Asikin, Yonathan; Taira, Ikuko; Inafuku, Sayuri; Sumi, Hidekazu; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji
The flavedo peel extracts of unripe Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) fruits were extracted using steam distillation (SD) or a cold-press (CP) system. Volatile aroma content and composition were determined using gas chromatography (GC) and each compound was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The major constituents of the extracts were monoterpene hydrocarbons (91.75-93.75%[709.32-809.05 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]) including limonene (43.08-45.13%[341.46-379.81 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), γ-terpinene (27.88-29.06%[219.90-245.86 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]), and p-cymene (8.13-11.02%[61.47-97.22 mg/100 g of fresh flavedo peel]). The extraction process used was determined to be a decisive factor that affects the composition of key citrus aroma components, as well as the antioxidant activities of the Shiikuwasha fruit. Antioxidant capabilities of the extracts were examined by assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching inhibition. The cold-press extraction system may better retain the total phenolic content of the flavedo peel and display superior antioxidant activities, compared to the steam distillation extraction method. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is a type of small citrus fruit, and has been used as raw material for beverage and food additive productions in Japan. It had a unique aroma composition in which the limonene content of its peels is lower than that of other commonly known citrus peels. The present study detailed the volatile aroma composition, as well as antioxidant capabilities of Shiikuwasha peel extracts of different extraction methods, that are cold-press and steam distillation methods. The results of this study may provide a basis for selection of Shiikuwasha peel extracts in food industry for citrus flavor production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji
Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki
Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) γ-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of γ-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and γ-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice.
Shiu, Ya-Li; Lin, Hsueh-Li; Chi, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Hung
The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of leaf meal from Citrus depressa Hayata on the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 1% (C1), 3% (C3), and 5% (C5) leaf meal, respectively. During a 56 d feeding trial, fish survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all groups. For immune response, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase and lysozyme activities were not significantly different among all groups. However, fish fed the C5 diet for 56 d had significantly higher phagocytic activity. Also, fish fed C3 and C5 diets had significantly higher Mx gene expressions in spleens and head kidneys with nerve necrosis virus injections after 24 h. Disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was increased by the C5 diet. In this study, barramundi fed on a diet containing 5% C. depressa Hayata leaf meal had significantly better innate immune response and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malmea depressa is traditionally used in the Mayan communities of southeastern Mexico to treat type 2 diabetes. A root bark infusion is being taken throughout the day, between meals. The aim of this study was to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Malmea depressa would reduce hepatic glucose production by targeting gluconeogenesis. The effects of the plant extract on gluconeogenesis (in vivo) and the activity of GL-6-P (in vitro) were examined. The plant extract was analyzed by HPLC to confirm its phytochemical composition. The inhibition of gluconeogenesis was tested in vivo by performing a pyruvate tolerance test in n5-STZ after an 18-h fasting period. The extracts effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity were assayed in vitro with intact rat liver microsomes. Using HPLC-DAD we confirmed that the phytochemical compositions of the tested extract were similar to those previously reported. We proved that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of Malmea depressa dose-dependently inhibits a glucose peak. Furthermore, the gluconeogenesis inhibition was confirmed in vitro using a pyruvate test. The results suggest that administration of Malmea depressa can improve glycemic control by blocking hepatic glucose production, especially in the fasting state. These data support its traditional use as an infusion consumed continually throughout the day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iida, Naoki; Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin; Lang, Frank A; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Inada, Akira
Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides were isolated from the leaves and stems of Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae) along with 14 known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectral analyses, in particular by 2D-NMR spectral evidence.
Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Iida, Naoki; Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Inada, Akira; Murata, Jin; Lang, Frank A; Iinuma, Munekazu; Tanaka, Toshiyuki
Two neolignan glycosides (junipercomnosides A and B) were isolated from aerial parts of Juniperus communis var. depressa along with two known neolignan glycosides and seven flavonoid glycosides. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by spectral analysis, in particular by 2D-NMR analysis. The significance of distribution of flavonoids in the chemotaxonomy of genus Juniperus was also discussed.
Han, Na; Wang, Lin; Song, Zehai; Lin, Junyu; Ye, Chun; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun
Polysaccharide from the herb of Plantago depressa (PDP) was obtained through ethanol precipitation preceded by a water extraction step. The optimum extraction yield of 5.68±0.46% was obtained with the treatment of raw material in water (w/v, 1:25.34) at 80.44°C during 1.97h, 3.28 times. Under these conditions, obtained yield value was in total agreement with value predicted by the model executed by Box-Behnken design (BBD). Following analysis by IR, HPLC-UV, MS and 1 H NMR, the composition of PDP was found to be l-rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, glucose and d-galacturonic acid. The maximum tolerated dose of PDP was 10g/kg. The antioxidant activity of PDP was investigated using five tests and it was found that PDP was able to scavenge hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS radicals, besides their β-carotene bleaching inhibitory activity. In particular, in the test of β-carotene bleaching inhibition, PDP displayed higher activity than Vitamin C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Printrakoon, Cheewarat; Purivirojkul, Watchariya
The isopod Nerocila depressa is present on 54% of the market-sized white sardines ( Sardinella albella) caught from an estuary in the Trat province of Thailand. The ventral part of the body, especially the upper pectoral fin, was the area most frequently infected by this parasite. Parasite length was positively correlated with fish length, which suggests that the parasites attach to the fish at a young age. At the site of attachment, the parasites erode the epidermis, dermis and muscular tissue of the Sardinella. Such pathology may cause mortality in many fish. Infestation of this parasite was proportional to the weight of the fish. This study reports a new host for N. depressa attachment and is the first report of S. albella infestation in the Trat province where other known host fish species are cultured.
Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Iida, Naoki; Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Inada, Akira; Murata, Jin; Lang, Frank A; Iinuma, Munekazu; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Sakagami, Yoshikazu
A new monoterpene glucoside (1) and three new natural megastigmane glycosides (2-4) were isolated along with a known megastigmane glucoside (5) from twigs with leaves of Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae) collected in Oregon, U.S.A., and their structures were determined on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the isolated components against Helicobacter pylori were also investigated.
Schmidt, Christiane; Kucera, Michal; Uthicke, Sven
Warming and changes in ocean carbonate chemistry alter marine coastal ecosystems at an accelerating pace. The interaction between these stressors has been the subject of recent studies on reef organisms such as corals, bryozoa, molluscs, and crustose coralline algae. Here we investigated the combined effects of elevated sea surface temperatures and pCO2 on two species of photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera: Heterostegina depressa (hosting diatoms) and Marginopora vertebralis (hosting dinoflagellates). The effects of single and combined stressors were studied by monitoring survivorship, growth, and physiological parameters, such as respiration, photochemistry (pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and oxygen production), and chl a content. Specimens were exposed in flow-through aquaria for up to seven weeks to combinations of two pCO2 (~790 and ~490 µatm) and two temperature (28 and 31 °C) regimes. Elevated temperature had negative effects on the physiology of both species. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on growth and apparent photosynthetic rate in H.depressa but a positive effect on effective quantum yield. With increasing pCO2, chl a content decreased in H. depressa and increased in M. vertebralis. The strongest stress responses were observed when the two stressors acted in combination. An interaction term was statistically significant in half of the measured parameters. Further exploration revealed that 75 % of these cases showed a synergistic (= larger than additive) interaction between the two stressors. These results indicate that negative physiological effects on photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera are likely to be stronger under simultaneous acidification and temperature rise than what would be expected from the effect of each of the stressors individually.
Eder, Wolfgang; Julia, Woeger; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino
To explore applicability of the natural laboratory approach (sensu Hohenegger) on population dynamic studies of recent larger benthic foraminifera, this relatively new experimental method has been applied on Heterostegina depressa populations from Sesoko Jima, NW Okinawa, Japan. It is used to gain an averaged chamber and diameter building rate, as well as the average longevity of H. depressa based on monthly samplings at fixed sampling stations. Samples were collected by SCUBA in 16 monthly intervals around 20 and 50 meters water depth, wherefrom live populations were dried and investigated by microCT. The specimens were measured regarding chamber number and maximum diameter. This biometric data has been tested for the presence of multiple generations of H. depressa megalospheres. In case of skewed or bimodal frequency distributions, they were decomposed into normally distributed components. Means and standard deviations of each component of every month were extracted and could be used to calculate the maximum values of chamber number and diameter for all sampling intervals. Based on these maximal values, the natural chamber/diameter growth rate was fitted by Michaelis-Menten functions. By inversion of this growth functions the birthdate of every specimen was calculated. Frequency diagrams of these dates reveal a continuous background reproduction throughout the year, yet show distinct reproduction peaks in late spring and late autumn. Further, sinusoidal regression analysis support these two main reproduction cycles, one short-term cycle 70 days and a one long-term cycles around 180 days. Surprisingly, similar cycles have been found in different studies on volumetric growth of larger benthic foraminifera.
Talon, Manuel; Gmitter Jr., Fred G.
Citrus is one of the most widespread fruit crops globally, with great economic and health value. It is among the most difficult plants to improve through traditional breeding approaches. Currently, there is risk of devastation by diseases threatening to limit production and future availability to the human population. As technologies rapidly advance in genomic science, they are quickly adapted to address the biological challenges of the citrus plant system and the world's industries. The historical developments of linkage mapping, markers and breeding, EST projects, physical mapping, an international citrus genome sequencing project, and critical functional analysis are described. Despite the challenges of working with citrus, there has been substantial progress. Citrus researchers engaged in international collaborations provide optimism about future productivity and contributions to the benefit of citrus industries worldwide and to the human population who can rely on future widespread availability of this health-promoting and aesthetically pleasing fruit crop. PMID:18509486
Iida, Naoki; Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Inada, Akira; Murata, Jin; Lang, Frank A; Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Nakanishi, Tsutomu
A new flavone xyloside, 1, and two new flavan-3-ol glucosides, 3 and 4, were isolated together with three known flavones, 2, 11, and 12, five known flavans, 5-9, and a known dihydrochalcone, 10, from the stems and leaves of Juniperus communis var. depressa (Cupressaceae) collected in Oregon, U.S.A., and their structures were determined on the basis of spectral evidence. A novel flavone nucleus such as that in 1 is seldom found in nature today, and new methylcatechin glucosides 3 and 4 are also rare in nature. In addition, we investigated the inhibitory activity of individual components, i.e., 8-11, and others, that were abundantly isolated from the same plant material for the Maillard reaction.
An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.
Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.
Citrus leprosis is one of the oldest citrus diseases, but is also one of the most important emerging citrus diseases in South and Central America, and it is apparently spreading northward towards the U.S. Research in our labs and by others has shown that citrus leprosis disease is caused by a compl...
Ishiwa, J; Sato, T; Mimaki, Y; Sashida, Y; Yano, M; Ito, A
Flavonoids including nobiletin are known to exert many biological actions in vitro. We investigated the chondroprotective effect of citrus flavonoids, especially nobiletin, using cultured rabbit synovial fibroblasts and articular chondrocytes. We examined the effects of citrus flavonoids on the production and gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)production in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Six flavonoids isolated from Citrus depressa Rutaceae including tangeretin, 6-demethoxytangeretin, nobiletin, 5-demethylnobiletin, 6-demethoxynobiletin, and sinensetin suppressed the interleukin 1 (IL-1) induced production of proMMP-9/progelatinase B in rabbit synovial cells in a dose dependent manner (<64 microM); nobiletin most effectively suppressed proMMP-9 production along with the decrease in its mRNA. Nobiletin also reduced IL-1 induced production of PGE2 in the synovial cells, but did not modify the synthesis of total protein. These suppressive effects of nobiletin were also observed in rabbit articular chondrocytes. Nobiletin inhibited proliferation of rabbit synovial fibroblasts in the growth phase. These results suggest nobiletin is a novel antiinflammatory candidate that has the potential to inhibit PGE2 production, matrix degradation of the articular cartilage, and pannus formation in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson
Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening. The following are regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening: (a) All plants...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening. The following are regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening: (a) All plants...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening. The following are regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening: (a) All plants...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-2 Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening. The following are regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening: (a) All plants...
Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...
Smith, Nicholas; Dickerson, Andrew
The rupture of oil glands in the citrus exocarp is a common experience to the discerning citrus consumer. When peeled, oil cavities housed with the citrus exocarp often rupture outwardly in response to externally applied bending stresses. Bending of the peel compresses the soft material surrounding the glands, the albedo, increasing fluid pressure. Ultimately, the fluid pressure exceeds the failure strength of the outermost membrane, the flavedo. The ensuing high-velocity discharge of oil and exhaustive emptying of oil glands creates a novel method for jetting small quantities of the aromatic and volatile oil. We compare the jetting behavior across five citrus hybrids through high-speed videography and material testing of exocarps. The jetting oil undergoes an initial acceleration surpassing 5,000 gravities, reaching velocities in excess of 10 m/s. Film of citrus jets and mimicking jets in the lab reveal their high level of instability is caused by irregular and non-circular orifice geometry. Through material characterization and bending simulations, we rationalize the combination of material properties necessary to generate the internal gland pressures required for explosive dispersal.
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid... quarantined area for Asian citrus psyllid in accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of this...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid... quarantined area for Asian citrus psyllid in accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of this...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid... quarantined area for Asian citrus psyllid in accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of this...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus... Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid... quarantined area for Asian citrus psyllid in accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of this...
Tolerance, or resistance to citrus huanglongbing will be important as a long term solution for this disease. In a field trial conducted with over 1000 plants belonging to different genera in the sub-family Aurantioideae, we observed field tolerance in many Australian citrus relatives. To confirm the...
We created and described the first genetic data set from the Asian citrus psyllid, AsCP, Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP spread the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is associated with the citrus disease Huanglongbing, HLB, known as Citru...
Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...
Citrus is the largest cultivated fruit tree crop in the world, with total production of more than 100 million tons per year. The genus Citrus consists of different species, including several producing economically important crops, such as oranges, mandarins, grapefruit, pummelo, lemons and limes, c...
Citrus genetic resources can now be successfully cryopreserved, which means that they can be placed into long-term storage at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This cryopreservation technology was specifically developed to address the immediate need to have secure long-term back-up storage for citrus co...
Einset, John W.; Lyon, J. Lorene; Sipes, Deborah L.
An in vitro bioassay for chemicals that affect Citrus abscission was used to identify three inhibitors of stylar abscission in lemon pistil explants incubated on defined nutrient media. The three inhibitors (picloram, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-oxyacetic acid) are all auxins, and the most potent of them (i.e. picloram) was found to be at least 10 times more active in the bioassay than 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Picloram (2 micromolar) also was shown to be effective in inhibiting stylar abscission in pistil explants from other Citrus cultivars such as mandarin, Valencia, and Washington navel oranges and grapefruit. To study the physiology of auxins active as abscission inhibitors versus inactive auxins in lemon pistils, the transport and metabolism of [1-14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was compared with that of [2-14C]indole-3-acetic acid, which is without effect in the bioassay over the range from 0.1-100 micromolar. Insignificant quantities of labeled indole-3-acetic acid and/or labeled derivatives were found to reach the presumptive zone of stylar abscission under the test conditions. Labeled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and/or labeled derivatives also were transported slowly through pistils, but some radioactivity could be detected in the stylar abscission zone as early as 24 hours after the start of incubation. Extensive conversion of [2-14C]indole-3-acetic acid to labeled compounds tentatively considered to be glycoside and cellulosic glucan derivatives was found with the use of solvent extraction methodology. A significantly smaller percentage of the radioactivity in pistils incubated on [1-14C]-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was found in fractions corresponding to these derivatives. Both transport and metabolism appear to be important factors affecting the activity of auxins as abscission inhibitors in the bioassay. PMID:16661819
‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...
Development of a quantitative PCR for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of an intranuclear coccidian parasite in Testudines (TINC), and detection in the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle (Heosemys depressa).
Alvarez, W Alexander; Gibbons, Paul M; Rivera, Sam; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X
The intranuclear coccidian parasite of Testudines (TINC) is responsible for significant disease in turtles and tortoises causing high mortality and affecting several threatened species. Diagnostic testing has been limited to relatively labor intensive and expensive pan-coccidial PCR and sequencing techniques. A qPCR assay targeting a specific and conserved region of TINC 18S rRNA was designed. The qPCR reaction was run on samples known to be TINC positive and the results were consistent and analytically specific. The assay was able to detect as little as 10 copies of target DNA in a sample. Testing of soil and invertebrates was negative and did not provide any further insights into life cycles. This assay was used to identify TINC in a novel host species, the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle (Heosemys depressa). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Asian Citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, as a vector of the bacteria causing citrus greening, is considered one of the most important citrus pests globally. Movement of infected psyllids onto uninfected young citrus remains a key concern for the maintenance of citrus production. Attraction of d...
Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P
Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value.
Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Victoria Avenue to Citrus Groves) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA
Shou, Bo Huang
The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.
... conditions, the articles are treated with methyl bromide and shipped in a container that has been sealed with... of any regulated article, including citrus nursery stock, provided that: The article is treated with methyl bromide in accordance with 7 CFR part 305. That part contains our phytosanitary treatment...
In October 2015 the Citrus Research Board (CRB) assembled a panel of experts to review the Citrus Research Board-sponsored Citrus Research and Genetics Programs at University of California Riverside (UCR). The panel consisted of: Gennaro Fazio, USDA/ARS, Geneva, NY; Maria Angeles Forner-Giner, Insti...
Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the U.S. citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivars identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically import...
Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease of citrus in Brazil and in several other citrus-producing countries. ACC management is problematic, and bactericides such as copper can be reasonably efficacious but do not completely control...
Citrus viroid VI (CVd-VI) was originally found from citrus and persimmon in Japan. We report here the identification and molecular characterization of CVd-VI from four production regions of China. A total of 90 cDNA clones from nine infected citrus cultivars were sequenced. The sequence homologies o...
... gnidiella (the honeydew moth) and Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (citrus fruit borer); one fungus (Elsino[euml.... APHIS-2011-0060] RIN 0579-AD59 Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids... Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the fruits and vegetables...
The Rutaceae family of plants includes not only species within the genus Citrus, but also several other genera and species that may not be easily recognized as having any relationship to citrus at all. However, many of these citrus relatives are used for ornamental, culinary, or religious purposes. ...
Gausman, H. W.
Remote sensing with infrared color aerial photography (Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film) for detecting citrus tree anomalies is described. Illustrations and discussions are given for detecting nutrient toxicity symptoms, for detecting foot rot and sooty mold fungal diseases, and for distinguishing among citrus species. Also, the influence of internal leaf structure on light reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are considered; and physiological and environmental factors that affect citrus leaf light reflectance are reviewed briefly and illustrated.
Asíns, M J; Monforte, A J; Mestre, P F; Carbonell, E A
Many of the world's most important citrus cultivars ("Washington Navel", satsumas, clementines) have arisen through somatic mutation. This phenomenon occurs fairly often in the various species and varieties of the genus.The presence of copia-like retrotransposons has been investigated in fruit trees, especially citrus, by using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences. Amplification products from a genotype of each the following species Citrus sinensis, Citrus grandis, Citrus clementina, Prunus armeniaca and Prunus amygdalus, were cloned and some of them sequenced. Southern-blot hybridization using RT clones as probes showed that multiple copies are integrated throughout the citrus genome, while only 1-3 copies are detected in the P. armeniaca genome, which is in accordance with the Citrus and Prunus genome sizes. Sequence analysis of RT clones allowed a search for homologous sequences within three gene banks. The most similar ones correspond to RT domains of copia-like retrotransposons from unrelated plant species. Cluster analysis of these sequences has shown a great heterogeneity among RT domains cloned from the same genotype. This finding supports the hypothesis that horizontal transmission of retrotransposons has occurred in the past. The species presenting a RT sequence most similar to citrus RT clones is Gnetum montanum, a gymnosperm whose distribution area coincides with two of the main centers of origin of Citrus spp. A new C-methylated restriction DNA fragment containing a RT sequence is present in navel sweet oranges, but not in Valencia oranges from which the former originated suggesting, that retrotransposon activity might be, at least in part, involved in the genetic variability among sweet orange cultivars. Given that retrotransposons are quite abundant throughout the citrus genome, their activity should be investigated thoroughly before commercializing any transgenic citrus plant where the transgene(s) is part
Sujitha, Mohanan V; Kannan, Soundarapandian
This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl(4) by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (111, 200, 220 and 222 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp(3) of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong
By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.
Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...
In silico analyses of the draft genome of Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid, for genes within the Ribonucleic acid interference(RNAi), pathway was successful. The psyllid is the vector of the plant-infecting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is linked to citrus gree...
Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...
The Stover-led research team focuses on developing improved citrus scion varieties, through both conventional breeding and transgenics, with special attention to confronting the threat of citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Collaborations are underway with more than 20 research groups around the world to ha...
Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) vectors the bacterial causal pathogen of the deadly citrus disease, Huanglongbing (citrus greening) which is a major threat to citrus industry worldwide. We studied antennal and behavioral responses to principal components of head...
Ayadi, M; Hanana, M; Kharrat, N; Merchaoui, H; Marzoug, R Ben; Lauvergeat, V; Rebaï, A; Mzid, R
WRKY transcription factors belong to a large family of plant transcriptional regulators whose members have been reported to be involved in a wide range of biological roles including plant development, adaptation to environmental constraints and response to several diseases. However, little or poor information is available about WRKY's in Citrus. The recent release of completely assembled genomes sequences of Citrus sinensis and Citrus clementina and the availability of ESTs sequences from other citrus species allowed us to perform a genome survey for Citrus WRKY proteins. In the present study, we identified 100 WRKY members from C. sinensis (51), C. clementina (48) and Citrus unshiu (1), and analyzed their chromosomal distribution, gene structure, gene duplication, syntenic relation and phylogenetic analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 100 Citrus WRKY sequences with their orthologs from Arabidopsis has distinguished seven groups. The CsWRKY genes were distributed across all ten sweet orange chromosomes. A comprehensive approach and an integrative analysis of Citrus WRKY gene expression revealed variable profiles of expression within tissues and stress conditions indicating functional diversification. Thus, candidate Citrus WRKY genes have been proposed as potentially involved in fruit acidification, essential oil biosynthesis and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Our results provided essential prerequisites for further WRKY genes cloning and functional analysis with an aim of citrus crop improvement.
Citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. The citrus greening bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuway...
The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is the insect vector of the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening). HLB threatens citrus production worldwide. Suppression or reduction of the insect vector usin...
Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko
Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387
Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M
Twenty-four flavonoids have been determined in 66 Citrus species and near-citrus relatives, grown in the same field and year, by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Statistical methods have been applied to find relations among the species. The F ratios of 21 flavonoids obtained by applying ANOVA analysis are significant, indicating that a classification of the species using these variables is reasonable to pursue. Principal component analysis revealed that the distributions of Citrus species belonging to different classes were largely in accordance with Tanaka's classification system.
Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan
Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin
An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.
Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam
Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462
Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1) Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2) the acidless "Sucreña" orange showed unusually high levels
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a phloem feeding insect that can host and transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the putative causative agent of the economically important citrus disease, Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP are widespread in Florida, and are spreading in Ca...
Wang, Yue; Qian, Jing; Cao, Jinping; Wang, Dengliang; Liu, Chunrong; Yang, Rongxi; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde
Citrus ( Citrus reticulate Blanco) is one of the most commonly consumed and widely distributed fruit in the world, which is possessing extensive bioactivities. Present study aimed to fully understand the flavonoids compositions, antioxidant capacities and in vitro anticancer abilities of different citrus resources. Citrus fruits of 35 varieties belonging to 5 types (pummelos, oranges, tangerines, mandarins and hybrids) were collected. Combining li quid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD), a total of 39 flavonoid compounds were identified, including 4 flavones, 9 flavanones and 26 polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs). Each citrus fruit was examined and compared by 4 parts, flavedo, albedo, segment membrane and juice sacs. The juice sacs had the lowest total phenolics, following by the segment membrane. Four antioxidant traits including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were applied for the antioxidant capacities evaluation. Three gastric cancer cell lines, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS were applied for the cytotoxicity evaluation. According to the results of correlation analysis, phenolics compounds might be the main contributor to the antioxidant activity of citrus extracts, while PMFs existing only in the flavedo might be closely related to the gastric cancer cell line cytotoxicity of citrus extracts. The results of present study might provide a theoretical guidance for the utilization of citrus resources.
Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. We identified an optimal blend ratio of formic and acetic acids that stimulate...
... net increase in the U.S. supply of fresh citrus varieties, as well as some displacement of the... statement in the economic analysis that ``any product displacement that may occur because of the proposed... share (product displacement) for current foreign suppliers of fresh citrus to the United States. U.S...
Koch, Karen E.; Avigne, Wayne T.
Postphloem, nonvascular assimilate transport occurs over an unusually long area in citrus fruit and thus facilitates investigation of this process relative to sugar entry into many sink structures. Labeled photosynthates moving into juice tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) slowed dramatically after entering the postphloem transport path (parenchyma cells, narrow portions of segment epidermis, and hair-like, parenchymatous stalks of juice sacs). Kinetic, metabolic, and compositional data indicated that transfer through the nonvascular area was delayed many hours by temporary storage and/or equilibration with sugars in compartments along the postphloem path. Labeled assimilates were generally recovered as sucrose throughout the path, and extent of hexose formation enroute bore no apparent relationship to the assimilate transfer process. Even after 24 hours, radiolabel was restricted to discrete, highly localized areas directly between vascular bundles and juice sacs. Postphloem transfer occurred against an ascending sucrose concentration gradient in young fruit, whereas a descending gradient (favoring diffusion/cytoplasmic streaming) developed only later in maturation. Involvement of a postphloem bulk flow is complicated in the present instance by the extremely limited water loss from juice sacs either via transpiration or fluid backflow. Nonetheless, tissue expansion can account for a collective water inflow of at least 1.0 milliliter per day throughout the majority of juice sac development, thus providing a modest, but potentially important means of nonvascular solution flow. Overall, data indicate postphloem transfer (a) can follow highly localized paths through sizable nonvascular areas (up to 3.0 centimeters total), (b) appears to involve temporary storage and/or equilibration with compartmentalized sugars enroute, (c) can occur either against an overall up-hill sugar gradient (young tissues) or along a descending gradient (near full expansion), and
Site Plan & Site Section of Citrus Landscape (Showing Relationship of Groves & Irrigation System to Grove Canal) - Arlington Heights Citrus Landscape, Southwestern portion of city of Riverside, Riverside, Riverside County, CA
Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A
Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq TM (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.
Biological indexing for the detection of graft transmissible diseases of citrus is essential for maintaining a citrus certification program. Many of the graft transmissible diseases of citrus are harbored as latent infections in the scions, but when propagated on a susceptible rootstock that allow...
The Asian citrus psyllid, D. citri, is a primary pest for citrus production due to its status as a vector of the citrus disease, huanglongbing. We investigated phototactic behavior of D. citri to evaluate effects of light of specific wavelength or polarization using a horizontal bioassay arena. Wave...
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease with no known cure. To identify sources of HLB resistance in the subfamily Aurantioideae to which citrus belongs, we conducted a six-year field trial under natural disease challenge conditions in an HLB endemic region. The study included 65 Citrus ...
Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...
Phyllocoptruta olevoria (Acari: Eriophyidae) or the citrus rust mite (CRM) is one of the most economically important mite pests of citrus worldwide. CRM originated from Asia, however it is found in most citrus producing areas, such as, Brazil, Morocco and the United States. Though CRM is a major pes...
