Sample records for shinn toshio kaneko

  1. The first record of Gyrodactylus corleonis Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria & Shinn, 2010 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from the wild.


    Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gerasev, Pavel I; Garippa, Giovanni; Piras, M Cristina; Merella, Paolo


    Specimens of Gyrodactylus corleonis Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria & Shinn, 2010 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) were collected from the body and fins of Gobius cobitis Pallas in the western Mediterranean Sea off northwestern Sardinia. This is the first finding of this species in the wild and also represents a new host record. A morphological comparison of the new material with the type description of G. corleonis is presented. Since G. corleonis was found in the wild on representatives of the Gobiidae, a comparison with species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 parasitising gobies is included. The occurrence of G. corleonis on different host species and its phylogenetic relationships with gyrodactylids from sand gobies are discussed.

  2. Gene expression changes triggered by end-of-day far-red light treatment on early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Katou, Masahiro; Kishimoto, Masayuki; Tsuji, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Tamura, Fumio


    To better understand the molecular mechanisms related to growth promotion in the early developmental stages of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. under end-of-day far-red light (EOD-FR) treatment, we analyzed the leaf transcriptome of treated (EOD) and untreated plants (Cont) by using RNA-seq technology. EOD-FR treatment for only about 2 weeks in regions with limited sunshine during winter resulted in significantly higher internode length between the 3rd and 4th nodes on the main stem in EOD than in Cont. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to synthesis or transport of auxin, higher levels of YUCCA (CL6581) and PIN4 (CL6181) were noted after treatment in EOD than in Cont in the leaf. In addition, high expression levels of GA20ox (Unigene11862) related to gibberellin (GA) synthesis and transcription factor bHLH 135 (CL7761) were observed in the stem of EOD, 3 h after treatment. A vertical section of the stem showed that the pith length of cells at the 4th node was longer in EOD than in Cont. Collectively, these results suggested that EOD-FR treatment increased the expression of DEGs related to GA and auxin biosynthesis, bHLH transcription factor, and internodal cell elongation along the longitudinal axis of Eustoma plants. PMID:26642764

  3. Ethics and American Power: Speeches by Caspar W. Weinberger and George P. Shultz. Responses by Philip Geyelin, Smith Hempstone, Carl F. H. Henry, Thomas Molnar, Richard John Neuhaus, David D. Newsom, William V. O'Brien, Paul Seabury, Roger L. Shinn, Seymour Siegel, Edward Teller, Richard M. Nixon. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    Two cabinet secretaries address the problems of when and how the United States should use military power. Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger emphasizes the importance of prudence and restraint in the use of military force in chapter 1: "The Uses of Military Power." Secretary of State George P. Shultz stresses the vital importance…


    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ


    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MAIN ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING HEWN LOGS WITH HALF-DOVETAIL JOINTS; LATHE AND PLASTER ADDITION; AND CLAPBOARD SIDING - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  6. 8. Photocopy of National Register of Historic Places photo, 1970's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of National Register of Historic Places photo, 1970's RESTORED LOG CABIN - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  7. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori


    advances in thermal and non-equilibrium plasmas as well as on more new and innovative developments in the field of life innovation, green innovation and a technical report session. The editors hope that this volume will be useful and helpful for deepening our understanding of science and technology of plasma materials processing and also for stimulating further development of the plasma technology. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the organizing committee, the advisory committee, the executive committee, the program committee, the publication committee, organizing secretariat and financial support from The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, JSPS. Sponsors and Supporting Organization: The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Organizing Committee Chairperson: Osamu Tsuji, SAMCO Corporation, Japan Advisory Committee Chairperson: Akihisa Matsuda, Osaka University, Japan Executive Committee Chairperson: Masaru Hori, Nagoya University, Japan Program Committee Chairperson: Takamasa Ishigaki, Hosei University, Japan Publication Committee Chairperson: Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University Editors of APCPST-11 and SPMS-25 Professor Takayuki Watanabe, Kyushu University, Japan Professor Toshio Kaneko, Tohoku University, Japan Professor Makoto Sekine, Nagoya University, Japan Professor Yasunori Tanaka, Kanazawa University, Japan

  8. Geotechnical Properties of Periplatform Carbonate Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology


    calcium carbonate is strongly inhibited by the presence of magnesium ions and by dissolved inorganic matter ( Edmond 1974). The depth at which...eds) Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 101, College Station, TX, pp 305-314. Edmond JM (1974) On the dissolution of carbonate...Office, Washington, pp 701-722. Shinn EA, Halley RB, Hudson JH, Lidz BH (1977) Limestone compaction: an enigma. Geology 5:21-24. Shinn EA, Robbin DM

  9. Reluctant Samurai? Partnering with Japan to Combat Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Forces members Colonel Shinichi Kaneko, Lieutenant Colonel Daisaku Sakaguchi, and Captain Masaki Oyama yielded excellent insights on Japanese...perspectives on combating terrorism. Dr. Toshi Yoshihara of the Air War College graciously provided materials and advice on this security topic

  10. Towards an automated system for the identification of notifiable pathogens: using as an example.


    Kay, J W; Shinn, A P; Sommerville, C


    Simple and rapid identification of pathogen species is crucial to the control of many diseases. Here, James Kay, Andrew Shinn and Christina Sommerville demonstrate that statistical classifiers discriminate a notifiable pathogen Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957, a lethal ectoparasite of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., from its benign close relatives.

  11. Auditory and Cross-Modal Spatial Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology


    interaural level and interaural envelope timing (weak cues for left-right direction). This work, published in Acustica united with Acta Acustica in... Acta Acust united Acustica 2005; 91:967-9. Durlach NI, Mason CR, Gallun FJ, Shinn-Cunningham BG, Colburn HS, and Kidd G Jr. Informational masking for

  12. Calling the Tune: British Universities and the State, 1880-1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Keith


    Focuses on R. O. Berdahl and C. H. Shinn's examination of British state-university relationships prior to 1919; and Ted Tapper and Brian Salter's research that studied the time between 1919 and the creation of the University Grants Commission. Concludes that the state played a significant role in higher education through state funding and…

  13. Particle Subcycling in Pulsed-Power Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology



  14. This Little Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Michael, Ed.

    In six essays considering overpopulation, pollution, and food supply from the framework of the Judeo-Christian tradition and of world ecology, three theologians (Pollard, Shinn, and Bonifazi), an ecologist (Sears), a geographer (Glacken), and a medical scientist and administrator (Bennett), conclude that the control and preservation of the natural…

  15. Teacher Acceptability of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe


    Many schools are adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model to support and evaluate learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of RTI that generally support improved student outcomes (Shinn, 2007). In many schools, teachers collect and use a tool called oral reading fluency for…

  16. Assessment of Impact Damage in Composites via Self-Sensing Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology


    categories: Received Paper 08/27/2012 2.00 M. Ogawa, C. Huang, T. Nakamura. Damage detection of CFRP laminates via self-sensing fibres and thermal...Chong Huang, Toshio Nakamura. Damage detection of CFRP laminates via self-sensing fibers and thermal sprayed electrodes, Journal of Nondestructive...Bibliography [1] M. Ogawa, C. Huang and T. Nakamura, Damage detection of CFRP laminates via self- sensing fibers and thermal sprayed electrodes (2012

  17. Development of General Antisera for Trichothecenes

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Sani, K.; Ueno, Y.; Tsunoda, H.; and Enomoto, M. Solaniol, A Toxic Metabolite of Fusarium Solani , Applied Microbiology, 1971. 22, 718-720. Kaneko, T...from Two Strains of Fusarium Trincintum, Tetrahedron, 1968. 3329-3336. Bose, A. K.; Lal. B.; Hoffman. III, W. A.; and Manhas, M. S. Steroids IX, Facile

  18. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa


    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  19. The Effect of Sound Spatialization on Responses to Overlapping Messages

    DTIC Science & Technology


    cognitive level, frequency and intensity are perceived as loudness, pitch and timbre . For example, listeners are generally sensitive to intensity on a...variations of the stimulus. (Shilling and Shinn-Cunningham, 2002, p. 3.4) Timbre is even more difficult to define. It includes the qualities of...sound, particularly in situations where speaker configurations are used. The primary purpose of stereo surround sound is to enhance music by making

  20. Posttest, Two-Dimensional, Free-Field Calculation of HARD PAN I, Event 3: Calculation HPI-3.4

    DTIC Science & Technology


    CALCULATION HPI-3.4 Eric H. Wang Civil Engineering Research Facility University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 June 1977 Final Report...New Mexico , Albuquerque, Mew Mexico , under Contract F29e01-76-C-0015, Job Order 133B1307 with the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force...Base, New Mexico . Lt James D. Shinn (DES) was the Laboratory Project Officer-in-Charge. When US Government drawings, specifications, or other data are

  1. Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices for Chemical and Biological Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Another interesting family of materials is aerogel composites, most often with nanotubes . Kaneko et al63 embedded single-wall carbon nanohorns into...chitosan and carbon nanotubes . Tong et al78 used simple solution-evaporation to prepare composites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in chitosan...strength increased by 99 percent. Chitosan facilitates the stabilization of carbon nanotubes , a property exploited by Gorski et al79 to deposit

  2. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram

    DTIC Science & Technology


    spectral features of all the tumors. Task 2. Perform the optical measurements on breast-like phantoms (Months 19-24) a. Prepare the breast-like phantoms ...a tur- ygen saturation measurements to within 15% of the bid medium can be modeled with the first-order actual values in phantoms and have reported...31. Y. Yamashita and M. Kaneko, "Visible and infrared diaphanog- ized abnormalities embedded within tissuelike phantoms ," raphy for medical diagnosis

  3. ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 10, Number 2, April to June 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    development of a welding data base; cold cracking of HYS0; diffusion bounding of tool steels and ceramics; seam tracking and fracture toughness of...suppliers of welding consumables in Japan. In addition, JAERI will be conducting fatigue crack growth studies during 1985 to verify that the new steels have... cracking T. Kaneko, A. Ikeda, of low alloyed steels on environmental and T. Moroishi. factors and materials Sumitomo Metal Industries The corrosion

  4. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.


    Geller, Stephen A


    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  5. A periodization of research technologies and of the emergency of genericity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus


    According to the historian and sociologist of science Terry Shinn, the creator of the concept of 'research technologies': "Research technologies may sometimes generate promising packets of instrumentation for yet undefined ends. They may offer technological answers to questions that have hardly been raised. Research technologists's instruments are then generic in the sense that they are base-line apparatus which can subsequently be transformed by experimenters into products tailored to specific economic ends or adapted by experimenters to further cognitive ends in academic research."

  6. A Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Feasibility of Implementing A Same-Day Surgery Program at the 121ST General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology


    complete my research include the following: Mr. Craig Carter, LTC Jane Denio, Ms. Patricia Felder, Mr. Al Rayos , Mr. Modesto Rivera, Mrs. Helen Shinn...3,100,392, calculated as such: (*Average DRG Cost x 894) – (*Average SDS Cost x 894) = $3,100,392 There were 22 cases that could be clearly identified as a... x 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………..…… 1 Conditions Which Prompted the Study……………………….…. 2 Statement of the Problem

  7. Spatial Hearing, Attention and Informational Masking in Speech Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Best, V., Gallun, F.J., Mason, C.R., Kidd, G. Jr. and Shinn-Cunningham, B.G. (2009) “The impact of noise and hearing loss on the processing of... rooms " J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 24, 3064-3075 uating the benefit of hearing aids in olving the cocktail party problem," Trends in Amplification, 12, 300...E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 12 Spe 2012 Final Technical 1 Aug 2008 - 30 Nov 2011 Spatial hearing , attention and informational masking

  8. Why CO bonds side-on at low coverage and both side-on and upright at high coverage on the Cr(110) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehandru, S. P.; Anderson, A. B.


