these earthquakes for the seismic hazard analysis. The phrases “potentially induced” and “induced” are used interchangeably in this report, however it is acknowledged that this classification is based on circumstantial evidence and scientific judgment. For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span> update, the potentially induced earthquakes were removed from the NSHM’s earthquake catalog, and the documentation states that we would consider alternative <span class="hlt">models</span> for including induced seismicity in a future version of the National Seismic Hazard <span class="hlt">Model</span>. As part of the process of <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> induced seismicity into the seismic hazard <span class="hlt">model</span>, we evaluate the sensitivity of the seismic hazard from induced seismicity to five parts of the hazard <span class="hlt">model</span>: (1) the earthquake catalog, (2) earthquake rates, (3) earthquake locations, (4) earthquake Mmax (maximum magnitude), and (5) earthquake ground motions. We describe alternative input <span class="hlt">models</span> for each of the five parts that represent differences in scientific opinions on induced seismicity characteristics. In this report, however, we do not weight these input <span class="hlt">models</span> to come up with a preferred final <span class="hlt">model</span>. Instead, we present a sensitivity study showing uniform seismic hazard maps obtained by applying the alternative input <span class="hlt">models</span> for induced seismicity. The final <span class="hlt">model</span> will be released after</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628854A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628854A"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> how <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23038669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23038669"><span>Treatment of penetrating brain injury in a rat <span class="hlt">model</span> using collagen scaffolds <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> soluble Nogo receptor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elias, Paul Z; Spector, Myron</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Injuries and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) have the potential to cause permanent loss of brain parenchyma, with severe neurological consequences. Cavitary defects in the brain may afford the possibility of treatment with biomaterials that fill the lesion site while delivering therapeutic agents. This study examined the treatment of penetrating brain injury (PBI) in a rat <span class="hlt">model</span> with collagen biomaterials and a soluble Nogo receptor (sNgR) molecule. sNgR was aimed at neutralizing myelin proteins that hinder axon regeneration by inducing growth cone collapse. Scaffolds containing sNgR were implanted in the brains of adult rats 1 week after injury and analysed 4 weeks or 8 weeks later. Histological analysis revealed that the scaffolds filled the lesion sites, remained intact with open pores and were infiltrated with cells and extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the composition of the cellular infiltrate to include macrophages, astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Isolated regions of the scaffold borders showed integration with surrounding viable brain tissue that included neurons and oligodendrocytes. While axon regeneration was not detected in the scaffolds, the cellular infiltration and vascularization of the lesion site demonstrated a modification of the injury environment with implications for regenerative strategies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3713..197S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3713..197S"><span>Performance <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> weather related constraints for fields of unattended ground sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, David C.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Tactical sensing on the battlefield involves real-time information processing of acoustic, seismic, electromagnetic, and environmental sensor data to obtain and exploit an automated situational awareness. The value-added of tactical sensing is to give the war-fighter real-time situational information without requiring human interpretation of the underlying scientific data. For example, acoustic, seismic, and magnetic signatures of a ground vehicle can be used in a pattern recognition algorithm to identify a tank, truck, or TEL, but all the war-fighter wants to know is how many of each vehicle type are present and which way are they going. However, the confidences of this automated information processing are dependent on environmental conditions and background interference. A key feature of tactical ground sensing is the ability to integrate objective statistical confidences into the process to intelligently suppress false alarms, thus allowing the war-fighter to concentrate on war fighting. This paper presents how the situation confidence metric is generated starting with the sensor SNR going all the way through to the target classification and track confidences. This technique also allows <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of ground sensor performance in hypothetical environments such as bad weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22521727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22521727"><span>TOWARD MORE REALISTIC ANALYTIC <span class="hlt">MODELS</span> OF THE HELIOTAIL: <span class="hlt">INCORPORATING</span> MAGNETIC FLATTENING VIA DISTORTION FLOWS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kleimann, Jens; Fichtner, Horst; Röken, Christian; Heerikhuisen, Jacob E-mail: hf@tp4.rub.de E-mail: jacob.heerikhuisen@uah.edu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both physical arguments and simulations of the global heliosphere indicate that the tailward heliopause is flattened considerably in the direction perpendicular to both the incoming flow and the large-scale interstellar magnetic field. Despite this fact, all of the existing global analytical <span class="hlt">models</span> of the outer heliosheath's magnetic field assume a circular cross section of the heliotail. To eliminate this inconsistency, we introduce a mathematical procedure by which any analytically or numerically given magnetic field can be deformed in such a way that the cross sections along the heliotail axis attain freely prescribed, spatially dependent values for their total area and aspect ratio. The distorting transformation of this method honors both the solenoidality condition and the stationary induction equation with respect to an accompanying flow field, provided that both constraints were already satisfied for the original magnetic and flow fields prior to the transformation. In order to obtain realistic values for the above parameters, we present the first quantitative analysis of the heliotail's overall distortion as seen in state-of-the-art three-dimensional hybrid MHD–kinetic simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...816...29K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...816...29K"><span>Toward More Realistic Analytic <span class="hlt">Models</span> of the Heliotail: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Magnetic Flattening via Distortion Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kleimann, Jens; Röken, Christian; Fichtner, Horst; Heerikhuisen, Jacob</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both physical arguments and simulations of the global heliosphere indicate that the tailward heliopause is flattened considerably in the direction perpendicular to both the incoming flow and the large-scale interstellar magnetic field. Despite this fact, all of the existing global analytical <span class="hlt">models</span> of the outer heliosheath's magnetic field assume a circular cross section of the heliotail. To eliminate this inconsistency, we introduce a mathematical procedure by which any analytically or numerically given magnetic field can be deformed in such a way that the cross sections along the heliotail axis attain freely prescribed, spatially dependent values for their total area and aspect ratio. The distorting transformation of this method honors both the solenoidality condition and the stationary induction equation with respect to an accompanying flow field, provided that both constraints were already satisfied for the original magnetic and flow fields prior to the transformation. In order to obtain realistic values for the above parameters, we present the first quantitative analysis of the heliotail's overall distortion as seen in state-of-the-art three-dimensional hybrid MHD-kinetic simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/791122','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/791122"><span>New Direction in Hydrogeochemical Transport <span class="hlt">Modeling</span>: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Multiple Kinetic and Equilibrium Reaction Pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steefel, C.I.</p> <p>2000-02-02</p> <p>At least two distinct kinds of hydrogeochemical <span class="hlt">models</span> have evolved historically for use in analyzing contaminant transport, but each has important limitations. One kind, focusing on organic contaminants, treats biodegradation reactions as parts of relatively simple kinetic reaction networks with no or limited coupling to aqueous and surface complexation and mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions. A second kind, evolving out of the speciation and reaction path codes, is capable of handling a comprehensive suite of multicomponent complexation (aqueous and surface) and mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, but has not been able to treat reaction networks characterized by partial redox disequilibrium and multiple kinetic pathways. More recently, various investigators have begun to consider biodegradation reactions in the context of comprehensive equilibrium and kinetic reaction networks (e.g. Hunter et al. 1998, Mayer 1999). Here we explore two examples of multiple equilibrium and kinetic reaction pathways using the reactive transport code GIMRT98 (Steefel, in prep.): (1) a computational example involving the generation of acid mine drainage due to oxidation of pyrite, and (2) a computational/field example where the rates of chlorinated VOC degradation are linked to the rates of major redox processes occurring in organic-rich wetland sediments overlying a contaminated aerobic aquifer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519373"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> pattern identification of Chinese medicine into precision medicine: An integrative <span class="hlt">model</span> for individualized medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Jin-gen; Xu, Hao</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>On 20 January, 2015, U.S. President Obama announced an ambitious plan called "Precision Medicine (PM) Initiative", aiming to deliver genetics-based medical treatments. PM has shown a promising prospect by tailoring disease treatments and preventions to individuals. However, a predominantly genetics-based method restricts its benefit and applicability in most chronic and complex diseases. Pattern identification (PI) is one of the representative characteristics of Chinese medicine implying the concept of holism and individualized treatment. It is another classification method taking environmental, psychosocial and other individual factors into account. Integrating PI with disease diagnosis of Western medicine will provide a strong complement to genetics-based PM, thus establish an integrative <span class="hlt">model</span> for individualized medicine. PI provides new perspectives for PM, not only in clinical practice, but also in new drug development and clinical trial design. It is for sure that the integrative approach will ultimately lead to a safer, more convenient and effective patient-centered healthcare and most patients will benefit in the era of PM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808106"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the gut microbiota into <span class="hlt">models</span> of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amato, Katherine R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing <span class="hlt">models</span> of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24667296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24667296"><span>Searching for the true diet of marine predators: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> Bayesian priors into stable isotope mixing <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G; McInnes, Julie C; Ramírez, Francisco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the diet of top marine predators is of great significance in several key areas of applied ecology, requiring accurate estimation of their true diet. However, from conventional stomach content analysis to recent stable isotope and DNA analyses, no one method is bias or error free. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of recent methods to estimate the actual proportion of a controlled diet fed to a top-predator seabird, the Little penguin (Eudyptula minor). We combined published DNA data of penguins scats with blood plasma δ(15)N and δ(13)C values to reconstruct the diet of individual penguins fed experimentally. Mismatch between controlled (true) ingested diet and dietary estimates obtained through the separately use of stable isotope and DNA data suggested some degree of differences in prey assimilation (stable isotope) and digestion rates (DNA analysis). In contrast, combined posterior isotope mixing <span class="hlt">model</span> with DNA Bayesian priors provided the closest match to the true diet. We provided the first evidence suggesting that the combined use of these complementary techniques may provide better estimates of the actual diet of top marine predators- a powerful tool in applied ecology in the search for the true consumed diet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100040440','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100040440"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Vibration Test Results for the Advanced Stirling Convertor into the System Dynamic <span class="hlt">Model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meer, David W.; Lewandowski, Edward J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. During these tests, a data system collects several performance-related parameters from the convertor under test for health monitoring and analysis. Recently, an additional sensor recorded the slip table position during vibration testing to qualification level. The System Dynamic <span class="hlt">Model</span> (SDM) integrates Stirling cycle thermodynamics, heat flow, mechanical mass, spring, damper systems, and electrical characteristics of the linear alternator and controller. This Paper presents a comparison of the performance of the ASC when exposed to vibration to that predicted by the SDM when exposed to the same vibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=342846','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=342846"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> for chromatin sub-structure <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> symmetry considerations of histone oligomers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hyde, J.E.; Walker, I.O.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Symmetry considerations of the kind of structures which can be generated when dimers of histones f2a1-f3 and f2a2-f2b interact lead to the following conclusions: chromatin subunits based on closed-shell structures give rise to discrete, non-interacting nucleoprotein subunits with the histones arranged at random along the DNA chain; open structures based on infinite helices give rise to highly ordered, regular arrangements of dimers. A <span class="hlt">model</span> is proposed in which helical polymers of f2a1-f3 and f2b-f2a2 form a central core with the DNA helically arranged around it. The helical repeat contains 9.6 turns of B-form DNA and one molecule each of f2a1, f2a2, f2b, f3 and f1. The pitch of the helix is 53Å and the outer diameter 130Å. The protein molecular repeat is 106Å. PMID:1129140</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048083"><span>An innovative land use regression <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> meteorology for exposure analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Su, Jason G; Brauer, Michael; Ainslie, Bruce; Steyn, Douw; Larson, Timothy; Buzzelli, Michael</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>The advent of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS) has led to studies of chronic exposure and health effects based on the rationale that intra-urban variations in ambient air pollution concentrations are as great as inter-urban differences. Such studies typically rely on local spatial covariates (e.g., traffic, land use type) derived from circular areas (buffers) to predict concentrations/exposures at receptor sites, as a means of averaging the annual net effect of meteorological influences (i.e., wind speed, wind direction and insolation). This is the approach taken in the now popular land use regression (LUR) method. However spatial studies of chronic exposures and temporal studies of acute exposures have not been adequately integrated. This paper presents an innovative LUR method implemented in a GIS environment that reflects both temporal and spatial variability and considers the role of meteorology. The new source area LUR integrates wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover/insolation to estimate hourly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations from land use types (i.e., road network, commercial land use) and these concentrations are then used as covariates to regress against NO and NO(2) measurements at various receptor sites across the Vancouver region and compared directly with estimates from a regular LUR. The results show that, when variability in seasonal concentration measurements is present, the source area LUR or SA-LUR <span class="hlt">model</span> is a better option for concentration estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4926276','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4926276"><span><span class="hlt">Modelling</span> how <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation <span class="hlt">modelling</span>, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130395','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130395"><span>Development of Advanced Continuum <span class="hlt">Models</span> that <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Nanomechanical Deformation into Engineering Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; McDowell, David L.; Mayeur, Jason R.