Guangdong Province is an important citrus production region in China. Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong probably in the late 1800’s and the disease was first studied there. Since the 1990’s, citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shifted from the coasta...
Progress is reported on the Citrus Research Board funded project: 5300-150 Biomarkers for the detection of Liberibacter infection in citrus through H-NMR-based metabolomics. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) was used to determine the effects of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) feeding on leaf meta...
Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilò, Patrizia; Gullo, Maria A Lo
Gas exchange and hydraulic features were measured in leaves of three different Citrus species (Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon L., Citrus × paradisii Macfad) infested by Phyllocnistis citrella Staiton, with the aim to quantify the impact of this pest on leaf hydraulics and, ultimately, on plant fitness. Infested leaves were characterized by the presence on the leaf blade of typical snake-shaped mines and, in some cases, of a crumpled leaf blade. Light microscopy showed that leaf crumpling was induced by damage to the cuticular layer. In all three Citrus species examined: (a) the degree of infestation did not exceed 10% of the total surface area of infested plants; (b) control and infested leaves showed similar values of minimum diurnal leaf water potential, leaf hydraulic conductance and functional vein density; and (c) maximum diurnal values of stomatal conductance to water vapour, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate (An) were similar in both control leaves and the green areas of infested leaves. A strong reduction of An was recorded only in mined leaf areas. Our data suggest that infestation with P. citrella does not cause conspicuous plant productivity reductions in young Citrus plants, at least not in the three Citrus species studied here.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most serious citrus diseases that threaten citrus industry worldwide. Because Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) resides in citrus phloem, it is difficult to deliver an effective chemical compound into the phloem for control of HLB. In this study, a transcuticu...
Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. Citrus canker is also an economically important disease associated with a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas citri). In this study, we characterized e...
Volatile phytochemicals play a role in orientation by phytophagous insects. We studied antennal and behavioral responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vector of the citrus greening disease pathogen. Little or no response to citrus leaf volatiles was detected by electroanten...
Citrus canker is a serious disease of citrus in tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate and precise assessment of citrus canker and other plant pathogens is needed to obtain good quality data. Citrus canker assessment data were used to ascertain some of the mechanics of the Horsfal...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative... Citrus Products § 93.5 Fees for citrus product analyses set by cooperative agreement. The fees for the analyses of fresh citrus juices and other citrus products shall be set by mutual agreement between the...
Ollitrault, Frédérique; Terol, Javier; Pina, Jose Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick
Microsatellite primers were developed from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences of Citrus clementina and their transferability and polymorphism tested in the genus Citrus for future anchorage of physical and genetic maps and comparative interspecific genetic mapping. • Using PAGE and DNA silver staining, 79 primer pairs were selected for their transferability and polymorphism among 526 microsatellites mined in BES. A preliminary diversity study in Citrus was conducted with 18 of them, in C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, C. sinensis, C. aurantium, C. paradisi, C. lemon, C. aurantifolia, and some papedas (wild citrus), using a capillary electrophoresis fragment analyzer. Intra- and interspecific polymorphism was observed, and heterozygous markers were identified for the different genotypes to be used for genetic mapping. • These results indicate the utility of the developed primers for comparative mapping studies and the integration of physical and genetic maps.
Wang, Rui; Shi, Xue-gen; Wei, You-zhang; Yang, Xiao-e; Uoti, Juhani
Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to study the effects of compound fertilizers on their yields and quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea. Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops. PMID:16909469
Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...
The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) and other psyllids are important agricultural pests that cause extensive economic damage by feeding and as vectors of plant pathogens. No psyllid genomes have been characterized, and little is known about the composition of psyllid genomes or the ...
The use of thermotherapy to treat HLB-infected citrus trees has been demonstrated by various systems over the past few years, which basically fall into two primary categories – passive solar systems (tents), and active heated water/steam spray systems. The system envisioned here is a combination of ...
Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.
This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.
Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...
This article discusses the research needed to develop the RMCE strategy and molecular assays for site-specific recombinases as tools for genome manipulation. Explanation of genetic engineering used to generate transgenic citrus plants to exhibit a novel phenotype, but not to contain the recombinase...
Garcia-Lor, Andrés; Licciardello, Concetta; Las Casas, Giuseppina; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Krueger, Robert; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Froelicher, Yann
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata), citron (Citrus medica), and pummelo (Citrus maxima) are important species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varieties of Citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon, lime, and grapefruit. Citron produces anthocyanins in its young leaves and flowers, as do species in genera closely related to Citrus, but mandarins do not, and pummelo varieties that produce anthocyanins have not been reported. We investigated the activity of the Ruby gene, which encodes a MYB transcription factor controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different accessions of a range of Citrus species and in domesticated cultivars. A white mutant of lemon lacks functional alleles of Ruby, demonstrating that Ruby plays an essential role in anthocyanin production in Citrus. Almost all the natural variation in pigmentation by anthocyanins in Citrus species can be explained by differences in activity of the Ruby gene, caused by point mutations and deletions and insertions of transposable elements. Comparison of the allelic constitution of Ruby in different species and cultivars also helps to clarify many of the taxonomic relationships in different species of Citrus, confirms the derivation of commercial varieties during domestication, elucidates the relationships within the subgenus Papeda, and allows a new genetic classification of mandarins. PMID:28196843
Butelli, Eugenio; Garcia-Lor, Andrés; Licciardello, Concetta; Las Casas, Giuseppina; Hill, Lionel; Recupero, Giuseppe Reforgiato; Keremane, Manjunath L; Ramadugu, Chandrika; Krueger, Robert; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Froelicher, Yann; Navarro, Luis; Martin, Cathie
Mandarin ( Citrus reticulata ), citron ( Citrus medica ), and pummelo ( Citrus maxima ) are important species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varieties of Citrus : sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon, lime, and grapefruit. Citron produces anthocyanins in its young leaves and flowers, as do species in genera closely related to Citrus , but mandarins do not, and pummelo varieties that produce anthocyanins have not been reported. We investigated the activity of the Ruby gene, which encodes a MYB transcription factor controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different accessions of a range of Citrus species and in domesticated cultivars. A white mutant of lemon lacks functional alleles of Ruby , demonstrating that Ruby plays an essential role in anthocyanin production in Citrus Almost all the natural variation in pigmentation by anthocyanins in Citrus species can be explained by differences in activity of the Ruby gene, caused by point mutations and deletions and insertions of transposable elements. Comparison of the allelic constitution of Ruby in different species and cultivars also helps to clarify many of the taxonomic relationships in different species of Citrus , confirms the derivation of commercial varieties during domestication, elucidates the relationships within the subgenus Papeda , and allows a new genetic classification of mandarins. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick
A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).
Li, Wenbin; Levy, Laurene; Hartung, John S
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), or greening disease, is strongly associated with any of three nonculturable gram-negative bacteria belonging to 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' 'Ca. Liberibacter spp.' are transmitted by citrus psyllids to all commercial cultivars of citrus. The diseases can be lethal to citrus and have recently become widespread in both São Paulo, Brazil, and Florida, United States, the locations of the largest citrus industries in the world. Asiatic HLB, the form of the disease found in Florida, is associated with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and is the subject of this report. The nonculturable nature of the pathogen has hampered research and little is known about the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in infected trees. In this study, we have used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to systematically quantify the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes in tissues of six species of citrus either identified in the field during survey efforts in Florida or propagated in a greenhouse in Beltsville, MD. The populations of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inferred from the distribution of 16S rDNA sequences specific for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in leaf midribs, leaf blades, and bark samples varied by a factor of 1,000 among samples prepared from the six citrus species tested and by a factor of 100 between two sweet orange trees tested. In naturally infected trees, above-ground portions of the tree averaged 10(10) 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes per gram of tissue. Similar levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were observed in some but not all root samples from the same plants. In samples taken from greenhouse-inoculated trees, levels of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes varied systematically from 10(4) genomes/g at the graft inoculation site to 10(10) genomes/g in some leaf petioles. Root samples from these trees also contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' at 10(7) genomes/g. In symptomatic fruit tissues, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genomes were also readily detected and quantified. The highest
Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR
Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran
The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.
Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA
Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W
Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents.
Gualdani, Roberta; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Lentini, Giovanni; Habtemariam, Solomon
Citrus limonoids (CLs) are a group of highly oxygenated terpenoid secondary metabolites found mostly in the seeds, fruits and peel tissues of citrus fruits such as lemons, limes, oranges, pumellos, grapefruits, bergamots, and mandarins. Represented by limonin, the aglycones and glycosides of CLs have shown to display numerous pharmacological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic and insecticidal among others. In this review, the chemistry and pharmacology of CLs are systematically scrutinised through the use of medicinal chemistry tools and structure-activity relationship approach. Synthetic derivatives and other structurally-related limonoids from other sources are include in the analysis. With the focus on literature in the past decade, the chemical classification of CLs, their physico-chemical properties as drugs, their biosynthesis and enzymatic modifications, possible ways of enhancing their biological activities through structural modifications, their ligand efficiency metrics and systematic graphical radar plot analysis to assess their developability as drugs are among those discussed in detail.
Orbović, Vladimir; Grosser, Jude W
The most frequently used method for production of citrus transgenic plants is via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tissues found on explants obtained from juvenile seedlings. Within the last decade and especially within the last 5-6 years, this robust method was employed to produce thousands of transgenic plants. With the newly applied screening methods that allow easier and faster detection of transgenic shoots, estimates of transformation rate for some cultivars have gone up making this approach even more attractive. Although adjustments have to be made regarding the (varietal) source of the starting material and Agrobacterium strain used in each experiment preformed, the major steps of this procedure have not changed significantly if at all. Transgenic citrus plants produced this way belong to cultivars of rootstocks, sweet oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, limes, and lemons.
Zhao, Pan; Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Dong, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu
Citri Fructus (CF), the mature fruit of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka (CWT) or Citrus medica L. (CML), is an important citrus by-product with health promoting and nutritive properties. The present study compares the chemical and biological differences of CWT and CML. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry techniques, were employed to compare the chemical profiles of CWT and CML. A total of 25 compounds were identified and the results indicated that there were significant differences in chemical composition between the two CF species. The quantitative results obtained by HPLC coupled with diode array detector method demonstrated that naringin was present in the highest amounts in CWT, whilst nomilin was the most dominant constituent in CML. It was also found that CWT had significantly higher free radical-scavenging activity than CML. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Due to the increased side effects of the treatment regimens and the development of antimicrobial resistance, a number of natural compounds have been tested as potential alternatives. In this review, we will examine the current knowledge on the effect of Citrus fruits and their derivatives against H. pylori, highlighting the remaining outstanding questions on the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28408943
Ramos-González, Pedro Luis; Chabi-Jesus, Camila; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene; Tassi, Aline Daniele; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Harakava, Ricardo; Salaroli, Renato Barbosa; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana
Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local necrotic and chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches, and fruit and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in noncommercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013 to 2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells. However, every attempt to identify these particles by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests failed, even though all described primers for the detection of known CL-causing cileviruses and dichorhaviruses were used. Next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracts from three symptomatic samples revealed the genome of distinct, although highly related (>92% nucleotide sequence identity), viruses whose genetic organization is similar to that of dichorhaviruses. The genome sequence of these viruses showed <62% nucleotide sequence identity with those of orchid fleck virus and coffee ringspot virus. Globally, the deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frames they encode share 32.7 to 63.8% identity with the proteins of the dichorhavirids. Mites collected from both the naturally infected citrus trees and those used for the transmission of one of the characterized isolates to Arabidopsis plants were anatomically recognized as Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu stricto. Molecular and biological features indicate that the identified viruses belong to a new species of CL-associated dichorhavirus, which we propose to call Citrus leprosis N dichorhavirus. Our results, while emphasizing the increasing diversity of viruses causing CL disease, lead to a reevaluation of the nomenclature of those viruses assigned to the genus Dichorhavirus. In this regard, a comprehensive discussion is
Jia, X.; Swancar, A.; Jacobs, J.M.; Dukes, M.D.; Morgan, K.
Florida citrus groves are typically grown in two regions of the state: flatwoods and ridge. The southern flatwoods citrus area has poorly drained fine textured sands with low organic matter in the shallow root zone. Ridge citrus is located in the northern ridge citrus zone and has fine to coarse textured sands with low water-holding capacity. Two commercial citrus groves, selected from each region, were studied from 15 July 2004 to 14 July 2005. The flatwoods citrus (FC) grove had a grass cover and used drainage ditches to remove excess water from the root zone. The ridge citrus (RC) grove had a bare soil surface with weeds periodically eliminated by tillage. Citrus crop evapotranspiration (ETc) rates at the two citrus groves were measured by the eddy correlation method, and components in the energy balance were also examined and compared. The study period had higher than average rainfall, and as a result, the two locations had similar annual ETc rates (1069 and 1044 mm for RC and FC, respectively). The ETc rates were 59% (RC) and 47% (FC) of the rainfall amounts during the study period. The annual reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) rates were 1180 mm for RC and 1419 mm for FC, estimated using the standardized reference evapotranspiration equation. The citrus crop coefficients (Kc, ratio of ETc to ET o) were different between the two locations because of differences in latitude, ground cover, and rainfall amounts. The Kc values ranged from 0.70 between December and March to 1.05 between July and November for RC, and from 0.65 between November and May to 0.85 between June and October for FC. The results are consistent with other Kc values reported from field studies on citrus in both Florida and elsewhere using these and alternate methods.
Livingston, George; Hack, Lindsey; Steinmann, Kimberly P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Rosenheim, Jay A
Experimental approaches to studying the consequences of pesticide use, including impacts on beneficial insects, are vital; however, they can be limited in scale and realism. We show that an ecoinformatics approach that leverages existing data on pesticides, pests, and beneficials across multiple fields can provide complementary insights. We do this using a multi-year dataset (2002-2013) on pesticide applications and density estimates of two pests, citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri (Moulton [Thysanoptera: Thripidae])) and citrus red mites (Panonychus citri McGregor [Acari: Tetranychidae]), and a natural enemy (Euseius spp. predatory mites) collected from citrus groves in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using correlative analyses, we investigated the long-term consequences of pesticide use on S. citri and P. citri population densities to evaluate the hypothesis that the pest status of these species is largely due to the disruption of natural biological control-i.e., these are induced pests. We also evaluated short-term pesticide efficacy (suppression of citrus thrips and citrus red mite populations immediately post-application) and asked if it was correlated with the suppression of Euseius predator populations. Although the short-term efficacy of different pesticides varied significantly, our dataset does not suggest that the use of citrus pesticides suppressed Euseius densities or worsened pest problems. We also find that there is no general trade-off between pesticide efficacy and pesticide risk to Eusieus, such that highly effective and minimally disruptive compounds were available to citrus growers during the studied time period.
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...
Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G
Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), became a devastating disease spread through citrus groves in Florida, since it was first found in 2005. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were acquired to detect citrus greening infected trees in 20...
Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...
Citrus cultivars show a wide range of tolerance to cold temperatures. Lemons and limes are known to be sensitive to cold while certain mandarins and trifoliate oranges can endure severe winters. To understand the mechanism of cold tolerance in citrus, we selected three known cold-sensitive and three...
Citrus is an economically important world tree fruit crop with production in more than 146 countries. The center of origin for citrus is considered to be Southeastern Asia including southern China, northeastern India, and Malaysia, with secondary centers in surrounding areas. Novel and commercially ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...
Citrus sinensis (sweet orange, ex. Hamlin, Midsweet, Valencia) is the source of “orange juice” and juice must contain no less than 90% C. sinensis to be marketed as such. Juice produced from Citrus reticulata (mandarins) and C. reticulata hybrids (Orlando, Murcott, Fallglo, Sunburst, Minneola) can b...
Asian citrus psyllids (ACP) transmit the pathogen responsible for citrus greening disease. Psyllids use color, smell, taste and vibrational cues to identify their host plants and conspecifics. The main goal of this project is to develop an attract-and-kill device strategy that will exploit the psyll...
Mandarin (C. reticulata), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are imortant fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varities of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon lme and grapefruit. Citron and it...
Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...
In its 120 year history, the USDA citrus scion breeding program has provided the mainstays of the Florida specialty citrus industry. In the last few years, the USDA has released US Early Pride mandarin, US Seedless Pineapple sweet orange and most recently, US Furr/US Furr-ST mandarin. Clearly huangl...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Peru. 319.56-41 Section 319.56-41... from Peru. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limes (C. aurantiifolia), mandarins or tangerines (C... States from Peru under the following conditions: (a) The fruit must be accompanied by a permit issued in...
Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...
Cubero, J.; Graham, J. H.; Gottwald, T. R.
For diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker by PCR, an internal standard is employed to ensure the quality of the DNA extraction and that proper requisites exist for the amplification reaction. The ratio of PCR products from the internal standard and bacterial target is used to estimate the initial bacterial concentration in citrus tissues with lesions. PMID:11375206
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive pest in Florida because it vectors a bacterium ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Soon after finding HLB in Florida, concerns arose that orange jasmine in urban areas wo...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...
On October 1st 2011 the CRB chose to fund a unique research project, the development of citrus cultivars specifically for genetic engineering (GE). The objective of this research was to develop GE citrus ‘Founder Lines’ containing DNA sequences that will allow the precise insertion of genes for de...
This research demonstrated a non-transgenic delivery method for ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, that reduced fitness as measured in increased mortality over time, of two insect pests of citrus, ie. psyllids and leafhoppers. The Asian citrus psyllid transmits a deadly plant-infecting bacterium o...
Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W
The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.
Yellow vein clearing virus, an uncharacterized filamentous virus, was first observed in Pakistan in 1988 and later in India in 1997 in Etrog citron (Citrus medica). Based on electron microscopic evidence of filamentous particles, the virus, provisionally named Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVC...
The equivalent of US$ 75 million is spent each year in Brazil to control Brevipalpus phoenicis, a mite vector of Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C). In this study we investigated the possibility that hedgerows, windbreaks, and weeds normally found in citrus orchards could host CiLV-C. Mites reared on ...
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact tra...
Zhang, Junli; Huguet-Tapia, Jose Carlos; Hu, Yang; Jones, Jeffrey; Wang, Nian; Liu, Sanzhen; White, Frank F
The lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) genes encode a group of plant-specific proteins that function as transcription factors in the regulation of plant growth and development. Citrus sinensis lateral organ boundary 1 (CsLOB1) is a member of the LBD family and functions as a disease susceptibility gene in citrus bacterial canker (CBC). Thirty-four LBD members have been identified from the Citrus sinensis genome. We assessed the potential for additional members of LBD genes in citrus to function as surrogates for CsLOB1 in CBC, and compared host gene expression on induction of different LBD genes. Using custom-designed transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, two members of the same clade as CsLOB1, named CsLOB2 and CsLOB3, were found to be capable of functioning similarly to CsLOB1 in CBC. RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a set of cell wall metabolic genes that are associated with CsLOB1, CsLOB2 and CsLOB3 expression and may represent downstream genes involved in CBC. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Asian citrus psyllid antennae reacted strongly when stimulated with citral and ocimene stimulus tubes that had been aged for 3-5 days. When 20 µl of neat ocimene or citral were aged on filter paper strips in sealed Pasteur pipette stimulus tubes for 6 days on the laboratory bench, voltage changes we...
... leaves. High populations feeding on a citrus shoot can kill the growing tip. ACP is currently present in... the public the availability of an environmental assessment, titled ``Movement of Regulated Articles... greening is a high-risk pathway for the spread of the disease. For example, a tourist visiting a...
Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yungyuen, Witchulada; Tsukamoto, Issei; Iijima, Natsumi; Oikawa, Michiru; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Kato, Masaya
Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids and fulfill critical roles in plant growth and development. In plants, two different types of carotene hydroxylases, non-heme di-iron and heme-containing cytochrome P450, were reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll. Citrus fruits accumulate a high amount of xanthophylls, especially β,β-xanthophylls. To date, however, the roles of carotene hydroxylases in regulating xanthophyll content and composition have not been elucidated. In the present study, the roles of four carotene hydroxylase genes (CitHYb, CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C) in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll in citrus fruits were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four citrus carotene hydroxylases presented in four distinct clusters which have been identified in higher plants. CitHYb was a non-heme di-iron carotene hydroxylase, while CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C were heme-containing cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylases. Gene expression results showed that the expression of CitHYb increased in the flavedo and juice sacs during the ripening process, which was well consistent with the accumulation of β,β-xanthophyll in citrus fruits. The expression of CitCYP97A and CitCYP97C increased with a peak in November, which might lead to an increase of lutein in the juice sacs during the ripening process. The expression level of CitCYP97B was much lower than that of CitHYb, CitCYP97A, and CitCYP97C in the juice sacs during the ripening process. Functional analysis showed that the CitHYb was able to catalyze the hydroxylation of the β-rings of β-carotene and α-carotene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Meanwhile, when CitHYb was co-expressed with CitCYP97C, α-carotene was hydroxylated on the β-ring and ε-ring sequentially to produce lutein. CitHYb was a key gene for β,β-xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits. CitCYP97C functioned as an ε-ring hydroxylase to produce lutein using zeinoxanthin as a substrate
Boina, Dhana Raj; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R
By 2014, huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus-growing regions of the world, including the United States, with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus-growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB-free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees, has been very effective in managing ACP. Area-wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low volume in large areas of citrus cultivation has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. As insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB-infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area-wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Liu, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most economically important citrus viruses and harms the citrus industry worldwide. To develop reliable and effective serological detection assays of CTV, the major capsid protein (CP) gene of CTV was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-28a and purified through Ni+-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Four hybridoma cell lines (14B10, 14H11, 20D5, and 20G12) secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CTV were obtained through conventional hybridoma technology. The titers of MAb-containing ascitic fluids secreted by the four hybridoma lines ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-7) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots showed that all four MAbs could specifically react with CTV CP. Using the prepared MAbs, dot-ELISA, Tissue print-ELISA, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA were developed to detect CTV in tree nurseries and epidemiological studies. The developed dot-ELISA and TAS-ELISA methods could detect CTV in crude extracts of infected citrus leaves with dilutions of 1:2560 and 1:10, 240 (w/v, g/mL), respectively. Tissue print-ELISA was particularly useful for large-scale field sample detection, mainly owing to its simplicity and lack of sample preparation requirements. The field survey revealed that CTV is prevalent on citrus trees in the Chongqing Municipality, Jiangxi Province, and Zhejiang Province of China. The coincidence rate of serological and RT-PCR test results reached more than 99.5%. The prepared MAbs against CTV and established sensitive and specific serological assays have a significant role in the detection and prevention and control of CTV in our country.
Edwards, G. J.; Ducharme, E. P.; Schehl, T.
Computer processing of MSS data to identify and map citrus trees affected by young tree decline is analyzed. The data were obtained at 1500-feet altitude in six discrete spectral bands covering regions from 0.53 to 1.3 millimicrons as well as from instrumental ground truths of tree crowns. Measurable spectral reflectance intensity differences are observed in the leaves of healthy and diseased trees, especially at wavelengths of 500 to 600 nm and 700 to 800 nm. The overall accuracy of the method is found to be 89%.
Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo
Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.
Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama; Hemiptera: Liviidae) transmits “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), an unculturable alpha-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease, also called citrus greening disease). HLB is threatening citrus prod...
Wu, Jinlong; Deng, Wenjun; Lin, Dingbo; Deng, Xiuxin; Ma, Zhaocheng
The inherent allergens of citrus fruits, such as Cit s 1, Cit s 2, Cit s 3 can cause allergic reactions. A better understanding of the genetic factors (cultivar to cultivar) affecting the allergenic potential of citrus fruits would be beneficial for further identification of hypoallergenic genotypes. In the present study, an immunoblotting quantification approach was adopted to assess the potential allergenicity of 21 citrus cultivars, including nine subgroups (tangerine, satsuma, orange, pummelo, grapefruit, lemon, kumquat, tangor, and tangelo). To prepare highly sensitive and specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies, antigenicity of purified rCit s 1.01, rCit s 2.01, and rCit s 3.01 peptides were enhanced with high epitope density in a single protein molecule. The data integration of three citrus allergen quantifications demonstrated that the four pummelo cultivars (Kao Phuang Pummelo, Wanbai Pummelo, Shatian Pummelo, and Guanxi Pummelo) were potential hypoallergenic, compared with other 8 subgroups. Moreover, the immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects revealed that Shatian Pummelo and Guanxi Pummelo showed the lowest immunoreactivity in 8 representative citrus cultivars. These potential hypoallergenic genotypes are of great significance to not only allergic consumers but also citrus breeders in the genetic improvement of hypoallergenic citrus as breeding resources.
Pepe, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco; Adesso, Simona; Sommella, Eduardo; Ostacolo, Carmine; Manfra, Michele; Chieppa, Marcello; Sala, Marina; Russo, Mariateresa; Marzocco, Stefania; Campiglia, Pietro
Citrus plants contain large amounts of flavonoids with beneficial effects on human health. In the present study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of bioavailable polyphenols from Citrus sinensis was evaluated in vitro and ex vivo, using the murine macrophages cell line J774A.1 and primary peritoneal macrophages. Following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the in vitro bioavailability of Citrus sinensis polyphenolic extract was assessed using the human cell line Caco-2 grown as monolayers on a transwell membrane. Data demonstrated a relative permeation of its compounds (8.3%). Thus, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenolic Citrus sinensis fraction (Cs) was compared to the bioavailable one (CsB). Results revealed that Citrus extract were able to reduce macrophages pro-inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, iNOS, COX-2 and different cytokines. Moreover, the effect of Citrus sinensis polyphenols was associated with antioxidant effects, such as a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increased expression. Our results provide evidence that the bioavailable polyphenolic constituents of the Citrus sinensis extract accumulate prevalently at intestinal level and could reach systemic circulation exerting their effect. The bioavailable fraction showed a higher anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential compared to the initial extract, thus highlighting its potential nutraceutical value.
Fracasso, Aline Francielle; Perussello, Camila Augusto; Carpiné, Danielle; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro
The present study aimed to investigate the physical, structural and rheological modifications caused by the chemical modification process of citrus pectin. Therefore, three commercial citrus pectins with different degree of esterification were chemically modified by sequential alkali and acidic hydrolytic process to produce modified citrus pectins (MCP) with special properties. The molar mass (M w ), degree of esterification (DE), monosaccharide composition, 13 C NMR spectra, homogeneity, morphology (SEM) and rheological behavior of both native and modified citrus pectins (MCP) were investigated. The chemical modification reduced the acid uronic content (up to 28.3%) and molar mass (up to 29.98%), however, showed little influence on the degree of esterification of native pectins. Modified citrus pectins presented higher amounts of neutral monosaccharides, mainly galactose, arabinose and rhamnose, typical of the Ramnogalacturonana-I (RG-I) region. Rheological tests indicated that the native and modified citrus pectins presented pseudoplastic behavior, however, the MCP samples were less viscous, compared to the native ones. Modified samples presented better dissolution in water and less strong gels, with good stability during oscillatory shearing at 25°C. This study aims to better understand the implications that chemical modifications may impose on the structure of citrus pectins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona
The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graiver, Natalia; Califano, Alicia; Zaritzky, Noemí
Three categories of seed storage behavior are generally recognized among plant species: orthodox, intermediate and recalcitrant. Intermediate seeds cannot be stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) without a previous partial dehydration process. The water content (WC) of the seeds at the moment of immersion in LN must be regarded as the most critical factor in cryopreservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the basis of the optimal hydration status for cryopreservation of Citrus seeds: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin) in LN. To study the tolerance to dehydration and LN exposure, seeds were desiccated by equilibration at relative humidities between 11 and 95%. Sorption isotherms were determined and modeled; lipid content of the seeds was measured. Seed desiccation sensitivity was quantified by the quantal response model. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms were determined on cotyledon tissue at different moisture contents to measure ice melting enthalpies and unfrozen WC. Samples of total seed lipid extract were also analyzed by DSC to identify lipid transitions in the thermograms. The limit of hydration for LN Citrus seeds treatment corresponded to the unfrozen WC in the tissue, confirming that seed survival strictly depended on avoidance of intracellular ice formation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Citrus greening disease is a serious bacterial disease of citrus worldwide and is vectored by the Asian citrus pysllid (Diaphorina Citri). The only effective control strategy includes vigorous control of the psyllid, primarily through heavy reliance on pesticides. As a more sustainable and environm...
Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S
The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.
The citrus industries of California and Texas share a pressing problem with the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and huanglongbing (HLB) spreading in residential citrus near commercial groves. Insecticidal treatment of residential trees for the psyllid is problem...
The effect of Nigerian citrus (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) honey on ethanol metabolism was tested using 45 consenting individuals in apparent good health and between the ages of 25 and 35 years. The subjects were moderate social drinkers matched in terms of body weight and build. The results obtained showed that on average, honey significantly (p < 0.05) increased the blood ethanol clearance rate by 68% and decreased the intoxication period by 43%, but insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced the degree of intoxication by 9%. Honey could be a promising anti-intoxicating agent, but its long-term biochemical evaluation, possibly as a complement in the management of alcohol intoxication, deserves further study.
Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan
Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.
Siregar, T. H.; Ahmad, U.; Sutrisno; Maddu, A.
Citrus experienced physical damage in peel will produce essential oils that contain polymethoxylated flavone. Polymethoxylated flavone is fluorescence substance; thus can be detected by fluorescence imaging. This study aims to study the fluorescence spectra characteristic and to determine the damage region in citrus peel based on fluorescence image. Pulung citrus from Batu district, East Java, as a famous citrus production area in Indonesia, was used in the experiment. It was observed that the image processing could detect the mechanical damage region. Fluorescence imaging can be used to classify the citrus into two categories, sound and defect citruses.
Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio; Yamamoto, Pedro
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), is controlled by application of insecticides, which, although effective, has resulted in serious biological imbalances. New management tools are needed, and the technique known as 'trap crop' has been attracting attention. A potential plant for use as a trap crop in the management of the ACP is Murraya koenigii (curry leaf). However, for this plant to be used in the field, it needs to be attractive for the vector and must not harbor CLas. To verify the potential of curry leaf as trap crop for the management of HLB, we investigated the ability of D. citri to transmit CLas to M. koenigii, and to other test plants, including M. paniculata (orange jasmine) and 'Valencia' sweet-orange seedlings. For the tests, the insects were reared on a symptomatic CLas-infected plant and allowed to feed on the three test plant species. The overall maximum transmission rate for the citrus seedlings was 83.3%, and for orange jasmine was 33.3%. Successful transmission of CLas by ACP to the curry-leaf seedlings was not observed, and it was treated as immune to CLas. Supported by the previous results that M. koenigii is attractive for ACP, these results indicate that curry leaf is an excellent candidate for use as a trap crop, to improve the management of the insect vector and consequently of HLB.
Ciegler, Alex; Nelson, George E. N.; Hall, Harlow H.
β-Ionone, a stimulatory compound in the microbiological production of β-carotene by mated cultures of Blakeslea trispora, could be replaced with low-cost agricultural by-products (citrus oils, citrus pulp, or citrus molasses) with as good or better carotene yields. Peak yields (81 to 129 mg of carotene per g of dry solids) were achieved in 5 days. The various citrus products tested did not change the pigments produced; all trans-β-carotene remained the pre-dominant pigment. The acid-hydrolyzed soybean meal and corn used in previous production media could be replaced with unhydrolyzed cottonseed embryo meal and corn in a medium that also contained a natural lipid, deodorized kerosene, nonionic detergent, and a precursor. PMID:14021337
Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun
Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.
The comparative investigation of the morphological basis for olfactory reception in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and the potato/tomato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was performed using scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the antennal sensory arrays being...
Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M; Koizumi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H
Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.
Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame
A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Inserra, L; Priolo, A; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Bognanno, M; Gravador, R; Luciano, G
This study investigated the effect of replacing cereal concentrates with high levels of dried citrus pulp in the diet on lamb meat oxidative stability. Over 56 days, lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (Control) or concentrates in which 24% and 35% dried citrus pulp were included to partially replace barley (Citrus 24% and Citrus 35%, respectively). Meat was aged under vacuum for 4 days and subsequently stored aerobically at 4 °C. The Control diet increased the redness, yellowness and saturation of meat after blooming (P<0.01). Regardless of the level of supplementation, dietary dried citrus pulp strongly reduced meat lipid oxidation over 6 days of aerobic storage (P<0.001), while colour parameters did not change noticeably over storage and their variation rate was not affected by the diet. In conclusion, replacing cereals with dried citrus pulp in concentrate-based diets might represent a feasible strategy to naturally improve meat oxidative stability and to promote the exploitation of this by-product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Mencherini, Teresa; Prota, Lucia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca; Lauro, Maria Rosaria
Fresh juice from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) has been studied to evaluate the polyphenolic composition by HPLC-DAD analysis and total polyphenols content by UV method. The main constituent, Naringin, has been selected as analytical and biological marker of the juice. Juice has been loaded onto maltodextrin matrix by spray-drying. The produced maltodextrin/juice powder (BMP) showed neither significant change in total polyphenols content nor decrease in antioxidant properties with respect to fresh juice. Moreover, BMP displayed high in vitro dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in water and in simulated biological fluids. BMP appears as promising functional raw material for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. With this aim, a formulation study to develop tablets (BMT) for oral administration has been also performed. The produced solid oral dosage form preserved high polyphenols content, showed complete disaggregation in few minutes and satisfying dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in simulated biological fluids.
Narang, Nithithep; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee
Citrus aurantifolia (family: Rutaceae) is mainly used in daily consumption, in many cultural cuisines, and in juice production. It is widely used because of its antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammation, anti-lipidemia, and antioxidant properties; moreover, it can protect heart, liver, bone, and prevent urinary diseases. Its secondary metabolites are alkaloids, carotenoids, coumarins, essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and triterpenoids. The other important constituents are apigenin, hesperetin, kaempferol, limonoids, quercetin, naringenin, nobiletin, and rutin, all of these contribute to its remedial properties. The scientific searching platforms were used for publications from 1990 to present. The abstracts and titles were screened, and the full-text articles were selected. The present review is up-to-date of the phytochemical property of C. aurantifolia to provide a reference for further study. PMID:28082795
Jourdan, Pablo S.; McIntosh, Cecilia A.; Mansell, Richard L.
The quantitative distribution of the flavanone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, in seeds, seedlings, young plants, branches, flowers, and fruit of Citrus paradisi Macfad., cv `Duncan' was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. High levels of naringin were associated with very young tissue and lower levels were found in older tissues. Seed coats of ungerminated seeds and young shoots had high naringin concentrations whereas cotyledons and roots had very low concentrations. Light-grown seedlings contained nearly twice as much naringin as etiolated seedlings and, in young plants and branches, the naringin content was highest in developing leaves and stem tissue. In flowers, the ovary had the highest levels of naringin, accounting for nearly 11% of the fresh weight. There was a net increase in the total naringin content of fruits during growth. However, due to the large increase in fruit size, there was a concomitant decrease in the naringin concentration as the fruit matured. PMID:16664159
Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB.
Yang, Chuanyu; Powell, Charles A.; Duan, Yongping; Shatters, Robert; Zhang, Muqing
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease affecting the citrus industry worldwide to date. The causal agent, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), resides in citrus phloem, which makes it difficult to effectively treat with chemical compounds. In this study, a transcuticular nanoemulsion formulation was developed to enhance the permeation of an effective antimicrobial compound (ampicillin; Amp) against HLB disease through the citrus cuticle into the phloem via a foliar spray. The results demonstrated that efficiency of cuticle isolation using an enzymatic method (pectinase and cellulase) was dependent on the citrus cultivar and Las-infection, and it was more difficult to isolate cuticles from valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) and HLB-symptomatic leaves. Of eight adjuvants tested, Brij 35 provided the greatest increase in permeability of the HLB-affected cuticle with a 3.33-fold enhancement of cuticular permeability over water control. An in vitro assay using Bacillus subtilis showed that nanoemulsion formulations containing Amp (droplets size = 5.26 ± 0.04 nm and 94 ± 1.48 nm) coupled with Brij 35 resulted in greater inhibitory zone diameters (5.75 mm and 6.66 mm) compared to those of Brij 35 (4.34 mm) and Amp solution (2.83 mm) alone. Furthermore, the nanoemulsion formulations eliminated Las bacteria in HLB-affected citrus in planta more efficiently than controls. Our study shows that a water in oil (W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling citrus HLB. PMID:26207823
Dugrand-Judek, Audray; Olry, Alexandre; Hehn, Alain; Costantino, Gilles; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric
Citrus plants are able to produce defense compounds such as coumarins and furanocoumarins to cope with herbivorous insects and pathogens. In humans, these chemical compounds are strong photosensitizers and can interact with medications, leading to the “grapefruit juice effect”. Removing coumarins and furanocoumarins from food and cosmetics imply additional costs and might alter product quality. Thus, the selection of Citrus cultivars displaying low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents constitutes a valuable alternative. In this study, we performed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analyses to determine the contents of these compounds within the peel and the pulp of 61 Citrus species representative of the genetic diversity all Citrus. Generally, Citrus peel contains larger diversity and higher concentrations of coumarin/furanocoumarin than the pulp of the same fruits. According to the chemotypes found in the peel, Citrus species can be separated into 4 groups that correspond to the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, mandarins, citrons and papedas) and extended with their respective secondary species descendants. Three of the 4 ancestral taxa (pummelos, citrons and papedas) synthesize high amounts of these compounds, whereas mandarins appear practically devoid of them. Additionally, all ancestral taxa and their hybrids are logically organized according to the coumarin and furanocoumarin pathways described in the literature. This organization allows hypotheses to be drawn regarding the biosynthetic origin of compounds for which the biogenesis remains unresolved. Determining coumarin and furanocoumarin contents is also helpful for hypothesizing the origin of Citrus species for which the phylogeny is presently not firmly established. Finally, this work also notes favorable hybridization schemes that will lead to low coumarin and furanocoumarin contents, and we propose to select mandarins and Ichang papeda as Citrus varieties for use in
Background: Citrus (Rutaceae) comprises of many important cultivated species which generally hybridize easily. Phylogenetic study of a group showing extensive hybridization is challenging. Since the genus Citrus has diverged recently (4-12 Ma), incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms...
Identification of genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in seedless mutants may enhance understanding of seedless citrus development. Transcriptome analysis was conducted at three time points during early fruit development (Phase 1) of three seedy citrus genotypes: Fallglo [Bower citru...
Canteros, B I; Gochez, A M; Moschini, R C
Citrus canker is an important bacterial disease of citrus in several regions of the world. Strains of Xanthomonas citri type-A (Xc-A) group are the primary pathogen where citrus canker occurs. After Xc-A entered the Northeast of Argentina in 1974, the disease spread rapidly from 1977 to 1980 and then slowed down and remained moving at slow pace until 1990 when it became endemic. Citrus canker was detected in Northwest Argentina in 2002. This paper presents the main steps in the fight of the disease and the management strategies that have been used to control citrus canker at this time. We think the process might be usefull to other countries with the same situation. Results from more than 40 years of research in Northeast (NE) Argentina indicate that we are at the limit of favorable environment for the disease. The severity of citrus canker is greatly affected by the environment and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which causes cyclic fluctuations on the disease intensity in the NE region. Weather-based logistic regression models adjusted to quantify disease levels in field conditions showed that the environmental effect was strongly modulated by the distance from a windbreak. Production of healthy fruits in citrus canker endemic areas is possible knowing the dynamics of the disease. A voluntary Integrated Plan to Reduce the Risk of Canker has been in place since 1994 and it allows growers to export unsymptomatic, uninfested fresh fruit to countries which are free of the disease and require healthy, pathogen free fruits. The experience from Argentina can be replicated in other countries after appropriate trials.
Canteros, B. I.; Gochez, A. M.; Moschini, R. C.
Citrus canker is an important bacterial disease of citrus in several regions of the world. Strains of Xanthomonas citri type-A (Xc-A) group are the primary pathogen where citrus canker occurs. After Xc-A entered the Northeast of Argentina in 1974, the disease spread rapidly from 1977 to 1980 and then slowed down and remained moving at slow pace until 1990 when it became endemic. Citrus canker was detected in Northwest Argentina in 2002. This paper presents the main steps in the fight of the disease and the management strategies that have been used to control citrus canker at this time. We think the process might be usefull to other countries with the same situation. Results from more than 40 years of research in Northeast (NE) Argentina indicate that we are at the limit of favorable environment for the disease. The severity of citrus canker is greatly affected by the environment and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon which causes cyclic fluctuations on the disease intensity in the NE region. Weather-based logistic regression models adjusted to quantify disease levels in field conditions showed that the environmental effect was strongly modulated by the distance from a windbreak. Production of healthy fruits in citrus canker endemic areas is possible knowing the dynamics of the disease. A voluntary Integrated Plan to Reduce the Risk of Canker has been in place since 1994 and it allows growers to export unsymptomatic, uninfested fresh fruit to countries which are free of the disease and require healthy, pathogen free fruits. The experience from Argentina can be replicated in other countries after appropriate trials. PMID:29018307
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of certified citrus nursery... nursery stock. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, a commercial citrus nursery may be eligible to receive funds to replace certified citrus nursery stock in accordance with the provisions of...
Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an ec...
Lemos, W P; da Silva, R A; Araújo, S C A; Oliveira, E L A; da Silva, W R
Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) is recorded for the first time in citrus (Rutaceae) in Brazil. Specimens were obtained from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) sampled in the municipalities of Belém and Capitão Poço, and from mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) from Tomé-Açu, state of Pará, Brazil.
Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach r...
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry worldwide. HLB is a systemic, infectious disease and the putative causal bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) resides in citrus phloem. In this study, the effects of heat treatment, chemical formulations,...
From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...
Citrus in Peru was decimated by quick decline and stem pitting strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Commercial citrus production in Peru is being restored by use of CTV cross-protection. To characterize the predominant CTV strains involved, Peruvian CTV isolates from “protected” and “non-protecti...
Citrus canker (caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) can cause severe damage to citrus. It is endemic in Florida, and occurs in other citrus growing regions. The bacterium is dispersed predominantly in rain splash. To simulate dispersal in splash, and to investigate t...
In the light of the current Huanglongbing (HLB) threat to the California (CA) citrus industry, and preliminary data indicating that some citrus varieties in Florida (FL) may possess some degree of tolerance to HLB, the California citrus growers indicated a strong interest in proactively introducing ...
Citrus seedling juvenility delays new hybrid evaluation, slows cultivar release, and slows introgression of new traits. A horticultural program reported to overcome citrus juvenility was tested at the Whitmore Citrus Research Foundation farm (Lake County), using replicated Hirado Buntan x Clementine...
Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. The Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions for the 2000 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. The Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions for the 2000 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. 457.106... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.106 Texas citrus tree crop insurance provisions. The Texas Citrus Tree Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. The Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions for the 2000 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. The Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions for the 2000 and...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. 457.119... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.119 Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions. The Texas citrus fruit crop insurance provisions for the 2000 and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be eligible to receive funds to replace commercial citrus trees in accordance with the provisions of this...
Rumble, Joy N.; Ruth, Taylor K.; Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Taylor, Melissa R.; Ellis, Jason D.
Citrus is one of Florida's most prominent commodities, providing 66% of the total United States' value for oranges. Florida's citrus production decreased 21% in 2014 from the previous season, partly due to the disease citrus greening. The science of genetic modification (GM) is one of the most promising solutions to the problem. However, a…
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run... Fruit § 905.149 Procedure for permitting growers to ship tree run citrus fruit. (a) Tree run citrus fruit. Tree run citrus fruit as referenced in this section is defined in the Florida Department of...
Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV) is a species of genus Citrivirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. The virus infects several species of the genus Citrus spp., but has not been previously reported from Lemon [Citrus limon (L.)]. The virus was identified in a lemon tree displaying yellow vein clearing i...
A study was conducted to assess the incidence of a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in a Florida population of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. The bacterium is the presumed causal agent of Asiatic huanglongbing, a serious citrus disease also known as citrus greening or yel...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as Asiatic huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program...
... Fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), lemons (C. limon (L.) Burm... in accordance with labeled instructions, and waxed. (g) Treatment. (1) Citrus fruit other than lemons... of this chapter for A. fraterculus and C. capitata. (2)(i) Lemons may be shipped without a treatment...
A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...
Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB)(also known as citrus greening disease) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. It is caused by a bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. Considerable research has been conducted toward...
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide, and is threatening the survival of the Floridian citrus industry. Currently, there is no established cure for this century-old and emerging disease. The new antibiotic combination of penicillin and streptomycin (...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated as commercial citrus-producing areas: American Samoa Arizona California Florida Guam Hawaii Louisiana Northern...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section... and Regulations § 301.75-5 Commercial citrus-producing areas. (a) The following are designated as commercial citrus-producing areas: American Samoa Arizona California Florida Guam Hawaii Louisiana Northern...
Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A
In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), transmits the causative agents of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus trees in the world today. ACP dwelling in noncommercial citrus (neighborhoods, commercial landscapes, etc.) can stymie area-wide management program...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States. The psyllid feeds and reproduces primarily on new flush growth of citrus and other rutaceous plants. Because it vectors the bacterial causal agents of the deadly citrus green...
Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W
The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.
Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Okuda, Y; Mukainaka, T; Tsuruta, A; Okuda, M; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H
To search useful compounds in Citrus fruit for cancer chemoprevention, we carried out a primary screening of extracts of fruit peels and seeds from 78 species of the genus Citrus and those from two Fortunella and one Poncirus species, which were closely related to the genus Citrus. These Citrus extracts inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) as a useful screening method for anti-tumor promoters. Our results indicated that Citrus containing substances may be inhibit susceptibility factors involved in the events leading to the development of cancer.
Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L
β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (β-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri.
Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.
Passera, Alessandro; Alizadeh, Hamidreza; Azadvar, Mehdi; Quaglino, Fabio; Alizadeh, Asma; Casati, Paola; Bianco, Piero A
Citrus Decline Disease was recently reported to affect several citrus species in Iran when grafted on a local rootstock variety, Bakraee. Preliminary studies found “ Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae” and “ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as putative etiological agents, but were not ultimately able to determine which one, or if an association of both, were causing the disease. The current study has the aim of characterizing the microbiota of citrus plants that are either asymptomatic, showing early symptoms, or showing late symptoms through amplification of the V1⁻V3 region of 16S rRNA gene using an Illumina sequencer in order to (i) clarify the etiology of the disease, and (ii) describe the microbiota associated to different symptom stages. Our results suggest that liberibacter may be the main pathogen causing Citrus Decline Disease, but cannot rule out the possibility of phytoplasma being involved as well. The characterization of microbiota shows that the leaves show only two kinds of communities, either symptomatic or asymptomatic, while roots show clear distinction between early and late symptoms. These results could lead to the identification of bacteria that are related to successful plant defense response and, therefore, to immunity to the Citrus Decline Disease.
Croxton, Scott D; Stansly, Philip A
Greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a debilitating disease of citrus caused by Candidatus Liberibactor asiaticus and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri. HLB now occurs worldwide in all major citrus growing regions except the Mediterranean and Australia. Management relies principally on insecticidal control of the ACP vector, but is insufficient, even for young trees which are most susceptible to the disease. We tested the ability of metalized polyethylene mulch to repel adult ACP as well as effects on incidence of HLB and early tree growth. Metalized mulch significantly reduced ACP populations and HLB incidence compared to whiteface mulch or bare ground. In addition, metalized mulch, together with the associated drip irrigation and fertigation system, increased soil moisture, reduced weed pressure, and increased tree growth rate. Metalized mulch slows spread of ACP and therefore HLB pressure on young citrus trees. Metalized mulch can thereby augment current control measures for young trees based primarily on systemic insecticides. Additional costs could be compensated for by increased tree growth rate which would shorten time to crop profitability. These advantages make a compelling case for large-scale trials using metalized mulch in young citrus plantings threatened by HLB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Ishii, Hiromi; Kawahara, Nobuo; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hideo; Okihara, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Osamu
Molasses of tangerine orange (Citrus unshiu Markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. This molasses is expected to be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. To elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated and identified its organic constituents. Two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from tangerine orange molasses, along with several flavonoids such as hesperidine, narirutin, eriodictyol, 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 3-beta-D-[4-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaloyl)]-glucopyranosyloxyflavone, and limonoids such as limonin, nomilin, and cyclic peptide, citrusin III. The structures of the new flavanonol glycosides were determined as (2R,3R)-7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-aromadendrin and 7-O-(6-O-alpha-L-rahmnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone by means of spectral analyses using (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Of these compounds, flavanone glycoside, hesperidin and narirutin were isolated as the main constituents. Thus, molasses is a promising source of flavonoid glycosides.
Miyazawa, M; Okuno, Y; Fukuyama, M; Nakamura, S; Kosaka, H
The methanol extract from Citrus aurantium showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 against the mutagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide). The methanol extract from C. aurantium was successively re-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and water. A dichloromethane fraction showed a suppressive effect. The suppressive compounds in the dichloromethane fraction were isolated by SiO(2) column chromatography and identified as tetra-O-methylscutellarein (1), sinensetin (2), and nobiletin (3) by EI-MS and (1)H- and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. These compounds suppressed the furylfuramide-induced SOS response in the umu test. Gene expression was suppressed 67%, 45%, and 25% at a concentration of 0.6 micromol/mL, respectively. The ID(50) value (50% inhibition dose) of compound 1 was 0. 19 micromol/mL. These compounds were assayed with other mutagens, 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which requires liver metabolizing enzymes, activated Trp-P-1, and UV irradiation. These compounds showed of all mutagen-induced SOS response in the umu test. In addition, compounds 1-3 exhibited antimutagenic activity in the S. typhimurium TA100 Ames test.
Xu, Juan; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Dong; Zhu, Shiping; Yan, Fuhua; Xie, Yunxia; Xie, Zongzhou; Guo, Wenwu; Deng, Xiuxin
Due to the furanocoumarin compounds in the fruit, the production and consumption of grapefruit have been affected in the past decades since the 'grapefruit juice effect' was declared. To provide elite germplasm and obtain knowledge for future citrus breeding programs, the contents of 4 furanocoumarin monomers (FCMs) in the juice sacs from 73 citrus germplasms were evaluated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin were dominant in all the tested grapefruits, while there were some pomelos with dominant epoxybergamottin, and some with dominant 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin. The contents of FCMs were low or below detection in sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons and trifoliate oranges. The results also show that the dominant patterns of FCMs are genotype-related, and crossing and selection are effective approaches to alter FCM profiles in citrus breeding. Furthermore, the contribution of pomelo as a parent to grapefruit regarding their FCM profiles was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sétamou, Mamoudou; Alabi, Olufemi J; Kunta, Madhurababu; Jifon, John L; da Graça, John V
The Asian citrus psyllid preferentially feeds and exclusively reproduces on young, newly emerged flush shoots of citrus. Asian citrus psyllid nymphs feed and complete their life stages on these flush shoots. Recent studies conducted under greenhouse conditions have shown that the transmission rates of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), the putative causal agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus, are enhanced when flush shoots are present. However, it is unclear if CLas acquisition by migrant adult Asian citrus psyllids is similarly enhanced. To address this knowledge gap, cohorts of Asian citrus psyllid adults were allowed 1-wk acquisition access period (AAP) on flushing and nonflushing shoots of qPCR-tested symptomatic (CLas+) and asymptomatic (CLas-) 10-yr-old sweet orange trees under field conditions. After the AAP, they were tested for CLas by qPCR. Progeny Asian citrus psyllid adults that emerged 4 wk post-AAP were similarly retrieved and tested. Eighty percent of flushing and 30% of nonflushing CLas+ trees produced infective Asian citrus psyllid adults, indicating that flush shoots have greater potential to be inoculum sources for CLas acquisition. Concomitantly, 21.1% and 6.0% infective adults were retrieved, respectively, from flushing and nonflushing CLas+ trees, indicating that Asian citrus psyllid adults acquire CLas more efficiently from flush shoots relative to mature shoots. In addition, 12.1% of infective Asian citrus psyllid adult progeny were obtained from 70% of flushing CLas+ trees. Significantly lower mean Ct values were also obtained from infective adults retrieved from flushing relative to nonflushing trees. The results underscore the role of flush shoots in CLas acquisition and the need to protect citrus trees from Asian citrus psyllid infestations during flush cycles. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email
Terol, Javier; Tadeo, Francisco; Ventimilla, Daniel; Talon, Manuel
Previous RNA-Seq studies in citrus have been focused on physiological processes relevant to fruit quality and productivity of the major species, especially sweet orange. Less attention has been paid to vegetative or reproductive tissues, while most Citrus species have never been analysed. In this work, we characterized the transcriptome of vegetative and reproductive tissues from 12 Citrus species from all main phylogenetic groups. Our aims were to acquire a complete view of the citrus transcriptome landscape, to improve previous functional annotations and to obtain genetic markers associated with genes of agronomic interest. 28 samples were used for RNA-Seq analysis, obtained from 12 Citrus species: C. medica, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. bergamia, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshni, C. maxima, C. paradisi, C. aurantium, C. sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Four different organs were analysed: root, phloem, leaf and flower. A total of 3421 million Illumina reads were produced and mapped against the reference C. clementina genome sequence. Transcript discovery pipeline revealed 3326 new genes, the number of genes with alternative splicing was increased to 19,739, and a total of 73,797 transcripts were identified. Differential expression studies between the four tissues showed that gene expression is overall related to the physiological function of the specific organs above any other variable. Variants discovery analysis revealed the presence of indels and SNPs in genes associated with fruit quality and productivity. Pivotal pathways in citrus such as those of flavonoids, flavonols, ethylene and auxin were also analysed in detail. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Jegham, Sabrine; Ben Njima, Yosra; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Zemni, Hassene; Marzouk, Brahim
Juices from four Citrus species of Tunisia were investigated mainly for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice had the highest content of total flavonoids (85.33 mg CE L(-1)). The latter also occurred in high quantity (82.01 mg CE L(-1)) in Citrus lemon (lemon) juice which was also marked by its richness in total aroma (70.16 µg mL(-1)) and in total fatty acids (48.10 µg mL(-1)). Mandarin and lemon juices had the highest antioxidant activity, as determined b the β-carotene bleaching assay (26.67% and 22.67%, respectively). Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) juice was characterised by the highest content of total polyphenols (784.67 mg GAE L(-1)) and by the greatest inhibition of DPPH (96.10%). Citrus sinensis (blood orange) juice was only marked by the high quantity of ascorbic acid (36.90 mg mL(-1)). GC/MS analysis of juice aroma showed the predominance of limonene (48.85-69.59%) in mandarin and in bitter and blood oranges, but of camphene (89.05%) in lemon. GC analysis of juice fatty acids revealed their richness in oleic acid (23.13-39.52%). HPLC analysis of juice phenolics indicated the predominance of phenolic acids (73.13-86.40%). The Citrus species used in this study were considered valuable varieties from the point of view of antioxidant capacity and nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Robbins, R C
Two methoxylated flavones isolated from citrus, sinensetin (5 methoxyls) and heptamethoxy flavone (7 methoxyls), were compared in vitro with nobiletin for antiadhesive activity on rat platelets. Nobiletin (a hexamethoxyflavone also isolated from citrus) has been previously shown by several workers to have antiadhesive and antithrombogenic activity. The penta- and heptamethoxylated flavones exhibited anti-adhesive activity similar to that of nobiletin. However, activity did not parallel number of methoxyl groups which appear to indicate some degree of specificity between flavone structure and antiadhesive activity on platelets.
Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p < 0.01) increased from 0.101 ± 0.011 mg MA/kg to 0.495 ± 0.083 mg MA/kg, while remained lower in the citrus extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora.
Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128
Marroquín, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Teresa Gorris, María; Bertolini, Edson; Carmen Martínez, M; Carbonell, Emilio A; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Cambra, Mariano
Aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in Valencia, Spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. The numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, were estimated by counting the numbers of young shoots/tree and aphids trapped on sticky shoots. The proportions of the different aphid species captured were: A. gossypii (53%), A. spiraecola (32%), Toxoptera aurantii (11%), Myzus persicae (1%), Aphis craccivora (1%) and other species (2%). Clementine was the most visited species with 266,700 aphids landing/tree in spring 2000, followed by lemon (147,000), sweet orange (129,150), grapefruit (103,200), and satsuma (92,400). The numbers and relative percentages of aphids carrying Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were assessed by nested RT-PCR in single closed tubes and analysed by extraction of RNA-CTV targets from trapped aphids. An average of 37,190 CTV-carrying aphids visited each tree in spring 2000 (29 per shoot). The percentage detection of viral RNA in the aphid species that landed were 27% for A. gossypii, 23% for A. spiraecola and 19% for T. aurantii. This high incidence of aphids carrying CTV is consistent with the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine, and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the region. The infection rate was proportional to the number of aphids landing/tree.
Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...
High density linkage maps can be developed for modest cost using high-throughput DNA sequencing to genotype a defined fraction (representation) of the genome. We developed linkage maps in two citrus populations using the RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) genotyping method which involves restrict...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR...
... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be... a 2:1 ratio. Sodium lauryl sulfate Complying with § 172.822. As a film former. Wood rosin Color of K...
Conventional breeding methods to incorporate resistance in citrus are very slow, due to extended juvenility from seedling trees and multiple generations needed to incorporate resistance from distant relatives. Use of transgenic methods may provide disease resistance in less time. Published protocols...
A simple multicomponent system is described that is effective for rapid propagation of a diversity of citrus rootstock genotypes by single node cuttings, including new hybrids and those that are most commonly used as rootstocks. Efficiency of this system for rooting shoot explants of six important r...
Mandarin (C. reticulta), citron (C. medica) and pummelo (C. maxima) are important fruit species of the genus Citrus and parents of the interspecific hybirds that constitute the most familar commercial varities of citurs: sweet orange, clementine, lemon, lime and grapefruit. Citron and its hybrids pr...
Using 25 plants (protoclones) regenerated from orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) protoplasts, several characters, including leaf and flower morphology, leaf oil, isozyme patterns and chromosome number, were examined. No significant variations in each character were recorded among the protoclones. Uniformity observed among protoclones was identical to that of nucellar seedlings.
Six independent experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the chemotherapy coupled with the thermotherapy on pot-contained HLB-affected plants based on our previous results from graft-based methods. Three-year old potted HLB-affected citrus plants were exposed to 4 thermotherapy ...
Turrell, F. M.; Austin, S. W.; McNee, Dan; Park, W. J.
Thermal conductivity coefficients have been determined for longitudinal and transverse flow in 4 varieties of fresh Citrus wood using steady state-methods. Equations were developed from which thermal conductivity could be rapidly estimated from moisture content or electrical conductivity. The heat balance of large and small tree trunks on a freezing night has been calculated on the basis of the coefficients. PMID:16656610
Diverse citrus cultivars maintained clonally within gene banks serve as valuable resources for research and breeding programs worldwide. These critical collections are kept as trees within field, screenhouse, or greenhouse collections. These ex situ collections are at risk of being lost due to unfor...
Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A
The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe
Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter.more » These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees.« less
Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib
Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC(50) (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT(50) (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC(50) (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT(50) (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC(50) (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml) respectively. Valencia late showed best results in term of LC(50), LT(50) and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.
Bilal, Hazrat; Akram, Waseem; Ali-Hassan, Soaib
Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppress mosquito larval population. Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used. Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis) was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm), % mortality (97%) and LT50 (18.49 hours) then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate) with LC50 (377.4 ppm), % mortality (88%) and LT50 (31 hours), While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm) than limonin (382.22 ppm) after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml) than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml) respectively. Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required. PMID:23378967
Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly
The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.
Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Feskanich, Diane; Cho, Eunyoung; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Qureshi, Abrar A.
Purpose Citrus products are widely consumed foods that are rich in psoralens and furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals with potential photocarcinogenic properties. We prospectively evaluated the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma associated with citrus consumption. Methods A total of 63,810 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984 to 2010) and 41,622 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986 to 2010) were included. Dietary information was repeatedly assessed every 2 to 4 years during follow-up. Incident melanoma cases were identified through self-report and confirmed by pathologic records. Results Over 24 to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 1,840 incident melanomas. After adjustment for other risk factors, the pooled multivariable hazard ratios for melanoma were 1.00 for overall citrus consumption < twice per week (reference), 1.10 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.30) for two to four times per week, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.47) for five to six times per week, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.49) for once to 1.5 times per day, and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.63) for ≥ 1.6 times per day (Ptrend < .001). Among individual citrus products, grapefruit showed the most apparent association with risk of melanoma, which was independent of other lifestyle and dietary factors. The pooled multivariable hazard ratio for melanoma comparing the extreme consumption categories of grapefruit (≥ three times per week v never) was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.82; Ptrend < .001). Conclusion Citrus consumption was associated with an increased risk of malignant melanoma in two cohorts of women and men. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and explore related health implications. PMID:26124488
Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina. citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-wal...
Matsumura, Emilyn E; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; Nouri, Shahideh; Falk, Bryce W; Nerva, Luca; Oliveira, Tiago S; Dorta, Silvia O; Machado, Marcos A
Citrus sudden death (CSD) has caused the death of approximately four million orange trees in a very important citrus region in Brazil. Although its etiology is still not completely clear, symptoms and distribution of affected plants indicate a viral disease. In a search for viruses associated with CSD, we have performed a comparative high-throughput sequencing analysis of the transcriptome and small RNAs from CSD-symptomatic and -asymptomatic plants using the Illumina platform. The data revealed mixed infections that included Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) as the most predominant virus, followed by the Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV), Citrus endogenous pararetrovirus (CitPRV) and two putative novel viruses tentatively named Citrus jingmen-like virus (CJLV), and Citrus virga-like virus (CVLV). The deep sequencing analyses were sensitive enough to differentiate two genotypes of both viruses previously associated with CSD-affected plants: CTV and CSDaV. Our data also showed a putative association of the CSD-symptomatic plants with a specific CSDaV genotype and a likely association with CitPRV as well, whereas the two putative novel viruses showed to be more associated with CSD-asymptomatic plants. This is the first high-throughput sequencing-based study of the viral sequences present in CSD-affected citrus plants, and generated valuable information for further CSD studies.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a destructive insect mainly because it vectors the bacterial pathogens that cause the deadly and incurable citrus greening disease. Diaphorina citri adult females lay eggs and immature development occurs exclusively on new flush sh...
The second year of this CRB funded project has started, which is focused on the development of citrus cultivars that exhibit disease resistance to multiple pathogens such as HLB, Phytophthora and citrus canker diseases. We are using precise genetic engineering to introduce into disease susceptible ...
Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-known activators of chemical defenses in plants. The SA pathway is involved in citrus response to infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas); less is known about the role of jasmonates in citrus defense response. We examined the eff...
Genetically modified T36 Citrus tristeza virus (T36-mCTV) is showing promise in Florida to mitigate huanglongbing (HLB) by expressing antimicrobial peptides and RNAi against the presumed pathogen, “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), and its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). To this end...
Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with...
Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...
A survey of seven citrus cultivars (C. sinensis, C. paradisi, ‘Temple’ tangor, ‘Minneola’ and ‘Orlando’ tangelos and, ‘Fallglo’ and ‘Sunburst’ mandarin hybrids) growing in commercial orchards in Florida revealed a correlation between visual ratings of HLB incidence and severity and CLas titer (Stove...
Lacava, P T; Araújo, W L; Marcon, J; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L
To isolate endophytic bacteria and Xylella fastidiosa and also to evaluate whether the bacterial endophyte community contributes to citrus-variegated chlorosis (CVC) status in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv. Pera). The presence of Xylella fastidiosa and the population diversity of culturable endophytic bacteria in the leaves and branches of healthy, CVC-asymptomatic and CVC-symptomatic sweet orange plants and in tangerine (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco) plants were assessed, and the in vitro interaction between endophytic bacteria and X. fastidiosa was investigated. There were significant differences in endophyte incidence between leaves and branches, and among healthy, CVC-asymptomatic and CVC-symptomatic plants. Bacteria identified as belonging to the genus Methylobacterium were isolated only from branches, mainly from those sampled from healthy and diseased plants, from which were also isolated X. fastidiosa. The in vitro interaction experiments indicated that the growth of X. fastidiosa was stimulated by endophytic Methylobacterium extorquens and inhibited by endophytic Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens. This work provides the first evidence of an interaction between citrus endophytic bacteria and X. fastidiosa and suggests a promising approach that can be used to better understand CVC disease.
Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...
Sétamou, Mamoudou; Bartels, David W
The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009-2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees.
The spatial niche occupation of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908, was evaluated to determine its field colonization and food resource exploitation strategies in citrus groves. Mature grapefruit and sweet orange groves were surveyed as part of an area-wide program in 2009–2010 to determine D. citri population densities and between-tree distribution. In both cultivars, significantly more psyllids were found on perimeter trees throughout the study period suggesting a strong edge effect in D. citri distribution in the groves. D. citri densities and infestation levels gradually declined from the edge to the center of grove. Higher numbers of D. citri were recorded on trees located on the east and south sides of the groves than those on the west and north sides. Citrus groves located at the outer edge of the study with at least one side non-surrounded to other citrus groves harbored significantly more D. citri than groves located within the block cluster and entirely surrounded by other groves. In detailed field studies during 2012, infestation of D. citri started from border trees in the grove where possibly one generation is completed before inner trees become infested. In addition, psyllid densities decreased significantly with increasing distance from the grove edge. Using the selection index, D citri exhibited a strong niche occupation preference for border trees. PMID:26193111
Ramsey, John S.; Johnson, Richard S.; Hoki, Jason S.; Kruse, Angela; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Hilf, Mark E.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Hall, David G.; Schroeder, Frank C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Cilia, Michelle
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease, is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Interactions among D. citri and its microbial endosymbionts, including ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’, are likely to impact transmission of CLas. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of CLas(+) and CLas(-) populations of D. citri, and found that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis by the endosymbiont Profftella were up-regulated in CLas(+) insects. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Profftella polyketide diaphorin in D. citri metabolite extracts revealed the presence of a novel diaphorin-related polyketide and the ratio of these two polyketides was changed in CLas(+) insects. Insect proteins differentially expressed between CLas(+) and CLas(-) D. citri included defense and immunity proteins, proteins involved in energy storage and utilization, and proteins involved in endocytosis, cellular adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling which are associated with microbial invasion of host cells. Insight into the metabolic interdependence between the insect vector, its endosymbionts, and the citrus greening pathogen reveals novel opportunities for control of this disease, which is currently having a devastating impact on citrus production worldwide. PMID:26580079
Successful development and commercial launch of the first semiochemical-based control method for a major exotic insect pest and associated disease of citrus in Florida have resulted from vigorous collaboration between university and government researchers with support from private industry and innov...
Mann, R S; Rouseff, R L; Smoot, J M; Castle, W S; Stelinski, L L
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Lam), the presumed causal agents of huanglongbing. D. citri generally rely on olfaction and vision for detection of host cues. Plant volatiles from Allium spp. (Alliaceae) are known to repel several arthropod species. We examined the effect of garlic chive (A. tuberosum Rottl.) and wild onion (A. canadense L.) volatiles on D. citri behaviour in a two-port divided T-olfactometer. Citrus leaf volatiles attracted significantly more D. citri adults than clean air. Volatiles from crushed garlic chive leaves, garlic chive essential oil, garlic chive plants, wild onion plants and crushed wild onion leaves all repelled D. citri adults when compared with clean air, with the first two being significantly more repellent than the others. However, when tested with citrus volatiles, only crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil were repellent, and crushed wild onions leaves were not. Analysis of the headspace components of crushed garlic chive leaves and garlic chive essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that monosulfides, disulfides and trisulfides were the primary sulfur volatiles present. In general, trisulfides (dimethyl trisulfide) inhibited the response of D. citri to citrus volatiles more than disulfides (dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, allyl disulfide). Monosulfides did not affect the behaviour of D. citri adults. A blend of dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide in 1:1 ratio showed an additive effect on inhibition of D. citri response to citrus volatiles. The plant volatiles from Allium spp. did not affect the behaviour of the D. citri ecto-parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). Thus, Allium spp. or the tri- and di-sulphides could be integrated into management programmes for D. citri without affecting natural enemies.
Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Micheli, Fabienne
The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs.
Araújo Castro, Jacqueline; Gomes Ferreira, Monique Drielle; Santana Silva, Raner José; Andrade, Bruno Silva
The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression. This study also aimed to do the homology modeling of one AOX isoform (CcAOXd). Moreover, the molecular docking of the CcAOXd protein with the ubiquinone (UQ) was performed. Four AOX genes were identified in each citrus species. These genes have an open reading frame (ORF) ranging from 852 bp to 1150 bp and a number of exons ranging from 4 to 9. The 1500 bp-upstream region of each AOX gene contained regulatory cis-elements related to internal and external response factors. CsAOX genes showed a differential expression in citrus tissues. All AOX proteins were predicted to be located in mitochondria. They contained the conserved motifs LET, NERMHL, LEEEA and RADE-H as well as several putative post-translational modification sites. The CcAOXd protein was modeled by homology to the AOX of Trypanosona brucei (45% of identity). The 3-D structure of CcAOXd showed the presence of two hydrophobic helices that could be involved in the anchoring of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The active site of the protein is located in a hydrophobic environment deep inside the AOX structure and contains a diiron center. The molecular docking of CcAOXd with UQ showed that the binding site is a recessed pocket formed by the helices and submerged in the membrane. These data are important for future functional studies of citrus AOX genes and/or proteins, as well as for biotechnological approaches leading to AOX inhibition using UQ homologs. PMID:28459876
Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda; Agusta, Andria; Yuliani, Sri
Degreening, a transformation process of green color on citrus peel to be orange color on tropical low-land citrus fruits often fails. Orange color of the citrus peel comes from the mixture carotenoid pigments, such as zeaxanthine and mainly β-cryptoxanthin and β-citraurin. The accumulation of β-citraurin occurs when the fruits are exposed to low temperature, and otherwise, it will fail to occur. Precooling treatment on lowland tropical citrus fruits is expected to stimulate the accumulation of β-citraurin. The results showed the most favorable color obtained from precooling and 24-hour ethylene exposure duration. This treatment could decrease total chlorophyll and β-carotene content as well as proven to increase 3 times the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in accelerating the appearance of bright orange color on citrus peel. Degreening gave no significant effect to internal quality of Citrus reticulata.
Ruiz, B; Flotats, X
Citrus waste accounts for more than half of the whole fruit when processed for juice extraction. Among valorisation possibilities, anaerobic digestion for methane generation appears to be the most technically feasible and environmentally friendly alternative. However, citrus essential oils can inhibit this biological process. In this paper, the characteristics of citrus essential oils, as well as the mechanisms of their antimicrobial effects and potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed. Previous studies of anaerobic digestion of citrus waste under different conditions are presented; however, some controversy exists regarding the limiting dosage of limonene for a stable process (24-192 mg of citrus essential oil per liter of digester and day). Successful strategies to avoid process inhibition by citrus essential oils are based either on recovery or removal of the limonene, by extraction or fungal pre-treatment respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Magalhães, Diogo M; Rodrigues, Carolina M; Arena, Gabriella D; Oliveira, Tiago S; Souza-Neto, Reinaldo R; Picchi, Simone C; Martins, Paula M M; Santos, Paulo J C; Maximo, Heros J; Pacheco, Inaiara S; De Souza, Alessandra A; Machado, Marcos A
Recent application of molecular-based technologies has considerably advanced our understanding of complex processes in plant-pathogen interactions and their key components such as PAMPs, PRRs, effectors and R-genes. To develop novel control strategies for disease prevention in citrus, it is essential to expand and consolidate our knowledge of the molecular interaction of citrus plants with their pathogens. This review provides an overview of our understanding of citrus plant immunity, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions with viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes and vectors related to the following diseases: tristeza, psorosis, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker, huanglongbing, brown spot, post-bloom, anthracnose, gummosis and citrus root rot. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Zhang, Siqi; Cao, Li; Huang, Yue; Cheng, Junfeng; Wu, Guizhi; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Yu, Huiwen; Yang, Xiaoming; Lan, Hong; Wang, Nan; Wang, Lun; Xu, Jidi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Xie, Zongzhou; Tan, Meilian; Larkin, Robert M; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ma, Bin-Guang; Ruan, Yijun; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang
The emergence of apomixis-the transition from sexual to asexual reproduction-is a prominent feature of modern citrus. Here we de novo sequenced and comprehensively studied the genomes of four representative citrus species. Additionally, we sequenced 100 accessions of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus. Comparative population analysis suggested that genomic regions harboring energy- and reproduction-associated genes are probably under selection in cultivated citrus. We also narrowed the genetic locus responsible for citrus polyembryony, a form of apomixis, to an 80-kb region containing 11 candidate genes. One of these, CitRWP, is expressed at higher levels in ovules of polyembryonic cultivars. We found a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion in the promoter region of CitRWP that cosegregated with polyembryony. This study provides new insights into citrus apomixis and constitutes a promising resource for the mining of agriculturally important genes.
Hashemi, B; Damavandian, M R; Shoushtaril, R Vafaei; Tafaghodynia, B
The importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell and Panonychus citri McGregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. In this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (Thomson navel on Citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. The experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. According to the results, the pre spring spray do not effect on population density of citrus aphids and P. aurantii during March, April, May and June. However, the P. citri population decreased. Therefore, it seems the pre spring spray in citrus orchards is not necessary, but if P. citri is observed, the pre spring spray should be recommended.
Cirmi, Santa; Navarra, Michele; Woodside, Jayne V; Cantwell, Marie M
To quantify the relationship between Citrus intake and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched until September 2017. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, Citrus oil, fruits, oral cancer, mouth cancer, mouth neoplasm. The selection of studies and the systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A pre-defined inclusion checklist resulted in the inclusion of articles which were (i) published in peer-reviewed scientific journals; (ii) English language; (iii) and included a measure of Citrus fruit intake and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Studies were excluded if (i) preparations derived from other fruits were used, (ii) Citrus intake was combined with intake of other fruits; (iii) in vitro or animal models were used. We also excluded reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, letters, personal opinions, conference abstracts and book chapters. Three reviewers independently performed the extraction of data from studies included. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final review. Pooled analyses showed that those with the highest Citrus fruit intake compared to the lowest intake had a 50% reduction in risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.43-0.59). The studies included in this review and meta-analysis showed an inverse association between Citrus fruit intake and oral cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Feng, Shi; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Gmitter, Frederick G; Wang, Yu
Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.
Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta
Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.
Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.
Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.
Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma
The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents.
Kochba, J; Spiegel-Roy, P; Safran, H
1- to 8-week-old ovules and nucelli from three Citrus cultivars-Shamouti and Valencia (Citrus sinensis) oranges and Marsh Seedless (C. paradisi) grapefruit-were cultured in vitro. No embryo differentiation was observed in the explants prior to culture. The Shamouti ovules had degenerated and were apparently unfertilized. Embryoids formed on Murashige and Tucker nutrient medium supplemented with 500 mg/l malt extract. Whole plants developed on the same basal medium supplemented with kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), coconut milk or gibberellic acid (GA3). A higher kinetin/IAA ratio or the addition of coconut milk favoured stem elongation more than root formation while a lower kinetin/IAA ratio favoured root formation and inhibited stem elongation. The addition of GA3 to the basal medium stimulated rooting and stem elongation. These results can be of aid in mutation research, allowing irradiation at stages prior to embryonic development.
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...
Lapointe, Stephen L; Hall, David G; George, Justin
Chemical cues that elicit orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Non-pesticidal control methods for D. citri remain a high priority for the citrus industry. While searching for semiochemicals that may be involved in orientation to host plants, we previously identified a blend of formic and acetic acids that stimulated substrate probing by D. citri. Here, we applied geometric mixture designs and response surface modeling to identify and optimize a 3-component blend that further increased the number of salivary sheaths produced by D. citri on a wax substrate containing a 3.5:1.6:1 blend of formic acid, acetic acid, and p-cymene, respectively. No evidence was found for remote orientation by D. citri adults through olfaction to the phagostimulant blends. Increased probing in response to the presence of phagostimulants in the wax matrix occurred after contact with the substrate. Yellow wax beads always attracted more D. citri adults and received more probes compared with white wax beads. Yellow beads containing the 3-component blend of phagostimulants were probed by D. citri 2 to 3 times more often compared with yellow beads alone. The phagostimulant effect also was tested by covering wax beads containing the 3-component blend with a plastic film to minimize olfaction or contact chemoreception by antennation. The plastic film did not affect the probing response, thus suggesting that chemosensation was associated with mouthparts and not olfactory receptors. Salivary sheaths produced in wax beads containing the phagostimulant blend were 4.5 times longer than sheaths produced in beads without tastants. This phenomenon might be used to improve a trap, design an attract-and-kill product, or enhance other means of managing D. citri and citrus greening disease.
Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata
The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.
Hakim, I A; Harris, R B; Ritenbaugh, C
Limonene has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of breast and colon cancers. The principal sources of d-limonene are the oils of orange, grapefruit, and lemon. The present case-control study was designed to determine the usual citrus consumption patterns of an older Southwestern population and to then evaluate how this citrus consumption varied with history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In this Arizona population, 64.3% and 74.5% of the respondents reported weekly consumption of citrus fruits and citrus juices, respectively. Orange juice (78.5%), orange (74.3%), and grapefruit (65.3%) were the predominant varieties of citrus consumed. Peel consumption was not uncommon, with 34.7% of all subjects reporting citrus peel use. We found no association between the overall consumption of citrus fruits [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.32] or citrus juices (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.71-1.31) and skin SCC. However, the most striking feature was the protection purported by citrus peel consumption (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.95). Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship between higher citrus peel in the diet and degree of risk lowering. This is the first study to explore the relationship between citrus peel consumption and human cancers. Our results show that peel consumption, the major source of dietary d-limonene, is not uncommon and may have a potential protective effect in relation to skin SCC. Further studies with large sample sizes are needed to more completely evaluate the interrelationships between peel intake, bioavailability of d-limonene, and other lifestyle factors.
Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P
The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.
Riov, Joseph; Yang, Shang Fa
Wound ethylene formation induced in flavede tissue of citrus fruit (Citrus paradisi MacFad. cv. Ruby Red) by slicing was almost completely inhibited by exogenous ethylene. The inhibition lasted for at least 6 hours after removal of exogenous ethylene and was then gradually relieved. The extent of inhibition was dependent upon the concentration of ethylene (1 to 10 microliters/liter) and the duration of treatment. The increase in wound ethylene production in control discs was paralleled by an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (AAC) content, whereas in ethylene-treated discs there was little increase in ACC content. Application of ACC completely restored ethylene production in ethylene-pretreated discs, indicating that the conversion of ACC to ethylene is not impaired by the presence of ethylene. Thus, autoinhibition of ethylene synthesis was exerted by reducing the availability of ACC. Ethylene treatment resulted in a decrease in extractable ACC synthase activity, but this decrease was too small to account for the marked inhibition of ACC formation. The data indicate that autoinhibition of ethylene production in citrus flavede discs results from suppression of ACC formation through repression of the synthesis of ACC synthase and inhibition of its activity. PMID:16662276
Anthony Johnson, A M; Borah, B K; Sai Gopal, D V R; Dasgupta, I
Citrus yellow mosaic badna virus (CMBV), a member of the Family Caulimoviridae, Genus Badnavirus is the causative agent of mosaic disease among Citrus species in southern India. Despite its reported prevalence in several citrus species, complete information on clear functional genomics or functional information of full-length genomes from all the CMBV isolates infecting citrus species are not available in publicly accessible databases. CMBV isolates from Rough Lemon and Sweet Orange collected from a nursery were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed high sequence homology of the two CMBV isolates with previously reported CMBV sequences implying that they represent new variants. Based on computational analysis of the predicted secondary structures, the possible functions of some CMBV proteins have been analyzed.
Citrus canker is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) and infects several citrus species in wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate, precise and reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics and disease response in breeding...
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus plants, and longer-term measures for controlling the disease via breeding or genetic engineering are hampered by the fact that all cultivated citrus species are susceptible to the disease. However, the degree of HLB susceptibility ...
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium causing citrus greening disease, which has devastated citrus production worldwide wherever it has been introduced. To help monitor and target D citri populations in commercial groves, thereby facilitating more effective manag...
Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate t...
Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus production. The phloem-limited bacterium associated with HLB is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). One component of HLB managem...
Khamis, F M; Rwomushana, I; Ombura, L O; Cook, G; Mohamed, S A; Tanga, C M; Nderitu, P W; Borgemeister, C; Sétamou, M; Grout, T G; Ekesi, S
Citrus (Citrus spp.) production continues to decline in East Africa, particularly in Kenya and Tanzania, the two major producers in the region. This decline is attributed to pests and diseases including infestation by the African citrus triozid, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Besides direct feeding damage by adults and immature stages, T. erytreae is the main vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus', the causative agent of Greening disease in Africa, closely related to Huanglongbing. This study aimed to generate a novel barcode reference library for T. erytreae in order to use DNA barcoding as a rapid tool for accurate identification of the pest to aid phytosanitary measures. Triozid samples were collected from citrus orchards in Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa and from alternative host plants. Sequences generated from populations in the study showed very low variability within acceptable ranges of species. All samples analyzed were linked to T. erytreae of GenBank accession number KU517195. Phylogeny of samples in this study and other Trioza reference species was inferred using the Maximum Likelihood method. The phylogenetic tree was paraphyletic with two distinct branches. The first branch had two clusters: 1) cluster of all populations analyzed with GenBank accession of T. erytreae and 2) cluster of all the other GenBank accession of Trioza species analyzed except T. incrustata Percy, 2016 (KT588307.1), T. eugeniae Froggatt (KY294637.1), and T. grallata Percy, 2016 (KT588308.1) that occupied the second branch as outgroups forming sister clade relationships. These results were further substantiated with genetic distance values and principal component analyses. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina
The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp
Maintenance of virus-free citrus in nurseries and orchards is essential to control spread of aphid-borne Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in California. A lateral flow assay (LFA) test strip with a polyclonal antiserum made from virus particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with an ...
After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...
Citrus greening disease, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB), compromises the quality of citrus fruit and juice, causing increased bitterness, metallic taste, astringency and a burning mouthfeel. The chemical basis responsible for these changes remains largely unknown other than the roles of the bitte...
Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has caused great economic losses to citrus worldwide. CTV isolates from California were identified which reacted to MCA13 but were mild in biological indexing tests. Molecular markers were developed to differentiate these isolates from established CTV genotypes and the is...
Fogging with formaldehyde of citrus packinghouses when the fruit are absent is a practice to control conidia of Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc., cause of citrus green mold. Replacements for formaldehyde in these facilities are needed because of worker and environmental health issues. To evaluate...
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently threatening citrus production around the world. HLB is most prevalently associated with “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas), an unculturable alfa-proteobacterium. Accurate diagnosis of HLB exclusively depends on PCR detection of CLas, which is determine...
The Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors a harmful bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, that causes huanglongbing, an economically devastating disease of citrus. Adult male and female ACP transmit vibratory communication signals over 10-50-cm distances within their...
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious economic disease of citrus, vectored by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP). The disease and its vector have become established in the United States in the last few decades. This submission reviews recent developments for pest control industry professionals. The submissio...
Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB) or yellow dragon disease, is one of the more serious diseases of citrus and is a threat to the U.S. industry. An infected tree produces fruit that is unsuitable for sale as fresh fruit or for juice. The only definitive method of diagnosis of trees su...
Developing strategies/approaches for managing HLB-affected trees in the field is the most urgent need facing Florida citrus industry. Based on our screened compounds and optimized nano-emulsion formulations, Three independent field trails were conducted on the integrated approach to combat citrus HL...
The eradication of non-native plant pathogens is a key challenge in plant disease epidemiology. Asiatic citrus canker is an economically significant disease of citrus caused by the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. The pathogen is a major exotic disease problem in many citru...
Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of d...
Overexpression of plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) by genetic engineering provides a novel approach to enhance plant immunity and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The citrus canker disease associated with Xanthomonas citri is one of the important diseases damaging citrus production world...
Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. 905.114 Section 905.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. 905.114 Section 905.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Regulations § 905.114 Redistricting of citrus districts and reapportionment of grower members. Pursuant to...
... public order between 1986 and 1990 or on or after September 28, 1995. (b) Tree replacement payments. The... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be...
...; (2) Remained on the tree after damage occurred; (3) Except as provided in (b), was missing, damaged... policies: Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions Age class. Trees in the unit are... applicable combination of commodity type, intended use, and age class of trees, within a citrus fruit...
... public order between 1986 and 1990 or on or after September 28, 1995. (b) Tree replacement payments. The... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be...
... public order between 1986 and 1990 or on or after September 28, 1995. (b) Tree replacement payments. The... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the primary vector of a bacterium that produces a devastating disease of citrus, huanglongbing. Efficient surveillance of ACP at low population densities is essential for timely pest management programs. ACP males search for mates on tree branches by producing vibra...
... public order between 1986 and 1990 or on or after September 28, 1995. (b) Tree replacement payments. The... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funds for the replacement of commercial citrus trees... trees. Subject to the availability of appropriated funds, the owner of a commercial citrus grove may be...
Control strategies that exploit the behavior of Asian citrus psyllid will lead to sustainable management practices of this economically important pest. Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a diurnal insect that strongly responds to visual cues. We developed an attract-and-kill device (AK) mimicking a citru...
Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section 301.75-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial citrus-producing areas. 301.75-5 Section 301.75-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine...
The analyses methods of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), hierarchical cluster analysis and diversity index were used to study the relevance between citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the endophytic bacteria in different branches and leaves as well as roots of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus tr...
Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, the most important postharvest disease of citrus (Citrus spp.). Fludioxonil is marketed as either a solo product or in combination with azoxystrobin for control of green mold and other postharvest diseases. Baseline sensitivity to fludioxonil ...
The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) maintains 540 Citrus cultivars and crop wild relatives as duplicate clones in a screenhouse at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) in Riverside, California. These 540 accessions are pathogen-tested and apparently ...
Citrus germplasm is conserved in genebanks at sites around the world to provide genetic resources for breeding and research programs. The value of genebank collections is particularly evident as diseases and climate change threaten citrus production areas. We provide historical, inventory, and maint...
Citrus germplasm is conventionally conserved in clonal orchards and greenhouses, where it is subjected to potential losses due to pests, diseases and climatic hazards. In recent years, many studies reported preservation of germplasm in the genus Citrus. As a result, effective freezing protocols have...
Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung
This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties.
Zhang, Xueyan; Zhang, Jianwu; Li, Lin; Zhang, Yuzhu; Yang, Guocai
Chongqing mountain citrus orchard is one of the main origins of Chinese citrus. Its planting terrain is complex and soil parent material is diverse. Currently, the citrus fertilization, irrigation and other management processes still have great blindness. They usually use the same pattern and the same formula rather than considering the orchard terrain features, soil differences, species characteristics and the state of tree growth. With the help of the ZigBee technology, artificial intelligence and decision support technology, this paper has developed the research on the application technology of agricultural Internet of Things for real-time monitoring of citrus soil moisture and nutrients as well as the research on the integration of fertilization and irrigation decision support system. Some achievements were obtained including single-point multi-layer citrus soil temperature and humidity detection wireless sensor nodes and citrus precision fertilization and irrigation management decision support system. They were applied in citrus base in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the system could help the grower to scientifically fertilize or irrigate, improve the precision operation level of citrus production, reduce the labor cost and reduce the pollution caused by chemical fertilizer.
Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj
ABSTRACT Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties. PMID:27057814
The Citrus Pest Detection Program (CPDP) of the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency monitors Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Central California. MCA13 is a severe strain discriminating monoclonal antibody used to screen for potentially virulent CTV isolates. MCA13-reactive CTV isolates are...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weed control with glyphosate on shikimic acid levels in citrus, “Pêra” cultivar. The experimental plots were set in Santo Antônio de Posse county, Sao Paulo State, Brazil with the following treatments: glyphosate at 1,440 g.ha-1 a.e. between citrus ...
The Florida citrus industry is poised to grow diverse new cultivars from the USDA breeding program, the University of Florida breeding program, and from importation of budwood from new selections from around the world. The top six cultivars of specialty citrus from the USDA (‘Murcott’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘...
Flavor is an important attribute of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and flavor improvement via conventional breeding is very challenging largely due to the complexity of the flavor components and traits. Many aroma associated volatiles of citrus fruit have been identified, which are directly rel...
Pratiwi, F.; Tinata, J. K.; Prakasa, A. W.; Istiqomah; Hartini, E.; Isworo, S.
Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a potential whitening teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as teeth whitener was performed on premolar teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel extract has the best teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.
Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, as degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for ...
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates representing all the citrus growing geographical zones of India were analyzed for sequence of the 5'ORF1a fragments of the partial LProI domain and for the coat protein (CP) gene. The sequences were compared with previously reported Indian and CTV genotypes from...
As the vector of the global disease of citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB), relatively little is known concerning the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) behavior towards visual cues. The objective of this study was to elucidate behavioral responses of ACP towards several colors of light. ACP responded ...
Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits the causal agent of Huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus trees. In this study, we measured behavioral responses of D. citri to combinations of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli in test arenas. Stimuli were presented to the psyllids ...
This study attempted to classify spectrally similar data – obtained from aerial images of healthy citrus plants and the citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing) infected plants - using small differences without un-mixing the endmember components and therefore without the need for endmember library. H...
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a serious citrus disease that threatens the citrus industry. In previous studies, sulfonamide antibiotics and heat treatment suppressed ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), but did not completely eliminate the Las. Furthermore, there are few reports studying the bacteria...
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is one of the most important pests of citrus due to its status as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The use of insecticides for vector control is the primary method of managing...
Transcriptional responses of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under three stress factors were investigated: physical wounding, heat stress, and exposure to low doses of the insecticide imidacloprid. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium...
Marucci, Rosangela C; Lopes, João R S; Cavichioli, Rodney R
Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisburg, Mandelco-Paul, and Brenner) is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by several sharpshooters in two tribes of Cicadellinae (Proconiini and Cicadellini). Here, we compared the transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by Cicadellini [Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) and Dilobopterus costalimai Young] and Proconiini [Homalodisca ignorata Melichar and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret)] sharpshooters that occur in both crops. At different seasons, healthy adults of each species were submitted to a 48-h acquisition access period on citrus or coffee source plants infected with X. fastidiosa isolates that cause Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee leaf scorch (CLS), respectively, and then confined on healthy seedlings of the corresponding host plant for a 48-h inoculation access period. No significant effect of inoculation season was observed when comparing infection rates of citrus or coffee plants inoculated by vectors at different times of the year. In citrus, the transmission rate by single insects was significantly higher for H. ignorata (30%) in relation to B. xanthophis (5%) and O. facialis (1.1%), but there was no difference among vector species in coffee, whose transmission rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.2%. Comparing host plants, H. ignorata was more effective in transmitting X. fastidiosa to citrus (30%) in relation to coffee (2.2%), whereas the other vectors transmitted the bacterium to both hosts with similar efficiencies. Despite these variations, vector efficiency in coffee and citrus is lower than that reported in other hosts.
The spring-fed mission oases of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, hold several species, varieties and unique hybrids of heritage citrus, which may represent valuable genetic resources. Citrus species first arrived to the peninsula with the Jesuit missionaries (1697-1768), and new varieties were...
Sheng, Ling; Shen, Dandan; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Mingfei; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin; Cheng, Yunjiang
Organic acids are a major index of fresh fruit marketing properties. However, the genetic effects on the organic acid level in postharvest citrus fruit still remain unknown. Here, we used the fruits of about 40 lines in a hybrid population (high-acid "HB Pumelo" × low-acid "Fairchild") to analyze the organic acid metabolism of postharvest citrus fruit. A transgressive content of titratable acid (TA) was observed, which was attributed to citrate accumulation. High- and low-acid fruits (No. 130, 168 and No. 080, 181, respectively) were chosen for further study. Gene expression analysis on citrate metabolism showed that the high accumulation of citrate could be attributed to the low activity of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, and was partially due to the block of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by low mitochondrial aconitase (m-ACO) expression. TA level was significantly negatively correlated with weight loss in fruits during postharvest storage, implying a close relationship between organic acid and water metabolism.
Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks
Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhang, Wen Lin; Zhou, Zhi Qin
The citrus process industry produces annually a huge amount of pomace, which is a rich source of citrus pectin. Here, we report the hydrogel of citrus pectin mediated by sodium hydroxide can be used to prepare fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The introduction of hydrogel can not only make the temperature of the hydrothermal reaction down to 100 °C, but also avoid visually carbonized precipitates in the synthesis process even up to 180 °C. The as-synthesized CDs are well dispersed in water with an average size of 2.7 nm and show cyan fluorescence with high photostability, good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the CDs can act as a potential fluorescent probe for cell imaging. Citrus pectin as a non-toxic carbonaceous precursor for preparation of fluorescent CDs provides a new approach for the efficient utilization of citrus germplasm in future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Singh, Niti; Chaudhari, K. N.; Manjunath, K. R.
In India, in terms of area under cultivation, citrus is the third most cultivated fruit crop after Banana and Mango. Among citrus group, lime is one of the most important horticultural crops in India as the demand for its consumption is very high. Hence, preparing citrus crop inventories using remote sensing techniques would help in maintaining a record of its area and production statistics. This study shows how accurately citrus orchard can be classified using both IRS Resourcesat-2 LISS-III and LISS-IV data and depicts the optimum bio-widow for procuring satellite data to achieve high classification accuracy required for maintaining inventory of crop. Findings of the study show classification accuracy increased from 55% (using LISS-III) to 77% (using LISS-IV). Also, according to classified outputs and NDVI values obtained, April and May months were identified as optimum bio-window for citrus crop identification.
da Graça, John V; Douhan, Greg W; Halbert, Susan E; Keremane, Manjunath L; Lee, Richard F; Vidalakis, Georgios; Zhao, Hongwei
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) has become a major disease and limiting factor of production in citrus areas that have become infected. The destruction to the affected citrus industries has resulted in a tremendous increase to support research that in return has resulted in significant information on both applied and basic knowledge concerning this important disease to the global citrus industry. Recent research indicates the relationship between citrus and the causal agent of HLB is shaped by multiple elements, in which host defense responses may also play an important role. This review is intended to provide an overview of the importance of HLB to a wider audience of plant biologists. Recent advances on host-pathogen interactions, population genetics and vectoring of the causal agent are discussed. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Valim, Maria Filomena; Killiny, Nabil
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a phloem restricted bacterium that causes citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), a major treat to commercial citrus production in Florida. It is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, a phloem sap-feeding insect. Studies conducted on the composition of citrus phloem sap revealed the presence amino acids, organic acids and sugars and of low amounts of free fatty acids. In the present study, the phloem sap of 12 citrus varieties with different degrees of tolerance to HLB were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by GC-MS after derivatization with boron trifluoride, a fatty acid-specific reagent. Nine free fatty acids were detected in all varieties. Of the 9 fatty acids detected, only capric acid was significantly different among varieties.
Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel
The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277
Grosser, J W; Mourao-Fo, F A; Gmitter, F G; Louzada, E S; Jiang, J; Baergen, K; Quiros, A; Cabasson, C; Schell, J L; Chandler, J L
We have developed an efficient protoplast-fusion method to produce somatic hybrid allopolyploid plants that combine Citrus with seven related genera, including four that are sexually incompatible. In this paper we report the creation of 18 new allotetraploid hybrids of Citrus, including ten among sexually incompatible related genera, that may have direct cultivar potential as improved citrus rootstocks. All hybrids were confirmed by cytological and RAPD analyses. If fertile, the attributes of these hybrids may be amenable to further genetic manipulation by breeding at the tetraploid level. Wide somatic hybridization of Citrus via protoplast fusion bypasses biological barriers to the natural allopolyploidization of Citrus, and creates new evolutionary opportunities that would be difficult or impossible to achieve by natural or conventional hybridization.
Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Chunyan; Hirafuji, Masayuki
Visible light imaging of citrus fruit from Mie Prefecture of Japan was performed to determine whether an algorithm could be developed to predict the sugar content. This nondestructive classification showed that the accurate segmentation of different images can be realized by a correlation analysis based on the threshold value of the coefficient of determination. There is an obvious correlation between the sugar content of citrus fruit and certain parameters of the color images. The selected image parameters were connected by addition algorithm. The sugar content of citrus fruit can be predicted by the dummy variable method. The results showed that the small but orange citrus fruits often have a high sugar content. The study shows that it is possible to predict the sugar content of citrus fruit and to perform a classification of the sugar content using light in the visible spectrum and without the need for an additional light source. PMID:26811935
Cary,; Bruce, R; Stubben, Christopher J
The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.
Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D
Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production.
Lu, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Albrecht, Ute; Shimizu, Rena; Wang, Guanfeng; Bowman, Kim D.
Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach relies on a thorough understanding of defense mechanisms of citrus. Studies of Arabidopsis and other plants have provided a framework for us to better understand defense mechanisms of citrus. Salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule involved in basal defense and resistance (R) gene-mediated defense against broad-spectrum pathogens. The Arabidopsis gene NDR1 (NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1) is a positive regulator of SA accumulation and is specifically required for signaling mediated by a subset of R genes upon recognition of their cognate pathogen effectors. Our bioinformatic analysis identified an ortholog of NDR1 from citrus, CsNDR1. Overexpression of CsNDR1 complemented susceptibility conferred by the Arabidopsis ndr1-1 mutant to Pseudomonas syringae strains and also led to enhanced resistance to an oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Such heightened resistance is associated with increased SA production and expression of the defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1). In addition, we found that expression of PR1 and accumulation of SA were induced to modest levels in citrus infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with HLB disease. Thus, our data suggest that CsNDR1 is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis NDR1. Since Ca. L. asiaticus infection only activates modest levels of defense responses in citrus, we propose that genetically increasing SA/NDR1-mediated pathways could potentially lead to enhanced resistance against HLB, citrus canker, and other destructive diseases challenging global citrus production. PMID:23761797
Asai, Tomonori; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro
Mechanical damage is one of the unavoidable environmental stresses to plant growth and development. Plants induce a variety of reactions which defend against natural enemies and/or heal the wounded sites. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), defense-related plant hormones, are well known to be involved in induction of defense reactions and play important roles as signal molecules. However, defense related metabolites are so numerous and diverse that roles of individual compounds are still to be elucidated. In this report, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of metabolic changes during wound response in citrus plants which are one of the most commercially important fruit tree families. Changes in amino acid, sugar, and organic acid profiles in leaves were surveyed after wounding, JA and SA treatments using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in seven citrus species, Citrus sinensis, Citrus limon, Citrus paradisi, Citrus unshiu, Citrus kinokuni, Citrus grandis, and Citrus hassaku. GC/MS data were applied to multivariate analyses including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), primary component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to extract stress-related compounds. HCA showed the amino acid cluster including phenylalanine and tryptophan, suggesting that amino acids in this cluster are concertedly regulated during responses against treatments. OPLS-DA exhibited that tryptophan was accumulated after wounding and JA treatments in all species tested, while serine was down regulated. Our results suggest that tryptophan and serine are common biomarker candidates in citrus plants for wound stress. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yang; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Zhang, Tong; Xie, Deti
Soil carbon fractionation is a valuable indicator in assessing stabilization of soil organic matter and soil quality. However, limited studies have addressed how different vegetation stand ages under intercropping agroforestry systems, could affect organic carbon (OC) accumulation in bulk soil and its physical fractions. A field study thus investigated the impact of citrus plantation age (15-, 25-, and 45-year citrus) on the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC) and SOC fractions and yields of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (SRA) in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Chongqing, China. Results indicated that the intercropping practice of SRA with citrus significantly increased the SOC by 57.4-61.6% in topsoil (0-10 cm) and by 24.8-39.9% in subsoil (10-30 cm). With a significantly higher enhancement under the 25-year citrus stand than the other two stands, all these citrus stands of three ages also resulted in a significant increase of free particulate OC (fPOC, 60.1-62.4% in topsoil and 34.8-46.7% in subsoil), intra-micro aggregate particulate OC (iPOC, 167.6-206.0% in topsoil and 2.77-61.09% in subsoil), and mineral-associated OC (MOC, 43.6-46.5% in topsoil and 26.0-51.5% in subsoil). However, there were no significant differences in yields of SRA under three citrus stands. Our results demonstrated that citrus stand ages did play an important role in soil carbon sequestration and fractionation under a citrus/SRA intercropping system, which could therefore provide a sustainable agroforestry system to enhance concurrently the SOC accumulation while mitigating farmland CO 2 emission.
Anthony Johnson, A M; Dasgupta, I; Sai Gopal, D V R
Citrus yellow mosaic badnavirus (CMBV) is an important pathogen in southern India spread by infected citrus propagules. One of the measures to arrest the spread of CMBV is to develop methods to screen and certify citrus propagules as CMBV-free. The methods loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and SYBR green real-time PCR (SGRTPCR) have been developed for the efficient detection of CMBV in citrus propagules. This paper compares the sensitivities of LAMP and SGRTPCR with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMBV. Whereas PCR and LAMP were able to detect CMBV from a minimum of 10 ng of total DNA of infected leaf samples, SGRTPCR could detect the same from 1 ng of total DNA. Using SGRTPCR, the viral titres were estimated to be the highest in rough lemon and lowest in Nagpur Mandarin of the five naturally infected citrus species tested. The results will help in designing suitable strategies for the sensitive detection of CMBV from citrus propagules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Velázquez, Karelia; Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María C; Aleza, Pablo; Pina, José A; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Guerri, José
The long juvenile period of citrus trees (often more than 6 years) has hindered genetic improvement by traditional breeding methods and genetic studies. In this work, we have developed a biotechnology tool to promote transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in juvenile citrus plants by expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana or citrus FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes using a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector (clbvINpr-AtFT and clbvINpr-CiFT, respectively). Citrus plants of different genotypes graft inoculated with either of these vectors started flowering within 4-6 months, with no alteration of the plant architecture, leaf, flower or fruit morphology in comparison with noninoculated adult plants. The vector did not integrate in or recombine with the plant genome nor was it pollen or vector transmissible, albeit seed transmission at low rate was detected. The clbvINpr-AtFT is very stable, and flowering was observed over a period of at least 5 years. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus plants after vector infection provides a helpful and safe tool to dramatically speed up genetic studies and breeding programmes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Green, Curtis O; Wheatley, Andrew O; Osagie, Anthony U; St A Morrison, Errol Y; Asemota, Helen N
The concentrations of the polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) in peels of selected citrus cultivars grown in Jamaica and Mexico were determined. The PMFs were extracted from sun-dried citrus peels with reagent-grade methanol. Analyses were carried out by reverse-phase HPLC and UV detection. The column used was a C(18) 5 microm (150 x 4.6 mm) Discovery column. Elution was in the gradient mode, using a ternary mobile phase. The results showed that all the citrus cultivars used contained at least three of the six major PMFs quantified. Ortanique peel contained the highest quantity of PMFs (34,393 +/- 272 ppm), followed by tangerine (28,389 +/- 343 ppm) and Mexican sweet orange (sample 1; 21,627 +/- 494 ppm). The major PMFs, i.e. sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, heptamethoxyflavone, tetramethylscutellarein and hexamethyl-o-quercetagetin, present in the peels of 20 citrus cultivars, was quantified. The results were compared with those of Florida citrus peels. A large amount of citrus peels and byproducts are produced in the Caribbean which could provide a cheap and convenient source of PMFs. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo
Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais
Distefano, G.; Gentile, A.; Herrero, M.
Background and Aims An intense pollen–pistil interaction precedes fertilization. This interaction is of particular relevance in agronomically important species where seeds or fruits are the edible part. Over time some agronomically species have been selected for the ability to produce fruit without seeds. While this phenomenon is critical for commercial production in some species, very little is known about the events behind the production of seedless fruit. In this work, the relationship between pollen–pistil interaction and the onset of fruiting was investigated in citrus mandarin. Methods Pistils were sequentially examined in hand-pollinated flowers paying attention to pollen-tube behaviour, and to cytochemical changes along the pollen-tube pathway. To evaluate which of these changes were induced by pollination/fertilization and which were developmentally regulated, pollinated and unpollinated pistils were compared. Also the onset of fruiting was timed and changes in the ovary examined. Key Results Conspicuous changes occurred in the pistil along the pollen-tube pathway, which took place in a basipetal way encompassing the timing of pollen-tube growth. However, these changes appear to be developmentally regulated as they happened in the same way and at the same time in unpollinated flowers. Moreover, the onset of fruiting occurred prior to fertilization and the very same changes could be observed in unpollinated flowers. Conclusions Pollen–pistil interaction in citrus showed similarities with unrelated species and families belonging to other taxa. The uncoupling of the reproductive and fruiting processes accounts for the parthenocarpic ability of unpollinated flowers to produce fruit in citrus. However, the maintenance of a functional reproductive process reflects the potential to produce seeded fruits, providing a basis for the understanding of the production of seeded or unseeded fruits and further understanding of the process of parthenocarpy in other
Cifuentes-Arenas, Juan Camilo; de Goes, António; de Miranda, Marcelo Pedreira; Beattie, George Andrew Charles; Lopes, Silvio Aparecido
The biology and behaviour of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Liviidae), the major insect vector of bacteria associated with huanglongbing, have been extensively studied with respect to host preferences, thermal requirements, and responses to visual and chemical volatile stimuli. However, development of the psyllid in relation to the ontogeny of immature citrus flush growth has not been clearly defined or illustrated. Such information is important for determining the timing and frequency of measures used to minimize populations of the psyllid in orchards and spread of HLB. Our objective was to study how flush ontogeny influences the biotic potential of the psyllid. We divided citrus flush growth into six stages within four developmental phases: emergence (V1), development (V2 and V3), maturation (V4 and V5), and dormancy (V6). Diaphorina citri oviposition and nymph development were assessed on all flush stages in a temperature controlled room, and in a screen-house in which ambient temperatures varied. Our results show that biotic potential of Diaphorina citri is not a matter of the size or the age of the flushes (days after budbreak), but the developmental stage within its ontogeny. Females laid eggs on flush V1 to V5 only, with the time needed to commence oviposition increasing with the increasing in flush age. Stages V1, V2 and V3 were most suitable for oviposition, nymph survival and development, and adult emergence, which showed evidence of protandry. Flush shoots at emerging and developmental phases should be the focus of any chemical or biological control strategy to reduce the biotic potential of D. citri, to protect citrus tree from Liberibacter infection and to minimize HLB dissemination.
de Goes, António; de Miranda, Marcelo Pedreira
The biology and behaviour of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Liviidae), the major insect vector of bacteria associated with huanglongbing, have been extensively studied with respect to host preferences, thermal requirements, and responses to visual and chemical volatile stimuli. However, development of the psyllid in relation to the ontogeny of immature citrus flush growth has not been clearly defined or illustrated. Such information is important for determining the timing and frequency of measures used to minimize populations of the psyllid in orchards and spread of HLB. Our objective was to study how flush ontogeny influences the biotic potential of the psyllid. We divided citrus flush growth into six stages within four developmental phases: emergence (V1), development (V2 and V3), maturation (V4 and V5), and dormancy (V6). Diaphorina citri oviposition and nymph development were assessed on all flush stages in a temperature controlled room, and in a screen-house in which ambient temperatures varied. Our results show that biotic potential of Diaphorina citri is not a matter of the size or the age of the flushes (days after budbreak), but the developmental stage within its ontogeny. Females laid eggs on flush V1 to V5 only, with the time needed to commence oviposition increasing with the increasing in flush age. Stages V1, V2 and V3 were most suitable for oviposition, nymph survival and development, and adult emergence, which showed evidence of protandry. Flush shoots at emerging and developmental phases should be the focus of any chemical or biological control strategy to reduce the biotic potential of D. citri, to protect citrus tree from Liberibacter infection and to minimize HLB dissemination. PMID:29304052
Delaney, B; Phillips, K; Buswell, D; Mowry, B; Nickels, D; Cox, D; Wang, H B; Manthey, J
Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) from citrus inhibit production of TNF-alpha and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. As TNF-alpha also modulates NK cell activity, the current studies were conducted to assess the potential for a standardized citrus PMF mixture to suppress humoral and innate immune functions. PMFs were isolated from orange peel oil using a procedure that obtained a consistent mixture of PMFs both in identity and proportion. The mixture consisted of nobiletin (30.7%), 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (27.9%), trimethylscutellarein (14.5%), tangeretin (10.4%), sinensetin (5.8%), 5-demethyl-nobiletin (2.0%), hexa-O-methylquercetagetin (1.3%), 5-demethyl-tetramethylscutellarein (0.6%), and other flavonoids (2.7%). To assess the effect of the PMF mixture on humoral immune responses, female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice (n=8) were exposed to the PMF by gavage at 5, 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg/day for 28 days. On day 25, mice were sensitized to sRBC by tail vein injection and AFC response determined 4 days later. Humoral immunity was insensitive to suppression following exposure to all concentrations of the PMF mixture. Suppression of NK cell activity was observed only following 500 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Body weights were not affected by exposure to any concentration of the PMF mixture in sRBC immunized or non-immunized mice. However, in sRBC-immunized mice, higher concentrations of PMF were associated with a statistically insignificant increase in spleen weight (P>0.05). No change in spleen weight was observed in non-immunized mice. As anticipated, based on previously published in vitro observations, long-term, high-dose exposure to a standardized mixture of citrus PMFs caused a mild suppression of NK cell activity; however, humoral immunity was not sensitive to suppression at the same exposure levels.
Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven J
Methods for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) of citrus limonoid aglycones and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of limonoid glucosides are reported. The fragmentation patterns of four citrus limonoid aglycones (limonin, nomilin, obacunone, and deacetylnomilin) and six limonoid glucosides, that is, limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG), nomilin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NG), nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (NAG), deacetyl nomilinic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DNAG), obacunone 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG), and obacunoic acid 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) were investigated using a quadruple mass spectrometer in low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD). The four limonoid aglycones and four limonoid glucosides (LG, OG, NAG, and DNAG) were purified from citrus seeds; the other two limonoid glucosides (NG and OAG) were tentatively identified in the crude extract of grapefruit seeds by ESI mass spectrometry in both positive and negative ion analysis. Ammonium hydroxide or acetic acid was added to the mobile phase to facilitate ionization. During positive ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, protonated molecular ion, [M + H]+, or adduct ion, [M + NH3 + H]-, was formed as base peaks when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. Molecular anions or adduct ions with acetic acid ([M + HOAc - H] and [M + HOAc]-) or a deprotonated molecular ion were produced during negative ion APCI analysis of limonoid aglycones, depending on the mobile-phase modifier used. Positive ion ESI-MS of limonoid glucosides produced adduct ions of [M + H + NH3]+, [M + Na]+, and [M + K]+ when ammonium hydroxide was added to the mobile phase. After collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of the limonoid aglycone molecular ions in negative ion APCI analysis, fragment ions indicated structural information of the precursor ions, showing the presence of methyl, carboxyl, and oxygenated ring
Fletcher, Evelyn; Morgan, Kelly T; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Leiva, Jorge A; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
Imidacloprid (IM) is used to control the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and citrus leafminer (CLM), which are related to the spread of huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) and citrus canker diseases, respectively. In Florida citrus, imidacloprid is mainly soil-drenched around the trees for proper root uptake and translocation into plant canopy to impact ACP and CLM. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of imidacloprid rate, and irrigate amount on concentration of imidacloprid in the soil following drench application to citrus trees in three age classes. The plots were established at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, using a randomized complete-block design for three age classes of trees: one-year-old trees (B1), three to five-year-old trees (B2), and eight-year-old trees (B3). The treatments were a combination of two rates each of imidacloprid (1D, 2D) and micro-sprinkling irrigation (1I, 2I). Imidacloprid and bromide (Br-) used as tracer were applied simultaneously. Soil moisture and concentrations of imidacloprid and Br were monitored using soil cores from hand held augers. Soil moisture content (θV) did not differ under two irrigation rates at any given observation day or depth, except following heavy rainfall events. Br- was lost from the observation depths (0-45 cm) about two weeks after soil-drench. Contrarily, imidacloprid persisted for a much longer time (4-8 weeks) at all soil depths, regardless of treatment combinations. The higher retardation of imidacloprid was related to the predominantly unsaturated conditions of the soil (which in turn reduced soil hydraulic conductivities by orders of magnitude), the imidacloprid sorption on soil organic matter, and the citrus root uptake. Findings of this study are important for citrus growers coping with the citrus greening and citrus canker diseases because they suggest that imidacloprid soil drenches can still be an effective control measure of ACP and CLM, and the
Fletcher, Evelyn; Qureshi, Jawwad A.; Leiva, Jorge A.; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
Imidacloprid (IM) is used to control the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and citrus leafminer (CLM), which are related to the spread of huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) and citrus canker diseases, respectively. In Florida citrus, imidacloprid is mainly soil-drenched around the trees for proper root uptake and translocation into plant canopy to impact ACP and CLM. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of imidacloprid rate, and irrigate amount on concentration of imidacloprid in the soil following drench application to citrus trees in three age classes. The plots were established at the Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, using a randomized complete-block design for three age classes of trees: one-year-old trees (B1), three to five-year-old trees (B2), and eight-year-old trees (B3). The treatments were a combination of two rates each of imidacloprid (1D, 2D) and micro-sprinkling irrigation (1I, 2I). Imidacloprid and bromide (Br-) used as tracer were applied simultaneously. Soil moisture and concentrations of imidacloprid and Br were monitored using soil cores from hand held augers. Soil moisture content (θV) did not differ under two irrigation rates at any given observation day or depth, except following heavy rainfall events. Br- was lost from the observation depths (0–45 cm) about two weeks after soil-drench. Contrarily, imidacloprid persisted for a much longer time (4–8 weeks) at all soil depths, regardless of treatment combinations. The higher retardation of imidacloprid was related to the predominantly unsaturated conditions of the soil (which in turn reduced soil hydraulic conductivities by orders of magnitude), the imidacloprid sorption on soil organic matter, and the citrus root uptake. Findings of this study are important for citrus growers coping with the citrus greening and citrus canker diseases because they suggest that imidacloprid soil drenches can still be an effective control measure of ACP and CLM, and
Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian
Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bin, Yu; Li, Zhongan; Wu, Jianxiang; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Yan; Li, Taisheng; Yang, Fangyun; Zhou, Changyong; Song, Zhen
A rapid immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for detection of citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV) was developed. The test is based on an antibody sandwich format and uses the monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1E1, which is specific for CYVCV. MAb 1E1 labeled with 30-nm colloidal gold particles was coated on a gold conjugate pad. A secondary goat anti-mouse IgG was coated on the surface of a nitrocellulose filter membrane (NC) as the control (C) line, while 1E1 was coated on the surface of the NC as the test (T) line. The ICS test was evaluated for specificity and sensitivity and then applied for virus detection in field samples. There was no cross-reaction with citrus tristeza virus (CTV), satsuma dwarf virus (SDV), citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV), citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), citrus mosaic virus (CiMV), citrus psorosis virus (CPV), citrus ringspot virus (RSV) or 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). The ICS test was still able to detect CYVCV in tissue extracts at a dilution of 1: 320 (w/v), which is as efficient as the dot-ELISA assay. In general, the ICS assay is less expensive, faster and simpler to conduct than conventional CYVCV detection methods, so it may be useful for large-scale detection or monitoring of CYVCV.
Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaohe; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Hang; He, Lili; Zheng, Jinkai
Citrus peels, by-products in large quantity, are rich in various functional and beneficial components which have wide applications. Chemical analysis of these components in citrus peels is an important step to determine the usefulness of the by-products for further applications. In this study, we explored Raman microscopy for rapid, nondestructive, and in situ chemical mapping of multiple main functional components from citrus peels. The relative amount and distribution in different locations (flavedo, albedo, and longitudinal section) of 3 main functional components (essential oils, carotenoids, and flavonoids) in citrus peels were systematically investigated. The distribution profiles of these components were heterogeneous on the peels and varied between different species of citrus peels. Essential oil was found mainly existed in the oil glands, while carotenoids were in the complementary location. Some flavonoids were observed in the oil glands. This study showed the capability of Raman microscopy for rapid and nondestructive analysis of multiple bio-components without extraction from plants. The information obtained from this study would assist the better production and application of the functional and beneficial components from citrus by products in an effective and sustainable manner. This study indicated the capability of Raman microscopy for rapid and nondestructive analysis of multiple bioactive components in plant tissues. The information obtained from the study would be valuable for developing effective and sustainable strategy of utilization of citrus peels for further applications. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang
Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions. PMID:24489844
Shyu, Yung-Shin; Lu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Chuan
Several studies have indicated citrus peels (CP) contain specific methoxy flavones, e.g. nobiletin and tangeretin, which have been shown to prevent numerous diseases. However, research reports regarding their application as food additive in healthy baked products is scarce. In our study, both unfermented (UF) and fermented (F) citrus peels were processed under different dry hot-air temperatures to make four citrus peel powders , UF-100 °C,UF-150 °C, F-100 °C, F-150 °C, respectively. The analysis of the basic components and nutraceuticals as well as antioxidant activity were conducted. Various percentages of CP were added to dough and toast bread for physical property and sensory evaluations. The results indicated the contents of crude proteins (3.3-4.3 mg/g) and fibers (10.9-14.9 %) among the four samples were similar. The UF extracts showed better antioxidant activities than F extracts. HPLC analysis indicated the contents of hesperidine, nobiletin and tangeretin in CP extracts were UF-150 °C > UF-100 °C. Farinograph analysis indicated a linear relation between CP powder content and the parameters of the physical properties of dough. A high percentage of fibrous CP powder in dough increases the water adsorption capacity of the dough, resulting in a decrease in its stability The sensory evaluation results indicated a greater acceptability of UF-added toast bread relative to the F-added one. Among these, according to the statistical anaylsis, the UF-150 °C 4 % and UF-100 °C 6 % groups were the best and F-150 °C 2 % group was the poorest in overall acceptability.
Byrne, Frank J; Daugherty, Matthew P; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Bethke, James A; Morse, Joseph G
Studies were conducted to evaluate uptake and retention of three systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, in potted citrus nursery plants treated at standard label rates. Infestation of these plants placed at a field site with moderate levels of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) was monitored for 14 weeks following treatments, and insecticide residues in leaf tissue were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bioassays were conducted using leaves harvested on various dates post-treatment to compare the efficacies of residues against adult ACP. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were detected in leaf tissues within 1 week after treatment. Peak concentrations established at 1 week for imidacloprid and dinotefuran and at 2 weeks for thiamethoxam. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam outperformed the control and dinotefuran treatments at protecting trees from infestations by ACP eggs and nymphs. For a given insecticide concentration in leaf tissue, thiamethoxam induced the highest mortality of the three insecticides, and dinotefuran was the least toxic. If the time needed to achieve effective thresholds of a systemic neonicotinoid is known, treatments at production facilities could be scheduled that would minimize unnecessary post-treatment holding periods and ensure maximum retention of effective concentrations after the plants have shipped to retail outlets. The rapid uptake of the insecticides and retention at effective concentrations in containerized citrus suggest that the current 30 day post-treatment shipping restriction from production facilities to retail outlets outside of quarantine could be shortened to 14 days. Thiamethoxam should be added to the list of approved nursery treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Simpson, Catherine R.; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Nelson, Shad D.; Telagamsetty, Srilakshmi; Jifon, John L.
Studies were conducted to relate the influence of the physical characteristics, leaf nutrient content and phloem sap amino acid concentration of citrus flush shoots on the densities of various Diaphorina citri life stages. Adult D. citri preferentially selected young shoots for feeding and numbers of D. citri immatures were positively correlated with flush shoot softness. Young flush shoots had higher concentrations of macro and micro nutrients relative to mature ones and this was associated with higher densities of all D. citri life stages. All D. citri life stages were positively correlated with higher nitrogen-carbon (N:C), nitrogen:sulfur (N:S) and nitrogen:calcium (N:Ca) ratios in leaf tissue, while densities of adults were negatively related to calcium, manganese and boron levels. Concentrations of total and essential amino acids were highest in phloem sap of young expanding flush shoots in both grapefruit and lemon, but dramatically declined as flush shoots matured. The sulfur-containing amino acids cystine, methionine and taurine occurred only in younger flush shoots. In contrast, cystathionine was only present in phloem sap of mature shoots. These results clearly indicate that young citrus flush shoots are a nutritionally richer diet relative to mature shoots, thus explaining their preference by D. citri for feeding and reproduction. Conversely, tissue hardness and the lower nutritional quality of mature flush shoots may limit oviposition and immature development. The data suggest that both physical characteristics and nutritional composition of flush shoots and their phloem sap are important factors regulating host colonization and behavior of D. citri, and this interaction can impact the dynamics and spread of HLB in citrus groves. PMID:28030637
Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong
Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H₂O₂ level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu
Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies.
Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu
Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727
Puglisi, Ivana; De Patrizio, Alessandro; Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano; Cacciola, Santa Olga
Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.
Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159
Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H
Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.
Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community. PMID:25148383
Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.
Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji
The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have
Jia, Hongge; Zhang, Yunzeng; Orbović, Vladimir; Xu, Jin; White, Frank F; Jones, Jeffrey B; Wang, Nian
Citrus is a highly valued tree crop worldwide, while, at the same time, citrus production faces many biotic challenges, including bacterial canker and Huanglongbing (HLB). Breeding for disease-resistant varieties is the most efficient and sustainable approach to control plant diseases. Traditional breeding of citrus varieties is challenging due to multiple limitations, including polyploidy, polyembryony, extended juvenility and long crossing cycles. Targeted genome editing technology has the potential to shorten varietal development for some traits, including disease resistance. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA technology to modify the canker susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in Duncan grapefruit. Six independent lines, D LOB 2, D LOB 3, D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12, were generated. Targeted next-generation sequencing of the six lines showed the mutation rate was 31.58%, 23.80%, 89.36%, 88.79%, 46.91% and 51.12% for D LOB 2, D LOB 3, D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12, respectively, of the cells in each line. D LOB 2 and D LOB 3 showed canker symptoms similar to wild-type grapefruit, when inoculated with the pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). No canker symptoms were observed on D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12 at 4 days postinoculation (DPI) with Xcc. Pustules caused by Xcc were observed on D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12 in later stages, which were much reduced compared to that on wild-type grapefruit. The pustules on D LOB 9 and D LOB 10 did not develop into typical canker symptoms. No side effects and off-target mutations were detected in the mutated plants. This study indicates that genome editing using CRISPR technology will provide a promising pathway to generate disease-resistant citrus varieties. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Xue Dong; Gill, Torrence A; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Stelinski, Lukasz L
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus trees worldwide. A wide variety of insecticides are used to manage D. citri populations within citrus groves in Florida. However, in areas shared by citrus growers and beekeepers the use of insecticides may increase the risks of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) loss and contaminated honey. The objective of this research was to determine the environmental toxicity of insecticides, spanning five different modes of action used to control D. citri, to A. mellifera. The insecticides investigated were imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, spinetoram and diflubenzuron. In laboratory experiments, LD 50 values were determined and ranged from 0.10 to 0.53 ng/μl for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate and spinetoram. LD 50 values for diflubenzuron were >1000 ng/μl. Also, a hazard quotient was determined and ranged from 1130.43 to 10893.27 for imidacloprid, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, and spinetoram. This quotient was <0.447 for diflubenzuron. In field experiments, residual activity of fenpropathrin and dimethoate applied to citrus caused significant mortality of A. mellifera 3 and 7 days after application. Spinetoram and imidacloprid were moderately toxic to A. mellifera at the recommended rates for D. citri. Diflubenzuron was not toxic to A. mellifera in the field as compared with untreated control plots. Phenoloxidase (PO) activity of A. mellifera was higher than in untreated controls when A. mellifera were exposed to 14 days old residues. The results indicate that diflubenzuron may be safe to apply in citrus when A. mellifera are foraging, while most insecticides used for management of D. citri in citrus are likely hazardous under various exposure scenarios.
Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick
The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Modern breeding of these species is hampered by their complex heterozygous genomic structures that determine species phenotype and are broken by sexual hybridisation. Nevertheless, a large amount of diversity is present in the citrus gene pool, and breeding to allow inclusion of desirable traits is of paramount importance. However, the efficient mobilization of citrus biodiversity in innovative breeding schemes requires previous understanding of Citrus origins and genomic structures. Haplotyping of multiple gene fragments along the whole genome is a powerful approach to reveal the admixture genomic structure of current species and to resolve the evolutionary history of the gene pools. In this study, the efficiency of parallel sequencing with 454 methodology to decipher the hybrid structure of modern citrus species was assessed by analysis of 16 gene fragments on chromosome 2. 454 amplicon libraries were established using the Fluidigm array system for 48 genotypes and 16 gene fragments from chromosome 2. Haplotypes were established from the reads of each accession and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the haplotypic data for each gene fragment. The length of 454 reads and the level of differentiation between the ancestral taxa of modern citrus allowed efficient haplotype phylogenetic assignations for 12 of the 16 gene fragments. The analysis of the mixed genomic structure of modern species and cultivars (i) revealed C. maxima introgressions in modern mandarins, (ii) was
Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Xu, Shanshan
China is one of the most important origin of citrus. Enormous economic losses was caused by fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage every year. The effective antimicrobial substances of garlic, ginger, celery and pepper were extracted by ethanol extraction and water extraction respectively. The inhibitory effects of the crude extract on Penicillium sp. caused fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage were also determined. The results showed that the extracts of garlic, ginger and celery had inhibitory effect on P. sp., but the extracts of pepper had no inhibitory effect on P. sp.. The garlic ethanol extracts had the best inhibitory effect on P. citrinum.
Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis
Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.
Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328
Murcia, N; Serra, P; Olmos, A; Duran-Vila, N
Citrus plants are natural hosts of several viroid species all belonging to the family Pospiviroidae. Previous attempts to detect viroids from field-grown species and cultivars yielded erratic results unless analyses were performed using Etrog citron a secondary bio-amplification host. To overcome the use of Etrog citron a number of RT-PCR approaches have been proposed with different degrees of success. Here we report the suitability of an easy to handle northern hybridization protocol for viroid detection of samples collected from field-grown citrus species and cultivars. The protocol involves: (i) Nucleic acid preparations from bark tissue samples collected from field-grown trees regardless of the growing season and storage conditions; (ii) Separation in 5% PAGE or 1% agarose, blotting to membrane and fixing; (iii) Hybridization with viroid-specific DIG-labelled probes and detection with anti-DIG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and autoradiography with the CSPD substrate. The method has been tested with viroid-infected trees of sweet orange, lemon, mandarin, grapefruit, sour orange, Swingle citrumello, Tahiti lime and Mexican lime. This novel hybridization approach is extremely sensitive, easy to handle and shortens the time needed for reliable viroid indexing tests. The suitability of PCR generated DIG-labelled probes and the sensitivity achieved when the samples are separated and blotted from non-denaturing gels are discussed.
Park, Hye-Ryung; Park, Su Beom; Hong, Hee-Do; Suh, Hyung Joo; Shin, Kwang-Soon
The aim of this study was to characterize a polysaccharide found in citrus peels with an anti-metastatic property. CPE-II was purified by the pectinase digestion of citrus peels. During in vivo lung metastasis of Colon26-M3.1, administration of 10μg of CPE-II per mouse showed 81.3% inhibition of metastasis. CPE-II consists of 15 different monosaccharides and 22 different glycosyl linkages, characteristic of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II). The primary structure was elucidated based on sugar composition, methylation analysis, oligosaccharide analysis, and sequencing using GC, GC-MS, LC-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses. Sequential degradation using partial acid hydrolysis indicated that CPE-II contained Rhap-(1→5)-Kdo, Araf-(1→5)-Dha, an AceA-containing nonasaccharide, and an uronic acid-rich oligosaccharide in addition to an α-(1→4)-galacturono-oligosaccharide main chain. The molecular weight of CPE-II was observed to decrease from 9 to 5kDa at a pH value of <2.0, as observed by HPSEC. Thus, we propose that the anti-metastatic CPE-II is primarily present as an RG-II dimer. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shimwela, Mpoki; Schubert, Timothy S; Albritton, Matthew; Halbert, Susan E; Jones, Debra J; Sun, Xiaoan; Roberts, Pamela; Singer, Burton; Lee, Wen Suk; Jones, Jeffrey B; Ploetz, Randy; van Bruggen, Ariena H C
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), disseminated by Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP), has devastated citrus in Florida since 2005. Data on HLB occurrence were stored in databases (2005-2012). Cumulative HLB-positive citrus blocks were subjected to kernel density analysis and kriging. Relative disease incidence per county was calculated by dividing HLB numbers by relative tree numbers and maximum incidence. Spatio-temporal HLB distributions were correlated with weather. Relative HLB incidence correlated positively with rainfall. The focus expansion rate was 1626 m month-1, similar to that in Brazil. Relative HLB incidence in counties with primarily large groves increased at a lower rate (0.24 year-1) than in counties with smaller groves in hotspot areas (0.67 year-1), confirming reports that large-scale HLB management may slow epidemic progress.
Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M
Citrus plants are rich sources of various bioactive flavonoids. To eliminate masking effects caused by hesperidin, naringin, and neoeriocitrin, the abundant flavonoid glycosides which make up 90% of the conventionally prepared sample, the readily extractable fraction from Citrus juice was prepared by adsorbing on HP-20 resin and eluting with EtOH and acetone from the resin and was subjected to HL-60 differentiation assay and quantitative analysis of major flavonoids. Screening of 34 Citrus juices indicated that King (C. nobilis) had a potent activity for inducing differentiation of HL-60, and the active principles were isolated and identified as four polymethoxylated flavonoids, namely, nobiletin, 3,3',4',5,6,7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, natsudaidain, and tangeretin. HPLC analysis of the readily extractable fraction also indicated that King contained high amounts of these polymethoxylated flavonoids among the Citrus juices examined. Principal component and cluster analyses of the readily extractable flavonoids indicated peculiarities of King and Bergamot.
Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Di Donna, Leonardo; De Luca, Giuseppina; Mazzotti, Fabio; Napoli, Anna; Salerno, Raffaele; Taverna, Domenico; Sindona, Giovanni
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl neohesperidosides of hesperetin (brutieridin, 1) and naringenin (melitidin, 2) were isolated and detected from the fruits of bergamot (Citrus bergamia). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods.
Most Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in California are biologically mild and symptomless in commercial cultivars on CTV tolerant rootstocks. However, to better define California CTV isolates showing divergent serological and genetic profiles, selected isolates were subjected to deep sequencing ...
...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus... destruction of the trees and its accompanying inventory that describes the number and type of the certified...
... & Sweet oranges 38 Container #58 Lemons 40 Container #59 Grapefruit 32 Container #63 Tangerines (including... California lemons; (ii) November 20 for Valencia oranges; and (iii) July 31 for all other citrus crops. (b...
Liu, Xiaogang; Wu, Hongkun; Luo, Yan; Xi, Wanpeng; Zhou, Zhiqin
The genus Citrus and its close relatives are economically and nutritionally important fruit trees. However, the huge controversy over the phylogeny of key wild species, as well as the genetic relationship between the cultivated species and their putative wild progenitors, remains unresolved. Comparative analyses of chloroplast (cp) genomes have been useful in resolving various phylogenetic issues. Thus far, the cp genomes of only two Citrus species have been sequenced. In this study, we sequenced six complete cp genomes, four belonging to the genus Citrus, and two belonging to the genera Fortunella and Poncirus, respectively. These newly sequenced genomes together with the two publicly available were used for comparative analyses of the genus Citrus and its close relatives. All eight cp genomes share similar basic structure, gene order and gene content. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of the three genera in the order Sapindales within the major clade Malvidae.
Benítez-Galeano, María José; Castells, Matías; Colina, Rodney
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen affecting citrus trees worldwide. However, few studies have focused on CTV's evolutionary history and geographic behavior. CTV is locally dispersed by an aphid vector and long distance dispersion due to transportation of contaminated material. With the aim to delve deeper into the CTV-NC (New Clade) genotype evolution, we estimated an evolution rate of 1.19 × 10 -3 subs/site/year and the most common recent ancestor in 1977. Furthermore, the place of origin of the genotype was in the United States, and a great expansion of the population was observed in Uruguay. This expansion phase could be a consequence of the increment in the number of naïve citrus trees in Uruguayan orchards encompassing citrus industry growth in the past years.
... & Sweet oranges 38 Container #58 Lemons 40 Container #59 Grapefruit 32 Container #63 Tangerines (including... California lemons; (ii) November 20 for Valencia oranges; and (iii) July 31 for all other citrus crops. (b...
The effect of various treatments on shoot organogenesis from seedling epicotyl explants from various scion and rootstock polyembryonic citrus types was determined. Treatments included water source, gelling agent, explant insertion, seed size, light intensity, malachite green, nonionic surfactants, a...
RNAi, Ribonucleic acid interference, function and application are described to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control to the citrus industry....
Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling
Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.
... & Sweet oranges 38 Container #58 Lemons 40 Container #59 Grapefruit 32 Container #63 Tangerines (including... California lemons; (ii) November 20 for Valencia oranges; and (iii) July 31 for all other citrus crops. (b...
Andrade, Daniel J; Lorençon, José R; Siqueira, Diego S; Novelli, Valdenice M; Bassanezi, Renato B
Citrus leprosis is the most important viral disease of citrus. Knowledge of its spatiotemporal structure is fundamental to a representative sampling plan focused on the disease control approach. Such a well-crafted sampling design helps to reduce pesticide use in agriculture to control pests and diseases. Despite the use of acaricides to control citrus leprosis vector (Brevipalpus spp.) populations, the disease has spread rapidly through experimental areas. Citrus leprosis has an aggregate spatial distribution, with high dependence among symptomatic plants. Temporal variation in disease incidence increased among symptomatic plants by 4% per month. Use of acaricides alone to control the vector of leprosis is insufficient to avoid its incidence in healthy plants. Preliminary investigation into the time and space variation in the incidence of the disease is fundamental to select a sampling plan and determine effective strategies for disease management. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Wang, Nian; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Graham, James H; Zhang, Yunzeng
The Huanglongbing (HLB) disease pyramid is composed of Liberibacters, psyllid vectors, citrus hosts, and the environment. The epidemiological outcomes for Liberibacter-associated plant diseases are collectively determined by the inherent relationships among plant-Liberibacters-psyllids, and how various environmental factors affect plant-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions. Citrus-Liberibacter-psyllid interactions occur in a complex microbiome system. In this review, we focus on the progress in understanding the HLB disease pyramid, and how the microbiome affects the HLB disease pyramid including the interaction between HLB and the citrus microbiome; the interaction between Liberibacters and psyllids; the interaction between Liberibacters and gut microbiota in psyllids; and the effect of HLB on selected above- and belowground citrus pathogens. Their implications for HLB management are also discussed.
Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Guarín-Molina, Juan Humberto; Arthurs, Steven Paul; Humber, Richard Alan; de Andrade Moral, Rafael; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Delalibera, Ítalo
We describe symptoms of mycosis induced by two native fungal entomopathogens of the citrus orthezia scale, Praelongorthezia praelonga (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), an important pest of citrus orchards. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Seasonal prevalence of the insect pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum nymphaeae in Brazilian citrus groves under different chemical pesticide regimes" . The endemic fungal pathogen, C. nymphaeae, emerges through the thin cuticular intersegmental regions of the citrus orthezia scale body revealing orange salmon-pigmented conidiophores bearing conidial masses, as well as producing rhizoid-like hyphae that extend over the citrus leaf. By contrast, nymphs or adult females of this scale insect infected with Lecanicillium longisporum exhibit profuse outgrowth of bright white-pigmented conidiophores with clusters of conidia emerging from the insect intersegmental membranes, and mycosed cadavers are commonly observed attached to the leaf surface by hyphal extensions. These morphological differences are important features to discriminate these fungal entomopathogens in citrus orthezia scales.
Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Bermejo, Almudena; Germanà, M Antonietta; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel
Citrus is a wide genus in which most of the cultivated species and cultivars are natural parthenocarpic mutants or hybrids (i.e. orange, mandarin, tangerine, grapefruit). The autonomous increase in GA1 ovary concentration during anthesis was suggested as being the stimulus responsible for parthenocarpy in Citrus regardless of the species. To determine the exact GA-role in parthenocarpic fruit set, the following hypothesis was tested: GA triggers and maintains cell division in ovary walls causing fruit set. Obligate and facultative parthenocarpic Citrus species were used as a model system because obligate parthenocarpic Citrus sp (i.e. Citrus unshiu) have higher GA levels and better natural parthenocarpic fruit set compared to other facultative parthenocarpic Citrus (i.e. Citrus clementina). The autonomous activation of GA synthesis in C. unshiu ovary preceded cell division and CYCA1.1 up-regulation (a G2-stage cell cycle regulator) at anthesis setting a high proportion of fruits, whereas C. clementina lacked this GA-biosynthesis and CYCA1.1 up-regulation failing in fruit set. In situ hybridization experiments revealed a tissue-specific expression of GA20ox2 only in the dividing tissues of the pericarp. Furthermore, CYCA1.1 expression correlated endogenous GA1 content with GA3 treatment, which stimulated cell division and ovary growth, mostly in C. clementina. Instead, paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor) negated cell division and reduced fruit set. Results suggest that in parthenocarpic citrus the specific GA synthesis in the ovary walls at anthesis triggers cell division and, thus, the necessary ovary growth rate to set fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Burguet, M.; Giménez Morera, A.