    An atom superposition and electron delocalization molecular orbital study of CO adsorption on the Cr(110) surface shows a high coordinate lying down orientation is favored. This is a result of the large number of empty d-band energy levels in chromium, which allows the antibonding counterparts to sigma and pi donation bonds to the surface to be empty. When lying down, backbonding to CO pi sup * orbitals is enhanced. Repulsive interactions cause additional CO to stand upright at 1/4 monolyer coverage. The results confirm the recent experimental study of Shinn and Madey.

  9. Development and Test of the Humanitarian Demining Sifting Excavator

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Systems of Charlotte, NC. The Shinn HPU is separately driven by a Cumins diesel and is capable of supplying 220 kW of hydraulic power to attachments the 12 base of the trench. The structural damage to the mines after extraction from the bank was in most cases moderate to substantial. Again...most of the damage was on the sides and bottom of the mine, away from the fuze. 1 of the 18 mines did trigger upon extraction from the bank with

  10. Sensitized Photo-Reduction of Methyl Viologen by Metalloporphyrins.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Prepared for Publication in Journal of Photochemistry York University Department of Chemistry D T IC Downsview (Toronto) ELECTE Ontario M3J-1P3 S MAY 17...14, 253. 11. T. Tanno, D . Wohrle, M. Kaneko and A. Yamada, Ber. Bunsengen. Phys. Chem., 1980, 84, 1037. 12. P. Cappelle, M. Backer, 0. Witte, G...Chem. Commun., 1979, 1137. 32. B.V. Koryakin, T.S. Dzabiev and A.E. Shilov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR., 1977, 233, 359. 33. K. Kalyanasundaram and D . Dung

  11. Criminal Regulation of Anti-Forensic Tools in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    This paper discusses the continuing landmark debate in a Japanese Court concerning the development and distribution of a peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing program. The program, known as Winny, facilitates illegal activities such as piracy and the distribution of child pornography because of the encryption and anonymity afforded to users. The court has to determine whether Isamu Kaneko, the designer of Winny, is criminally liable for developing and distributing the program. This paper also assesses whether the judgment in the Winny case might set a precedent for regulating the creation and distribution of anti-forensic tools.

  12. Asymmetric chemical reactions by polarized quantum beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Kensei

    One of the most attractive hypothesis for the origin of homochirality in terrestrial bio-organic compounds (L-amino acid and D-sugar dominant) is nominated as "Cosmic Scenario"; a chiral impulse from asymmetric excitation sources in space triggered asymmetric reactions on the surfaces of such space materials as meteorites or interstellar dusts prior to the existence of terrestrial life. 1) Effective asymmetric excitation sources in space are proposed as polarized quantum beams, such as circularly polarized light and spin polarized electrons. Circularly polarized light is emitted as synchrotron radiation from tightly captured electrons by intense magnetic field around neutron stars. In this case, either left-or right-handed polarized light can be observed depending on the direction of observation. On the other hand, spin polarized electrons is emitted as beta-ray in beta decay from radioactive nuclei or neutron fireballs in supernova explosion. 2) The spin of beta-ray electrons is longitudinally polarized due to parity non-conservation in the weak interaction. The helicity (the the projection of the spin onto the direction of kinetic momentum) of beta-ray electrons is universally negative (left-handed). For the purpose of verifying the asymmetric structure emergence in bio-organic compounds by polarized quantum beams, we are now carrying out laboratory simulations using circularly polarized light from synchrotron radiation facility or spin polarized electron beam from beta-ray radiation source. 3,4) The target samples are solid film or aqueous solution of racemic amino acids. 1) K.Kobayashi, K.Kaneko, J.Takahashi, Y.Takano, in Astrobiology: from simple molecules to primitive life; Ed. V.Basiuk; American Scientific Publisher: Valencia, 2008. 2) G.A.Gusev, T.Saito, V.A.Tsarev, A.V.Uryson, Origins Life Evol. Biosphere. 37, 259 (2007). 3) J.Takahashi, H.Shinojima, M.Seyama, Y.Ueno, T.Kaneko, K.Kobayashi, H.Mita, M.Adachi, M.Hosaka, M.Katoh, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, 3044

  13. Fabrication of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using High Pressure Squeeze Casting

    DTIC Science & Technology


    soiidfication front as a funct:on of t:me. Suoerim csea cni t2s ine are ooin:s tlat reoresent t",e exact solution at the corresoonaing t:mes as cotainea from the...Bomoay, (1981). Nomoto, M., "Mechanical Properties of Squeeze Castings in Al- Cu Alloys," Journal Japan Institute Light Metals, Vol. 30 (1980), pp 212-216...5. KaneKo, Y., Murakami, H., Kuroda, K. and Nagazaki, S., "Squeeze Casting of Aluminum," Foundry Trade Journal , Vol. 148 (1980), pp 397-411. 6

  14. Astrometry course at University of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.


    The astrometry course at Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, is reviewed as an example of educational efforts for top-class students, the possible candidates of professional astronomers, in Japan. The method of teaching is unique in the sense that it gives lectures by using incomplete text books both as MS Powerpoint slides posted at a web site,, and as printed materials in the form of self-study notebooks. Also there are self-study notebooks on the related issues; the courses of relativistic astrometry, of rotational motions, of numerical astronomy, and of orbital motions, the last of which is under development.

  15. [Coresidence with parents and marriage in recent Japan. Comment].


    Atoh, M


    The increasing rate of unmarried women and of later marriages contribute to a very low fertility rate in Japan. In Kaneko's demographic analysis of the 1st marriage process, the higher educational level of today's women is shown as a factor in the delay in meeting with spousal candidates after entering the marriage market/process. Kaneko's research model based on empirical data will be useful as a tool for projecting 1st marriages and births. Suzuki's study using a sociometrics approach reveals some interesting facts about highly educated unmarried Japanese women. They are liberal in their attitude toward marital and intergenerational relationships and yet very conservative in their attitude toward extramarital sex. Compared to the occidental equivalent, a higher percentage of them are unmarried but rates of cohabitation and sexual activity are low. According to Nakano's study the majority of Japanese women younger than 25 hope to get married and to take 1 of 2 options after marriage: a full time homemaker till children grow up, when they hope to get back on the job market, or to balance married life and career. In reality, in 1989, 37% of 25-29 year olds and 12% of 30-34 year olds are unmarried. Change in awareness is not necessarily matched with change in behavior. Hiroshima's study shows that the Japanese custom of coresiding with parents after marriage is becoming an obstacle for marriage as women's social status improves. It results in later marriages and greater number of unmarried women.

  16. Evaluation of non-intrusive flow measurement techniques for a re-entry flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. B.; Santavicca, D. A.; Zimmermann, M.


    This study evaluates various non-intrusive techniques for the measurement of the flow field on the windward side of the Space Shuttle orbiter or a similar reentry vehicle. Included are linear (Rayleigh, Raman, Mie, Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Resonant Doppler Velocimetry) and nonlinear (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman, Laser-Induced Fluorescence) light scattering, electron-beam fluorescence, thermal emission, and mass spectroscopy. Flow-field properties were taken from a nonequilibrium flow model by Shinn, Moss, and Simmonds at the NASA Langley Research Center. Conclusions are, when possible, based on quantitative scaling of known laboratory results to the conditions projected. Detailed discussion with researchers in the field contributed further to these conclusions and provided valuable insights regarding the experimental feasibility of each of the techniques.

  17. A monogenean fish parasite, Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp., belonging to a novel marine species lineage found in the South-Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean and North Seas.


    Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya; Muñoz, Gabriela; Lumme, Jaakko


    Gyrodactylus chileani n. sp. is the first Gyrodactylus species reported from Chile. It is an ectoparasite living on fins and skin of a small fish, the Chilean tidal pond dweller Helcogrammoides chilensis (Cancino) (Perciformes: Tripterygiidae). A phylogenetic analysis based on 5.8S+ITS2 of rDNA placed the new species close to marine Gyrodactylus species found in Europe: G. orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Cave & Shinn, 2009 on gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea fish farms (Perciformes: Sparidae), and an undescribed species on the black goby Gobius niger L. from the North Sea (Perciformes: Gobiidae). A morphological description of the latter species is unavailable. These geographically distant parasite samples on different host families form a new well supported Gyrodactylus orecchiae lineage. Using molecular phylogenetics, it is shown that the marine species groups of Gyrodactylus may have a worldwide distribution.

  18. Non-intrusive flow measurements on a reentry vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. B.; Satavicca, D. A.; Zimmermann, G. M.


    This study evaluates the utility of various non-intrusive techniques for the measurement of the flow field on the windward side of the Space Shuttle or a similar re-entry vehicle. Included are linear (Rayleigh, Raman, Mie, Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Resonant Doppler Velocimetry) and nonlinear (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman, Laser Induced Fluorescence) light scattering, electron beam fluorescence, thermal emission and mass spectroscopy. Flow field properties are taken from a nonequilibrium flow model by Shinn, Moss and Simmonds at NASA Langley. Conclusions are, when possible, based on quantitative scaling of known laboratory results to the conditions projected. Detailed discussion with researchers in the field contributed further to these conclusions and provided valuable insights regarding the experimental feasibility of each of the techniques.

  19. The origin of Bahamian Whitings revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Sanyal, A.; Takahashi, T.


    Two schools of thought exist regarding the origin of the aragonite needles which make up the milky patches of water prominent on the Bahama Banks. One school views these so-called whitings as spontaneous precipitates [Cloud, 1962; Shinn et al., 1989; Robbins et al., 1997] and the other views them as stirred up bottom sediment [Broecker and Takahashi, 1966; Morse et al., 1984]. In the paragraphs which follow we summarize what we consider to be iron-clad radiocarbon and chemical evidence that whitings are dominated by re-suspended sediment. We offer a new and highly speculative mechanism for this re-suspension. Black-tipped sharks which inhabit whitings purposefully stir up the sediment in order to create a trap for fish, much as spiders construct webs as traps for insect prey.

  20. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  1. Simple model of a photoacoustic system as a CR circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa


    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko et al 2010 J. Chem. Educ. 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we can measure the absorptance of IR by the strength of sound. In this paper, we construct a simple mathematical model for PAES which is equivalent to the CR circuit. The energy absorption of an IR pulse into gas corresponds to the charge of a condenser and the heat diffusion to the outside corresponds to the energy dissipation by electric resistance. We analyse the experimental results by using this simple model, and check its validity. Although the model is simple, it explains phenomena occurring in PAES and can be a good educational resource.