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Gao, Huajian</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Materials with characteristic structures at nanoscale sizes exhibit significantly different mechani-cal responses from those predicted by conventional, macroscopic continuum theory. For example,nanocrystalline metals display an inverse Hall-Petch effect whereby the strength of the materialdecreases with decreasing grain size. The origin of this effect is believed to be a change in defor-mation mechanisms from dislocation motion across grains and pileup at grain boundaries at mi-croscopic grain sizes to rotation of grains and deformation within grain boundary interface regionsfor nanostructured materials. These rotational defects are represented by the mathematical conceptof disclinations. The ability to capture these effects within continuum theory, thereby connectingnanoscale materials phenomena and macroscale behavior, has eluded the research community.The goal of our project was to develop a consistent theory to <span class="hlt">model</span> both the evolution ofdisclinations and their kinetics. Additionally, we sought to develop approaches to extract contin-uum mechanical information from nanoscale structure to verify any developed continuum theorythat includes dislocation and disclination behavior. These approaches yield engineering-scale ex-pressions to quantify elastic and inelastic deformation in all varieties of materials, even those thatpossess highly directional bonding within their molecular structures such as liquid crystals, cova-lent ceramics, polymers and biological materials. This level of accuracy is critical for engineeringdesign and thermo-mechanical analysis is performed in micro- and nanosystems. The researchproposed here innovates on how these nanoscale deformation mechanisms should be incorporatedinto a continuum mechanical formulation, and provides the foundation upon which to develop ameans for predicting the performance of advanced engineering materials.4 AcknowledgmentThe authors acknowledge helpful discussions with Farid F. Abraham, Youping Chen, Terry J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5094601','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5094601"><span>A Markerless 3D Computerized Motion Capture System <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Skeleton <span class="hlt">Model</span> for Monkeys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Takamura, Yusaku; Hori, Etsuro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we propose a novel markerless motion capture system (MCS) for monkeys, in which 3D surface images of monkeys were reconstructed by integrating data from four depth cameras, and a skeleton <span class="hlt">model</span> of the monkey was fitted onto 3D images of monkeys in each frame of the video. To validate the MCS, first, estimated 3D positions of body parts were compared between the 3D MCS-assisted estimation and manual estimation based on visual inspection when a monkey performed a shuttling behavior in which it had to avoid obstacles in various positions. The mean estimation error of the positions of body parts (3–14 cm) and of head rotation (35–43°) between the 3D MCS-assisted and manual estimation were comparable to the errors between two different experimenters performing manual estimation. Furthermore, the MCS could identify specific monkey actions, and there was no false positive nor false negative detection of actions compared with those in manual estimation. Second, to check the reproducibility of MCS-assisted estimation, the same analyses of the above experiments were repeated by a different user. The estimation errors of positions of most body parts between the two experimenters were significantly smaller in the MCS-assisted estimation than in the manual estimation. Third, effects of methamphetamine (MAP) administration on the spontaneous behaviors of four monkeys were analyzed using the MCS. MAP significantly increased head movements, tended to decrease locomotion speed, and had no significant effect on total path length. The results were comparable to previous human clinical data. Furthermore, estimated data following MAP injection (total path length, walking speed, and speed of head rotation) correlated significantly between the two experimenters in the MCS-assisted estimation (r = 0.863 to 0.999). The results suggest that the presented MCS in monkeys is useful in investigating neural mechanisms underlying various psychiatric disorders and developing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242591','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242591"><span>Photocatalytic degradation and reactor <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of 17α-ethynylestradiol employing titanium dioxide-<span class="hlt">incorporated</span> foam concrete.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yuming; Li, Yi; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Dawei</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Photocatalytic degradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) using TiO2 photocatalysts <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> with foam concrete (TiO2/FC) was investigated for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the samples revealed a narrow air void size distribution on the surface of FC cubes on with 5 wt% addition of P25 TiO2, and TiO2 particles were distributed heterogeneously on the surface of TiO2/FC samples. The sorption and photocatalytic degradation of EE2 with UV-light irradiation by TiO2/FC cubes were investigated. Adsorption capacity of EE2 by the TiO2/FC and blank foam concrete (FC) samples were similar, while the degradation rates showed a great difference. More than 50 % of EE2 was removed by TiO2/FC within 3.5 h, compared with 5 % by blank FC. The EE2 removal process was then studied in a photoreactor modified from ultraviolet disinfection pool and constructed with TiO2/FC materials. An integrated <span class="hlt">model</span> including a plate adsorption-scattering <span class="hlt">model</span> and a modified flow diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> was established to simulate the photocatalytic degradation process with different radiation fields, contaminant load, and flow velocity. A satisfactory agreement was observed between the <span class="hlt">model</span> simulations and experimental results, showing a potential for the design and scale-up of the modified photocatalytic reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24353132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24353132"><span>Effect of combined treatment with the epirubicin-<span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micelles (NC-6300) and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane platinum (II)-<span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micelles (NC-4016) on a human gastric cancer <span class="hlt">model</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Takigahira, Misato; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Harada, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Tatsuyuki; Kato, Yasuki; Matsumura, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Anticancer agent-<span class="hlt">incorporating</span> polymeric micelles accumulate effectively in tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect to exert potent antitumor effects. However, combined use of such micelles has not been elucidated. We compared the effect of combining the epirubicin-<span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micelle NC-6300 and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) (oxaliplatin parent complex)-<span class="hlt">incorporating</span> micelle NC-4016 (NCs) with that of epirubicin and oxaliplatin (E/O) in 44As3Luc cells using the combination index method. The in vivo antitumor activities of NCs and E/O were evaluated in mice bearing 44As3Luc xenografts. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cardiotoxicity of NC-6300 and epirubicin was assessed by echocardiography. Neurotoxicity of NC-4016 and oxaliplatin was evaluated by examining the paw withdrawal response to noxious mechanical stimuli. NCs showed a highly synergistic activity equivalent to E/O. In vivo, NCs exhibited higher antitumor activity in the subcutaneous tumor <span class="hlt">model</span> and longer overall survival in the orthotopic tumor <span class="hlt">model</span> than E/O (p < 0.001, p = 0.015, respectively). The intratumor concentrations of epirubicin and platinum were significantly higher following NCs than following E/O administration. Moreover, the micelles showed lower cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity than the corresponding conventional drugs. The combined use of the micelles was associated with remarkable efficacy and favorable toxicities in the human gastric cancer <span class="hlt">model</span>, and warrants the conduct of clinical trials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S11A2752E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S11A2752E"><span>A New Paradigm For <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Fault Zone Inelasticity: A Multiscale Continuum Framework <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Spontaneous Localization and Grain Fragmentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elbanna, A. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The brittle portion of the crust contains structural features such as faults, jogs, joints, bends and cataclastic zones that span a wide range of length scales. These features may have a profound effect on earthquake nucleation, propagation and arrest. <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> these existing features in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and the ability to spontaneously generate new one in response to earthquake loading is crucial for predicting seismicity patterns, distribution of aftershocks and nucleation sites, earthquakes arrest mechanisms, and topological changes in the seismogenic zone structure. Here, we report on our efforts in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> two important mechanisms contributing to the evolution of fault zone topology: (1) Grain comminution at the submeter scale, and (2) Secondary faulting/plasticity at the scale of few to hundreds of meters. We use the finite element software Abaqus to <span class="hlt">model</span> the dynamic rupture. The constitutive response of the fault zone is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> using the Shear Transformation Zone theory, a non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamic framework for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> plastic deformation and localization in amorphous materials such as fault gouge. The gouge layer is <span class="hlt">modeled</span> as 2D plane strain region with a finite thickness and heterogeenous distribution of porosity. By coupling the amorphous gouge with the surrounding elastic bulk, the <span class="hlt">model</span> introduces a set of novel features that go beyond the state of the art. These include: (1) self-consistent rate dependent plasticity with a physically-motivated set of internal variables, (2) non-locality that alleviates mesh dependence of shear band formation, (3) spontaneous evolution of fault roughness and its strike which affects ground motion generation and the local stress fields, and (4) spontaneous evolution of grain size and fault zone fabric.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7962E..2WA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7962E..2WA"><span>Segmenting multiple overlapping objects via a hybrid active contour <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> shape priors: applications to digital pathology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Active contours and active shape <span class="hlt">models</span> (ASM) have been widely employed in image segmentation. A major limitation of active contours, however, is in their (a) inability to resolve boundaries of intersecting objects and to (b) handle occlusion. Multiple overlapping objects are typically segmented out as a single object. On the other hand, ASMs are limited by point correspondence issues since object landmarks need to be identified across multiple objects for initial object alignment. ASMs are also are constrained in that they can usually only segment a single object in an image. In this paper, we present a novel synergistic boundary and region-based active contour <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> shape priors in a level set formulation. We demonstrate an application of these synergistic active contour <span class="hlt">models</span> using multiple level sets to segment nuclear and glandular structures on digitized histopathology images of breast and prostate biopsy specimens. Unlike previous related approaches, our <span class="hlt">model</span> is able to resolve object overlap and separate occluded boundaries of multiple objects simultaneously. The energy functional of the active contour is comprised of three terms. The first term comprises the prior shape term, <span class="hlt">modeled</span> on the object of interest, thereby constraining the deformation achievable by the active contour. The second term, a boundary based term detects object boundaries from image gradients. The third term drives the shape prior and the contour towards the object boundary based on region statistics. The results of qualitative and quantitative evaluation on 100 prostate and 14 breast cancer histology images for the task of detecting and segmenting nuclei, lymphocytes, and glands reveals that the <span class="hlt">model</span> easily outperforms two state of the art segmentation schemes (Geodesic Active Contour (GAC) and Roussons shape based <span class="hlt">model</span>) and resolves up to 92% of overlapping/occluded lymphocytes and nuclei on prostate and breast cancer histology images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1257643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1257643"><span>Towards a Predictive Thermodynamic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Oxidation States of Uranium <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> in Fe (hydr) oxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bagus, Paul S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>-Level Excited States: Consequences For X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy”, J. Elec. Spectros. and Related Phenom., 200, 174 (2015) describes our first application of these methods. As well as applications to problems and materials of direct interest for our PNNL colleagues, we have pursued applications of fundamental theoretical significance for the analysis and interpretation of XPS and XAS spectra. These studies are important for the development of the fields of core-level spectroscopies as well as to advance our capabilities for applications of interest to our PNNL colleagues. An excellent example is our study of the surface core-level shifts, SCLS, for the surface and bulk atoms of an oxide that provides a new approach to understanding how the surface electronic of oxides differs from that in the bulk of the material. This work has the potential to lead to a new key to understanding the reactivity of oxide surfaces. Our theoretical studies use cluster <span class="hlt">models</span> with finite numbers of atoms to describe the properties of condensed phases and crystals. This approach has allowed us to focus on the local atomistic, chemical interactions. For these clusters, we obtain orbitals and spinors through the solution of the Hartree-Fock, HF, and the fully relativistic Dirac HF equations. These orbitals are used to form configuration mixing wavefunctions which treat the many-body effects responsible for the open shell angular momentum coupling and for the satellites of the core-level spectra. Our efforts have been in two complementary directions. As well as the applications described above, we have placed major emphasis on the enhancement and extension of our theoretical and computational capabilities so that we can treat complex systems with a greater range of many-body effects. Noteworthy accomplishments in terms of method development and enhancement have included: (1) An improvement in our treatment of the large matrices that must be handled when many-body effects are treated. (2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3385561','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3385561"><span>Oculomotor learning revisited: a <span class="hlt">model</span> of reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> an efference copy of motor actions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fee, Michale S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these <span class="hlt">models</span> do not <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general <span class="hlt">model</span> of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The <span class="hlt">model</span> makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.5880C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.5880C"><span>Early-stage hypogene karstification in a mountain hydrologic system: A coupled thermohydrochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> buoyant convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri, A.; Rajaram, H.; Viswanathan, H.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical <span class="hlt">model</span> of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (˜1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> reactive alteration driven by dissolution/precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional "mixing corrosion" effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled <span class="hlt">models</span> as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6201E..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6201E..08B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> fault tolerance in distributed agent based systems by simulating bio-computing <span class="hlt">model</span> of stress pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bansal, Arvind K.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Bio-computing <span class="hlt">model</span> of 'Distributed Multiple Intelligent Agents Systems' (BDMIAS) <span class="hlt">models</span> agents as genes, a cooperating group of agents as operons - commonly regulated groups of genes, and the complex task as a set of interacting pathways such that the pathways involve multiple cooperating operons. The agents (or groups of agents) interact with each other using message passing and pattern based bindings that may reconfigure agent's function temporarily. In this paper, a technique has been described for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> fault tolerance in BDMIAS. The scheme is based upon simulating BDMIAS, exploiting the <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of biological stress pathways, integration of fault avoidance, and distributed fault recovery of the crashed agents. Stress pathways are latent pathways in biological system that gets triggered very quickly, regulate the complex biological system by temporarily regulating or inactivating the undesirable pathways, and are essential to avoid catastrophic failures. Pattern based interaction between messages and agents allow multiple agents to react concurrently in response to single condition change represented by a message broadcast. The fault avoidance exploits the integration of the intelligent processing rate control using message based loop feedback and temporary reconfiguration that alters the data flow between functional modules within an agent, and may alter. The fault recovery exploits the concept of semi passive shadow agents - one on the local machine and other on the remote machine, dynamic polling of machines, logically time stamped messages to avoid message losses, and distributed archiving of volatile part of agent state on distributed machines. Various algorithms have been described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950045331&hterms=remote+sensing+vegetation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dremote%2Bsensing%2Bvegetation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950045331&hterms=remote+sensing+vegetation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dremote%2Bsensing%2Bvegetation"><span>Thermal remote sensing of surface soil water content with partial vegetation cover for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into climate <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gillies, Robert R.; Carlson, Toby N.