After land abandonment for five decades (Arnáez et al., 2010; Belmonte Serrato et al., 1999) as a widespread process in Spain, agriculture intensification is taken place. This is changing the nature of the soil erosion processes as they were known (Cerdà, 1997; Cammeraat and Imeson, 1999; Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010; Zavala et al., 2010). Citrus production are being reallocated on slopes due to the new irrigation systems (drip-irrigation), the thermic inversion on the bottom of the valley and then the frost affecting the plantations, the high prices of the bottom valley lands and the investment in agriculture from other economic sectors such as tourism and industry. Those new plantations are based on intense pesticides and herbicides use, and erosion processes are triggered due to the sloping surface developed (Cerdà et al., 2010). Five study sites were selected in the Montesa Municipality research zone, where an increase in the orange and clementines plantations were found during the last 20 years. Measurements were perfomed by a simple method, which consist in measuring the surface characteristics: stoniness, crust, herbs, bare soil, sheet flow, rills and gullies. One thousand meters were monitored at each of the study sites and measurements were done in January and August with a precision of 1 cm. The results show that the erosion rates are controlled by the sheet erosion (78,4 %), although rill and gullies exist (< 1 %) and they are active and contribute to high erosion rates. Stones and vegetation cover was found to by low. The infiltration rates of the soils were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments and cylinder infiltrometer. The results show that the new citrus plantations results in low infiltration rates, and high erosion rates. This is contributing to a non-sustainable agriculture production due to the high erosion rates. And also a lack in soil services as the surface runoff and then the soil erosion is enhanced; and soil infiltration
Penjor, Tshering; Mimura, Takashi; Kotoda, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Honjo, Mie N.; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nagano, Yukio
We analyzed the reduced-representation genome sequences of Citrus species by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) using 44 accessions, including typical and minor accessions, such as Bhutanese varieties. The results of this analysis using typical accessions were consistent with previous reports that citron, papeda, pummelo, and mandarin are ancestral species, and that most Citrus species are derivatives or hybrids of these four species. Citrus varieties often reproduce asexually and heterozygosity is highly conserved within each variety. Because this approach could readily detect conservation of heterozygosity, it was able to discriminate citrus varieties such as satsuma mandarin from closely related species. Thus, this method provides an inexpensive way to protect citrus varieties from unintended introduction and to prevent the provision of incorrect nursery stocks to customers. One Citrus variety in Bhutan was morphologically similar to Mexican lime and was designated as Himalayan lime. The current analysis confirmed the previous proposition that Mexican lime is a hybrid between papeda and citron, and also suggested that Himalayan lime is a probable hybrid between mandarin and citron. In addition to Himalayan lime, current analysis suggested that several accessions were formed by previously undescribed combinations. PMID:28163596
Amorós López, J.; Izquierdo Verdiguier, E.; Gómez Chova, L.; Muñoz Marí, J.; Rodríguez Barreiro, J. Z.; Camps Valls, G.; Calpe Maravilla, J.
Managing land resources using remote sensing techniques is becoming a common practice. However, data analysis procedures should satisfy the high accuracy levels demanded by users (public or private companies and governments) in order to be extensively used. This paper presents a multi-stage classification scheme to update the citrus Geographical Information System (GIS) of the Comunidad Valenciana region (Spain). Spain is the first citrus fruit producer in Europe and the fourth in the world. In particular, citrus fruits represent 67% of the agricultural production in this region, with a total production of 4.24 million tons (campaign 2006-2007). The citrus GIS inventory, created in 2001, needs to be regularly updated in order to monitor changes quickly enough, and allow appropriate policy making and citrus production forecasting. Automatic methods are proposed in this work to facilitate this update, whose processing scheme is summarized as follows. First, an object-oriented feature extraction process is carried out for each cadastral parcel from very high spatial resolution aerial images (0.5 m). Next, several automatic classifiers (decision trees, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines) are trained and combined to improve the final classification accuracy. Finally, the citrus GIS is automatically updated if a high enough level of confidence, based on the agreement between classifiers, is achieved. This is the case for 85% of the parcels and accuracy results exceed 94%. The remaining parcels are classified by expert photo-interpreters in order to guarantee the high accuracy demanded by policy makers.
Huang, Yu-Chun; Liu, Kao-Chih; Chiou, Yi-Ling
Melanogenesis is a complex process that modulates skin pigmentation to defend photodamage. Citrus is the most widely produced fruit crop in the world. People ingest various citrus fruits in their common diets. In the present study, the acid-hydrolyzed and un-hydrolyzed extracts of orange-type citrus fruits were subjected to analyze flavonoid compositions and assess their effects on melanin synthesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells. The acid-hydrolyzed extracts of Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata, and C. aurantium enhanced melanin production. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, the most abundant flavonoids that were found in citrus hydrolyzed extracts were hesperetin and naringenin. Hesperetin exhibited the most potent activity on melanin synthesis and induced tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. Moreover, hesperetin stimulated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), and subsequently induced the accumulation of β-catenin. This study suggests that the citrus constituent hesperetin might have protective melanogenic potential as a cosmeceutical agent against skin photodamage. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Páscoa, Ricardo Nmj; Moreira, Silvana; Lopes, João A; Sousa, Clara
Citrus trees are among the most cultivated plants in the world, with a high economic impact. The wide sexual compatibility among relatives gave rise to a large number of hybrids that are difficult to discriminate. This work sought to explore the ability of infrared spectroscopy to discriminate among Citrus species and/or hybrids and to contribute to the elucidation of its relatedness. Adult leaves of 18 distinct Citrus plants were included in this work. Near- and mid-infrared (NIR and FTIR) spectra were acquired from leaves after harvesting and a drying period of 1 month. Spectra were modelled by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Both techniques revealed a high discrimination potential (78.5-95.9%), being the best results achieved with NIR spectroscopy and air-dried leaves (95.9%). Infrared spectroscopy was able to successfully discriminate several Citrus species and/or hybrids. Our results contributed also to enhance insights regarding the studied Citrus species and/or hybrids. Despite the benefit of including additional samples, the results herein obtained clearly pointed infrared spectroscopy as a reliable technique for Citrus species and/or hybrid discrimination. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
De Masi, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico; Pignone, Domenico; Servillo, Luigi; Facchiano, Angelo
Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N , N , N -trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus . We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis , available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus .
Tanaka, Yutaka; Sugihara, Marie; Tsumagari, Shuntaro; Takamatsu, Nobue; Kurihara, Kazuyuki
A 12-year-old girl was referred to our hospital owing to repeated anaphylactic reactions induced by exercise after meals. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn) was suspected. However, sequential tests of typical foods, including egg, milk, soy, and wheat, in combination with exercise, were all negative.The results of the skin prick test (SPT) for Citrus unshiu and specific IgE test for orange and grapefruit were positive. Although no symptoms were noted after an exercise challenge combined with the ingestion of only Citrus unshiu, an anaphylactic reaction was induced by additional acetyl-salicylic acid. From these results, she was diagnosed with FDEIAn due to the ingestion of Citrus unshiu. Because the SPT results for other citrus fruits (including orange, grapefruit, lemon, yuzu, sudachi, ponkan, and iyokan) were all positive, it was suggested that these fruits demonstrate cross-reactivity with each other. Since the girl eliminated citrus fruits from her diet, she has not developed any anaphylactic symptoms. Citrus fruits are not known to cause FDEIAn, but the findings of this case suggest that it is necessary to recognize them as a causative allergen of FDEIAn.
Liu, Yanyu; Su, Xuesu; Jian, Qiu; Chen, Weijun; Sun, Dali; Gong, Lei; Jiang, Liyan; Jiao, Bining
The effect of home processing on the residues of spirotetramat and its four metabolites (B-enol, B-glu, B-mono and B-keto) in citrus marmalade is comprehensively investigated in this paper by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A five-fold recommended dose of spirotetramat was applied to citrus fruit under field conditions and the processing included five steps: washing, peeling, pre-treatment for peel, mixing and boiling. The results showed that spirotetramat was the predominant component detected in unprocessed citrus, accounting for 64%. All the detected residues were primarily deposited on citrus peel, except for B-enol which was also present in the citrus pulp. Washing reduced spirotetramat, B-enol, B-glu and B-keto by 83%, 56%, 41% and 16%, respectively, and pre-treatment of the peel removed between 42% and 68% of the residues. Four compounds were all below the limit of detection after the mixing step. In the final product, only B-keto was detected at the concentration of 0.010 mg kg(-1). After the whole process, the processing factors for spirotetramat, B-enol, B-glu and B-keto were < 0.041, < 0.125, < 0.294 and 0.313, respectively, which indicated that home processing can significantly reduce residues of spirotetramat and its metabolites in citrus marmalade.
Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T
In this study, the impact of different types of biochar and biochar ratios on the anaerobic digestion of citrus peel waste was investigated. Citrus peel has an inhibitory effect on anaerobic digestion. The presence of biochar had two effects: a reduction in the length of the lag phase and greater production of methane relative to citrus peel waste only incubations. The microbial lag phases decreased with increase in citrus peel to biochar ratios, with 2:1 having the longest lag phase of 9.4days and 1:3, the shortest, with the value of 7.5days. The cumulative methane production in incubations containing biochar and citrus peel ranged from 163.9 to 186.8ml CH4 gVS(-1), while citrus peel only produced 165.9ml CH4 gVS(-1). Examination of the biochar material revealed colonies of putative methanogens. The synergy of d-limonene adsorption and microbial immobilization by biochar appears to improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Díaz-Juárez, J A; Tenorio-López, F A; Zarco-Olvera, G; Valle-Mondragón, L Del; Torres-Narváez, J C; Pastelín-Hernández, G
Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. In the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. In both models, Citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compared with control values (60 +/- 15 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) vs 100 +/- 10 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) and 90 mmHg vs 130 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). These decreases in coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure were blocked when isolated and perfused hearts and mongrel dogs were pre-treated with L-NAME. In humans, Citrus paradisi juice decreased diastolic arterial pressure and systolic arterial pressure both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Citrus paradisi juice produced a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure when compared with Citrus sinensis juice, cow milk and a vitamin C-supplemented beverage. However, more detailed studies are required to isolate, purify and evaluate the chemical compounds responsible for this pharmacological effect and to clarify its possible role for treating hypertension. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mulero, Juana; Bernabé, Juana; Cerdá, Begoña; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A; Albaladejo, Maria Dolores; Avilés, Francisco; Parra, Soledad; Abellán, José; Zafrilla, Pilar
Inflammation and oxidative stress plays a critical role in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome often occurs with these two variables. The aim of the study is to estimate variations on cardiovascular risk factors in Metabolic Syndrome patients after consume of a citrus-based juice compared with control groups. The study comprised 20 healthy subjects and 33 patients with Metabolic Syndrome. 18 patients consume daily 300 mL of a citrus-based juice during 6 month and 15 patients consume 300 mL of a placebo beverage. The control group consumes a citrus-based juice. Before, at fourth month and at sixth month after treatment the following parameters were determined: lipid profile, oxidized LDL, C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine. The study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, and the Ethical Committee of the San Antonio Catholic University and approved the protocol (6 November 2006, register number: 1424). After six months of citrus-based juice consuming, there is significant differences at 95% confidence in oxidized LDL, C-Reactive Protein, and Homocysteine in Metabolic Syndrome patients who consume citrus-based juice. We have not found significant differences in other groups. Consume of citrus-based juice improve lipid profile and inflammation markers in Metabolic Syndrome patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok
Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jeong-Soon; Sagaram, Uma Shankar; Burns, Jacqueline K; Li, Jian-Liang; Wang, Nian
Citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease of citrus. HLB is associated with the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic alpha-proteobacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' In this report, we used sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf tissue infected with 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' and compared this with healthy controls. Investigation of the host response was examined with citrus microarray hybridization based on 33,879 expressed sequence tag sequences from several citrus species and hybrids. The microarray analysis indicated that HLB infection significantly affected expression of 624 genes whose encoded proteins were categorized according to function. The categories included genes associated with sugar metabolism, plant defense, phytohormone, and cell wall metabolism, as well as 14 other gene categories. The anatomical analyses indicated that HLB bacterium infection caused phloem disruption, sucrose accumulation, and plugged sieve pores. The up-regulation of three key starch biosynthetic genes including ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, granule-bound starch synthase and starch debranching enzyme likely contributed to accumulation of starch in HLB-affected leaves. The HLB-associated phloem blockage resulted from the plugged sieve pores rather than the HLB bacterial aggregates since 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' does not form aggregate in citrus. The up-regulation of pp2 gene is related to callose deposition to plug the sieve pores in HLB-affected plants.
Bourgou, Soumaya; Rahali, Fatma Zohra; Ourghemmi, Iness; Saïdani Tounsi, Moufida
The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72%) were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%), β-pinene (0.63–31.49%), γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%), and p-cymene (0.23–9.84%) were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%), 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%), and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%). However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43%) during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus. PMID:22645427
Oliveira, Antonio C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Semighini, Camile P; Araújo, Welington L; Goldman, Gustavo H; Machado, Marcos A
ABSTRACT Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease of sweet orange cultivars in Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays constitute the principal diagnostic method for detection of these bacteria. In this work, we established a real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay to quantify X. fastidiosa in naturally and artificially infected citrus. The X. fastidiosa cell number detected in the leaves increased according to the age of the leaf, and bacteria were not detected in the upper midrib section in young leaves, indicating temporal and spatial distribution patterns of bacteria, respectively. In addition, the X. fastidiosa cell number quantified in leaves of 'Pera' orange and 'Murcott' tangor reflected the susceptible and resistant status of these citrus cultivars. None of the 12 endophytic citrus bacteria or the four strains of X. fastidiosa nonpathogenic to citrus that were tested showed an increase in the fluorescence signal during QPCR. In contrast, all 10 CVC-causing strains exhibited an increase in fluorescence signal, thus indicating the specificity of this QPCR assay. Our QPCR provides a powerful tool for studies of different aspects of the Xylella-citrus interactions, and can be incorporated into breeding programs in order to select CVC-resistant plants more quickly.
Fonseca, M E; Marcellino, L H; Gander, E
A rapid and sensitive dot-blot hybridization assay using in vitro-transcribed digoxigenin-labelled RNA probes (riboprobes) was developed aiming at detection of citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) in crude sap of infected Citrus medica plants. The protocol includes a very quick and simple preparation of RNA extracts from samples using a denaturation step with formaldehyde. From our results, the employment of this step is highly recommended because the hybridization signals in formaldehyde-denatured samples were significantly stronger when compared with that of extracts without formaldehyde treatment. The assay was found to be sensitive enough to detect 0.1 ng of purified CEVd RNA and was able to detect viroid in 0.2 mg of symptomatic Citrus medica leaves. The use of riboprobes also allowed hybridization under high temperature conditions, avoiding non-specific background.
Cirmi, Santa; Maugeri, Alessandro; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schumacher, Udo; Navarra, Michele
Background: During the last decades, a huge body of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that Citrus fruits and their juices might have a role in preventing many diseases including cancer. Objective: To summarize the numerous evidences on the potential of Citrus juices and their extracts as anticancer agents. Data sources: A systematic review of articles written in English using MEDLINE (1946-present), EMBASE (1974-present) and Web of Sciences (1970-present) was performed independently by two reviewers. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, cancer, neoplasm, neoplasia, tumor, metastasis, carcinogenesis, proliferation. The last search was performed on March 16th, 2017. Study selection: Study selection and systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Prior to the beginning of the review, Authors defined a checklist for inclusion criteria, thus including articles which meet the following: (i) published on peer-reviewed scientific journals; (ii) Citrus juice used alone; (iii) extracts derived from Citrus juice; (iii) for preclinical studies, an exposure time to Citrus juices and their extracts more than 24 h. Reviews, meta-analyses, conference abstracts and book chapters were excluded. Data extraction: Three reviewers independently performed the extraction of articles. Data synthesis: 22 papers met our inclusion criteria and were eligible for inclusion in the final review. According to the kind of study, the selected ones were further divided in preclinical ( n = 20) and observational ( n = 2) studies. Conclusion: The studies discussed in this review strongly corroborate the role of Citrus juices and their derivatives as potential resource against cancer.
Cirmi, Santa; Maugeri, Alessandro; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schumacher, Udo; Navarra, Michele
Background: During the last decades, a huge body of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that Citrus fruits and their juices might have a role in preventing many diseases including cancer. Objective: To summarize the numerous evidences on the potential of Citrus juices and their extracts as anticancer agents. Data sources: A systematic review of articles written in English using MEDLINE (1946-present), EMBASE (1974-present) and Web of Sciences (1970-present) was performed independently by two reviewers. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, cancer, neoplasm, neoplasia, tumor, metastasis, carcinogenesis, proliferation. The last search was performed on March 16th, 2017. Study selection: Study selection and systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Prior to the beginning of the review, Authors defined a checklist for inclusion criteria, thus including articles which meet the following: (i) published on peer-reviewed scientific journals; (ii) Citrus juice used alone; (iii) extracts derived from Citrus juice; (iii) for preclinical studies, an exposure time to Citrus juices and their extracts more than 24 h. Reviews, meta-analyses, conference abstracts and book chapters were excluded. Data extraction: Three reviewers independently performed the extraction of articles. Data synthesis: 22 papers met our inclusion criteria and were eligible for inclusion in the final review. According to the kind of study, the selected ones were further divided in preclinical (n = 20) and observational (n = 2) studies. Conclusion: The studies discussed in this review strongly corroborate the role of Citrus juices and their derivatives as potential resource against cancer. PMID:28713272
Liu, Tian-Jia; Li, Yong-Ping; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi
The comprehensive genetic variation of two citrus species were analyzed at genome and transcriptome level. A total of 1090 differentially expressed genes were found during fruit development by RNA-sequencing. Fruit size (fruit equatorial diameter) and weight (fresh weight) are the two most important components determining yield and consumer acceptability for many horticultural crops. However, little is known about the genetic control of these traits. Here, we performed whole-genome resequencing to reveal the comprehensive genetic variation of the fruit development between kumquat (Citrus japonica) and Clementine mandarin (Citrus clementina). In total, 5,865,235 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 414,447 insertions/deletions (InDels) were identified in the two citrus species. Based on integrative analysis of genome and transcriptome of fruit, 640,801 SNPs and 20,733 InDels were identified. The features, genomic distribution, functional effect, and other characteristics of these genetic variations were explored. RNA-sequencing identified 1090 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during fruit development of kumquat and Clementine mandarin. Gene Ontology revealed that these genes were involved in various molecular functional and biological processes. In addition, the genetic variation of 939 DEGs and 74 multiple fruit development pathway genes from previous reports were also identified. A global survey identified 24,237 specific alternative splicing events in the two citrus species and showed that intron retention is the most prevalent pattern of alternative splicing. These genome variation data provide a foundation for further exploration of citrus diversity and gene-phenotype relationships and for future research on molecular breeding to improve kumquat, Clementine mandarin and related species.
Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J; Forst, Linda S; Luque, John S; Contreras, Ricardo B
The community-based prevention marketing program planning framework was used to adapt an evidence-based intervention to address eye injuries among Florida's migrant citrus harvesters. Participant-observer techniques, other direct observations, and individual and focus group interviews provided data that guided refinement of a safety eyewear intervention. Workers were attracted to the eyewear's ability to minimize irritation, offer protection from trauma, and enable work without declines in productivity or comfort. Access to safety glasses equipped with worker-designed features reduced the perceived barriers of using them; deployment of trained peer-leaders helped promote adoption. Workers' use of safety glasses increased from less than 2% to between 28% and 37% in less than two full harvesting seasons. The combination of formative research and program implementation data provided insights for tailoring an existing evidence-based program for this occupational community and increase potential for future dissemination and worker protection.
Brack, Marc E; Boterberg, Tom; Depypere, Herman T; Stove, Christophe; Leclercq, Georges; Mareel, Marc M
Two effects of the citrus methoxyflavone tangeretin on cell-cell interactions are biologically relevant. Firstly, tangeretin upregulates the function of the E-cadherin/catenin complex in human MCF-7/6 breast carcinoma cells. This leads to firm cell-cell adhesion and inhibition of invasion in vitro. Secondly, tangeretin downregulates the interleukin-2 receptor on T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. This leads to a decrease in the cytotoxic competence of these immunocytes against cancer cells. The second effect can become important when high doses of tangeretin are combined with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer. Experiments with nude mice bearing MCF-7/6 tumors showed that tangeretin given orally at high doses, abrogated the therapeutic suppression of tumor growth exerted by tamoxifen. No evidence for a tumor promoting effect of tangeretin by itself was found in these experiments. Tangeretin may be an interesting molecule for application in cases where immunosuppression could be clinically beneficial.
Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino
Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as "Bergamot," is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress.
Navarra, Michele; Mannucci, Carmen; Delbò, Marisa; Calapai, Gioacchino
Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau, also known as “Bergamot,” is a plant belonging to the Rutaceae family, defined as a hybrid of bitter orange and lemon. It is an endemic plant of the Calabria region (Italy). Bergamot fruit is primarily used for the extraction of its essential oil (bergamot essential oil: BEO), employed in perfume, cosmetics, food, and confections. The aim of this review was to collect recent data from the literature on C. bergamia essential oil and, through a critical analysis, focus on safety and the beneficial effects on human health. Clinical studies on the therapeutic applications of BEO exclusively focus on the field of aromatherapy, suggesting that its use can be useful for reducing anxiety and stress. PMID:25784877
Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Fujikawa, Takashi; Iwanami, Toru
The genomic sequences of five Japanese isolates of citrus vein enation virus (CVEV) isolates that induce vein enation were determined and compared with that of the Spanish isolate VE-1. The nucleotide sequences of all Japanese isolates were 5,983 nt in length. The genomic RNA of Japanese isolates had five potential open reading frames (ORF 0, ORF 1, ORF 2, ORF 3, and ORF 5) in the positive-sense strand. The nucleotide sequence identity among the Japanese isolates and Spanish isolate VE-1 ranged from 98.0% to 99.8%. Comparison of the partial amino acid sequences of ten Japanese isolates and three Spanish isolates suggested that four amino acid residues, at positions of 83, 104, and 113 in ORF 2 and position 41 in ORF 5, might be unique to some Japanese isolates.
Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami
Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted. PMID:27069397
Several citrus and subtropical fruits (oranges, limes, lemons, mangos and papayas) were evaluated for phytotoxicity to acetaldehyde vapor. Exposure of fruits to 0.5 or 1% acetaldehyde vapor for 24 hr (low concentration-long exposure) did not produce skin injury or off-flavor in comparison with non-exposed fruits. This non-phytotoxic effect was also obtained at 5 to 20% acetaldehyde vapor for 10 to 15 min (high concentration-short exposure). However, acetaldehyde vapor concentration of 4% for 1 hr or 5% for 30 min (high concentration-long exposure) produced severe lenticel and skin injuries to the fruits. Exposure of fruits at these concentration also produced lackmore » of or off-flavor. Phytotoxicity of fruits to acetaldhyde vapor was a function of concentration and exposure.« less
Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming
Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed.
Noguchi, Shuji; Atsumi, Haruka; Iwao, Yasunori; Kan, Toshiyuki; Itai, Shigeru
Nobiletin [systematic name: 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one; C21H22O8] is a flavonoid found in citrus peels, and has been reported to show a wide range of physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidementia activities. We have solved the crystal structure of nobiletin, which revealed that the chromene and arene rings of its flavone moiety, as well as the two methoxy groups bound to its arene ring, were coplanar. In contrast, the C atoms of the four methoxy groups bound to the chromene ring are out of the plane, making the molecule conformationally chiral. A comparison of the crystal structures of nobiletin revealed that it could adopt a variety of different conformations through rotation of the covalent bond between the chromene and arene rings, and the orientations of methoxy groups bound to the chromene ring.
Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.
This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.
Lopez, C.; Al-Qudah, O. M.
Laguna Madre is an important lagoon in the coast of Texas. It is one of the seven hypersaline lagoons in the world. Due to inflow of water with extreme amounts of phosphorus and nitrates and the low inflow of freshwater, the lagoon has high amount of phosphorus and nitrates which can be harmful for fish and plants situated in the lagoon. The goal is to be able to perform a filtration method with citrus peels biochar, and then to evaluate and compare the produced biochar, zeolite, and activated carbon as an infiltration filter by assessing reductions of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, as well as sum selected trace elements. Furthermore, the current research will investigate how long the cleaning capacity of biochar lasts and how the performance of the filter changes under an increased load of contaminants. The performance of biochar from different parent materials and recycling options for the used filter materials are also included in this research.
Shiratake, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Mami
Recent advance of bioinformatics and analytical apparatuses such as next generation DNA sequencer (NGS) and mass spectrometer (MS) has brought a big wave of comprehensive study to biology. Comprehensive study targeting all genes, transcripts (RNAs), proteins, metabolites, hormones, ions or phenotypes is called genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, hormonomics, ionomics or phenomics, respectively. These omics are powerful approaches to identify key genes for important traits, to clarify events of physiological mechanisms and to reveal unknown metabolic pathways in crops. Recently, the use of omics approach has increased dramatically in fruit tree research. Although the most reported omics studies on fruit trees are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, and a few is reported on hormonomics and ionomics. In this article, we reviewed recent omics studies of major fruit trees, i.e. citrus, grapevine and rosaceae fruit trees. The effectiveness and prospects of omics in fruit tree research will as well be highlighted.