  2. Studies of Plutonium Aerosol Resuspension at the Time of the Maralinga Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J


    ), prior to the cleanup (Johnston et al, 1992, Williams 1993, Johnston et al 1993, Burns et al 1994, Burns et al 1995). ARPANSA staff made major contributions to delineate the areas with Pu in the soil, to determine the degree of secondary soil contamination by fission products from nuclear testing, to measure Pu resuspension by wind erosion of the undisturbed soil, and to prepare assessments of the human health risk from residual soil Pu. In addition, ARPANSA supported the Maralinga cleanup to assure compliance with criteria set by an independent technical advisory committee. During the cleanup ARPANSA monitored the residual Pu in the soil and certified that the cleanup was complete according to the criteria. It was not the reduction in potential inhalation exposure that usually was the main driver of the cleanup, but the requirement to also remove individual hot particles and fragments. It is the residual microscopic particles of Pu in the soil, however, that have the potential for long-term human exposure. The resuspension of respirable-size Pu particles has been studied with specialized equipment at the Nevada Test Site (Gilbert et al 1988a, Gilbert et al 1988b, Shinn et al 1989, and Shinn 1992), and at Bikini and Enewetak in the Marshall Islands (Shinn et al 1997). These efforts were in large part contributed by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study reported here is a collaboration between ARPANSA and LLNL, and was jointly supported by the United States Department of Energy, and the Commonwealth of Australia Department of Primary Industry and Energy.

  3. Geology of the Cerro Summit quadrangle, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Robert G.


    lower Quaternary rocks include gravel along Pool Gulch and older landslide debris on Waterdog Peak. Pleistocene and Recent deposits consist of the older stream gravel of Shinn Park, valley-fill deposits of Bostwick-Shinn Park, and pediment, landslide, eolian, alluvial, and colluvial deposits. P1elstocene valley-fill deposits of Bostwick-Shinn Park were deposited during the Cedar Ridge, or Kansan, to Pinedale or late Wisconsin times. The valley-fill deposits are divided into five units that are separated by strong Interglacial or Interstadial soils and that contain three volcanic ash beds. Chemical and petrographic data suggest that the middle ash bed may correlate with the Pearlette Ash Member (late Kansan) of the Sappa Formation in Nebraska. Alluvium on two pediment surfaces seems to be of Sacagawea Ridge or Illinoian age. Landslide deposits, of Pleistocene and Recent age, cover about 85 percent of the quadrangle; most of the deposits were formerly mapped as till. The name Cerro Till was abandoned because till does not occur in the type area. The dominant tectonic structures are the high-angle Cimarron fault of a few thousand feet displacement and the broad Montrose syncline. Evidence in the Cimarron Ridge area suggests that these structures formed in Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) time. Much of the strata near the surface of the quadrangle has been involved in landsliding that has continued from late Tertiary to the present.

  4. Incision History of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, M.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Aslan, A.; Kirby, E.; Granger, D.


    The Gunnison River is the major tributary of the Colorado River that drains some of the highest topography of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Paleo river profiles at 640ka, 10Ma, and ~35Ma provide benchmarks to understand the long-term incision history of the Black Canyon. Reconstruction of these paleo profiles is based on elevated bedrock straths and alluvial deposits that can be dated using the Lava Creek B ash (640 ka), Grand Mesa and associated basalts (10 Ma), and Oligocene ash flow tuffs (~35 Ma). Comparison of these to the modern profile offers insight into incision history. The modern long profile displays a distinct knickpoint located near the Painted Wall in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park. This high-gradient reach (10-km-long) is partly explained by the Vernal Mesa Granite, but it traverses basement lithologies present above and below the knickpoint, suggesting that increased river gradient is not explained entirely by hard bedrock. Incision rates downstream of the knickpoint are higher (250-300 m/Ma over 640 ka and ~ 150 m/Ma over 10 Ma) in comparison to upstream rates (140 m/Ma over 640 ka and ~ 150 m/Ma over 10 Ma). The difference in incision rates across the knickpoint argue that this feature reflects transient adjustment of the fluvial system to baselevel lowering associated with downstream drainage reorganization. Incision rates in the nearby reaches of the Colorado River since 1-3 Ma are distinctly higher than those in the time periods of ~30 Ma- present and 10 Ma-present. This leads us to infer that rapid incision was not established in the Gunnison region until post ca. 3 Ma. A knickpoint similar to that seen in the modern profile is present in the reconstructed 640ka profile, reinforcing the transient character and implying upstream migration of the knickpoint of 25km in the past 640 ka. Projection of the ~ 640 ka river gravels in the abandoned Shinn- Bostwick tributary to its intersection with the Gunnison at Red Canyon is

  5. Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from farmed populations of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in the Adriatic Sea.


    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria L; Faria, Patricia J; Di Cave, David; Shinn, Andrew P


    Gyrodactylus orecchiae sp. n. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) is described from the skin, fins, eyes and gills of juvenile Sparus aurata L. (gilthead seabream) following two outbreaks of gyrodactylosis amongst stocks held in inshore floating cages on the Adriatic coast of Albania and Croatia. Fish were heavily infected (1000+ gyrodactylids/fish) with G. orecchiae which reportedly resulted in approximately 2-10% mortality amongst the infected stock. Morphologically, the haptoral hooks of G. orecchiae most closely resemble those of Gyrodactylus arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933 in the approximate shape of the ventral bar with its pronounced ventral bar processes and marginal hook sickles which possess a square line to the inner edge of the sickle blade and large rounded heels. The marginal hooks are also morphologically similar to those of Gyrodactylus quadratidigitus Longshaw, Pursglove et Shinn, 2003 and Gyrodactylus colemanensis Mizelle et Kritsky, 1967, but G. orecchiae can be readily discriminated from all three species by the characteristic infolding of the hamuli roots and the shape of the marginal hook sickle. Molecular sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 regions (513+157+404 bp, respectively) of G. orecchiae and alignment with other gyrodactylids for which these same genomic regions have been determined, suggests that this is a new species. No similarities were found when the ITS1 region of G. orecchiae was compared with 84 species of Gyrodactylus available on GenBank.


    SciTech Connect



    Sky view factor ({Psi}{sub sky}) is used in radiation balance schemes for the partitioning of longwave and shortwave radiation within urban and forest canopies and complex terrain. In the urban environment, ({Psi}{sub sky}) and 1-({Psi}{sub sky}) give a measure of how much radiation penetrates the canopy and how much will be intercepted by the canopy, respectively. As part of the Oct. 2000 URBAN field Experiment in Salt Lake City (Shinn et al., 2001), photographs were taken in the downtown area at ground level shooting upwards using a fisheye lens. Utilizing image analysis and in-house processing software, ({Psi}{sub sky}) was computed for each photograph. Sky view factor was also computed from 3D building databases using the methodology developed by Ratti and Richens (1999). Although photographic methods for obtaining sky view factor are very accurate, they are time consuming to acquire. Commercial 3D building databases are becoming increasingly more available and sky view factor can be computed from them quite easily. In the future, 3D building datasets might be used to readily compute sky view factor for cities and therefore better estimates of the urban climate could be made. Comparisons of the two methods for computing sky view factor are compared in this paper.


    SciTech Connect



    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  8. Formation of Complex Amino Acid Precursors in Simulated Primitive Atmosphere and Their Alteration under Simulated Submarine Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kurihara, Hironari; Hirako, Tomoaki; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Takano, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka

    Since late 1970's a great number of submarine hydrothermal systems (SHSs) has been dis-covered, and they are considered possible sites of chemical evolution and generation of life on the Earth since their discovery in late 1970s. A number of experiments simulating the con-ditions of SHSs were conducted, and abiotic production and polymerization of amino acids were reported. Free amino acids were frequently used as starting materials to examine possible organic reactions in the simulation experiments. In our early studies, not free amino acids but complex amino acids precursors with large molecular weights were formed abiotically from simulated primitive Earth atmosphere (a mixture of CO, N2 and H2 O) (Takano et al., 2004). Such complex organics (hereafter referred as to CNWs) should have been delivered to SHSs in Primitive Ocean, where they were subjected to further alteration. We examined possible alteration of the complex organics in high-temperature high-pressure environments by the su-percritical water flow reactor (SCWFR) (Islam et al.. 2003) and an autoclave. CNWs were quite hydrophilic compounds whose molecular weights were ca. 3000. After heating 573 K for 2 min in the SCWFR, aggregates of organics were formed, which were separated from aque-ous solution with a Nucleopore filter (pore size: 200 nm). We propose the following scenario of chemical evolution: (1) Complex organics including amino acid precursors were formed in primitive atmosphere and/or extraterrestrial environments, (ii) they were delivered to primor-dial SHSs, (iii) hydrothermal alteration occurred in SHSs to give organic aggregates, (iv) quite primitive molecular systems with subtle biological functions were generated in the competition among such aggregates. References: Islam, Md. N., Kaneko, T., and Kobayashi, K (2003). Reactions of Amino Acids with a Newly ConstructedSupercritical Water Flow Reactor Simulating Submarine Hydrothermal Systems. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 76, 1171. Takano, Y

  9. Transfer of radio-cesium from forest soil to woodchips using fungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Huang, Yao; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Toda, Hiroto; Takahashi, Terumasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masahiro


    Raido-cesium released to terrestrial ecosystems by nuclear accidents is know to accumulate forest soil and organic layer on the soil. Forests in Japan are not exceptions. Practically it is impossible to decontaminate large area of forests. However, there is a strong demand from local people, who has been using secondary forests (Satoyama) around croplands in hilly areas, to decontaminate radio-cesium, because those people used to collect wild mushrooms and edible plants, and there are active cultures of mushrooms using logs and sawdusts. These natural resource uses consist substantial part of their economical activities, Therefore it is needed to decontaminate some selected part of forests in Japan to local economy. Clear cutting and scraping surface soil and organic matter are common methods of decontamination. However the efficiency of decontamination is up to 30% reduction of aerial radiation, and the cost to preserve contaminated debris is not affordable. In this study we used wood chips as a growth media for saprotrophic fungi which are known to accumulate redio-cesium. There are many studies indicated that mushrooms accumulated redio-cesium from forest soil and organic layer. It is not practical to collect mushrooms to decontaminate redio-cesium, because biomass of mushrooms are not enough to collect total contaminants. Mushrooms are only minor part of saprotrophic fungi. Fungal biomass in forest soil is about 1% of dead organic matter on forest floor. Our previous study to observe Cs accumulation to decomposing leaf litter indicated 18% absorption of total soil radio-Cs to litter during one year field incubation (Kaneko et al., 2013), and Cs concentration was proportional to fungal biomass on litter. This result indicated that fungi transferred radio-cesium around newly supplied leaf litter free of contamination. Therefore effective decontamination will be possible if we can provide large amount of growth media for saprotrophic fungi, and the media can be

  10. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo


    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  11. A cortical disinhibitory circuit for enhancing adult plasticity.


    Fu, Yu; Kaneko, Megumi; Tang, Yunshuo; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Stryker, Michael P


    The adult brain continues to learn and can recover from injury, but the elements and operation of the neural circuits responsible for this plasticity are not known. In previous work, we have shown that locomotion dramatically enhances neural activity in the visual cortex (V1) of the mouse (Niell and Stryker, 2010), identified the cortical circuit responsible for this enhancement (Fu et al., 2014), and shown that locomotion also dramatically enhances adult plasticity (Kaneko and Stryker, 2014). The circuit that is responsible for enhancing neural activity in the visual cortex contains both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SST) neurons (Fu et al., 2014). Here, we ask whether this VIP-SST circuit enhances plasticity directly, independent of locomotion and aerobic activity. Optogenetic activation or genetic blockade of this circuit reveals that it is both necessary and sufficient for rapidly increasing V1 cortical responses following manipulation of visual experience in adult mice. These findings reveal a disinhibitory circuit that regulates adult cortical plasticity.