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This study outlines a method for the estimation of regional patterns of surface moisture availability (M(sub 0)) and fractional vegetation (Fr) in the presence of spatially variable vegetation cover. The method requires relating variations in satellite-derived (NOAA, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) surface radiant temperature to a vegetation index (computed from satellite visible and near-infrared data) while coupling this association to an inverse <span class="hlt">modeling</span> scheme. More than merely furnishing surface soil moisture values, the method constitues a new conceptual and practical approach for combining thermal infrared and vegetation index measurements for <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the derived values of M(sub 0) into hydrologic and atmospheric prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>. Application of the technique is demonstrated for a region in and around the city of Newcastle upon Tyne situated in the northeast of England. A regional estimate of M(sub 0) is derived and is probabbly good for fractional vegetation cover up to 80% before errors in the estimated soil water content become unacceptably large. Moreover, a normalization scheme is suggested from which a nomogram, `universal triangle,' is constructed and is seen to fit the observed data well. The universal triangle also simplifies the inclusion of remotely derived M(sub 0) in hydrology and meteorological <span class="hlt">models</span> and is perhaps a practicable step toward integrating derived data from satellite measurements in weather forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA556862','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA556862"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> the Effects of Anisotropic Turbulence and Dispersive Waves on Oceanic Circulation and their <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> in Navy Ocean <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-30</p> <p>anisotropic turbulence and dispersive waves in different environments , test them, compare them with data and implement them in ocean <span class="hlt">models</span>. In this project...stratification and/or a solid body rotation. We have also performed computer simulations with an idealized circulation <span class="hlt">model</span> of quasi-two-dimensional...member of a team on Martian planetary boundary layer at the International Space Science Institute and was responsible for reviewing turbulence <span class="hlt">models</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4841567','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4841567"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Field Studies into Species Distribution and Climate Change <span class="hlt">Modelling</span>: A Case Study of the Koomal Trichosurus vulpecula hypoleucus (Phalangeridae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davis, Robert A.; van Etten, Eddie J. B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs) are an effective way of predicting the potential distribution of species and their response to environmental change. Most SDMs apply presence data to a relatively generic set of predictive variables such as climate. However, this weakens the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> process by overlooking the responses to more cryptic predictive variables. In this paper we demonstrate a means by which data gathered from an intensive animal trapping study can be used to enhance SDMs by combining field data with bioclimatic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques to determine the future potential distribution for the koomal (Trichosurus vulpecula hypoleucus). The koomal is a geographically isolated subspecies of the common brushtail possum, endemic to south-western Australia. Since European settlement this taxon has undergone a significant reduction in distribution due to its vulnerability to habitat fragmentation, introduced predators and tree/shrub dieback caused by a virulent group of plant pathogens of the genus Phytophthora. An intensive field study found: 1) the home range for the koomal rarely exceeded 1 km in in length at its widest point; 2) areas heavily infested with dieback were not occupied; 3) gap crossing between patches (>400 m) was common behaviour; 4) koomal presence was linked to the extent of suitable vegetation; and 5) where the needs of koomal were met, populations in fragments were demographically similar to those found in contiguous landscapes. We used this information to resolve a more accurate SDM for the koomal than that created from bioclimatic data alone. Specifically, we refined spatial coverages of remnant vegetation and dieback, to develop a set of variables that we combined with selected bioclimatic variables to construct <span class="hlt">models</span>. We conclude that the utility value of an SDM can be enhanced and given greater resolution by identifying variables that reflect observed, species-specific responses to landscape parameters and <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> these responses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104611"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Field Studies into Species Distribution and Climate Change <span class="hlt">Modelling</span>: A Case Study of the Koomal Trichosurus vulpecula hypoleucus (Phalangeridae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molloy, Shaun W; Davis, Robert A; van Etten, Eddie J B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> (SDMs) are an effective way of predicting the potential distribution of species and their response to environmental change. Most SDMs apply presence data to a relatively generic set of predictive variables such as climate. However, this weakens the <span class="hlt">modelling</span> process by overlooking the responses to more cryptic predictive variables. In this paper we demonstrate a means by which data gathered from an intensive animal trapping study can be used to enhance SDMs by combining field data with bioclimatic <span class="hlt">modelling</span> techniques to determine the future potential distribution for the koomal (Trichosurus vulpecula hypoleucus). The koomal is a geographically isolated subspecies of the common brushtail possum, endemic to south-western Australia. Since European settlement this taxon has undergone a significant reduction in distribution due to its vulnerability to habitat fragmentation, introduced predators and tree/shrub dieback caused by a virulent group of plant pathogens of the genus Phytophthora. An intensive field study found: 1) the home range for the koomal rarely exceeded 1 km in in length at its widest point; 2) areas heavily infested with dieback were not occupied; 3) gap crossing between patches (>400 m) was common behaviour; 4) koomal presence was linked to the extent of suitable vegetation; and 5) where the needs of koomal were met, populations in fragments were demographically similar to those found in contiguous landscapes. We used this information to resolve a more accurate SDM for the koomal than that created from bioclimatic data alone. Specifically, we refined spatial coverages of remnant vegetation and dieback, to develop a set of variables that we combined with selected bioclimatic variables to construct <span class="hlt">models</span>. We conclude that the utility value of an SDM can be enhanced and given greater resolution by identifying variables that reflect observed, species-specific responses to landscape parameters and <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> these responses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835965"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a prediction of postgrazing herbage mass into a whole-farm <span class="hlt">model</span> for pasture-based dairy systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gregorini, P; Galli, J; Romera, A J; Levy, G; Macdonald, K A; Fernandez, H H; Beukes, P C</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The DairyNZ whole-farm <span class="hlt">model</span> (WFM; DairyNZ, Hamilton, New Zealand) consists of a framework that links component <span class="hlt">models</span> for animal, pastures, crops, and soils. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed to assist with analysis and design of pasture-based farm systems. New (this work) and revised (e.g., cow, pasture, crops) component <span class="hlt">models</span> can be added to the WFM, keeping the <span class="hlt">model</span> flexible and up to date. Nevertheless, the WFM does not account for plant-animal relationships determining herbage-depletion dynamics. The user has to preset the maximum allowable level of herbage depletion [i.e., postgrazing herbage mass (residuals)] throughout the year. Because residuals have a direct effect on herbage regrowth, the WFM in its current form does not dynamically simulate the effect of grazing pressure on herbage depletion and consequent effect on herbage regrowth. The management of grazing pressure is a key component of pasture-based dairy systems. Thus, the main objective of the present work was to develop a new version of the WFM able to predict residuals, and thereby simulate related effects of grazing pressure dynamically at the farm scale. This objective was accomplished by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a new component <span class="hlt">model</span> into the WFM. This <span class="hlt">model</span> represents plant-animal relationships, for example sward structure and herbage intake rate, and resulting level of herbage depletion. The sensitivity of the new version of the WFM was evaluated and then the new WFM was tested against an experimental data set previously used to evaluate the WFM and to illustrate the adequacy and improvement of the <span class="hlt">model</span> development. Key outputs variables of the new version pertinent to this work (milk production, herbage dry matter intake, intake rate, harvesting efficiency, and residuals) responded acceptably to a range of input variables. The relative prediction errors for monthly and mean annual residual predictions were 20 and 5%, respectively. Monthly predictions of residuals had a line bias (1.5%), with a proportion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924665','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924665"><span>Establishment of an integrated <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> standardised uptake value and N-classification for predicting metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Peng, Hao; Sun, Ying; Liu, Qing; Chen, Lei; Ma, Jun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies reported a correlation between the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) obtained by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, an integrated <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> SUVmax and anatomic staging for stratifying metastasis risk has not been reported. Results The median SUVmax for primary tumour (SUV-T) and cervical lymph nodes (SUV-N) was 13.6 (range, 2.2 to 39.3) and 8.4 (range, 2.6 to 40.9), respectively. SUV-T (HR, 3.396; 95% CI, 1.451-7.947; P = 0.005), SUV-N (HR, 2.688; 95%CI, 1.250-5.781; P = 0.011) and N-classification (HR, 2.570; 95%CI, 1.422-4.579; P = 0.001) were identified as independent predictors for DMFS from multivariate analysis. Three valid risk groups were derived by RPA: low risk (N0-1 + SUV-T <10.45), medium risk (N0-1 + SUV-T >10.45) and high risk (N2-3). The three risk groups contained 100 (22.3%), 226 (50.3%), and 123 (27.4%) patients, respectively, with corresponding 3-year DMFS rates of 99.0%, 91.5%, and 77.5% (P <0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed the RPA-based prognostic grouping as the only significant prognostic indicator for DMFS (HR, 3.090; 95%CI, 1.975-4.835; P <0.001). Methods Data from 449 patients with with histologically-confirmed, stage I-IVB NPC treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. A prognostic <span class="hlt">model</span> for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was derived by recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) combining independent predictors identified by multivariate analysis. Conclusion SUV-T, SUV-N and N-classification were identified as independent predictors for DMFS. An integrated RPA-based prognostic <span class="hlt">model</span> for DMFS <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> SUV-N and N-classification was proposed. PMID:26871291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573279','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA573279"><span>Building a Better <span class="hlt">Model</span>: A Comprehensive Breast Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Breast Density to Stratify Risk and Apply Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>methods (CumulusV, Volpara), developed an automated area based 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer; risk <span class="hlt">model</span>; mammography ; breast density 16...recommendations based on an individual’s risk beginning with personalized mammography screening decisions. This will be done by increasing the ability... mammography machine vendor. Once the <span class="hlt">model</span> is complete, tested nationally, and proven accurate, it will be available for widespread use within five to six</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28318698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28318698"><span>Stochastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of phosphorus transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> variability associated with the phosphorus partition coefficient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Fang, Hongwei; Xu, Xingya; He, Guojian; Zhang, Xuesong; Reible, Danny</p> <p>2017-03-16</p> <p>Phosphorus (P) fate and transport plays a crucial role in the ecology of rivers and reservoirs in which eutrophication is limited by P. A key uncertainty in <span class="hlt">models</span> used to help manage P in such systems is the partitioning of P to suspended and bed sediments. By analyzing data from field and laboratory experiments, we stochastically characterize the variability of the partition coefficient (Kd) and derive spatio-temporal solutions for P transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). We formulate a set of stochastic partial different equations (SPDEs) to simulate P transport by randomly sampling Kd from the measured distributions, to obtain statistical descriptions of the P concentration and retention in the TGR. The correspondence between predicted and observed P concentrations and P retention in the TGR combined with the ability to effectively characterize uncertainty suggests that a <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the observed variability can better describe P dynamics and more effectively serve as a tool for P management in the system. This study highlights the importance of considering parametric uncertainty in estimating uncertainty/variability associated with simulated P transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1349083-stochastic-modeling-phosphorus-transport-three-gorges-reservoir-incorporating-variability-associated-phosphorus-partition-coefficient','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1349083-stochastic-modeling-phosphorus-transport-three-gorges-reservoir-incorporating-variability-associated-phosphorus-partition-coefficient"><span>Stochastic <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of phosphorus transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> variability associated with the phosphorus partition coefficient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Fang, Hongwei; Xu, Xingya; ...</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Phosphorus (P) fate and transport plays a crucial role in the ecology of rivers and reservoirs in which eutrophication is limited by P. A key uncertainty in <span class="hlt">models</span> used to help manage P in such systems is the partitioning of P to suspended and bed sediments. By analyzing data from field and laboratory experiments, we stochastically characterize the variability of the partition coefficient (Kd) and derive spatio-temporal solutions for P transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Here, we formulate a set of stochastic partial different equations (SPDEs) to simulate P transport by randomly sampling Kd from the measured distributions,more » to obtain statistical descriptions of the P concentration and retention in the TGR. Furthermore, the correspondence between predicted and observed P concentrations and P retention in the TGR combined with the ability to effectively characterize uncertainty suggests that a <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the observed variability can better describe P dynamics and more effectively serve as a tool for P management in the system. Our study highlights the importance of considering parametric uncertainty in estimating uncertainty/variability associated with simulated P transport.