Ding, Yuduan; Chang, Jiwei; Ma, Qiaoli; Chen, Lingling; Liu, Shuzhen; Jin, Shuai; Han, Jingwen; Xu, Rangwei; Zhu, Andan; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yi; Xu, Juan; Xu, Qiang; Zeng, YunLiu; Deng, Xiuxin
Citrus (Citrus spp.), a nonclimacteric fruit, is one of the most important fruit crops in global fruit industry. However, the biological behavior of citrus fruit ripening and postharvest senescence remains unclear. To better understand the senescence process of citrus fruit, we analyzed data sets from commercial microarrays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and validated physiological quality detection of four main varieties in the genus Citrus. Network-based approaches of data mining and modeling were used to investigate complex molecular processes in citrus. The Citrus Metabolic Pathway Network and correlation networks were constructed to explore the modules and relationships of the functional genes/metabolites. We found that the different flesh-rind transport of nutrients and water due to the anatomic structural differences among citrus varieties might be an important factor that influences fruit senescence behavior. We then modeled and verified the citrus senescence process. As fruit rind is exposed directly to the environment, which results in energy expenditure in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrients are exported from flesh to rind to maintain the activity of the whole fruit. The depletion of internal substances causes abiotic stresses, which further induces phytohormone reactions, transcription factor regulation, and a series of physiological and biochemical reactions. PMID:25802366
Zhang, M Q; Guo, Y; Powell, C A; Doud, M S; Yang, C Y; Zhou, H; Duan, Y P
Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titre, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zinc. The treatments promoted Las growth and affected microbiomes in citrus leaves. Phylochip(™) -based results indicated that 5475 of over 50 000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 52 phyla were detected in the midribs of HLB-affected citrus, of which Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In comparison, the microbiomes of zinc-treated diseased plants had overall more OTUs with higher amounts of Proteobacteria, but decreased percentages of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, more OTUs of siderophore-producing bacteria were present. Only zinc-sensitive Staphylococcaceae had higher OTU's in the diseased plants without zinc treatments. Although HLB-affected citrus appear zinc deficient, zinc amendments increased the pathogen levels and shifted the microbiome. HLB is currently the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Zinc is often applied to HLB-affected citrus due to zinc deficiency symptoms. This study provided new insights into the potential effects of zinc on HLB and the microbial ecology of citrus. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Yang, Li; Hu, Chunhua; Li, Na; Zhang, Jiayin; Yan, Jiawen; Deng, Ziniu
The COOH terminal of pthA encoding three nuclear localizing signals (NLS) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the plasmid of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the pathogen of citrus canker disease. Then the sense and antisense strands of the nls were cloned into pBI121 vector. pthA-nls driven by the CaMV35 s promoter was transferred into sweet orange via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. Successful integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting, and 12 sense-nls (nls (+)) and 9 antisense-nls (nls (-)) transgenic clones were obtained. The expression of nls fragment was analyzed by RT-PCR, Real time q-PCR and Western blotting, in which the specific NLS protein was detected only in nls (+) transgenic clones. In an in vitro assay, when pin-puncture inoculation was performed with 2.5 × 10(7) cfu/ml of bacterial solution, the nls (+) transgenic clones showed no typical lesion development, while typical symptoms were observed in the wild types and the nls (-) transgenic clones. In vivo assay results indicated that the nls (+) transgenic clones showed less disease incidence, in comparison with the wild types and the nls (-) transgenic clones, when pin-puncture inoculation was performed with 10(4)-10(5) cfu/ml. The minimum disease incidence was 23.3% for 'Sucarri' sweet orange and 33.3% for 'Bingtang' sweet orange. When 10(4)-10(7) cfu/ml of pathogen was spray inoculated, the nls (+) transgenic clones did not show any symptom, and even the concentration raised to 10(9) cfu/ml, the disease incidence was 20-80%, while the wild types and the nls (-) transgenic clones had 100% disease development with whatever concentration of inoculum. Two transgenic clones were confirmed to be resistant to citrus canker disease in the repeated inoculation. The results suggested that the transformation of nls sense strands may offer an effective way to acquire resistance to citrus canker disease.
Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Bracht, Adelar; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Constantin, Jorgete
It is well known that hyperglycaemia is the initiating cause of tissue damage associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and that enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis may account for the increase in blood glucose levels. The purpose of this work was to investigate the possible actions and mechanisms of three related citrus flavanones, namely hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin, on hepatic gluconeogenesis and related parameters using isolated perfused rat liver. Hesperetin and naringenin (but not hesperidin) inhibited gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate, alanine and dihydroxyacetone. The inhibitory effects of these flavanones on gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate (hesperetin IC50 75.6 μM; naringenin IC50 85.5 μM) as well as from alanine were considerably more pronounced than those from dihydroxyacetone. The main cause of gluconeogenesis inhibition is the reduction of pyruvate carboxylation by hesperetin (IC50 134.2 μM) and naringenin (IC50 143.5 μM) via inhibition of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria. Secondary causes are likely inhibition of energy metabolism, diversion of glucose 6-phosphate for glucuronidation reactions and oxidation of NADH by flavanone phenoxyl radicals. The influence of the structural differences between hesperetin and naringenin on their metabolic effects was negligible. Analytical evidence indicated that the presence of a rutinoside moiety in hesperidin noticeably decreases its metabolic effects, confirming that hesperetin and naringenin interact with intracellular enzymes and mitochondrial or cellular membranes better than hesperidin. Thus, the inhibition of the gluconeogenic pathway by citrus flavanones, which was similar to that of the drug metformin, may represent an attractive novel treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M
Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus.
Garganese, Francesca; Schena, Leonardo; Siciliano, Ilenia; Prigigallo, Maria Isabella; Spadaro, Davide; De Grassi, Anna; Ippolito, Antonio
Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A. alternata (5) and A. arborescens (1). Phylogenetic analyses, based on endopolygalacturonase (endopg) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), confirmed this finding. Moreover, a five-gene phylogeny including two anonymous genomics regions (OPA 1–3 and OPA 2–1), and the beta-tubulin gene (ß-tub), produced a further clustering of A. alternata into three clades. This analysis suggested the existence of intra-species molecular variability. Investigated isolates showed different levels of virulence on leaves and fruit. In particular, the pathogenicity on fruit seemed to be correlated with the tissue of isolation and the clade. The toxigenic behavior of Alternaria isolates was also investigated, with tenuazonic acid (TeA) being the most abundant mycotoxin (0.2–20 mg/L). Isolates also synthesized the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), its derivate alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT), although to a lesser extent. AME production significantly varied among the six morphotypes. The expression of pksJ/pksH, biosynthetic genes of AOH/AME, was not correlated with actual toxin production, but it was significantly different between the two genotypes and among the four clades. Finally, ten isolates proved to express the biosynthetic genes of ACTT1 phytotoxin, and thus to be included in the Alternaria pathotype tangerine. A significant correlation between pathogenicity on leaves and ACTT1 gene expression was recorded. The latter was significantly
Mohamed, Saleh A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Drees, Ehab A; Fahmy, Afaf S
The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors.
Wang, Xun; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Xia, Hui; Zhang, Xiancong; Yue, Maolan; Qiu, Xia; Xu, Ke; Wang, Zhihui
During fresh fruit consumption, sensory texture is one factor that affects the organoleptic qualities. Chemical components of plant cell walls, including pectin, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, play central roles in determining the textural qualities. To explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in fresh citrus' perceived sensory texture, we performed mRNA-seq analyses of the segment membranes of two citrus cultivars, Shiranui and Kiyomi, with different organoleptic textures. Segment membranes were sampled at two developmental stages of citrus fruit, the beginning and end of the expansion period. More than 3000 differentially expressed genes were identified. The gene ontology analysis revealed that more categories were significantly enriched in 'Shiranui' than in 'Kiyomi' at both developmental stages. In total, 108 significantly enriched pathways were obtained, with most belonging to metabolism. A detailed transcriptomic analysis revealed potential critical genes involved in the metabolism of cell wall structures, for example, GAUT4 in pectin synthesis, CESA1, 3 and 6, and SUS4 in cellulose synthesis, CSLC5, XXT1 and XXT2 in hemicellulose synthesis, and CSE in lignin synthesis. Low levels, or no expression, of genes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose, such as CESA4, CESA7, CESA8, IRX9 and IRX14, confirmed that secondary cell walls were negligible or absent in citrus segment membranes. A chemical component analysis of the segment membranes from mature fruit revealed that the pectin, cellulose and lignin contents, and the segment membrane's weight (% of segment) were greater in 'Kiyomi'. Organoleptic quality of citrus is easily overlooked. It is mainly determined by sensory texture perceived in citrus segment membrane properties. We performed mRNA-seq analyses of citrus segment membranes to explore the genes and regulatory pathways involved in fresh citrus' perceived sensory texture. Transcriptomic data showed high repeatability between two
Fitchett, Jennifer; Grab, Stefan; Thompson, Dave; Roshan, GholamReza
Recent studies investigating floral and faunal phenological responses to climate change have highlighted the extent to which these relationships are species and location specific. This study investigates temporal responses of citrus peak flowering to climate change in the cities of Kerman, Shiraz and Gorgan, Iran. Phenological data comprise peak flowering dates of five citrus types: orange (Citrus x sinensis), tangerine (Citrus x tangerine), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta), sour lemon (Citrus x limon) and sour orange (Citrus x aurantium). These were collected daily from government heritage gardens located within each of the three cities, and archived by a private Iranian company, for the period 1960-2010. For the same period, daily Tmax, Tmin, rainfall and sunshine hour data were acquired from the Iranian Meteorological Organization. Time trend analyses were undertaken for both the phenological and meteorological data, followed by linear regression to determine the nature and extent of any relationships between these variables. We find that the mean peak flowering dates, and their long-term trends over the 51-year period, are very similar amongst the five citrus types within each city, but demonstrate significant differences between cities. Flowering date advances of 0.12-0.17d/yr are recorded for Kerman, and more rapid advances of 0.56-0.65d/yr for Shiraz. Notable progressive delays in flowering dates occur in Gorgan (0.05-0.1d/yr). The peak flowering dates of citrus in the former two cities demonstrate strong relationships with mean annual Tmin, ranging from r = 0.46-0.61 (p = 0002; p < 0.0001) for Kerman to r = 0.53-0.67 (p = 0.0386; p < 0.0001) for Shiraz, and equating to peak flowering advances of 3.15-3.39d/°C and 4.34-5.47d/°C respectively. By contrast, the strongest relationships between peak flowering dates and climate in Gorgan are with rainfall (r = 0.02-0.3, p = 0.8874-0.0528), indicating a weak phenophase response of 0.1d/mm. Gorgan also provides a
Magalhães, Diogo M; Scholte, Larissa L S; Silva, Nicholas V; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Zipfel, Cyril; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) represent the largest subfamily of plant RLKs. The functions of most LRR-RLKs have remained undiscovered, and a few that have been experimentally characterized have been shown to have important roles in growth and development as well as in defense responses. Although RLK subfamilies have been previously studied in many plants, no comprehensive study has been performed on this gene family in Citrus species, which have high economic importance and are frequent targets for emerging pathogens. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify and classify LRR-RLK homologues in the predicted proteomes of Citrus clementina (clementine) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). In addition, we used large-scale phylogenetic approaches to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the LRR-RLKs and further narrowed the analysis to the LRR-XII group, which contains several previously described cell surface immune receptors. We built integrative protein signature databases for Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis using all predicted protein sequences obtained from whole genomes. A total of 300 and 297 proteins were identified as LRR-RLKs in C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were estimated using Arabidopsis LRR-RLK as a template and they allowed us to classify Citrus LRR-RLKs into 16 groups. The LRR-XII group showed a remarkable expansion, containing approximately 150 paralogs encoded in each Citrus genome. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated the existence of two distinct LRR-XII clades, each one constituted mainly by RD and non-RD kinases. We identified 68 orthologous pairs from the C. clementina and C. sinensis LRR-XII genes. In addition, among the paralogs, we identified a subset of 78 and 62 clustered genes probably derived from tandem duplication events in the genomes of C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. This work provided the first comprehensive
Childers, C C; Rodrigues, J C V; Derrick, K S; Achor, D S; French, J V; Welbourn, W C; Ochoa, R; Kitajima, E W
According to published reports from 1906 to 1968, leprosis nearly destroyed the Florida citrus industry prior to 1925. This was supported with photographs showing typical leprosis symptoms on citrus leaves, fruit, and twigs. Support for the past occurrence of citrus leprosis in Florida includes: (1) presence of twig lesions in affected orange blocks in addition to lesions on fruits and leaves and corresponding absence of similar lesions on grapefruit; (2) yield reduction and die-back on infected trees; and (3) spread of the disease between 1906 and 1925. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of tissue samples from leprosis-like injuries to orange and grapefruit leaves from Florida in 1997, and fruits from grapefruit and sweet orange varieties from Texas in 1999 and 2000 did not contain leprosis-like viral particles or viroplasm inclusions. In contrast, leprosis viroplasm inclusions were readily identified by TEM within green non-senescent tissues surrounding leprosis lesions in two of every three orange leaf samples and half of the fruit samples obtained from Piracicaba, Brazil. Symptoms of leprosis were not seen in any of the 24,555 orange trees examined across Florida during 2001 and 2002. The authors conclude that citrus leprosis no longer exists in Florida nor occurs in Texas citrus based on: (1) lack of leprosis symptoms on leaves, fruit, and twigs of sweet orange citrus varieties surveyed in Florida: (2) failure to find virus particles or viroplasm inclusion bodies in suspect samples from both Florida and Texas examined by TEM; (3) absence of documented reports by others on the presence of characteristic leprosis symptoms in Florida; (4) lack of its documented occurrence in dooryard trees or abandoned or minimal pesticide citrus orchard sites in Florida. In view of the serious threat to citrus in the U.S., every effort must be taken to quarantine the importation of both citrus and woody ornamental plants that serve as hosts for Brevipalpus
Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin
Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry
Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, wemore » find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly
Martinez-Godoy, M Angeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juarez, Jose; Marques, M Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea, Jose
Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-wide cDNA microarray that include 21,081 putative unigenes of citrus. As a functional companion to the microarray, a web-browsable database  was created and populated with information about the unigenes represented in the microarray, including cDNA libraries, isolated clones, raw and processed nucleotide and protein sequences, and results of all the structural and functional annotation of the unigenes, like general description, BLAST hits, putative Arabidopsis orthologs, microsatellites, putative SNPs, GO classification and PFAM domains. We have performed a Gene Ontology comparison with the full set of Arabidopsis proteins to estimate the genome coverage of the microarray. We have also performed microarray hybridizations to check its usability. Conclusion This new cDNA microarray replaces the first 7K microarray generated two years ago and allows gene expression analysis at a more global scale. We have followed a rational design to minimize cross-hybridization while maintaining its utility for different citrus species. Furthermore, we also provide access to a website with full structural and functional annotation of the unigenes represented in the microarray, along with the ability to use this site to directly perform gene expression analysis using standard tools at different publicly available servers. Furthermore, we show how this microarray offers a good representation of the citrus genome and present the usefulness of this genomic tool for global studies in citrus by using it to
Aguilera-Cogley, Vidal Antonio; Berbegal, Mónica; Català, Santiago; Brentu, Francis Collison; Armengol, Josep; Vicent, Antonio
Greasy spot of citrus, caused by Zasmidium citri-griseum (= Mycosphaerella citri), is widely distributed in the Caribbean Basin, inducing leaf spots, premature defoliation, and yield loss. Greasy spot-like symptoms were frequently observed in humid citrus-growing regions in Panama as well as in semi-arid areas in Spain, but disease aetiology was unknown. Citrus-growing areas in Panama and Spain were surveyed and isolates of Mycosphaerellaceae were obtained from citrus greasy spot lesions. A selection of isolates from Panama (n = 22) and Spain (n = 16) was assembled based on their geographical origin, citrus species, and affected tissue. The isolates were characterized based on multi-locus DNA (ITS and EF-1α) sequence analyses, morphology, growth at different temperatures, and independent pathogenicity tests on the citrus species most affected in each country. Reference isolates and sequences were also included in the analysis. Isolates from Panama were identified as Z. citri-griseum complex, and others from Spain attributed to Amycosphaerella africana. Isolates of the Z. citri-griseum complex had a significantly higher optimal growth temperature (26.8°C) than those of A. africana (19.3°C), which corresponded well with their actual biogeographical range. The isolates of the Z. citri-griseum complex from Panama induced typical greasy spot symptoms in 'Valencia' sweet orange plants and the inoculated fungi were reisolated. No symptoms were observed in plants of the 'Ortanique' tangor inoculated with A. africana. These results demonstrate the presence of citrus greasy spot, caused by Z. citri-griseum complex, in Panama whereas A. africana was associated with greasy spot-like symptoms in Spain.
Aguilera-Cogley, Vidal Antonio; Berbegal, Mónica; Català, Santiago; Brentu, Francis Collison; Armengol, Josep
Greasy spot of citrus, caused by Zasmidium citri-griseum (= Mycosphaerella citri), is widely distributed in the Caribbean Basin, inducing leaf spots, premature defoliation, and yield loss. Greasy spot-like symptoms were frequently observed in humid citrus-growing regions in Panama as well as in semi-arid areas in Spain, but disease aetiology was unknown. Citrus-growing areas in Panama and Spain were surveyed and isolates of Mycosphaerellaceae were obtained from citrus greasy spot lesions. A selection of isolates from Panama (n = 22) and Spain (n = 16) was assembled based on their geographical origin, citrus species, and affected tissue. The isolates were characterized based on multi-locus DNA (ITS and EF-1α) sequence analyses, morphology, growth at different temperatures, and independent pathogenicity tests on the citrus species most affected in each country. Reference isolates and sequences were also included in the analysis. Isolates from Panama were identified as Z. citri-griseum complex, and others from Spain attributed to Amycosphaerella africana. Isolates of the Z. citri-griseum complex had a significantly higher optimal growth temperature (26.8°C) than those of A. africana (19.3°C), which corresponded well with their actual biogeographical range. The isolates of the Z. citri-griseum complex from Panama induced typical greasy spot symptoms in ‘Valencia’ sweet orange plants and the inoculated fungi were reisolated. No symptoms were observed in plants of the ‘Ortanique’ tangor inoculated with A. africana. These results demonstrate the presence of citrus greasy spot, caused by Z. citri-griseum complex, in Panama whereas A. africana was associated with greasy spot-like symptoms in Spain. PMID:29236789
Azam, Muhammad; Song, Min; Fan, Fangjuan; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yaying; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong
Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled.
Killiny, Nabil; Jones, Shelley E; Nehela, Yasser; Hijaz, Faraj; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W
Citrus tolerance to huanglongbing could result from tolerance to the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and/or to its vector Diaphorina citri. Field observations and greenhouse-controlled studies showed that some citrus cultivars were more tolerant than others. However, the mechanism(s) behind the tolerance has not been determined yet. Using GC-MS, we investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the non-volatile metabolite profiles of two tolerant citrus cultivars- Australian finger lime, 'LB8-9' Sugar Belle ® mandarin hybrid, and a recently released mandarin hybrid 'Bingo'. The three were grafted onto the rootstock, Carrizo citrange. Our findings showed that the metabolomic profiles of Australian finger lime were different from that of 'LB8-9'. Finger lime was high in many amino acids and tricarboxylic acid intermediates, whereas 'LB8-9' was high in several amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols. 'LB8-9' was high in thymol, which is known for its strong antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria. The metabolomic profiles of 'Bingo' were intensely different from the other mandarin hybrid, 'LB8-9', including a reduced thymol biosynthetic pathway and low amounts of most of the amino acids and sugar alcohols. Remarkably, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) was only detected in 'Bingo', indicating that eucalyptol could have feeding and ovipositional repellency against D. citri. The metabolite profiles generated for HLB-tolerant citrus species will improve the ability of citrus breeders and will allow them to take more informed decisions. Metabolomic profiling of HLB-tolerant citrus species could identify tolerance specific markers that can be introduced to other commercial citrus cultivars to improve their tolerance to HLB disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Azam, Muhammad; Song, Min; Fan, Fangjuan; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yaying; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong
Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled. PMID:24232454
Harima-Mizusawa, Naomi; Iino, Tohru; Onodera-Masuoka, Norie; Kato-Nagaoka, Noriko; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Gomi, Atsushi; Shibahara-Sone, Harue; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Shida, Kan; Sakai, Masashi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu
Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100 mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis.
HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; IINO, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; SHIDA, Kan; SAKAI, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu
Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100 mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis. PMID:25379362
Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim
Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the vector of huanglongbing, the most serious disease affecting citrus globally. In Florida alone, D. citri has resulted in billions of dollars of damage and has spread to all the citrus growing regions of North America. The visual behavior of D. citri ...
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important virus diseases which affect citrus. Control of CTV in Spain and central California is achieved by planting virus-free citrus on CTV-tolerant or -resistant rootstocks. Quarantine and certification programs remain essential to avoid importation ...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...
The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive citrus pest because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. Orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is a favored alternate ACP host plant and is widely grown as an ornamental plant in urban ar...
Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is an economically devastating bacterial disease of citrus. It is associated with infection by the gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). CLas is transmitted by Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). For insect transmis...
Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus often display zinc deficiency symptoms. In this study, supplemental zinc was applied to citrus to determine its effect on Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) titer, HLB symptoms, and leaf microbiome. HLB-affected citrus were treated with various amounts of zi...
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayanna, one of the vectors for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) has been present in Texas for over a decade, but the detection of the disease is recent. HLB has been confirmed in only two adjacent commercial citrus groves of grapefruit and...
In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approxima...
In cybridization, new combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes result in a unique genotype that may bring cellular, physical, physiological and biochemical changes to the plant. This has been demonstrated in cybrids generated from the fusion of citrus protoplasts in two independent experiments....
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a phloem inhabiting bacterium that causes huanglongbing disease (HLB), also known as citrus greening associated with three species of a-Proteobacteria in the genus ‘Candidatus Liberibacter sp’. Prophage is an important genetic element of bacterial genomes...
Several psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) are known as vectors of some economically important viral and bacterial plant pathogens. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), the putative bacterial causal ...
Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng
The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970
Erpen, L; Tavano, E C R; Harakava, R; Dutt, M; Grosser, J W; Piedade, S M S; Mendes, B M J; Mourão Filho, F A A
Regulatory sequences from the citrus constitutive genes cyclophilin (CsCYP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase C2 (CsGAPC2), and elongation factor 1-alpha (CsEF1) were isolated, fused to the uidA gene, and qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in transgenic sweet orange plants. The 5' upstream region of a gene (the promoter) is the most important component for the initiation and regulation of gene transcription of both native genes and transgenes in plants. The isolation and characterization of gene regulatory sequences are essential to the development of intragenic or cisgenic genetic manipulation strategies, which imply the use of genetic material from the same species or from closely related species. We describe herein the isolation and evaluation of the promoter sequence from three constitutively expressed citrus genes: cyclophilin (CsCYP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase C2 (CsGAPC2), and elongation factor 1-alpha (CsEF1). The functionality of the promoters was confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay in leaves, stems, and roots of stably transformed citrus plants expressing the promoter-uidA construct. Lower uidA mRNA levels were detected when the transgene was under the control of citrus promoters as compared to the expression under the control of the CaMV35S promoter. The association of the uidA gene with the citrus-derived promoters resulted in mRNA levels of up to 60-41.8% of the value obtained with the construct containing CaMV35S driving the uidA gene. Moreover, a lower inter-individual variability in transgene expression was observed amongst the different transgenic lines, where gene constructs containing citrus-derived promoters were used. In silico analysis of the citrus-derived promoter sequences revealed that their activity may be controlled by several putative cis-regulatory elements. These citrus promoters will expand the availability of regulatory sequences for driving gene expression in citrus gene-modification programs.
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was observed in Guangdong Province, Peoples’ Republic of China in the late 1800s and is endemic there, particularly in the coastal Chaoshan and Pearl River Delta plains. Since the 1990s, the center of citrus production in Guangdong has gradually shif...
Huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating citrus disease worldwide, is vectored by phloem-feeding insects, and the pathogen in the USA is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). The bacterial microbiome of citrus after Las-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) was chara...
...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Citrus From Peru... an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of citrus from Peru. DATES... from Peru, contact Mr. Tony Rom[aacute]n, Import Specialist, Regulatory Coordination and Compliance...
The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is the insect vector responsible for the worldwide spread of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterial pathogen associated with citrus greening disease. Developmental changes in the insect vector impact pathogen transmission, such that D. citri tra...
Quick decline caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) destroyed citrus on sour orange rootstock in southern California in the 1930’s -40’s. However, use of resistant/tolerant CTV rootstocks, certified pathogen-free budwood, and quarantines have limited further economic damage from CTV. Multi-locus mar...
The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding citrus by-products D’Limonene (DL) and citrus molasses (MOL) would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (avg. BW = ...
Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). Ways of managing the disease are being sought, and accurate, precise, reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics. The objective of this study was to investigate...
... asiaticus'' that attacks the vascular system of host plants. Citrus greening greatly reduces production... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0105... Citrus Psyllid; Quarantine and Interstate Movement Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, is an important pathogen of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere. The genetic diversity of X. citri subsp. citri pathtype ‘A’ has not been studied in Brazil at a local scale (up to 300 km). A total of 40 isolates were collected from le...
Data from long term monitoring programs in two Florida citrus groves were used to assess Asian citrus psyllid demography and population ecology, which is needed to implement more effective management strategies for huanglongbing. We describe and interpret seasonal patterns and correlations between A...
Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...
Ruth, Taylor K.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Ellis, Jason D.
Extension agents across the nation will need to facilitate difficult conversations with the public if genetic modification (GM) science is used to combat citrus greening disease. This study used the innovation characteristics described by Rogers to explore if using GM science as a solution to citrus greening had diffused amongst US residents. An…
Insecticidal soaps (hereafter “soaps”) are labeled for use by homeowners and also can be used in citrus grown for the organic market. Soaps control some insect pests and therefore might be an alternative to conventional pesticides for control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (...
Plant diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa (Wells et al.) (Xf) surround the Caribbean Basin. Two major commodities of Puerto Rico, coffee and citrus, are highly susceptible to Xf. We surveyed potential vectors of Xf in coffee and citrus farms in western Puerto Rico over an 18 month period. Cicadel...
Huanglongbing (HLB) is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) and is vectored by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri). HLB is devastating the Florida citrus industry, with production reduced by 60 percent in the last 12 years, and HLB is considered the greatest threat to...
Fujita, Tadashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Niwa, Toshiro; Tomohiro, Norimichi; Masuda, Megumi; Matsuda, Hideaki; Iwaki, Masahiro
In a previous study we found that 50% ethanol extracts of immature fruits of Citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) have anti-allergic effects against the Type I, II and IV allergic reactions. However, many adverse interactions between citrus fruit, especially grapefruit juice, and drugs have been reported due to the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the competitive inhibitory effects of extracts from immature citrus fruit on CYP activity. Extracts were prepared from 12 citrus species or cultivars, and were tested against three kinds of major CYPs, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes. We also estimated the amounts of flavonoids (narirutin, hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin) and furanocoumarins (bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and bergamottin) in each extract using HPLC. Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) showed the greatest inhibition of CYP activities, while Citrus unshiu which has an antiallergic effect, showed relatively weak inhibitory effects. Extracts having relatively strong inhibitory effects for CYP3A4 tended to contain higher amounts of naringin, bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. These results, providing comparative information on the inhibitory effects of citrus extracts on CYP isoforms, suggest that citrus extracts containing high levels of narirutin and hesperidin and lower levels of furanocoumarins such as C. unshiu are favorable as antiallergic functional ingredients.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a static liquid culture system on shoot regeneration from citrus epicotyl explants. Two citrus types were used, Carrizo citrange and Ridge Pineapple sweet orange. A liquid culture system comprised of a Petri dish, cellulose filter paper dis...
James T. Vogt; Thormas G. Shelton; Michael E. Merchant; Scott A. Russell; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel
Experiments were conducted in Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas to assess efficacy of raw citrus peel extract (orange oil) and a commercial citrus oil formulation for control of Solenopsis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. A recipe containing orange oil (equal parts orange oil, cattlemen's molasses, and compost tea at 47 mL L1 water),...
Cold-stressed sour orange seedling (Citrus aurantium L.) attracted significantly more Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) during 5h and 24h recovery periods compared to control plants in choice test experiment. Cold stressed plants were held/ placed at 6 ± 1°C for 6 days and then ...
Huanglongbing (HLB), also referred to as citrus greening disease has caused significant losses to the citrus industry in the United States and elsewhere. In our previous studies, we observed the fluctuation of some primary and secondary metabolites in response to biotic (psyllid feeding) and abiotic...
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important pest of citrus in the United States of America primarily because it vectors ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the bacterium putatively responsible for Asiatic huanglongbing (HLB). Asiatic HLB is con...
Epifluorescence, light and stereo-microscopy were used to characterize foliar trichomes associated with young flush leaves and stems of six plant genotypes that are hosts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of the economically important citrus greening disease. These genotypes incl...