  12. Overview of transport and MHD stability study: focusing on the impact of magnetic field topology in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Kasahara, H.; Evans, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kamiya, K.; Ohdach, S.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sudo, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohno, N.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; T., Ii; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Collaborators


    The progress in the understanding of the physics and the concurrent parameter extension in the large helical device since the last IAEA-FEC, in 2012 (Kaneko O et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 095024), is reviewed. Plasma with high ion and electron temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 6 keV) with simultaneous ion and electron internal transport barriers is obtained by controlling recycling and heating deposition. A sign flip of the nondiffusive term of impurity/momentum transport (residual stress and convection flow) is observed, which is associated with the formation of a transport barrier. The impact of the topology of three-dimensional magnetic fields (stochastic magnetic fields and magnetic islands) on heat momentum, particle/impurity transport and magnetohydrodynamic stability is also discussed. In the steady state operation, a 48 min discharge with a line-averaged electron density of 1 × 1019 m-3 and with high electron and ion temperatures (Ti(0) ˜ Te(0) ˜ 2 keV), resulting in 3.36 GJ of input energy, is achieved.

  13. Random matrix theory of singular values of rectangular complex matrices I: Exact formula of one-body distribution function in fixed-trace ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Satoshi Toda, Mikito Kubotani, Hiroto


    The fixed-trace ensemble of random complex matrices is the fundamental model that excellently describes the entanglement in the quantum states realized in a coupled system by its strongly chaotic dynamical evolution [see H. Kubotani, S. Adachi, M. Toda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240501]. The fixed-trace ensemble fully takes into account the conservation of probability for quantum states. The present paper derives for the first time the exact analytical formula of the one-body distribution function of singular values of random complex matrices in the fixed-trace ensemble. The distribution function of singular values (i.e. Schmidt eigenvalues) of a quantum state is so important since it describes characteristics of the entanglement in the state. The derivation of the exact analytical formula utilizes two recent achievements in mathematics, which appeared in 1990s. The first is the Kaneko theory that extends the famous Selberg integral by inserting a hypergeometric type weight factor into the integrand to obtain an analytical formula for the extended integral. The second is the Petkovsek-Wilf-Zeilberger theory that calculates definite hypergeometric sums in a closed form.

  14. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro


    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (∼0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (∼kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇T{sub e}/T{sub e} strength exceeded 0.54 cm{sup −1}. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  15. Lubricant film flow and depletion characteristics at head/disk storage interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong-Rui; Han, Zhi-Ying; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Hong-Yuan


    The characteristics of lubricant film at head/disk interface (HDI) are essential to the stability of hard disk drives. In this study, the theoretical models of the lubricant flow and depletion are deduced based on Navier-Stokes (NS) and continuity equations. The air bearing pressure on the surface of the lubrication film is solved by the modified Reynolds equation based on Fukui and Kaneko (FK) model. Then the lubricant film deformations for a plane slider and double-track slider are obtained. The equation of lubricant film thickness is deduced with the consideration of van der Waals force, the air bearing pressure, the surface tension, and the external stresses. The lubricant depletion under heat source is simulated and the effects of different working conditions including initial thickness, flying height and the speed of the disk on lubricant depletion are discussed. The main factors that cause the lubricant flow and depletion are analyzed and the ways to reduce the film thickness deformation are proposed. The simulation results indicate that the shearing stress is the most important factor that causes the thickness deformation and other terms listed in the equation have little influence. The thickness deformation is dependent on the working parameter, and the thermal condition evaporation is the most important factor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275124).

  16. Ion scale nonlinear interaction triggered by disparate scale electron temperature gradient mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chanho; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Itoh, Kimitaka; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro


    We have observed that the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the high-frequency (˜0.4 MHz) electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode and the ion-scale low-frequency fluctuations (˜kHz) were enhanced when the amplitude of the ETG mode exceeded a certain threshold. The dynamics of nonlinear coupling between the ETG mode and the drift wave (DW) mode has already been reported [C. Moon, T. Kaneko, and R. Hatakeyama, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013)]. Here, we have newly observed that another low-frequency fluctuation with f ≃ 3.6 kHz, i.e., the flute mode, was enhanced, corresponding to the saturation of the DW mode growth. Specifically, the bicoherence between the flute mode and the DW mode reaches a significant level when the ∇Te/Te strength exceeded 0.54 cm-1. Thus, it is shown that the ETG mode energy was transferred to the DW mode, and then the energy was ultimately transferred to the flute mode, which was triggered by the disparate scale nonlinear interactions between the ETG and ion-scale low-frequency modes.

  17. Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.; Hickey, T.D.; Morrison, J.M.


    Coral reefs are degrading on a global scale, and rates of reef-organism calcification are predicted to decline due to ocean warming and acidification. Systematic measurements of calcification over space and time are necessary to detect change resulting from environmental stressors. We established a network of calcification monitoring stations at four managed reefs along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract (FKRT) from Miami to the Dry Tortugas. Eighty colonies (in two sequential sets of 40) of the reef-building coral, Siderastrea siderea, were transplanted to fixed apparatus that allowed repetitive detachment for buoyant weighing every 6 months. Algal-recruitment tiles were also deployed during each weighing interval to measure net calcification of the crustose coralline algal (CCA) community. Coral-calcification rates were an order of magnitude greater than those of CCA. Rates of coral calcification were seasonal (summer calcification was 53% greater than winter), and corals in the Dry Tortugas calcified 48% faster than those at the other three sites. Linear extension rates were also highest in the Dry Tortugas, whereas percent area of the coral skeletons excavated by bioeroding fauna was lowest. The spatial patterns in net coral calcification revealed here correlate well with Holocene reef thickness along the FKRT and, in part, support the “inimical waters hypothesis” proposed by Ginsburg, Hudson, and Shinn almost 50 yrs ago to explain reef development in this region. Due to the homogeneity in coral-calcification rates among the three main Keys sites, we recommend refinement of this hypothesis and suggest that water-quality variables (e.g., carbonate mineral saturation state, dissolved and particulate organic matter, light attenuation) be monitored alongside calcification in future studies. Our results demonstrate that our calcification monitoring network presents a feasible and worthwhile approach to quantifying potential impacts of ocean acidification

  18. Calcification rates of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea and crustose coralline algae along the Florida Keys (USA) outer-reef tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuffner, I. B.; Hickey, T. D.; Morrison, J. M.


    Coral reefs are degrading on a global scale, and rates of reef-organism calcification are predicted to decline due to ocean warming and acidification. Systematic measurements of calcification over space and time are necessary to detect change resulting from environmental stressors. We established a network of calcification monitoring stations at four managed reefs along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract (FKRT) from Miami to the Dry Tortugas. Eighty colonies (in two sequential sets of 40) of the reef-building coral, Siderastrea siderea, were transplanted to fixed apparatus that allowed repetitive detachment for buoyant weighing every 6 months. Algal-recruitment tiles were also deployed during each weighing interval to measure net calcification of the crustose coralline algal (CCA) community. Coral-calcification rates were an order of magnitude greater than those of CCA. Rates of coral calcification were seasonal (summer calcification was 53 % greater than winter), and corals in the Dry Tortugas calcified 48 % faster than those at the other three sites. Linear extension rates were also highest in the Dry Tortugas, whereas percent area of the coral skeletons excavated by bioeroding fauna was lowest. The spatial patterns in net coral calcification revealed here correlate well with Holocene reef thickness along the FKRT and, in part, support the "inimical waters hypothesis" proposed by Ginsburg, Hudson, and Shinn almost 50 yrs ago to explain reef development in this region. Due to the homogeneity in coral-calcification rates among the three main Keys sites, we recommend refinement of this hypothesis and suggest that water-quality variables (e.g., carbonate mineral saturation state, dissolved and particulate organic matter, light attenuation) be monitored alongside calcification in future studies. Our results demonstrate that our calcification monitoring network presents a feasible and worthwhile approach to quantifying potential impacts of ocean acidification, warming

  19. Gyrodactylus longipes n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from the Mediterranean.


    Paladini, Giuseppe; Hansen, Haakon; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Shinn, Andrew P


    Gyrodactylus longipes n. sp. (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) is described from the gills of farmed juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from two sites located in Italy and Bosnia-Herzegovina and represents the second species of Gyrodactylus to be described from S. aurata. Gyrodactylus orecchiae Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria, Di Cave et Shinn, 2009 was the first gyrodactylid to be described from S. aurata, from populations cultured in Albania and Croatia. In the current study, G. longipes was found in a mixed infection with G. orecchiae on fish maintained in Latina Province, Italy, thus extending the reported distribution of the latter throughout the Mediterranean. The morphology of the opisthaptoral hard parts of G. longipes is compared to those of G. orecchiae, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Gyrodactylus longipes is characterised by having larger, elongated ventral bar processes and long, triangular-shaped toe region to their marginal hook sickles which, by comparison, are rhomboid in G. orecchiae. The marginal hook sickles of G. longipes are almost double the size of G. orecchiae which allows for their rapid discrimination from each other in mixed infections. A comparison of the DNA sequence of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of G. longipes with the corresponding sequence from G. orecchiae and with those available in GenBank, supports the separate species status of G. longipes. Part of this study necessitated an overview of the existing Gyrodactylus fauna from Italy and Bosnia-Herzegovina; a summary from each country is provided here to assist future investigations.

  20. Species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from cichlids from Zambezi and Limpopo river basins in Zimbabwe and South Africa: evidence for unexplored species richness.


    Zahradníčková, Petra; Barson, Maxwell; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Přikrylová, Iva


    New findings on Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising African cichlids in southern Africa are presented, comprising data from Zimbabwe and South Africa. Morphometry of opisthaptoral hard parts in combination with nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the presence of six species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832. Three new species are described from fishes in Zimbabwe: Gyrodactylus chitandiri n. sp. from the gill arches of Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger) and Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Weber); Gyrodactylus occupatus n. sp. from the fins of Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Pharyngochromis acuticeps (Steindachner) and P. philander; and Gyrodactylus parisellei n. sp. from the fins of O. niloticus, P. philander and Tilapia sp. Gyrodactylus nyanzae Paperna, 1973 was also identified from the gills of O. niloticus and C. rendalli collected from two localities in Zimbabwe; these findings represent new host and locality records for this parasite. Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri Vanhove, Snoeks, Volckaert & Huyse, 2011 was identified from P. philander collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe thereby providing new host and locality records for this parasite. Finally, Gyrodactylus yacatli García-Vásquez, Hansen, Christison, Bron & Shinn, 2011 was collected from the fins of O. niloticus and P. philander studied in Zimbabwe; this represents the first record of this species from the continent of Africa. Notably, this study improves upon the knowledge of Gyrodactylus spp. parasitising cichlids from these southern African regions. All species studied were recorded from at least two different cichlid host species indicating trend for a wide range of Gyrodactylus hosts in Africa. Accordingly, this supports the idea of intensive host switching in the course of their evolution.

  1. The description of Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. and G. neretum sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) with comments on other gyrodactylids parasitising pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae).


    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Faria, Patricia J; Shinn, Andrew P


    The current work describes two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 collected from pipefish Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann et Kendall) and Syngnathus typhle L. during two separate gyrodactylosis episodes on fish held in a public aquarium located in northern Italy. The gyrodactylids collected from the skin, fins and gills of pipefish were subjected to a morphological analysis of the attachment hooks and the morphometric data were compared to the four species of Gyrodactylus previously described from syngnathid hosts, namely G. eyipayipi Vaughan, Christison, Hansen et Shinn, 2010, G. pisculentui Williams, Kritsky, Dunnigan, Lash et Klein, 2008, G. shorti Holliman, 1963 and G. syngnathi Appleby, 1996. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the morphological data indicated six clusters; two discrete groups among the specimens taken from the pipefisli held in the Italian aquarium and four further groups representing G. eyipayipi, G. pisculentus, G. shorti and G. syngnathi. Molecular sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S gene for the new species considered here were then compared with those available for other species in GenBank. The comparison did not reveal any identical match, supporting the morphological analysis that Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. from S. typhle and Gyrodactylus neretum sp. n. from S. scovelli represent distinct species. Both G. corleonis and G. neretum possess robust hamuli, marginal hook blades that curve smoothly from their sickle base to a point beyond the toe and, ventral bars with a broad median portion and a reduced membrane. Gyrodactylus corleonis, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its heart-shaped ventral bar; G. neretum has a 1:2 hamulus point:shaft ratio and a rectangular-shaped ventral bar. A redescription of the haptoral hard parts of the four species previously recorded on pipefish is also presented.

  2. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.


    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  3. Holocene core logs and site methods for modern reef and head-coral cores - Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Todd D.; Reich, Christopher D.; DeLong, Kristine L.; Poore, Richard Z.; Brock, John C.


    The Dry Tortugas are a series of islands, banks, and channels on a carbonate platform off the west end of the Florida Keys. Antecedent topography of the Dry Tortugas reflects carbonate accumulations of the last interglacial (marine isotope substage 5e, ~ 125,000 years ago, ka) when sea level was ~ 6 to 7 meters (m) higher than present (Schrag and others, 2002). The substage 5e surface was subsequently lithified and modified during subaerial exposure associated with lower sea level from ~ 120 ka to 8 ka. The lithified late Pleistocene carbonates are known as the Key Largo Limestone, a coral reef (Hoffmeister and Multer, 1964; Multer and others, 2002), and the Miami Limestone, a tidal-bar oolite (Sanford, 1909; Hoffmeister, 1974). The Holocene and modern sediments and reefs of the Dry Tortugas then accreted during the rise of sea level associated with the end of the last glacial and the start of the current interglacial (marine isotope Stage 1). With the exception of a half dozen or so islands, the Dry Tortugas region has been submerged for approximately 8,000 years, allowing conditions suitable for coral reef formation once again. The Holocene reef accumulation varies in thickness due to the antecedent topography. The reefs are composed of massive head corals such as species of Montastraea, Siderastrea, and Diploria (Swart and others, 1996; Cohen and McConnaughey, 2003) and rest atop the Pleistocene Key Largo Limestone high (Shinn and others, 1977). The coral reefs within the Dry Tortugas represent a windward reef margin relative to dominant wind and wave energies (Hine and Mullins, 1983; Mallinson and others, 1997; Mallinson and others, 2003).

  4. M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell synapses in an input-specific fashion.


    Zheng, Fang; Wess, Jürgen; Alzheimer, Christian


    Muscarinic receptors have long been known as crucial players in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, but our understanding of the cellular underpinnings and the receptor subtypes involved lags well behind. This holds in particular for the hippocampal CA3 region, where the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity depend on the type of afferent input. Williams and Johnston (Williams S, Johnston D. Science 242: 84-87, 1988; Williams S, Johnston D. J Neurophysiol 64: 1089-1097, 1990) demonstrated muscarinic depression of mossy fiber (MF) long-term potentiation (LTP) through a presynaptic site of action and Maeda et al. (Maeda T, Kaneko S, Satoh M. Brain Res 619: 324-330, 1993) proposed a bidirectional modulation of MF LTP by muscarinic receptor subtypes. Since then, this issue, as well as muscarinic regulation of plasticity at associational/commissural (A/C) fiber-CA3 synapses has remained largely neglected, not least because of the lack of highly selective ligands for the different muscarinic receptor subtypes. In the present study, we performed field potential and whole cell recordings from the hippocampal CA3 region of M(2) receptor knockout mice to determine the role of M(2) receptors in short-term and long-term plasticity at A/C and MF inputs to CA3 pyramidal cells. At the A/C synapse, M(2) receptors promoted short-term facilitation and LTP. Unexpectedly, M(2) receptors mediated the opposite effect on LTP at the MF synapse, which was significantly reduced, most likely involving a depressant effect of M(2) receptors on adenylyl cyclase activity in MF terminals. Our data demonstrate that cholinergic projections recruit M(2) receptors to redistribute the gain of LTP in CA3 pyramidal cells in an input-specific manner.

  5. Amyloid beta protein inhibits cellular MTT reduction not by suppression of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase but by acceleration of MTT formazan exocytosis in cultured rat cortical astrocytes.


    Abe, K; Saito, H


    Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta protein (Abeta) inhibits cellular reduction of the dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Kaneko et al. have previously hypothesized that Abeta works by suppressing mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), but Liu and Schubert have recently demonstrated that Abeta decreases cellular MTT reduction by accelerating the exocytosis of MTT formazan in neuronal cells. To ask which is the case in astrocytes, we compared the effects of Abeta and 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a specific SDH inhibitor, on MTT reduction in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Treatment with 3-NP (10 mM) decreased cellular activity of MTT reduction, regardless of the time of incubation with MTT. On the other hand. Abeta-induced inhibition of cellular MTT reduction was dependent on the time of incubation with MTT. The cells treated with Abeta (0.1-1000 nM) exhibited normal capacity for MTT reduction at an early stage of incubation ( < 30 min), but ceased to reduce MTT at the late stage (> 1 h). Microscopic examination revealed that Abeta treatment accelerated the appearance of needle-like MTT formazan crystals at the cell surface. These observations support that Abeta accelerates the exocytosis of MTT formazan in astrocytes. In addition to inhibition of MTT reduction, Abeta is known to induce morphological changes in astrocytes. Following addition of Abeta (20 microM), polygonal astrocytes changed into process-bearing stellate cells. To explore a possible linkage between these two effects of Abeta, we tested if astrocyte stellation is induced by agents that mimic the effect of Abeta on MTT reduction. Cholesterol (5 5000 nM) and lysophosphatidic acid (0.2-20 microg/ml) were found to accelerate the exocytosis of MTT formazan in a similar manner to Abeta, but failed to induce astrocyte stellation. Therefore, Abeta-induced inhibition of MTT reduction is unlikely to be directly linked to its effect on astrocyte morphology.

  6. Immunostaining for substance P receptor labels GABAergic cells with distinct termination patterns in the hippocampus.


    Acsády, L; Katona, I; Gulyás, A I; Shigemoto, R; Freund, T F


    A specific antiserum against substance P receptor (SPR) labels nonprincipal neurons in the cerebral cortex of the rat (T. Kaneko et al. [1994], Neuroscience 60:199-211; Y. Nakaya et al. [1994], J. Comp. Neurol. 347:249-274). In the present study, we aimed to identify the types of SPR-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus according to their content of neurochemical markers, which label interneuron populations with distinct termination patterns. Markers for perisomatic inhibitory cells, parvalbumin and cholecystokinin (CCK), colocalized with SPR in pyramidallike basket cells in the dentate gyrus and in large multipolar or bitufted cells within all hippocampal subfields respectively. A dense meshwork of SPR-immunoreactive spiny dendrites in the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 region belonged largely to inhibitory cells terminating in the distal dendritic region of granule cells, as indicated by the somatostatin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) content. In addition, SPR and NPY were colocalized in numerous multipolar interneurons with dendrites branching close to the soma. Twenty-five percent of the SPR-immunoreactive cells overlapped with calretinin-positive neurons in all hippocampal subfields, showing that interneurons specialized to contact other gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic cells may also contain SPR. On the basis of the known termination pattern of the colocalized markers, we conclude that SPR-positive interneurons are functionally heterogeneous and participate in different inhibitory processes: (1) perisomatic inhibition of principal cells (CCK-containing cells, and parvalbumin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus), (2) feedback dendritic inhibition in the entorhinal termination zone (somatostatin and NPY-containing cells), and (3) innervation of other interneurons (calretinin-containing cells).

  7. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.


    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  8. Time resolved spectral behavior of bright BATSE precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Greiner, J.; Celotti, A.


    Aims: Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are sometimes preceded by dimmer emission episodes, called “precursors”, whose nature is still a puzzle: they could either have the same origin as the main emission episode or they could be due to another mechanism. We investigate if precursors have some spectral distinctive feature with respect to the main GRB episodes. Methods: To this aim we compare the spectral evolution of the precursor with that of the main GRB event. We also study if and how the spectral parameters, and in particular the peak of the ν Fν spectrum of time resolved spectra, correlates with the flux. This allows us to test if the spectra of the precursor and of the main event belong to the same correlation (if any). We searched GRBs with precursor activity in the complete sample of 2704 bursts detected by BATSE finding that 12% of GRBs have one or more precursors. Among these we considered the bursts with time resolved spectral analysis performed by Kaneko et al. ( 2006, ApJS, 166, 298), selecting those having at least two time resolved spectra for the precursor. Results: We find that precursors and main events have very similar spectral properties. The spectral evolution within precursors has similar trends as the spectral evolution observed in the subsequent peaks. Also the typical spectral parameters of the precursors are similar to those of the main GRB events. Moreover, in several cases we find that within the precursors the peak energy of the spectrum is correlated with the flux similarly to what happens in the main GRB event. This strongly favors models in which the precursor is due to the same fireball physics of the main emission episodes. Figures 8 to 41 are only available in electronic form at

  9. Time-resolved spectral correlations of long-duration γ-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmani, C.; Cabrera, J. I.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Bosnjak, Z.


    For a sample of long γ-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshift, we study the distribution of the evolutionary tracks on the rest-frame luminosity-peak energy Liso - E'p diagram. We are interested in exploring the extension of the `Yonetoku' correlation to any phase of the prompt light curve, and in verifying how the high-signal prompt duration time, T'f, in the rest frame correlates with the residuals of such correlation. For our purpose, we separately analyse two samples of time-resolved spectra corresponding to 32 GRBs with peak fluxes Fp > 1.8 photcm-2 s-1 from the Swift-BAT detector, and seven bright GRBs from the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO)-BATSE detector previously processed by Kaneko et al. After constructing the Liso - E'p diagram, we discuss the relevance of selection effects, finding that they could significantly affect the correlation. However, we find that these effects are much less significant in the Liso T'f - E'p diagram, where the intrinsic scatter reduces significantly. We apply further corrections in order to reduce the intrinsic scatter even more. For the subsamples of GRBs (seven from Swift and five from CGRO) with measured jet break time, tj, we analyse the effects of correcting Liso by jet collimation. We find that (i) the scatter around the correlation is reduced, and (ii) this scatter is dominated by the internal scatter of the individual evolutionary tracks. These results suggest that the time-integrated `Amati' and `Ghirlanda' correlations are consequences of the time-resolved features, not of selection effects, and therefore call for a physical origin. We finally remark the relevance of looking inside the nature of the evolutionary tracks.

  10. Prediction of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae in microscale using macro-scale׳s relationships between bone density and mechanical properties.


    Cyganik, Łukasz; Binkowski, Marcin; Kokot, Grzegorz; Rusin, Tomasz; Popik, Paulina; Bolechała, Filip; Nowak, Roman; Wróbel, Zygmunt; John, Antoni


    According to the literature, there are many mathematical relationships between density of the trabecular bone and mechanical properties obtained in macro-scale testing. In micro-scale, the measurements provide only the ranges of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae, but there are no experimentally tested relationships allowing the calculation of the distribution of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae within these experimental ranges. This study examined the applicability of relationships between bone density and mechanical properties obtained in macro-scale testing for the calculation of Young׳s modulus distribution in micro-scale. Twelve cubic specimens from eleven femoral heads were cut out and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned. A mechanical compression test and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were performed to obtain the experimental displacement and strain full-field evaluation for each specimen. Five relationships between bone density and Young׳s modulus were selected for the test; those were given by Carter and Hayes (1977), Ciarelli et al. (2000), Kaneko et al. (2004), Keller (1994) for the human femur, and Li and Aspden, 1997. Using these relationships, five separate finite element (FE) models were prepared, with different distribution of Young׳s modulus of trabeculae for each specimen. In total, 60 FE analyses were carried out. The obtained displacement and strain full-field measurements from numerical calculations and experiment were compared. The results indicate that the highest accuracy of the numerical calculation was obtained for the Ciarelli et al. (2000) relationship, where the relative error was 17.87% for displacements and 50.94 % for strains. Therefore, the application of the Ciarelli et al. (2000) relationship in the microscale linear FE analysis is possible, but mainly to determine bone displacement.

  11. A simple HPLC method for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.


    Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yasuda, Makoto; Inazawa, Katsunori; Ota, Tatsuhiro; Yamaoka, Noriko; Mawatari, Ken-ichi; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Kaneko, Kiyoko


    Several methods for quantifying the purine content in food and drink have been described using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We have developed an improved HPLC method that is based on a method reported by Kaneko et al. and that is more sensitive yet simple, and suitable for determining the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages. Quantitative HPLC separation was performed on a Shodex Asahi Pak GS-320HQ column with an isocratic elution of 150 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer (H(3)PO(4)/NaH(2)PO(4) = 20:100 (v/v)). The retention times for the four analytes, namely, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, were 19.9, 25.0, 29.3 and 43.0 min, respectively. The resolution was good, and there was no excessive interference from the other compounds in the beverages at these retention times. Furthermore, the detection limit for all the analytes was improved to less than 0.0075 mg/L, and all the calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.999) between 0.013 and 10 mg/L for adenine and guanine, and between 0.025 and 10 mg/L for hypoxanthine and xanthine. The pretreatment was simplified by removing some procedures and optimizing the perchloric acid hydrolysis and the enzymatic peak-shift assay. We reduced the sample dilution rate by almost 50%, and the time spent on pretreatment from 4 days to only 180 min. The recovery of the analytes from spiked samples was 94.8 - 103.8%. This method may be useful for evaluating quantitative and qualitative differences in the purine content of beer and beer-like alcoholic beverages.

  12. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelties, C.; Gabriel, A.


    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  13. Dynamic Rupture Benchmarking of the ADER-DG Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Alice; Pelties, Christian


    We will verify the arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method in various test cases of the 'SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise' benchmark suite (Harris et al. 2009). The ADER-DG scheme is able to solve the spontaneous rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time on three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Strong mesh coarsening or refinement at areas of interest can be applied to keep the computational costs feasible. Moreover, the method does not generate spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require any artificial damping as demonstrated in previous presentations and publications (Pelties et al. 2010 and 2012). We will show that the mentioned features hold also for more advanced setups as e.g. a branching fault system, heterogeneous background stresses and bimaterial faults. The advanced geometrical flexibility combined with an enhanced accuracy will make the ADER-DG method a useful tool to study earthquake dynamics on complex fault systems in realistic rheologies. References: Harris, R.A., M. Barall, R. Archuleta, B. Aagaard, J.-P. Ampuero, H. Bhat, V. Cruz-Atienza, L. Dalguer, P. Dawson, S. Day, B. Duan, E. Dunham, G. Ely, Y. Kaneko, Y. Kase, N. Lapusta, Y. Liu, S. Ma, D. Oglesby, K. Olsen, A. Pitarka, S. Song, and E. Templeton, The SCEC/USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 80, no. 1, pages 119-126, 2009 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, and M. Kaeser, Dynamic Rupture Modeling in Three Dimensions on Unstructured Meshes Using a Discontinuous Galerkin Method, AGU 2010 Fall Meeting, abstract #S21C-2068 Pelties, C., J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, G. Brietzke, and M. Kaeser, Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture Simulation with a High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes, JGR. - Solid Earth, VOL. 117, B02309, 2012

  14. PREFACE: 11th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Dutta, D.


    The International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC) is a prestigious triennial conference series with a rich history. The 11th meeting in the series (PPC-11) was held at Cidade de Goa, Goa, India during 9-14, November, 2014. It was organized by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. The co-organizers were Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam and Indian Association of Nuclear Chemists and Allied Scientists (IANCAS), Mumbai. PPC-11 attracted participants both from academic institutions and industries. About 120 participants from 20 countries representing all continents participated in the conference. The conference continued the tradition of excellence in terms of quality of presentations and discussions. There were 33 plenary and invited talks, 39 oral presentations and 40 posters. The conference stood true to its multidisciplinary tag with papers presented in the fields of fundamentals of positron and positronium chemistry, applications in polymers, porous materials, metals/alloys, studies in liquids, biological applications as well as developments in theory and experimental techniques. The enthusiastic participation of senior researchers and young students made the scientific program a grand success. In order to encourage the student participants (twenty) and promote excellence, a committee of senior members evaluated their presentations and the top three contributions were awarded. The positron and positronium community paid homage to the memory of late Profs. J. Kristiak and A.T. Stewart. A brief sketch of their life and work was presented by Profs. Jan Kuriplach and Toshio Hyodo, respectively. All the papers published in these proceedings have been peer reviewed by the participants of PPC-11. Editors thank all the reviewers for sparing their valuable time and helping us in bringing out the proceedings with 43 contributed articles in the scheduled time. We are

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna


    Microscopes provide tools of inimitable value for probing the building blocks of the world around us. The identity of the inventor of the first microscope remains under debate, but a name unequivocally linked with early developments in microscopy is Robert Hooke. His Micrographia published in 1665, was the first ever bestseller in science and brought topics in microscopy to the broader public eye with pages of detailed micrographs, most famously the fly's eye and plant cells. Since the first microscopes in the late 16th century, ingenious alternatives to the original optical microscopes have been developed to create images of the world at ever smaller dimensions. Innovations include scanning probe techniques such as the atomic force microscope [1]. As Toshio Ando describes in a review in this issue [2], these devices have also entered a new era in the past decade with the development of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Now, we can not only see the nanoscale components that make up the world around us, but we can watch them at work. One of the first innovations in optical microscopy was the use of dyes. This principle first came into practice with the use of ultraviolet light to reveal previously indistinguishable features. As explained by a researcher in the early 1930s, 'It is obvious that if the dyes used for selective staining in ordinary microscopical work are supplemented by substances which cause a particular detail of the structure to fluoresce with a specific colour in ultraviolet light, then many strings will be added to the bow of the practical microscopist' [3]. More recently, emphasis on the role of plasmons—collective oscillations of electrons in nanoscale metal structures—has received considerable research attention. Plasmons enhance the local electromagnetic field and can lead to increased fluorescence rates from nearby fluorophores depending on the efficiency of the counteracting process, non-radiative transfer [4]. The 1930s also saw the

  16. Two-dimensional fully dynamic SEM simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, H.; Hirahara, K.


    Earthquake cycle simulations have been performed to successfully reproduce the historical earthquake occurrences. Most of them are quasi-dynamic, where inertial effects are approximated using the radiation damping proposed by Rice [1993]. Lapusta et al. [2000, 2009] developed a methodology capable of the detailed description of seismic and aseismic slip and gradual process of earthquake nucleation in the entire earthquake cycle. Their fully dynamic simulations have produced earthquake cycles considerably different from quasi-dynamic ones. Those simulations have, however, never been performed for interplate earthquakes at subduction zones. Many studies showed that on dipping faults such as interplate earthquakes at subduction zones, normal stress is changed during faulting due to the interaction with Earth's free surface. This change in normal stress not only affects the earthquake rupture process, but also causes the residual stress variation that might affect the long-term histories of earthquake cycle. Accounting for such effects, we perform two-dimensional simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake cycle. Our model is in-plane and a laboratory derived rate and state friction acts on a dipping fault embedded on an elastic half-space that reaches the free surface. We extended the spectral element method (SEM) code [Ampuero, 2002] to incorporate a conforming mesh of triangles and quadrangles introduced in Komatitsch et al. [2001], which enables us to analyze the complex geometry with ease. The problem is solved by the methodology almost the same as Kaneko et al. [2011], which is the combined scheme switching in turn a fully dynamic SEM and a quasi-static SEM. The difference is the dip-slip thrust fault in our study in contrast to the vertical strike slip fault. With this method, we can analyze how the dynamic rupture with surface breakout interacting with the free surface affects the long-term earthquake cycle. We discuss the fully dynamic earthquake cycle results

  17. Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis; DONET/ DONET2, Part2 -Development and data application for the mega thrust earthquakes around the Nankai trough-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, M.; Kamiya, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Baba, T.; Ohori, M.; Hori, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneko, S.; Donet Research; Development Group


    Yoshiyuki Kaneda Katsuyoshi Kawaguchi*, Eiichiro Araki*, Shou Kaneko*, Hiroyuki Matsumoto*, Takeshi Nakamura*, Masaru Nakano*, Shinichirou Kamiya*, Keisuke Ariyoshi*, Toshitaka Baba*, Michihiro Ohori*, Narumi Takakahashi*, and Takane Hori** * Earthquake and Tsunami Research Project for Disaster Prevention, Leading Project , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) **Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) DONET (Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) is the real time monitoring system of the Tonankai seismogenic zones around the Nankai trough southwestern Japan. We were starting to develop DONET to perform real time monitoring of crustal activities over there and the advanced early warning system. DONET will provide important and useful data to understand the Nankai trough maga thrust earthquake seismogenic zones and to improve the accuracy of the earthquake recurrence cycle simulation. Details of DONET concept are as follows. 1) Redundancy, Extendable function and advanced maintenance system using the looped cable system, junction boxes and the ROV/AUV. DONET has 20 observatories and incorporated in a double land stations concept. Also, we are developed ROV for the 10km cable extensions and heavy weight operations. 2) Multi kinds of sensors to observe broad band phenomena such as long period tremors, very low frequency earthquakes and strong motions of mega thrust earthquakes over M8: Therefore, sensors such as a broadband seismometer, an accelerometer, a hydrophone, a precise pressure gauge, a differential pressure gauge and a thermometer are equipped with each observatory in DONET. 3) For speedy detections, evaluations and notifications of earthquakes and tsunamis: DONET system will be deployed around the Tonankai seismogenic zone. 4) Provide data of ocean floor crustal deformations derived from pressure sensors: Simultaneously, the development of data

  18. [Coresidence with parents and marriage in recent Japan. Comment].


    Toshitani, N


    The relationship between marriage and parent-child relations was studied. Marriage was understood as formation of a new family and also as an extension and enlargement of a parent generation's family. Kaneko reports that advanced level of education of women, change in norm consciousness, and inequality in sex ratio at marriageable age contribute to the phenomenon called marriage delay/avoidance by influencing a series of events leading up to marriage at some point. He makes a novel attempt to elucidate mechanism and impact of various factors at play through demographic analysis of the 1st marriage process. This attempt is timely because the recent trend in legal sociology is to take more dynamic approach in studying marriage and divorce. For example, they include premarital and exmarital co-habitations in the scope of their study. Suzuki reports that the marriage norm is based upon the notion of marriage for all and traditional gender-associated divisions of roles. He says highly educated women have a different norm and men perceive this as a disadvantage and regression in the marriage norm. The norm has changed: society is severely critical of male extramarital sex and less critical of female premarital sex. Sex norms and marriage norms are relatively independent of each other. Men's attitude toward intergenerational relationships is from the perspective of a child taking care of aged parents, while women's attitude toward the same is from the perspective of an aged parent, especially a widowed parent. Men prefer separate household routines, while women prefer coresidence, both of which reflect the norm consciousness of an aging society. Mr. Nakano concludes in his report that marriage delay and avoidance among unmarried young Japanese women is due to their perception of married life as something of diminishing utility. He analyses this attitude toward marriage from the viewpoint of women's career options. Their opinions of ideals are polarized, either full time

  19. Dynamic rupture modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.


    On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the rupture process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic rupture simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the rupture process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic rupture of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic rupture for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the rupture of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of rupture phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our

  20. Orientation and optical properties of methylene blue crystal for better understanding of interactions with clay mineral surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil


    twinning of feldspar minerals. Final result of molecular polymerization is represented as crystal framework of methylene blue. Model of the MB molecular aggregation in the crystal structure could be used as a way for the interpretation of the thin layer structure and the molecular aggregation on the clay surface. References - Hang P.T. & Brindley G.W., (1970), Clays and Clay Minerals, 18, 203-212. - Bujdak J., Iyi N., Kaneko Y. and Sasai R., (2003), Clay Minerals (2003), 38, 561-572. - Li F. and Zare R.N., (2005), J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 3330-3333. - Marr III, H.E., Stewart, J.M. and Chiu, M.F., (1973), Acta Cryst. (1973), B29, 847. - Bujdak J., (2006), Applied Clay Science 34 (2006) 58 - 73

  1. The Lithological Constraint To Gas Hydrate Formation: Evidence OF Grain Size Of Sediments From IODP 311 On CASCADIA Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.


    A total of 614 sediment samples at intervals of about 1.5 m from all 5 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 on Cascadia Margin were analyzed using a Beckman Coulter LS-230 Particle Analyzer. The grain-size data were then plotted in depth and compared with other proxies of gas hydrate- occurrence such as soupy/mousse-like structures in sediments, gas hydrate concentration (Sh) derived from LWD data using Archie's relation, IR core images (infrared image) and the recovered samples of gas hydrate¨Cbearing sediments. A good relationship between the distribution of coarse grains in size of 31-63¦Ìm and 63-125¦Ìm sediments and the potential occurrence of gas hydrate was found across the entire gas hydrate stability zone. The depth distribution of grain size from the Site U1326 shows clear excursions at depths of 5-8, 21-26, 50- 123, 132-140, 167-180, 195-206 and 220-240 mbsf, which coincide with the potential occurrence of gas hydrate suggested by soupy/mousse-like structures, logging-derived gas hydrate concentrations (Sh) and the recovered samples of the gas hydrate¨Cbearing sand layers. The lithology of sediments significantly affects the formation of gas hydrate. Gas hydrate forms preferentially within relatively coarse grain-size sediments above 31 ¦Ìm. Key words: grain size of sediments, constraint, occurrence of gas hydrate, IODP 311 IODP Expedition 311 Scientists: Michael Riedel (Co-chief Scientist), Timothy S. Collett (Co-chief Scientist), Mitchell Malone (Expedition Project Manager/Staff Scientist), Gilles Gu¨¨rin, Fumio Akiba, Marie-Madeleine Blanc-Valleron, Michelle Ellis, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Verena Heuer, Yosuke Higashi, Melanie Holland, Peter D. Jackson, Masanori Kaneko, Miriam Kastner, Ji-Hoon Kim, Hiroko Kitajima, Philip E. Long, Alberto Malinverno, Greg Myers, Leena D. Palekar, John Pohlman, Peter Schultheiss, Barbara Teichert, Marta E. Torres, Anne M. Tr¨¦hu, Jiasheng Wang, Ulrich G. Wortmann, Hideyoshi

  2. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun


    Technology, and was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. On behalf of the organizing committee of FGM-2012, I express my great appreciation to their support of the symposium. Nearly 100 scholars and students from Japan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, United States of America, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, China, and so on, attended FGM-2012, and 57 of the presented papers were collected and selected for publication. The subjects of these papers cover simulation and characterization, advanced fabrication technology, novel application of FGM and layer materials. I cordially thank all of the authors and attendees for their support, and my appreciation is also given to the advisory committee, organizing committee, and the conference volunteers for their hard work. Professor Zhangjian Zhou Proceedings Editor Beijing, December 2012 Committees International Advisory Committee Professor Glaucio H Paulino, USA Professor Marek-Jerzy Pindera, USA Professor Jeong-Ho Kim, USA Professor Emer Fazil Erdogan, USA Professor Dr Monika Willert-Porada, Germany Professor Emer Wolfgang G J Bunk, Germany Professor Omer Van Der Biest, Belgium Professor Michael M Gasik, Finland Professor Evgeny Levashov, Russia Professor Lianmeng Zhang, China Professor Qingjie Zhang, China Professor Wei Pan, China Professor Chang-Chun Ge, China Professor Jing-Feng Li, China Professor Zhangjian Zhou, China Associate Professor Serkan Dag, Turkey Professor Fernando A Rochinha, Brazil Professor Emilio C N Silva, Brazil Professor Luis August Rocha, Portugal Dr Sasa Novak, Slovenia Dr Masayuki Niino, Japan Professor Akira Kawasaki, Japan Professor Ichiro Shiota, Japan Dr Akinaga Kumakawa, Japan Dr Yoshikazu Shinohara, Japan Professor Kiyotaka Matsuura, Japan Professor Yoshinari Miyamoto, Japan Professor Takashi Goto, Japan Professor Yoshimi Watanabe, Japan Professor Kazuhiro Hasezaki, Japan Professor Soshu Kirihara, Japan Professor Emer Toshio Hirai, Japan Mr Choji Endou, Japan Dr

  3. PREFACE: Water Interfaces in Physics Chemistry and Biology: a multi-disciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire; Dore, John


    meeting as well as five extended abstracts. 1. Initial Filling Mechanism of Predominant Water Adsorption on Hydrophobic Slit-Shaped Carbon Nanopores Tomonori Ohba and Katsumi Kaneko 2. Computer simulation study of water/hydrocarbon interfaces: effects of hydrocarbon branching on interfacial properties Janamejaya Chowdhary and Branka M Ladanyi 3. Thermodynamics of supercooled water in solutions D Corradini, P Gallo and M Rovere 4. Transferability of polarizable models for ion-water electrostatic interaction Marco Masia 5. Quantum chemical study of water impact on the calcium hydroxyapatite V D Khavryuchenko, O V Khavryuchenko, V V Lisnyak 6. Neutron Scattering Studies of Dynamic Crossover Phenomena in a Coupled System of Biopolymer and Its Hydration Water Sow-Hsin Chen, F Mallamace, X Q Chu, C Kim, M Lagi, A Faraone, E Fratini, P Baglioni 7. Looking for the best experimental conditions to detail the protein solvation shell in a binary aqueous solvent via Small Angle Scattering Maria Grazia Ortore, Raffaele Sinibaldi, Francesco Spinozzi, Andrea Carbini, Flavio Carsughi and Paolo Mariani 8. Influence of the water molecules near surface of viral protein on virus activation process S O Shepelenko, A S Salnikov, S V Rak, E P Goncharova and A B Ryzhikov 9. Optical Kerr effect measurements on supercooled water: the experimental perspectives P. Bartolini, A Taschin, R Eramo, R Righini and R Torre 10. Structural studies of water confined in a confined hydrophobic environment J C Dore, M-C Bellissent-Funel, A Burian, H P Castricum, J Jelassi, K Kaneko, T Ohba, H Tanaka and J B W Webber 11. Dynamic transition and glassy behaviour in hydrated proteins F Mezei, M Russina, G Chen, H Frauenfelder, P W Fenimore, P Falus and B Farago 12. Relation between frequency and H bond length in heavy water: Towards the understanding of the unusual properties of H bond dynamics in nanoporous media S Pommeret, R Musat, J-P Renault, J-C Leicknam and S Bratos 13. Quantum confinement of hydrogen in ice

  4. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S


    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6

  5. Linking number anomalies in DNA under conditions close to condensation.


    Ringquist, S; Shinn, R; Hanlon, S


    Changes in linking number and the apparent winding angle of pBR322 DNA have been evaluated in mixed ethanol-water solvents containing either Na or Mg as the major counterion contributing to the electrostatic shielding of the duplex. The average number of superhelical turns (tau) produced in the standard electrophoresis buffer (Tris-borate-EDTA, pH 8.0) by the transfer of DNA, relaxed in 200 mM NaCl, 10 mM NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4, and 2 mM EDTA, pH 7, by calf thymus topoisomerase or ligated in 6.6 mM MgCl2, 1 mM KCl, 1 mM ATP, 1 mM dithiothreitol, and 66 mM Tris, pH 7.6, by T4 ligase, was determined as a function of the EtOH concentration. At low enzyme concentrations, the tau values became increasingly more positive in the presence of both cations as the ethanol concentration increased, indicating that the duplex structure was overwound in the ethanol solvents. Winding angle changes between 0 and 20% ethanol, calculated from these values of tau, exhibited the same correlations with CD spectral properties as had been previously observed for 100% aqueous systems containing monovalent cations [Kilkuskie, R., Wood, N., Shinn, R., Ringquist, S., & Hanlon, S. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 4377-4386]. The results at higher concentrations of ethanol (25-30%), however, were anomalous for the Mg-ligase system. The anomalies increased with higher ethanol, ligase, or Mg concentration. Gel run under these conditions showed enhanced concentrations of slow-moving components, indicative of ligation of intermolecular associated DNA species. At a 10-fold higher level of ligase, ethanol appeared to unwind the duplex, confirming the results of Lee, Mizusawa, and Kakefuda [(1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 2838-2842]. All of these anomalies occur under solvent conditions which are close to conditions which produce a heterogeneous dispersion of sedimenting species in ultracentrifugal experiments and compact rodlike structures, visualized by electron microscopy. The circular dichroism spectra

  6. 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulation (Test Case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Ando, Ryosuke


    A 3D dynamic earthquake fracture simulation is being developed for the fault structures which are non-planar to understand heterogeneous stress states in the Marmara Sea. Locating in a seismic gap, a large earthquake is expected in the center of the Sea of Marmara. Concerning the fact that more than 14 million inhabitants of İstanbul, located very closely to the Marmara Sea, the importance of the analysis of the Central Marmara Sea is extremely high. A few 3D dynamic earthquake fracture studies have been already done in the Sea of Marmara for pure right lateral strike-slip stress regimes (Oglesby and Mai, 2012; Aochi and Ulrich, 2015). In this study, a 3D dynamic earthquake fracture model with heterogeneous stress patches from the TPV5, a SCEC code validation case, is adapted. In this test model, the fault and the ground surfaces are gridded by a scalene triangulation technique using GMSH program. For a grid size changing between 0.616 km and 1.050 km the number of elements for the fault surface is 1984 and for the ground surface is 1216. When these results are compared with Kaneko's results for TPV5 from SPECFEM3D, reliable findings could be observed for the first 6.5 seconds (stations on the fault) although a stability problem is encountered after this time threshold. To solve this problem grid sizes are made smaller, so the number of elements increase 7986 for the fault surface and 4867 for the ground surface. On the other hand, computational problems arise in that case, since the computation time is directly proportional to the number of total elements and the required memory also increases with the square of that. Therefore, it is expected that this method can be adapted for less coarse grid cases, regarding the main difficulty coming from the necessity of an effective supercomputer and run time limitations. The main objective of this research is to obtain 3D dynamic earthquake rupture scenarios, concerning not only planar and non-planar faults but also

  7. Reconstruction of paleo coastal environment and tsunami deposits from the Kanto earthquakes in Ena bay, Miura Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Sugai, T.; Nishiyama, A.; Harada, T.; IMAI, K.; Namegaya, Y.; Ueno, T.