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1299536','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1299536"><span>Electrochemical measurement of lateral diffusion coefficients of ubiquinones and plastoquinones of various isoprenoid chain lengths <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in <span class="hlt">model</span> bilayers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marchal, D; Boireau, W; Laval, J M; Moiroux, J; Bourdillon, C</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The long-range diffusion coefficients of isoprenoid quinones in a <span class="hlt">model</span> of lipid bilayer were determined by a method avoiding fluorescent probe labeling of the molecules. The quinone electron carriers were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in supported dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine layers at physiological molar fractions (<3 mol%). The elaborate bilayer template contained a built-in gold electrode at which the redox molecules solubilized in the bilayer were reduced or oxidized. The lateral diffusion coefficient of a natural quinone like UQ10 or PQ9 was 2.0 +/- 0.4 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) at 30 degrees C, two to three times smaller than the diffusion coefficient of a lipid analog in the same artificial bilayer. The lateral mobilities of the oxidized or reduced forms could be determined separately and were found to be identical in the 4-13 pH range. For a series of isoprenoid quinones, UQ2 or PQ2 to UQ10, the diffusion coefficient exhibited a marked dependence on the length of the isoprenoid chain. The data fit very well the quantitative behavior predicted by a continuum fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> in which the isoprenoid chains are taken as rigid particles moving in the less viscous part of the bilayer and rubbing against the more viscous layers of lipid heads. The present study supports the concept of a homogeneous pool of quinone located in the less viscous region of the bilayer. PMID:9545054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26796316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26796316"><span>A modified Wright-Fisher <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> Ne: A variant of the standard <span class="hlt">model</span> with increased biological realism and reduced computational complexity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Lei; Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David</p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p>The Wright-Fisher <span class="hlt">model</span> is an important <span class="hlt">model</span> in evolutionary biology and population genetics. It has been applied in numerous analyses of finite populations with discrete generations. It is recognised that real populations can behave, in some key aspects, as though their size that is not the census size, N, but rather a smaller size, namely the effective population size, Ne. However, in the Wright-Fisher <span class="hlt">model</span>, there is no distinction between the effective and census population sizes. Equivalently, we can say that in this <span class="hlt">model</span>, Ne coincides with N. The Wright-Fisher <span class="hlt">model</span> therefore lacks an important aspect of biological realism. Here, we present a method that allows Ne to be directly <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the Wright-Fisher <span class="hlt">model</span>. The modified <span class="hlt">model</span> involves matrices whose size is determined by Ne. Thus apart from increased biological realism, the modified <span class="hlt">model</span> also has reduced computational complexity, particularly so when Ne⪡N. For complex problems, it may be hard or impossible to numerically analyse the most commonly-used approximation of the Wright-Fisher <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> Ne, namely the diffusion approximation. An alternative approach is simulation. However, the simulations need to be sufficiently detailed that they yield an effective size that is different to the census size. Simulations may also be time consuming and have attendant statistical errors. The method presented in this work may then be the only alternative to simulations, when Ne differs from N. We illustrate the straightforward application of the method to some problems involving allele fixation and the determination of the equilibrium site frequency spectrum. We then apply the method to the problem of fixation when three alleles are segregating in a population. This latter problem is significantly more complex than a two allele problem and since the diffusion equation cannot be numerically solved, the only other way Ne can be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the analysis is by simulation. We have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2769853','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2769853"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a Generic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Subcutaneous Insulin Absorption into the AIDA v4 Diabetes Simulator 3. Early Plasma Insulin Determinations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lehmann, Eldon D.; Tarín, Cristina; Bondia, Jorge; Teufel, Edgar; Deutsch, Tibor</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Introduction AIDA is an interactive educational diabetes simulator that has been available without charge via the Internet for over 12 years. Recent articles have described the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a novel generic <span class="hlt">model</span> of insulin absorption into AIDA as a way of enhancing its capabilities. The basic <span class="hlt">model</span> components to be integrated have been overviewed, with the aim being to provide simulations of regimens utilizing insulin analogues, as well as insulin doses greater than 40 IU (the current upper limit within the latest release of AIDA [v4.3a]). Some preliminary calculated insulin absorption results have also recently been described. Methods This article presents the first simulated plasma insulin profiles from the integration of the generic subcutaneous insulin absorption <span class="hlt">model</span>, and the currently implemented <span class="hlt">model</span> in AIDA for insulin disposition. Insulin absorption has been described by the physiologically based <span class="hlt">model</span> of Tarín and colleagues. A single compartment <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach has been used to specify how absorbed insulin is distributed in, and eliminated from, the human body. To enable a numerical solution of the absorption <span class="hlt">model</span>, a spherical subcutaneous depot for the injected insulin dose has been assumed and spatially discretized into shell compartments with homogeneous concentrations, having as its center the injection site. The number of these compartments will depend on the dose and type of insulin. Insulin inflow arises as the sum of contributions to the different shells. For this report the first bench testing of plasma insulin determinations has been done. Results Simulated plasma insulin profiles are provided for currently available insulin preparations, including a rapidly acting insulin analogue (e.g., lispro/Humalog or aspart/Novolog), a short-acting (regular) insulin preparation (e.g., Actrapid), intermediate-acting insulins (both Semilente and neutral protamine Hagedorn types), and a very long-acting insulin analogue (e.g., glargine/Lantus), as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030789&hterms=biomass+fuel+fossil+reduce+atmospheric+carbon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbiomass%2Bfuel%2Bfossil%2Breduce%2Batmospheric%2Bcarbon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030789&hterms=biomass+fuel+fossil+reduce+atmospheric+carbon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbiomass%2Bfuel%2Bfossil%2Breduce%2Batmospheric%2Bcarbon"><span>Evaluating the Capacity of Global CO2 Flux and Atmospheric Transport <span class="hlt">Models</span> to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> New Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Denning, A. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>As we enter the new era of satellite remote sensing for CO2 and other carbon cyclerelated quantities, advanced <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and analysis capabilities are required to fully capitalize on the new observations. <span class="hlt">Model</span> estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. For application to current, planned, and future remotely sensed CO2 data, it is desirable that these <span class="hlt">models</span> are accurate and unbiased at time scales from less than daily to multi-annual and at spatial scales from several kilometers or finer to global. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> and Assimilation Office for the period 1998 through 2006. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA <span class="hlt">model</span> at lxi degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-2), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the <span class="hlt">model</span>'s ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to in situ observations at sites in Northern mid latitudes and the continental tropics. The influence of key process representations is inferred. We find that the <span class="hlt">model</span> can resolve much of the hourly to synoptic variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The seasonal cycle and its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7931G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7931G"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> moisture content in <span class="hlt">modeling</span> the surface energy balance of debris-covered Changri Nup Glacier, Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giese, Alexandra; Boone, Aaron; Morin, Samuel; Lejeune, Yves; Wagnon, Patrick; Dumont, Marie; Hawley, Robert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Glaciers whose ablation zones are covered in supraglacial debris comprise a significant portion of glaciers in High Mountain Asia and two-thirds in the South Central Himalaya. Such glaciers evade traditional proxies for mass balance because they are difficult to delineate remotely and because they lose volume via thinning rather than via retreat. Additionally, their surface energy balance is significantly more complicated than their clean counterparts' due to a conductive heat flux from the debris-air interface to the ice-debris boundary, where melt occurs. This flux is a function of the debris' thickness; thermal, radiative, and physical properties; and moisture content. To date, few surface energy balance <span class="hlt">models</span> have accounted for debris moisture content and phase changes despite the fact that they are well-known to affect fluxes of mass, latent heat, and conduction. In this study, we introduce a new <span class="hlt">model</span>, ISBA-DEB, which is capable of solving not only the heat equation but also moisture transport and retention in the debris. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is based upon Meteo-France's Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) soil and vegetation <span class="hlt">model</span>, significantly adapted for debris and coupled with the snowpack <span class="hlt">model</span> Crocus within the SURFEX platform. We drive the <span class="hlt">model</span> with continuous ERA-Interim reanalysis data, adapted to the local topography (i.e. considering local elevation and shadowing) and downscaled and de-biased using 5 years of in-situ meteorological data at Changri Nup glacier [(27.859N, 86.847E)] in the Khumbu Himal. The 1-D <span class="hlt">model</span> output is then evaluated through comparison with measured temperature in and ablation under a 10-cm thick debris layer on Changri Nup. We have found that introducing a non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">model</span> for water flow, rather than using the mixed-form Richard's equation alone, promotes greater consistency with moisture observations. This explicit <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of moisture processes improves simulation of the snow-debris-ice column</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3867902','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3867902"><span>Known unknowns in an imperfect world: <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> uncertainty in recruitment estimates using multi-event capture–recapture <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Desprez, Marine; McMahon, Clive R; Hindell, Mark A; Harcourt, Robert; Gimenez, Olivier</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Studying the demography of wild animals remains challenging as several of the critical parts of their life history may be difficult to observe in the field. In particular, determining with certainty when an individual breeds for the first time is not always obvious. This can be problematic because uncertainty about the transition from a prebreeder to a breeder state – recruitment – leads to uncertainty in vital rate estimates and in turn in population projection <span class="hlt">models</span>. To avoid this issue, the common practice is to discard imperfect data from the analyses. However, this practice can generate a bias in vital rate estimates if uncertainty is related to a specific component of the population and reduces the sample size of the dataset and consequently the statistical power to detect effects of biological interest. Here, we compared the demographic parameters assessed from a standard multistate capture–recapture approach to the estimates obtained from the newly developed multi-event framework that specifically accounts for uncertainty in state assessment. Using a comprehensive longitudinal dataset on southern elephant seals, we demonstrated that the multi-event <span class="hlt">model</span> enabled us to use all the data collected (6639 capture–recapture histories vs. 4179 with the multistate <span class="hlt">model</span>) by accounting for uncertainty in breeding states, thereby increasing the precision and accuracy of the demographic parameter estimates. The multi-event <span class="hlt">model</span> allowed us to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> imperfect data into demographic analyses. The gain in precision obtained has important implications in the conservation and management of species because limiting uncertainty around vital rates will permit predicting population viability with greater accuracy. PMID:24363895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007355&hterms=Water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DWater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007355&hterms=Water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DWater"><span>Recent Progresses in <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span> Toward Their Integration into Earth System <span class="hlt">Models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system <span class="hlt">models</span> (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> human factors in large-scale hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span> and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> human impacts in global land surface <span class="hlt">models</span> (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span> (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with <span class="hlt">model</span> parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated <span class="hlt">models</span> using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4704145','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4704145"><span><span class="hlt">Model</span>-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chirehwa, Maxwell T.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mthiyane, Thuli; Onyebujoh, Philip; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rifampin is a key sterilizing drug in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It induces its own metabolism, but neither the onset nor the extent of autoinduction has been adequately described. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends a rifampin dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight, which is believed to be suboptimal, and higher doses may potentially improve treatment outcomes. However, a nonlinear increase in exposure may be observed because of saturation of hepatic extraction and hence this should be taken into consideration when a dose increase is implemented. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 61 HIV-TB-coinfected patients in South Africa were collected at four visits, on days 1, 8, 15, and 29, after initiation of treatment. Data were analyzed by population nonlinear mixed-effects <span class="hlt">modeling</span>. Rifampin PKs were best described by using a transit compartment absorption and a well-stirred liver <span class="hlt">model</span> with saturation of hepatic extraction, including a first-pass effect. Autoinduction was characterized by using an exponential-maturation <span class="hlt">model</span>: hepatic clearance almost doubled from the baseline to steady state, with a half-life of around 4.5 days. The <span class="hlt">model</span> predicts that increases in the dose of rifampin result in more-than-linear drug exposure increases as measured by the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve. Simulations with doses of up to 35 mg/kg produced results closely in line with those of clinical trials. PMID:26552972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........72S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........72S"><span>In Situ Measurement, Characterization, and <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> of Two-Phase Pressure Drop <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Local Water Saturation in PEMFC Gas Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>See, Evan J.</p> <p></p> <p>Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) have been an area of focus as an alternative for internal combustion engines in the transportation sector. Water and thermal management techniques remain as one of the key roadblocks in PEMFC development. The ability to <span class="hlt">model</span> two-phase flow and pressure drop in PEMFCs is of significant importance to the performance and optimization of PEMFCs. This work provides a perspective on the numerous factors that affect the two-phase flow in the gas channels and presents a comprehensive pressure drop <span class="hlt">model</span> through an extensive in situ fuel cell investigation. The study focused on low current density and low temperature operation of the cell, as these conditions present the most challenging scenario for water transport in the PEMFC reactant channels. Tests were conducted using two PEMFCs that were representative of the actual full scale commercial automotive geometry. The design of the flow fields allowed visual access to both cathode and anode sides for correlating the visual observations to the two-phase flow patterns and pressure drop. A total of 198 tests were conducted varying gas diffusion layer (GDL), inlet humidity, current density, and stoichiometry; this generated over 1500 average pressure drop measurements to develop and validate two-phase <span class="hlt">models</span>. A two-phase 1+1 D <span class="hlt">modeling</span> scheme is proposed that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> an elemental approach and control volume analysis to provide a comprehensive methodology and correlation for predicting two-phase pressure drop in PEMFC conditions. Key considerations, such as condensation within the channel, consumption of reactant gases, water transport across the membrane, and thermal gradients within the fuel cell, are reviewed and their relative importance illustrated. The <span class="hlt">modeling</span> scheme is shown to predict channel pressure drop with a mean error of 10% over the full range of conditions and with a mean error of 5% for the primary conditions of interest. The <span class="hlt">model</span> provides a unique and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7661B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7661B"><span>First steps in <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> data-driven <span class="hlt">modelling</span> to flood early warning in Norway's Flood Forecasting Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borsányi, Péter; Hamududu, Byman; Wong Kwok, Wai; Magnusson, Jan; Shi, Min</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>-describers will be refined to help identifying seasonal, geographical or other physical or temporal features, which will allow the preparation for hybrid use of data-driven and conceptual <span class="hlt">models</span>. This way low forecast performance is expected to be improved by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> DDM to the existing conceptual <span class="hlt">modelling</span> framework.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21K..05Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B21K..05Z"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> regional cropland GPP by empirically <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence into a coupled photosynthesis-fluorescence <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Guanter, L.; Van der Tol, C.; Joiner, J.; Berry, J. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Global sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) retrievals are currently available from several satellites. SIF is intrinsically linked to photosynthesis, so the new data sets allow to link remotely-sensed vegetation parameters and the actual photosynthetic activity of plants. In this study, we used space measurements of SIF together with the Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE) balance <span class="hlt">model</span> in order to simulate regional photosynthetic uptake of croplands in the US corn belt. SCOPE couples fluorescence and photosynthesis at leaf and canopy levels. To do this, we first retrieved a key parameter of photosynthesis <span class="hlt">model</span>, the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), from field measurements of CO2 and water flux during 2007-2012 at some crop eddy covariance flux sites in the Midwestern US. Then we empirically calibrated Vcmax with apparent fluorescence yield which is SIF divided by PAR. SIF retrievals are from the European GOME-2 instrument onboard the MetOp-A platform. The resulting apparent fluorescence yield shows a stronger relationship with Vcmax during the growing season than widely-used vegetation index, EVI and NDVI. New seasonal and regional Vcmax maps were derived based on the calibration <span class="hlt">model</span> for the cropland of the corn belt. The uncertainties of Vcmax were also estimated through Gaussian error propagation. With the newly derived Vcmax maps, we <span class="hlt">modeled</span> regional cropland GPP during the growing season for the Midwestern USA, with meteorological data from MERRA reanalysis data and LAI from MODIS product (MCD15A2). The results show the improvement in the seasonal and spatial patterns of cropland productivity in comparisons with both flux tower and agricultural inventory data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614938','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614938"><span>Building a Better <span class="hlt">Model</span>: A Comprehensive Breast Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Breast Density to Stratify Risk and Apply Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>assessment <span class="hlt">model</span> that includes automated measurement of breast density. Scope: Assemble a cohort of women with known breast cancer risk factors and...digital mammogram files for women diagnosed with breast cancer using existing data sources and match them to controls (Harvey/Knaus). Validate and...density will translate to changes in breast cancer risk. Therefore, noise in measurement should be minimal. Thirty women were recruited under this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21767498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21767498"><span>Osteogenesis imperfecta <span class="hlt">model</span> peptides: <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of residues replacing Gly within a triple helix achieved by renucleation and local flexibility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, Jianxi; Madhan, Balaraman; Li, Yingjie; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean</p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>Missense mutations, which replace one Gly with a larger residue in the repeating sequence of the type I collagen triple helix, lead to the hereditary bone disorder osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Previous studies suggest that these mutations may interfere with triple-helix folding. NMR was used to investigate triple-helix formation in a series of <span class="hlt">model</span> peptides where the residue replacing Gly, as well as the local sequence environment, was varied. NMR measurement of translational diffusion coefficients allowed the identification of partially folded species. When Gly was replaced by Ala, the Ala residue was <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into a fully folded triple helix, whereas replacement of Gly by Ser or Arg resulted in the presence of some partially folded species, suggesting a folding barrier. Increasing the triple-helix stability of the sequence N-terminal to a Gly-to-Ser replacement allowed complete triple-helix folding, whereas with the substitution of Arg, with its large side chain, the peptide achieved full folding only after flexible residues were introduced N-terminal to the mutation site. These studies shed light on the factors important for accommodation of Gly mutations within the triple helix and may relate to the varying severity of OI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034700','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034700"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> uncertainty into the ranking of SPARROW <span class="hlt">model</span> nutrient yields from Mississippi/Atchafalaya River basin watersheds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robertson, Dale M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Saad, David A.; Alexander, Richard B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Excessive loads of nutrients transported by tributary rivers have been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Management efforts to reduce the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico and improve the water quality of rivers and streams could benefit from targeting nutrient reductions toward watersheds with the highest nutrient yields delivered to sensitive downstream waters. One challenge is that most conventional watershed <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approaches (e.g., mechanistic <span class="hlt">models</span>) used in these management decisions do not consider uncertainties in the predictions of nutrient yields and their downstream delivery. The increasing use of parameter estimation procedures to statistically estimate <span class="hlt">model</span> coefficients, however, allows uncertainties in these predictions to be reliably estimated. Here, we use a robust bootstrapping procedure applied to the results of a previous application of the hybrid statistical/mechanistic watershed <span class="hlt">model</span> SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) to develop a statistically reliable method for identifying “high priority” areas for management, based on a probabilistic ranking of delivered nutrient yields from watersheds throughout a basin. The method is designed to be used by managers to prioritize watersheds where additional stream monitoring and evaluations of nutrient-reduction strategies could be undertaken. Our ranking procedure <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> information on the confidence intervals of <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions and the corresponding watershed rankings of the delivered nutrient yields. From this quantified uncertainty, we estimate the probability that individual watersheds are among a collection of watersheds that have the highest delivered nutrient yields. We illustrate the application of the procedure to 818 eight-digit Hydrologic Unit Code watersheds in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River basin by identifying 150 watersheds having the highest delivered nutrient yields to the Gulf of Mexico. Highest delivered yields were from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H41I..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H41I..03S"><span>Advances in <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Streambank Stability by <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Mechanical and Hydrologic Effects of Woody and Herbaceous Riparian Vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simon, A.; Collison, A. J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Sediment is one of the principle pollutants of surface waters of the United States. Sediment derived from streambanks by mass failure is a significant contributor to water-quality and land management problems. Accurately <span class="hlt">modeling</span> streambank stability and potential mitigation strategies using riparian vegetation involves quantifying the hydrologic and mechanical factors that control the driving and resisting forces imposed by bank material, ground and surface water and the vegetation. Stabilization of streambanks using riparian vegetation offers numerous potential benefits and some potential problems that are related to mechanical and hydrological effects that are rarely quantified. In this study mechanical reinforcement of various woody and herbaceous riparian species is quantified with in situ, field measurements of root tensile strength, root sizes and root distribution that are used to calculate increases in soil cohesion. Hydrological effects of vegetation are monitored at the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed, Mississippi using interception plots and tensiometers under three vegetative covers: cropped grass `control' cover, clumps of eastern gamma grass, and a deciduous woody-vegetation stand. The ARS Bank-Stability <span class="hlt">Model</span> which accounts for complex bank geometries, up to five soil layers, positive and negative pore-water pressures and confining pressure due to streamflow is used to evaluate the effectiveness of various vegetative treatments based on the field data. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is used to evaluate the individual and combined effects of vegetation on streambank stability. On April 4 th 2000 prolonged rainfall at the field site caused bank failure at the control cover plot, providing useful validation data for the analysis. The resulting factor of safety (Fs) values (<span class="hlt">incorporating</span> both hydrological and mechanical effects) were 1.04, 1.64 and 2.18, respectively. Results show that the main contribution of the woody-vegetation to bank stability during the study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220279','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220279"><span>Investigation of realistic PET simulations <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> tumor patient's specificity using anthropomorphic <span class="hlt">models</span>: Creation of an oncology database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Efthimiou, Nikos; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C.; Loudos, George; Le Maitre, Amandine; Hatt, Mathieu; Tixier, Florent; Visvikis, Dimitris</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>Purpose: The GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is used for the implementation of realistic PET simulations <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> tumor heterogeneous activity distributions. The reconstructed patient images include noise from the acquisition process, imaging system's performance restrictions and have limited spatial resolution. For those reasons, the measured intensity cannot be simply introduced in GATE simulations, to reproduce clinical data. Investigation of the heterogeneity distribution within tumors applying partial volume correction (PVC) algorithms was assessed. The purpose of the present study was to create a simulated oncology database based on clinical data with realistic intratumor uptake heterogeneity properties.Methods: PET/CT data of seven oncology patients were used in order to create a realistic tumor database investigating the heterogeneity activity distribution of the simulated tumors. The anthropomorphic <span class="hlt">models</span> (NURBS based cardiac torso and Zubal phantoms) were adapted to the CT data of each patient, and the activity distribution was extracted from the respective PET data. The patient-specific <span class="hlt">models</span> were simulated with the Monte Carlo Geant4 application for tomography emission (GATE) in three different levels for each case: (a) using homogeneous activity within the tumor, (b) using heterogeneous activity distribution in every voxel within the tumor as it was extracted from the PET image, and (c) using heterogeneous activity distribution corresponding to the clinical image following PVC. The three different types of simulated data in each case were reconstructed with two iterations and filtered with a 3D Gaussian postfilter, in order to simulate the intratumor heterogeneous uptake. Heterogeneity in all generated images was quantified using textural feature derived parameters in 3D according to the ground truth of the simulation, and compared to clinical measurements. Finally, profiles were plotted in central slices of the tumors, across lines with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Process+AND+models+AND+software+AND+engineering&pg=2&id=EJ877797','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Process+AND+models+AND+software+AND+engineering&pg=2&id=EJ877797"><span>From Numerical Problem Solving to <span class="hlt">Model</span>-Based Experimentation <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Computer-Based Tools of Various Scales into the ChE Curriculum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shacham, Mordechai; Cutlip, Michael B.; Brauner, Neima</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A continuing challenge to the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum is the time-effective <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> and use of computer-based tools throughout the educational program. Computing skills in academia and industry require some proficiency in programming and effective use of software packages for solving 1) single-<span class="hlt">model</span>, single-algorithm…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..400P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..400P"><span>Molecular view <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of atmospheric organic particulate matter: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> molecular structure and co-condensation of water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Most urban and regional <span class="hlt">models</span> used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., "two-product" (2p) coefficients) to be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> in chemical transport <span class="hlt">models</span>. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV <span class="hlt">modeling</span> of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three <span class="hlt">model</span> variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECDT2006E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECDT2006E"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of the electron energy equation into the hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> for glow discharge: the applicability and reliability of the <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eylenceoglu, Ender; Rafatov, Ismail; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A modification of the conventional hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid <span class="hlt">model</span> for glow discharge, which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> the electron energy equation, is considered. In the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> electrons are separated into two groups, namely, high energetic fast and low energetic slow (bulk) electrons. Density profiles of ions, slow electrons, and meta-stable particles are determined from the solution of corresponding continuity equations. Fast electrons, which are responsible for ionization and excitation events in the discharge, are simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The temperature profile for slow electrons is obtained from the solution of the energy balance equation. The transport (mobility and diffusion) coefficients as well as the reaction rates for slow electrons are determined as functions of the electron temperature. Test calculations are carried out for the direct current glow discharge in argon within two-dimensional geometry. Comparison of the computed results with those obtained from the conventional fluid and hybrid <span class="hlt">models</span> and the experimental data is done, the applicability and reliability of the proposed <span class="hlt">model</span> is studied in details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007810','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007810"><span>Feasibility study of the design of Bi Ra Systems, <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> 5301, 5101, and 3222 CAMAC modules for space use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Biswell, L.; Mcelderry, R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Cost estimates are determined for redesigned modules. Consideration is given to <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of NASA approved components, component screening and documentation, as well as reduced power consumption. Results show that r designed modules will function reliably in a space environment of 50 C and withstand greater than 15 G's of random vibration between 40 Hz and 400 Hz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/980689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/980689"><span>Zinc <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> Into Hydroxylapatite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tang, Y.; Chappell, H; Dove, M; Reeder, R; Lee, Y</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>By theoretical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the local coordination structure of Zn <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into hydroxylapatite was examined. Density function theory (DFT) calculations show that Zn favors the Ca2 site over the Ca1 site, and favors tetrahedral coordination. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results suggest one dominant coordination environment for the <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> Zn, and no evidence was observed for other Zn-containing phases. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting of the synthetic samples confirms that Zn occurs in tetrahedral coordination, with two P shells at 2.85-3.07 {angstrom}, and two higher Ca shells at 3.71-4.02 {angstrom}. These fit results are consistent with the most favored DFT <span class="hlt">model</span> for Zn substitution in the Ca2 site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792833"><span>Optimizing stem cell functions and antibacterial properties of TiO2 nanotubes <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> with ZnO nanoparticles: experiments and <span class="hlt">modeling</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Gonzales, Arthur; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Hongyi; Zhang, Zhenting; Webster, Thomas J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To optimize mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and antibacterial properties of titanium (Ti), nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles with tunable concentrations were <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) using a facile hydrothermal strategy. It is revealed here for the first time that the TNTs <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> with ZnO nanoparticles exhibited better biocompatibility compared with pure Ti samples (controls) and that the amount of ZnO (tailored by the concentration of Zn(NO3)2 in the precursor) introduced into TNTs played a crucial role on their osteogenic properties. Not only was the alkaline phosphatase activity improved to about 13.8 U/g protein, but the osterix, collagen-I, and osteocalcin gene expressions was improved from mesenchymal stem cells compared to controls. To further explore the mechanism of TNTs decorated with ZnO on cell functions, a response surface mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> was used to optimize the concentration of ZnO <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into the Ti nanotubes for stem cell differentiation and antibacterial properties for the first time. Both experimental and <span class="hlt">modeling</span> results confirmed (R (2) values of 0.8873-0.9138 and 0.9596-0.9941, respectively) that Ti <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> with appropriate concentrations (with an initial concentration of Zn(NO3)2 at 0.015 M) of ZnO can provide exceptional osteogenic properties for stem cell differentiation in bone cells with strong antibacterial effects, properties important for improving dental and orthopedic implant efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160014871','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160014871"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Damage and Failure into an Orthotropic Elasto-Plastic Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Model</span> with Tabulated Input Suitable for Use in Composite Impact Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; Dubois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Khaled, Bilal; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A material <span class="hlt">model</span> which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> several key capabilities which have been identified by the aerospace community as lacking in the composite impact <span class="hlt">models</span> currently available in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) is under development. In particular, the material <span class="hlt">model</span>, which is being implemented as MAT 213 into a tailored version of LS-DYNA being jointly developed by the FAA and NASA, <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> both plasticity and damage within the material <span class="hlt">model</span>, utilizes experimentally based tabulated input to define the evolution of plasticity and damage as opposed to specifying discrete input parameters (such as modulus and strength), and is able to analyze the response of composites composed with a variety of fiber architectures. The plasticity portion of the orthotropic, three-dimensional, macroscopic composite constitutive <span class="hlt">model</span> is based on an extension of the Tsai-Wu composite failure <span class="hlt">model</span> into a generalized yield function with a non-associative flow rule. The capability to account for the rate and temperature dependent deformation response of composites has also been <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the material <span class="hlt">model</span>. For the damage <span class="hlt">model</span>, a strain equivalent formulation is utilized to allow for the uncoupling of the deformation and damage analyses. In the damage <span class="hlt">model</span>, a diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The onset of material failure, and thus element deletion, is being developed to be a function of the stresses and plastic strains in the various coordinate directions. Systematic procedures are being developed to generate the required input parameters based on the results of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402708"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> <span class="hlt">model</span> of N into GaInNAs alloys grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aho, A.