    Interplate earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis leave geological evidence such as tsunami deposits and environmental changes due to the crustal movement in coastal regions, therefore studies of coastal paleo-environment changes and tsunami deposits from paleo-earthquake by geological and microfossil analysis are important for long-term earthquake forecast. Recurrence interval of the great interplate earthquakes, called Taisho-type Kanto earthquake, along the Sagami Trough was estimated to be 200-400 years. In contrast, Genroku-type was estimated to be 2000-2700 years. However, earthquake histories prior to the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake are little known, while some candidates were proposed from historical literature (Ishibashi, 1991, 1994; Kaneko, 2011). On the other hand, Shimazaki et al. (2011) conducted Geo-slicer surveys in Koajiro Bay of Miura Peninsula and suggested that the 1293 earthquake was the Kanto earthquake prior to the 1703 Genroku earthquake. However, paleo-seismological data of past Kanto earthquakes are still limited. Moreover, there are hardly natural coastal wetlands that would preserve tsunami deposits, because the natural environments were collapsed by revetments in Kanto. In order to reveal the histories of Kanto earthquakes, we conducted coring surveys using 3m handy Geo-slicers at Ena bay in Miura Peninsula, and obtained nine event layers of coarse sediments including shell fragments and gravels in tidal and subtidal muddy sediments. Each of these event deposits have sharp lower contact indicating that they accompanied with a strong current. Changes of diatom assemblages show a fluctuation of relative abundance of marine species, suggesting changes in a paleo-sea depth. Namely, marine benthic species gradually decrease prior to the deposition of tsunami deposits indicating coastal subsidence before tsunami, and benthic species increase above event deposits indicating coastal uplift after the tsunami. The tide gauge in the nearby bay

  8. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)


    KhodelVictorKurchatov Institute, KimuraMasaakiHokkaido University, LacroixDenisGANIL, LiangHaozhaoPeking University, MargueronJérômeIPN MassotElisabethIPN MengJiePeking University, MillerTomaszWarsaw University of MoghrabiKassemIPN NapolitaniPaoloIPN NeffThomasGSI NguyenVan GiaiIPN OtsukaTakaharuUniversity of PilletNathalie-MarieCEA-DAM, QiChongKTH RamananSunethraICTP RingPeterTU Rios HuguetArnauUniversity of RivetMarie-FranceIPN RobledoLuisUniversidad Autonoma de Roca MazaXavierINFN RöpkeGerdRostock RowleyNeilIPN SagawaHiroyukiUniversity of SandulescuNicolaeIFIN-HH, SchuckPeterIPN SedrakianArmenGoethe Universität SeveryukhinAlexeyJINR SogoTakaakiIPN SomàVittorioCEA StrinatiGiancarloUniversità di SuharaTadahiroKyoto SukhoruchkinSergeiPetersburg Nuclear Physics SuzukiToruTokyo Metropolitan SuzukiToshioNihon University, TarpanovDimitarINRNE, Tohsaki-SuzukiAkihiroOsaka TypelStefanGSI Darmstadts

  9. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna


    resonance imaging and cancer treatment by hyperthermia. The introduction of scanning probe microscopy in the 1980s transposed the physics of nanoscale structures from elegant mathematical hypotheses to concrete observables. But if seeing is believing, control is power. Atomic force microscope probes could also be adopted as patterning devices, empowering researchers to manipulate the nanoworld to exacting designs [6]. There is even a report of early graphene fabrication from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using this approach [7]. One of the natural advantages of patterning with a microscope probe is the opportunity for real-time monitoring of the process [8], and such dual functionality may be applied to current state of the art high-speed atomic force microscopy systems. With the 'coming of age' of high-speed atomic force microscopy, it is now possible to record movies of biological systems at the nanoscale to reveal the processes governing these systems in action [9]. As Toshio Ando explains in his recent review of the field, attempts at manipulating samples with the same probe used for high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging have already been reported. The vista of possibilities this opens includes the potential to observe the re-assembly of biological systems following deliberate breaking and the examination of complicated molecular architectures. The escalating interest in nanoscale research opened the flood gates for ZnO studies, as the community became captivated by the potential application of the nanomaterial's electronic properties in transparent electrodes in liquid crystal displays, thin-film transistors and light-emitting diodes. Zinc oxide's piezoelectric properties have also inspired researchers to investigate the energy harvesting potential of these structures [10]. The functions can be combined to produce self-powered vibration [11] and gas [1] sensing devices. In the sensor reported by Zhong Lin Wang and his colleagues in this issue, the Zn

  10. [Tuberculosis care and new horizon of Japanese society].


    Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Nagayama, Naohiro


    disease', 'appropriate DOTS method for each patient', 'existence of side effects', or 'the relationship between treatment supporters'. Through working for the patients whose treatment management was difficult, we have learned that our attitude towards the patients is a most important first step to build a good relationship and mutual trust with the patients, and DOT is an important tool. For treatment supporters,'the patient-centered care', 'care by staying close to the patients' or 'cuddling the patient' s mind' is most necessary to lead the patients to cure. 5. Patient's view: Through DOTS, my life has been renewed: Kuniyoshi MAEDA (Himawari no kai; Ex-homeless TB patients self-help group). It is an unforgettable memory that I was hospitalized due to TB back in 2009. I was seriously ill with also diabetes mellitus. Because I had lost everything due to my friend's cheating, I could not trust anyone before the TB treatment. But I learned how to think of others through the daily communication with doctors, nurses, other staff at the hospital, and Public Health Center. They encouraged me every day and I came to desire to answer to their expectations. Public health nurses taught me that building the reliable relationship is so essential for humans, and I may not have realized this importance if I had not been treated for TB, or treated outside Shinjuku. I would rather say that I was lucky to have got TB, as I have become able to trust other people through DOTS TB care. DOTS is not only for medication, but also general health care and counseling. I hope that as many as poor people, especially homeless can have a similar experience by knowing more about TB and using a health service. I would like to cooperate with TB services if I can be useful. health: Toshio TAKATORIGE (Graduate School of Safety Science, Kansai University). Tuberculosis was ever the biggest health problem in Japan. Ministry of Health and Welfare and Public Health Centers were founded to push forward

  11. EDITORIAL: Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna


    The development of scanning probe microscopy repositioned modern physics. When Rohrer and Binnig first used electronic tunnelling effects to image atoms and quantum states they did more than pin down theoretical hypotheses to real-world observables; the scanning tunnelling microscope fed imaginations, prompting researchers to consider new directions and possibilities [1]. As Rohrer once commented, 'We could show that you can easily manipulate or position something small in space with an accuracy of 10 pm.... When you can do that, you simply have ideas of what you can do' [2]. The development heralded a cavalry of scanning probe techniques—such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) [3-5], scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) [6-8] and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) [9, 10]—that still continue to bring nanomaterials and nanoscale phenomena into fresh focus. Not long after the development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, Binnig, Quate and Gerber collaborating in California in the US published work on a new type of microscope also capable of atomic level resolution [3]. The original concept behind scanning tunnelling microscopy uses electrical conductance, which places substantial limitations on the systems that it can image. Binnig, Quate and Gerber developed the AFM to 'feel' the topology of surfaces like the needle of an old fashioned vinyl player. In this way insulators could be imaged as well. The development of a force modulation mode AFM extended the tool's reach to soft materials making images of biological samples accessible with the technique [4]. There have now been a number of demonstrations of image capture at rates that allow dynamics at the nanoscale to be tracked in real time, opening further possibilities in applications of the AFM as described in a recent review by Toshio Ando at Kanazawa University [5]. Researchers also found a way to retrieve optical information at 'super-resolution' [6, 7]. Optical microscopy provides spectral

  12. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.


    Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria neosaccardoi Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New combinations - Parastagonospora avenae (A.B. Frank) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phaeosphaeria papayae (Speg.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudocercospora domingensis (Petr. & Cif.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria unedonis (Roberge ex Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides pini-thunbergii (S. Kaneko) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina abeliceae (Hiray.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina azaleae (Voglino) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina berberidis (Niessl) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina betulae (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina cercidis (Fr.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina menispermi (Thüm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina musiva (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina oxyacanthae (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina patriniae (Miura) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina populicola (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina quercicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina rhabdoclinis (Butin) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria castaneicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous. Typifications: Epitypifications - Phaeosphaeria oryzae I. Miyake, Phaeoseptoria papayae Speg.; Neotypification - Hendersonia paludosa Sacc. & Speg. PMID:24014902

  13. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Halil Ibrahim


    China) gave plenary talks on novel MR shear thickening fluids, MR rubber composites and MR plastomers, respectively. H J Choi (INHA University, Korea), X Zhao (Northwestern Polytechnical University, China) and R Tao (Temple University, USA) delivered plenary lectures on issues relating to the area of electrorheological (ER) fluids. In their talks, Choi and Zhao covered novel ER materials with core-shell structured microspheres and micro/nano hierarchical structured titania particles, respectively, and Tao focused on the reduction of the viscosity of liquid suspensions for energy applications in transporting crude oil via pipelines. Attendance of the presentations was exceptionally high. Poster presentations were divided into two sessions and held in the afternoons after the close of the sessions, which were filled with stimulating discussions. The award for the best student research in the area of electrorheological fluids, sponsored by the Winslow family, was given to Y D Liu of INHA University, Korea on research entitled 'Copolyaniline coated monodisperse polystyrene microparticles and their electrorheological response'. The award for the best student research on magnetorheological suspensions, sponsored by the LORD Corporation, was given to S Kaneko of Keio University, Japan on research entitled 'Effect of a magnetic field on sloshing pressure in a magnetic fluid'. Besides the purely scientific program during the five days, some special events were also organized. A guided tour of the old city and some important landmarks of the capital city of Ankara were organized before the Gala Dinner. Special samples of Turkish classical music and folk dancing were performed by a group from the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism to exhibit Turkish culture to the delegates at Gala Night, which was truly appreciated. Following the conclusion of this successful meeting, the next conference is expected to be organized at the University of Granada, Spain by Professor

  14. An Introduction to Non-Abelian Discrete Symmetries for Particle Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimori, Hajime; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi; Okada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

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