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Tukiainen, A.; Puustinen, J.; Guina, M.</p> <p>2014-12-07</p> <p>We present a Maxwell-Boltzmann electron energy distribution based <span class="hlt">model</span> for the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> rate of nitrogen into GaInNAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a radio frequency plasma source. Nitrogen concentration is predicted as a function of radio-frequency system primary resistance, N flow, and RF power, and group III growth rate. The semi-empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> is shown to be repeatable with a maximum error of 6%. The <span class="hlt">model</span> was validated for two different MBE systems by growing GaInNAs on GaAs(100) with variable nitrogen composition of 0%–6%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ789056','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ789056"><span>The Internal/External Frame of Reference <span class="hlt">Model</span> Revisited: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The internal/external frame of reference <span class="hlt">model</span> (I/E <span class="hlt">model</span>; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential <span class="hlt">model</span> of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E <span class="hlt">model</span> do not typically incorporate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1989/4030/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1989/4030/report.pdf"><span>Modification of a method-of-characteristics solute-transport <span class="hlt">model</span> to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> decay and equilibrium-controlled sorption or ion exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Goode, D.J.; Konikow, L.F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey computer <span class="hlt">model</span> of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water (Konikow and Bredehoeft, 1978) has been modified to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> the following types of chemical reactions: (1) first-order irreversible rate-reaction, such as radioactive decay; (2) reversible equilibrium-controlled sorption with linear, Freundlich, or Langmuir isotherms; and (3) reversible equilibrium-controlled ion exchange for monovalent or divalent ions. Numerical procedures are developed to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> these processes in the general solution scheme that uses method-of- characteristics with particle tracking for advection and finite-difference methods for dispersion. The first type of reaction is accounted for by an exponential decay term applied directly to the particle concentration. The second and third types of reactions are <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> through a retardation factor, which is a function of concentration for nonlinear cases. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is evaluated and verified by comparison with analytical solutions for linear sorption and decay, and by comparison with other numerical solutions for nonlinear sorption and ion exchange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153525"><span>Macro-level pedestrian and bicycle crash analysis: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> spatial spillover effects in dual state count <span class="hlt">models</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Qing; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study attempts to explore the viability of dual-state <span class="hlt">models</span> (i.e., zero-inflated and hurdle <span class="hlt">models</span>) for traffic analysis zones (TAZs) based pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency analysis. Additionally, spatial spillover effects are explored in the <span class="hlt">models</span> by employing exogenous variables from neighboring zones. The dual-state <span class="hlt">models</span> such as zero-inflated negative binomial and hurdle negative binomial <span class="hlt">models</span> (with and without spatial effects) are compared with the conventional single-state <span class="hlt">model</span> (i.e., negative binomial). The <span class="hlt">model</span> comparison for pedestrian and bicycle crashes revealed that the <span class="hlt">models</span> that considered observed spatial effects perform better than the <span class="hlt">models</span> that did not consider the observed spatial effects. Across the <span class="hlt">models</span> with spatial spillover effects, the dual-state <span class="hlt">models</span> especially zero-inflated negative binomial <span class="hlt">model</span> offered better performance compared to single-state <span class="hlt">models</span>. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">model</span> results clearly highlighted the importance of various traffic, roadway, and sociodemographic characteristics of the TAZ as well as neighboring TAZs on pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPRS..123....1X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPRS..123....1X"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping <span class="hlt">models</span> to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E.; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Soil prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods. Random Forest was utilized to develop soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) prediction <span class="hlt">models</span> by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> multiple spectral indices from the PAN and MS images. Overall, our results showed that PAN remote sensing spectral indices have similar spectral characteristics with soil TN and Kex as MS remote sensing spectral indices. There is no soil prediction <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the specific type of pan-sharpened spectral indices always had the strongest prediction capability of soil TN and Kex. The <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of pan-sharpened remote sensing spectral data not only increased the spatial resolution of the soil prediction maps, but also enhanced the prediction accuracy of soil prediction <span class="hlt">models</span>. Small farms with limited footprint, fragmented ownership and diverse crop cycle should benefit greatly from the pan-sharpened high spatial resolution imagery for soil property mapping. Our results show that multiple high and medium resolution images can be used to map soil properties suggesting the possibility of an improvement in the maps' update frequency. Additionally, the results should benefit the large agricultural community through the reduction of routine soil sampling cost and improved prediction accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13D0233N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13D0233N"><span>Evaluation of Boundless Biogeochemical Cycle through Development of Process-Based Eco-Hydrological and Biogeochemical Cycle <span class="hlt">Model</span> to <span class="hlt">Incorporate</span> Terrestrial-Aquatic Continuum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakayama, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Inland water might act as important transport pathway for continental biogeochemical cycle although its contribution has remained uncertain yet due to a paucity of data (Battin et al. 2009). The author has developed process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) <span class="hlt">model</span> (Nakayama, 2008a-b, 2010, 2011a-b, 2012a-c, 2013; Nakayama and Fujita, 2010; Nakayama and Hashimoto, 2011; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013a-b; Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004, 2006, 2008a-b; Nakayama et al., 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012), which <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> surface-groundwater interactions, includes up- and down-scaling processes between local-regional-global scales, and can simulate iteratively nonlinear feedback between hydrologic-geomorphic-ecological processes. Because NICE <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> 3-D groundwater sub-<span class="hlt">model</span> and expands from previous 1- or 2-D or steady state, the <span class="hlt">model</span> can simulate the lateral transport pronounced at steeper-slope or riparian/floodplain with surface-groundwater connectivity. River discharge and groundwater level simulated by NICE agreed reasonably with those in previous researches (Niu et al., 2007; Fan et al., 2013) and extended to clarify lateral subsurface also has important role on global hydrologic cycle (Nakayama, 2011b; Nakayama and Shankman, 2013b) though the resolution was coarser. NICE was further developed to <span class="hlt">incorporate</span> biogeochemical cycle including reaction between inorganic and organic carbons in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The missing role of carbon cycle simulated by NICE, for example, CO2 evasion from inland water (global total flux was estimated as about 1.0 PgC/yr), was relatively in good agreement in that estimated by empirical relation using previous pCO2 data (Aufdenkampe et al., 2011; Laruelle et al., 2013). The <span class="hlt">model</span> would play important role in identification of greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere and spatio-temporal hot spots, and bridging gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches (Cole et al. 2007; Frei et al. 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27684523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27684523"><span>QSAR <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Unbound Brain-to-Plasma Partition Coefficient, Kp,uu,brain: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> P-glycoprotein Efflux as a Variable.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dolgikh, Elena; Watson, Ian A; Desai, Prashant V; Sawada, Geri A; Morton, Stuart; Jones, Timothy M; Raub, Thomas J</p> <p>2016-11-28</p> <p>We report development and prospective validation of a QSAR <span class="hlt">model</span> of the unbound brain-to-plasma partition coefficient, Kp,uu,brain, based on the in-house data set of ∼1000 compounds. We discuss effects of experimental variability, explore the applicability of both regression and classification approaches, and evaluate a novel, <span class="hlt">model-within-a-model</span> approach of including P-glycoprotein efflux prediction as an additional variable. When tested on an independent test set of 91 internal compounds, <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of P-glycoprotein efflux information significantly improves the <span class="hlt">model</span> performance resulting in an R(2) of 0.53, RMSE of 0.57, Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient of 0.73, and qualitative prediction accuracy of 0.8 (kappa = 0.6). In addition to improving the performance, one of the key advantages of this approach is the larger chemical space coverage provided indirectly through <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of the in vitro, higher throughput data set that is 4 times larger than the in vivo data set.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28330985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28330985"><span>A mechanically coupled reaction-diffusion <span class="hlt">model</span> that <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> intra-tumoural heterogeneity to predict in vivo glioma growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hormuth, David A; Weis, Jared A; Barnes, Stephanie L; Miga, Michael I; Rericha, Erin C; Quaranta, Vito; Yankeelov, Thomas E</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>While gliomas have been extensively <span class="hlt">modelled</span> with a reaction-diffusion (RD) type equation it is most likely an oversimplification. In this study, three mathematical <span class="hlt">models</span> of glioma growth are developed and systematically investigated to establish a framework for accurate prediction of changes in tumour volume as well as intra-tumoural heterogeneity. Tumour cell movement was described by coupling movement to tissue stress, leading to a mechanically coupled (MC) RD <span class="hlt">model</span>. Intra-tumour heterogeneity was described by including a voxel-specific carrying capacity (CC) to the RD <span class="hlt">model</span>. The MC and CC <span class="hlt">models</span> were also combined in a third <span class="hlt">model</span>. To evaluate these <span class="hlt">models</span>, rats (n = 14) with C6 gliomas were imaged with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging over 10 days to estimate tumour cellularity. <span class="hlt">Model</span> parameters were estimated from the first three imaging time points and then used to predict tumour growth at the remaining time points which were then directly compared to experimental data. The results in this work demonstrate that mechanical-biological effects are a necessary component of brain tissue tumour <span class="hlt">modelling</span> efforts. The results are suggestive that a variable tissue carrying capacity is a needed <span class="hlt">model</span> component to capture tumour heterogeneity. Lastly, the results advocate the need for additional effort towards capturing tumour-to-tissue infiltration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OPP.....3....6A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OPP.....3....6A"><span>Enhancement in Photovoltaic Properties of Plasmonic Nanostructures <span class="hlt">Incorporated</span> Organic Solar Cells Processed in Air Using P3HT:PCBM as a <span class="hlt">Model</span> Active Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aneesh, P. M.; Kumar, C. Ram; Reshmi Varma, P. C.; Vivek, K.; Namboothiry, Manoj A. G.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of plasmonic gold (Au) nanoparticle at the interface between transparent front electrode and hole transporting layer of molybdenum trioxide is studied using bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) of poly-3- hexylthiophene and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM) fabricated in ambient air condition as a <span class="hlt">model</span> system. The current-voltage measurement of ITO/MoO3/P3HT:PC61BM/Al and Au <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> OPVs under AM1.5G light of intensity 1 Sun showed 16% increase in short circuit current density (JSC) and a 25% improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of Au nanoparticles. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement showed values varying from 40% to 60% over a wavelength range 350 nm to 700 nm with EQE enhancement over a broad spectral window. Scanning electron microscope studies were used to study the morphology of the Au nanoparticles made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA231630','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA231630"><span>A Distributed, Physically-Based, Rainfall-Runoff <span class="hlt">Model</span> <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Topography for Real-Time Flood Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>Maximum 200 words) We present a distributed, physically-based <span class="hlt">model</span> of runoff generation in a catchment, for operational use in flood forecasting. The...being exceeded in the month in question. The observed hydrographs for the various storms were, generally , in the area comprised between the "dry" and...We present a distributed, physically-based <span class="hlt">model</span> of runoff generation in a catchment, for operational use in flood forecasting. The <span class="hlt">model</span> accounts for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ise2012.boku.ac.at/monday.php','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.ise2012.boku.ac.at/monday.php"><span><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> responses of large-river fish populations to global climate change through downscaling and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of predictive uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wildhaber, Mark L.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.; Moran, Edward H.; Dey, Rima; Mader, Helmut; Kraml, Julia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Climate change operates over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Understanding its effects on ecosystems requires multi-scale <span class="hlt">models</span>. For understanding effects on fish populations of riverine ecosystems, climate predicted by coarse-resolution Global Climate <span class="hlt">Models</span> must be downscaled to Regional Climate <span class="hlt">Models</span> to watersheds to river hydrology to population response. An additional challenge is quantifying sources of uncertainty given the highly nonlinear nature of interactions between climate variables and community level processes. We present a <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach for understanding and accomodating uncertainty by applying multi-scale climate <span class="hlt">models</span> and a hierarchical Bayesian <span class="hlt">modeling</span> framework to Midwest fish population dynamics and by linking <span class="hlt">models</span> for system components together by formal rules of probability. The proposed hierarchical <span class="hlt">modeling</span> approach will account for sources of uncertainty in forecasts of community or population response. The goal is to evaluate the potential distributional changes in an ecological system, given distributional changes implied by a series of linked climate and system <span class="hlt">models</span> under various emissions/use scenarios. This understanding will aid evaluation of management options for coping with global climate change. In our initial analyses, we found that predicted pallid sturgeon population responses were dependent on the climate scenario considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015706','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015706"><span>Evaluation of the Doraiswamy-Thompson winter wheat crop calendar <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a modified spring restart sequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W.; Smika, D. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The Robertson phenology was used to provide growth stage information to a wheat stress indicator mode. A stress indicator <span class="hlt">model</span> demands two acurate predictions from a crop calendar: date of spring growth initiation; and crop calendar stage at growth initiation. Several approaches for restarting the Robertson phenology <span class="hlt">model</span> at spring growth initiation were studied. Although best results were obtained with a solar thermal unit method, an alternate approach which indicates soil temperature as the controlling parameter for spring growth initiation was selected and tested. The modified <span class="hlt">model</span> (Doraiswamy-Thompson) is compared to LACIE-Robertson <span class="hlt">model</span> predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944211','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944211"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Model</span> of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD <span class="hlt">model</span> is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD <span class="hlt">model</span> include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of <span class="hlt">model</span> can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic <span class="hlt">models</span> applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field <span class="hlt">model</span> formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics <span class="hlt">model</span> has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The <span class="hlt">model</span> will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=252437','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=252437"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> landscape depressions and tile drainages of a northern German lowland catchment into a semi-distributed <span class="hlt">model</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hydrological <span class="hlt">models</span> need to be adapted to specific hydrological characteristics of the catchment in which they are applied. In the lowland region of northern Germany, tile drains and depressions are prominent features of the landscape though are often neglected in hydrological <span class="hlt">modelling</span> on the catch...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23996405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23996405"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> prey refuge in a prey-predator <span class="hlt">model</span> with a Holling type I functional response: random dynamics and population outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gkana, Amalia; Zachilas, Loukas</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A prey-predator discrete-time <span class="hlt">model</span> with a Holling type I functional response is investigated by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> a prey refuge. It is shown that a refuge does not always stabilize prey-predator interactions. A prey refuge in some cases produces even more chaotic, random-like dynamics than without a refuge and prey population outbreaks appear. Stability analysis was performed in order to investigate the local stability of fixed points as well as the several local bifurcations they undergo. Numerical simulations such as parametric basins of attraction, bifurcation diagrams, phase plots and largest Lyapunov exponent diagrams are executed in order to illustrate the complex dynamical behavior of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4360121','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4360121"><span>A <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">model</span>: a commentary on DiFrancesco and Noble (1985) ‘A <span class="hlt">model</span> of cardiac electrical activity <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> ionic pumps and concentration changes’</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dibb, Katharine; Trafford, Andrew; Zhang, Henggui; Eisner, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the advances made by the DiFrancesco and Noble (DFN) <span class="hlt">model</span> of cardiac cellular electrophysiology, which was published in Philosophical Transactions B in 1985. This <span class="hlt">model</span> was developed at a time when the introduction of new techniques and provision of experimental data had resulted in an explosion of knowledge about the cellular and biophysical properties of the heart. It advanced the cardiac <span class="hlt">modelling</span> field from a period when computer <span class="hlt">models</span> considered only the voltage-dependent channels in the surface membrane. In particular, it included a consideration of changes of both intra- and extracellular ionic concentrations. In this paper, we summarize the most important contributions of the DiFrancesco and Noble paper. We also describe how computer <span class="hlt">modelling</span> has developed subsequently with the extension from the single cell to the whole heart as well as its use in understanding disease and predicting the effects of pharmaceutical interventions. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..TSF.B1003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..TSF.B1003H"><span>Analytic representations of high-altitude auroral H^+ and O^+ densities, flow velocities and temperatures in terms of drivers for <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> into global magnetospheric <span class="hlt">models</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horwitz, James; Zeng, Wen</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>As new methods of describing multiple fluid species and other advances enhance the capability of global magnetospheric <span class="hlt">models</span> to simulate the dynamics of multiple ion species, they also allow more accurate <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of ionospheric plasma outflows as source populations into these large scale <span class="hlt">models</span>. Here, we shall describe the distilled results of numerous physics-based simulations of ionospheric plasma outflows influenced by auroral driving agents in terms of compact analytic expressions in terms of precipitation electron energy flux levels, characteristic energy levels of the precipitating electrons, the peak spectral wave densities for low-frequency electrostatic waves which transversely heat ionospheric ions, and solar zenith angle. The simulations are conducted with the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid Kinetic (DyFK) ionospheric plasma transport code. We present these analytic expressions for ionospheric origin O^+ and H^+ densities, temperatures and field-aligned flow velocities at the 3 RE altitude inner boundaries of typical magnetospheric <span class="hlt">models</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121671&hterms=concentration+pathways&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dconcentration%2Bpathways','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121671&hterms=concentration+pathways&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dconcentration%2Bpathways"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of measured photosynthetic rate in a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for calculation of non-structural saccharide concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, J. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A simple mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for calculating the concentration of mobile carbon skeletons in the shoot of soya bean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom] was built to examine the suitability of measured net photosynthetic rates (PN) for calculation of saccharide flux into the plant. The results suggest that either measurement of instantaneous PN overestimated saccharide influx or respiration rates utilized in the <span class="hlt">model</span> were underestimated. If neither of these is the case, end-product inhibition of photosynthesis or waste respiration through the alternative pathway should be included in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of CH2O influx or efflux; and even if either of these is the case, the <span class="hlt">model</span> output at a low coefficient of leaf activity indicates that PN still may be controlled by either end-product inhibition or alternative respiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538875"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> of measured photosynthetic rate in a mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for calculation of non-structural saccharide concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lim, J T; Raper, C D; Gold, H J; Wilkerson, G G</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A simple mathematical <span class="hlt">model</span> for calculating the concentration of mobile carbon skeletons in the shoot of soya bean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom] was built to examine the suitability of measured net photosynthetic rates (PN) for calculation of saccharide flux into the plant. The results suggest that either measurement of instantaneous PN overestimated saccharide influx or respiration rates utilized in the <span class="hlt">model</span> were underestimated. If neither of these is the case, end-product inhibition of photosynthesis or waste respiration through the alternative pathway should be included in <span class="hlt">modelling</span> of CH2O influx or efflux; and even if either of these is the case, the <span class="hlt">model</span> output at a low coefficient of leaf activity indicates that PN still may be controlled by either end-product inhibition or alternative respiration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APExp...8l2102P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APExp...8l2102P"><span>Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> many-body effects for determining the gain spectra of quantum dot lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peyvast, Negin; Shahid, Hifsa; Hogg, Richard A.; Childs, David T. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">model</span> that simulates the gain spectra of a QD laser material that empirically includes free-carrier effects. We compare simulation results of both Fermi-Dirac and random carrier populations, and compare them with experimental data. The free-carrier effects are highlighted as being more important than the choice of carrier statistics, and routes to improve this simple <span class="hlt">model</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25124765"><span>Dynamics of a producer-grazer <span class="hlt">model</span> <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> the effects of excess food nutrient content on grazer's growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peace, Angela; Wang, Hao; Kuang, Yang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Modeling</span> under the framework of ecological stoichiometric allows the investigation of the effects of food quality on food web population dynamics. Recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that grazer dynamics are affected by insufficient food nutrient content (low phosphorus (P)/carbon (C) ratio) as well as excess food nutrient content (high P:C). This phenomenon is known as the "stoichiometric knife edge." While previous <span class="hlt">models</span> have captured this phenomenon, they do not explicitly track P in the producer or in the media that supports the producer, which brings questions to the validity of their predictions. Here, we extend a Lotka-Volterra-type stoichiometric <span class="hlt">model</span> by mechanistically deriving and tracking P in the producer and free P in the environment in order to investigate the growth response of Daphnia to algae of varying P:C ratios. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations of the full <span class="hlt">model</span>, that explicitly tracks phosphorus, lead to quantitative different predictions than previous <span class="hlt">models</span> that neglect to track free nutrients. The full <span class="hlt">model</span> shows that the fate of the grazer population can be very sensitive to excess nutrient concentrations. Dynamical free nutrient pool seems to induce extreme grazer population density changes when total nutrient is in an intermediate range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26875912"><span>Computational <span class="hlt">model</span> of the fathead minnow hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> protein synthesis in improving predictability of responses to endocrine active chemicals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There is international concern about chemicals that alter endocrine system function in humans and/or wildlife and subsequently cause adverse effects. We previously developed a mechanistic computational <span class="hlt">model</span> of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows exposed to a <span class="hlt">model</span> aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD), to predict dose-response and time-course behaviors for apical reproductive endpoints. Initial efforts to develop a computational <span class="hlt">model</span> describing adaptive responses to endocrine stress providing good fits to empirical plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) data in exposed fish were only partially successful, which suggests that additional regulatory biology processes need to be considered. In this study, we addressed short-comings of the previous <span class="hlt">model</span> by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> additional details concerning CYP19A (aromatase) protein synthesis. Predictions based on the revised <span class="hlt">model</span> were evaluated using plasma E2 concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two fathead minnow time-course experiments with FAD, as well as from a third 4-day study. The extended <span class="hlt">model</span> provides better fits to measured E2 time-course concentrations, and the <span class="hlt">model</span> accurately predicts CYP19A mRNA fold changes and plasma E2 dose-response from the 4-d concentration-response study. This study suggests that aromatase protein synthesis is an important process in the biological system to <span class="hlt">model</span> the effects of FAD exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050185539','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050185539"><span>Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/6-Scale <span class="hlt">Model</span> of Republic XF-12 Vertical Tail <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> a De-Icing Air Duct</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>MacLachlan, Robert; Miller, Sadie M.</p> <p>1945-01-01</p> <p>A 1/6-scale <span class="hlt">model</span> of the Republic XF-12 vertical tail with stub fuselage, stub horizontal tail, and a de-icing air duct was tested in the Langley stability tunnel. The investigation consisted of a study of the effects of the duct, with and without air flow, on the aerodynamic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. The <span class="hlt">model</span> tested was a revision of a <span class="hlt">model</span> previously tested in the Langley stability tunnel. The revised <span class="hlt">model</span> differed from the original <span class="hlt">model</span> in that it <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> a de-icing air duct, included a dorsal fin, and had a larger stub fuselage. A comparison of data obtained form tests of the original and revised <span class="hlt">models</span> was made. The results of the investigation indicated that the air duct had very little effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">model</span>. A small change occurred in the variation of rudder hinge-moment coefficient with angle of attack but it is believed that this change can be corrected by a properly applied spring tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173755','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173755"><span>Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span> by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> radio-telemetry data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Brownie tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span> is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span>. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint <span class="hlt">model</span> can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo,to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span> eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint <span class="hlt">model</span> can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849771','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849771"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A.; Waller, Eric K.; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Dolfi, Emmalee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire <span class="hlt">models</span> exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state’s fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate <span class="hlt">models</span>, respectively). Our two climate <span class="hlt">models</span> show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our <span class="hlt">model</span> would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many <span class="hlt">models</span> likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change. PMID:27124597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4020702','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4020702"><span>Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span> by <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> radio-telemetry data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buderman, Frances E; Diefenbach, Duane R; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S; Wallingford, Bret D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Brownie tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span> is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint <span class="hlt">model</span> to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data from animals fitted with transmitters to estimate the probability of surviving the period from capture to the first hunting season, and data from reward-tagged animals in a Brownie tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span>. We evaluated bias and precision of the joint estimator, and how to optimally allocate effort between animals fitted with radio transmitters and inexpensive ear tags or leg bands. Tagging-to-harvest survival rates from >20 individuals with radio transmitters combined with 50–100 reward tags resulted in an unbiased and precise estimator of harvest rates. In addition, the joint <span class="hlt">model</span> can test whether transmitters affect an individual's probability of being harvested. We illustrate application of the <span class="hlt">model</span> using data from wild turkey, Meleagris gallapavo, to estimate harvest rates, and data from white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, to evaluate whether the presence of a visible radio transmitter is related to the probability of a deer being harvested. The joint known-fate tag-recovery <span class="hlt">model</span> eliminates the requirement to capture and mark animals immediately prior to the hunting season to obtain accurate and precise estimates of harvest rate. In addition, the joint <span class="hlt">model</span> can assess whether marking animals with radio transmitters affects the individual's probability of being harvested, caused by hunter selectivity or changes in a marked animal's behavior. PMID:24834339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124597"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability <span class="hlt">Models</span>: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mann, Michael L; Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A; Waller, Eric K; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Dolfi, Emmalee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire <span class="hlt">models</span> exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical <span class="hlt">model</span> that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the <span class="hlt">model</span>. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate <span class="hlt">models</span>, respectively). Our two climate <span class="hlt">models</span> show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our <span class="hlt">model</span> would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many <span class="hlt">models</span> likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188379"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> cold-air pooling into downscaled climate <span class="hlt">models</span> increases potential refugia for snow-dependent species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Curtis, Jennifer A; Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L; Lundquist, Jessica D; Hudgens, Brian; Boydston, Erin E; Young, Julie K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a unique water-balance approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> snowpack under historic, current and future climates throughout the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion. Our methodology uses a finer scale (270 m) than previous regional studies and <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> cold-air pooling, an atmospheric process that sustains cooler temperatures in topographic depressions thereby mitigating snowmelt. Our results are intended to support management and conservation of snow-dependent species, which requires characterization of suitable habitat under current and future climates. We use the wolverine (Gulo gulo) as an example species and investigate potential habitat based on the depth and extent of spring snowpack within four National Park units with proposed wolverine reintroduction programs. Our estimates of change in spring snowpack conditions under current and future climates are consistent with recent studies that generally predict declining snowpack. However, <span class="hlt">model</span> development at a finer scale and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cold-air pooling increased the persistence of April 1st snowpack. More specifically, <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cold-air pooling into future climate projections increased April 1st snowpack by 6.5% when spatially averaged over the study region and the trajectory of declining April 1st snowpack reverses at mid-elevations where snow pack losses are mitigated by topographic shading and cold-air pooling. Under future climates with sustained or increased precipitation, our results indicate a high likelihood for the persistence of late spring snowpack at elevations above approximately 2,800 m and identify potential climate refugia sites for snow-dependent species at mid-elevations, where significant topographic shading and cold-air pooling potential exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70123449','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70123449"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> cold-air pooling into downscaled climate <span class="hlt">models</span> increases potential refugia for snow-dependent species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Hudgens, Brian; Boydston, Erin E.; Young, Julie K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a unique water-balance approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> snowpack under historic, current and future climates throughout the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion. Our methodology uses a finer scale (270 m) than previous regional studies and <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> cold-air pooling, an atmospheric process that sustains cooler temperatures in topographic depressions thereby mitigating snowmelt. Our results are intended to support management and conservation of snow-dependent species, which requires characterization of suitable habitat under current and future climates. We use the wolverine (Gulo gulo) as an example species and investigate potential habitat based on the depth and extent of spring snowpack within four National Park units with proposed wolverine reintroduction programs. Our estimates of change in spring snowpack conditions under current and future climates are consistent with recent studies that generally predict declining snowpack. However, <span class="hlt">model</span> development at a finer scale and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cold-air pooling increased the persistence of April 1st snowpack. More specifically, <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cold-air pooling into future climate projections increased April 1st snowpack by 6.5% when spatially averaged over the study region and the trajectory of declining April 1st snowpack reverses at mid-elevations where snow pack losses are mitigated by topographic shading and cold-air pooling. Under future climates with sustained or increased precipitation, our results indicate a high likelihood for the persistence of late spring snowpack at elevations above approximately 2,800 m and identify potential climate refugia sites for snow-dependent species at mid-elevations, where significant topographic shading and cold-air pooling potential exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154771','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4154771"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> Cold-Air Pooling into Downscaled Climate <span class="hlt">Models</span> Increases Potential Refugia for Snow-Dependent Species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Hudgens, Brian; Boydston, Erin E.; Young, Julie K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a unique water-balance approach for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> snowpack under historic, current and future climates throughout the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion. Our methodology uses a finer scale (270 m) than previous regional studies and <span class="hlt">incorporates</span> cold-air pooling, an atmospheric process that sustains cooler temperatures in topographic depressions thereby mitigating snowmelt. Our results are intended to support management and conservation of snow-dependent species, which requires characterization of suitable habitat under current and future climates. We use the wolverine (Gulo gulo) as an example species and investigate potential habitat based on the depth and extent of spring snowpack within four National Park units with proposed wolverine reintroduction programs. Our estimates of change in spring snowpack conditions under current and future climates are consistent with recent studies that generally predict declining snowpack. However, <span class="hlt">model</span> development at a finer scale and <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cold-air pooling increased the persistence of April 1st snowpack. More specifically, <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of cold-air pooling into future climate projections increased April 1st snowpack by 6.5% when spatially averaged over the study region and the trajectory of declining April 1st snowpack reverses at mid-elevations where snow pack losses are mitigated by topographic shading and cold-air pooling. Under future climates with sustained or increased precipitation, our results indicate a high likelihood for the persistence of late spring snowpack at elevations above approximately 2,800 m and identify potential climate refugia sites for snow-dependent species at mid-elevations, where significant topographic shading and cold-air pooling potential exist. PMID:25188379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T53B1431Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T53B1431Z"><span>Development of a New Analog Test System Capable of <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> Tectonic Deformation <span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> the Effects of Pore Fluid Pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, M.; Nakajima, H.; Takeda, M.; Aung, T. T.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Understanding and predicting the tectonic deformation within geologic strata has been a very important research subject in many fields such as structural geology and petroleum geology. In recent years, such research has also become a fundamental necessity for the assessment of active fault migration, site selection for geological disposal of radioactive nuclear waste and exploration for methane hydrate. Although analog <span class="hlt">modeling</span> techniques have played an important role in the elucidation of the tectonic deformation mechanisms, traditional approaches have typically used dry materials and ignored the effects of pore fluid pressure. In order for analog <span class="hlt">models</span> to properly depict the tectonic deformation of the targeted, large-prototype system within a small laboratory-scale configuration, physical properties of the <span class="hlt">models</span>, including geometry, force, and time, must be correctly scaled. <span class="hlt">Model</span> materials representing brittle rock behavior require an internal friction identical to the prototype rock and virtually zero cohesion. Granular materials such as sand, glass beads, or steel beads of dry condition have been preferably used for this reason in addition to their availability and ease of handling. <span class="hlt">Modeling</span> protocols for dry granular materials have been well established but such <span class="hlt">model</span> tests cannot account for the pore fluid effects. Although the concept of effective stress has long been recognized and the role of pore-fluid pressure in tectonic deformation processes is evident, there have been few analog <span class="hlt">model</span> studies that consider the effects of pore fluid movement. Some new applications require a thorough understanding of the coupled deformation and fluid flow processes within the strata. Taking the field of waste management as an example, deep geological disposal of radioactive waste has been thought to be an appropriate methodology for the safe isolation of the wastes from the human environment until the toxicity of the wastes decays to non-hazardous levels. For the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIEI...11..555K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIEI...11..555K"><span>A production-inventory <span class="hlt">model</span> with permissible delay <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> learning effect in random planning horizon using genetic algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kar, Mohuya B.; Bera, Shankar; Das, Debasis; Kar, Samarjit</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>This paper presents a production-inventory <span class="hlt">model</span> for deteriorating items with stock-dependent demand under inflation in a random planning horizon. The supplier offers the retailer fully permissible delay in payment. It is assumed that the time horizon of the business period is random in nature and follows exponential distribution with a known mean. Here learning effect is also introduced for the production cost and setup cost. The <span class="hlt">model</span> is formulated as profit maximization problem with respect to the retailer and solved with the help of genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO. Moreover, the convergence of two methods—GA and PSO—is studied against generation numbers and it is seen that GA converges rapidly than PSO. The optimum results from methods are compared both numerically and graphically. It is observed that the performance of GA is marginally better than PSO. We have provided some numerical examples and some sensitivity analyses to illustrate the <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5177737','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5177737"><span>Data Analysis Protocol for the Development and Evaluation of Population Pharmacokinetic <span class="hlt">Models</span> for <span class="hlt">Incorporation</span> Into the Web-Accessible Population Pharmacokinetic Service - Hemophilia (WAPPS-Hemo)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McEneny-King, Alanna; Foster, Gary; Edginton, Andrea N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in a specific clotting factor. This results in spontaneous bleeding episodes and eventual arthropathy. The mainstay of hemophilia treatment is prophylactic replacement of the missing factor, but an optimal regimen remains to be determined. Rather, individualized prophylaxis has been suggested to improve both patient safety and resource utilization. However, uptake of this approach has been hampered by the demanding sampling schedules and complex calculations required to obtain individual estimates of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. The use of population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) can alleviate this burden by reducing the number of plasma samples required for accurate estimation, but few tools <span class="hlt">incorporating</span> this approach are readily available to clinicians. Objective The Web-accessible Population Pharmacokinetic Service - Hemophilia (WAPPS-Hemo) project aims to bridge this gap by providing a Web-accessible service for the reliable estimation of individual PK parameters from only a few patient samples. This service is predicated on the development of validated brand-specific PopPK <span class="hlt">models</span>. Methods We describe the data analysis plan for the development and evaluation of each PopPK <span class="hlt">model</span> to be <span class="hlt">incorporated</span> into the WAPPS-Hemo platform. The data sources and structure of the dataset are discussed first, followed by the procedures for handling both data below limit of quantification (BLQ) and absence of such BLQ data. Next, we outline the strategies for building the appropriate structural and covariate <span class="hlt">models</span>, including the possible need for a process algorithm when PK behavior varies between subjects or significant covariates are not provided. Prior to use in a prospective manner, the <span class="hlt">models</span> will undergo extensive evaluation using a variety of techniques such as diagnostic plots, bootstrap analysis and cross-validation. Finally, we describe the <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of a validated PopPK <span class="hlt">model</span> into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5313151','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5313151"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale <span class="hlt">model</span> projections to the landscape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species’ response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD <span class="hlt">model</span> adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap <span class="hlt">model</span> and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD <span class="hlt">model</span>, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively. PMID:28207782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28207782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28207782"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale <span class="hlt">model</span> projections to the landscape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui; Swift, D Edwin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution <span class="hlt">models</span> at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD <span class="hlt">model</span> is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD <span class="hlt">model</span> adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap <span class="hlt">model</span> and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD <span class="hlt">model</span>, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True <span class="hlt">model</span> accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H41C1046B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H41C1046B"><span><span class="hlt">Incorporating</span> 3-D Subsurface Hydrologic Processes within the Community Land Surface <span class="hlt">Model</span> (CLM): Coupling PFLOTRAN and CLM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bisht, G.; Mills, R. T.; Hoffman, F. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Hammond, G. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have shown a positive soil moisture-rainfall feedback through observational data, as well as, <span class="hlt">modeling</span> studies. Spatial variability of topography, soils, and vegetation play a significant role in determining the response of land surface states (soil moisture) and fluxes (runoff, evapotranspirtiaon); but their explicit accounting within Land Surface <span class="hlt">Models</span> (LSMs) is computa- tionally expensive. Additionally, anthropogenic climate change is altering the hydrologic cycle at global and regional scales. Characterizing the sensitivity of groundwater recharge is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on water resources. In order to explicitly represent lateral redistribution of soil moisture and unified treatment of the unsaturated-saturated zone in the subsurface within the CLM, we propose coupling PFLOTRAN and CLM. PFLOTRAN is a parallel multiphase-multicomponent subsurface reactive flow and transport code for <span class="hlt">modeling</span> subsurface processes and has been devel- oped under a DOE SciDAC-2 project. PFLOTRAN is written in Fortran 90 using a modular, object-oriented approach. PFLOTRAN utilizes fully implicit time-stepping and is built on top of the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc). The PFLOTRAN <span class="hlt">model</span> is capable of simulating fluid flow through porous media with fluid phases of air, water, and supercritical CO2. PFLOTRAN has been successfully employed on up to 131,072 cores on Jaguar, the massively parallel Cray XT4/XT5 at ORNL, for problems composed of up to 2 billion degrees of freedom. In this work, we will present a strategy of coupling the two <span class="hlt">models</span>, CLM and PFLOTRAN, along with a few preliminary results obtained from the coupled <span class="hlt">model</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26078119"><span>A responsive human triple-culture <span class="hlt">model</span> of the air-blood barrier: <span class="hlt">incorporation</span> of different macrophage phenotypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kasper, Jennifer Y; Hermanns, Maria I; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatr