Sidwell, Robert W; Smee, Donald F
When considering viruses of potential importance as tools for bioterrorism, several viruses in the Bunya- and Togaviridae families have been cited. Among those in the Bunyaviridae family are Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, hanta, and sandfly fever viruses, listed in order of priority. Those particularly considered in the Togaviridae family are Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. Factors affecting the selection of these viruses are the ability for them to induce a fatal or seriously incapacitating illness, their ease of cultivation in order to prepare large volumes, their relative infectivity in human patients, their ability to be transmitted by aerosol, and the lack of measures available for their control. Each factor is fully considered in this review. Vaccines for the control of infections induced by these viruses are in varying stages of development, with none universally accepted to date. Viruses in the Bunyaviridae family are generally sensitive to ribavirin, which has been recommended as an emergency therapy for infections by viruses in this family although has not yet been FDA-approved. Interferon and interferon inducers also significantly inhibit these virus infections in animal models. Against infections induced by viruses in the Togaviridae family, interferon-alpha would appear to currently be the most useful for therapy.
activity of Poly I:C against Banzi virus is also mediated through the production of IFN. Although macrophages, natural killer cells and T cells , which...can be activated by IFN and Poly I:C, may play a secondary role, these cells do not appear to be essential determinants in the protective effects of...supplied by Dr. Michel Monsigny, Orleans, France. Table 5. Phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate cells following intraperitoneal administration of MDP
a variety of viral proteins including hepatitis B surface antigen, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins, and adenovirus capsid proteins...infections. Moreover, this model could be used to establish a base from which therapeutic strategies to be employed in other more costly feline and primate...treatment of human AIDS. Most of the animal models (primate, bovine or feline ) considered relevant are too expensive for routine drug evaluation and too
effective in inhibiting virus DNA synthesis in liver without producing significant inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis in intestine and bone marrow... synthesis as compared to free ara-a). Galactosylated serum albumin has a significant advantage over asialofetuin as a hepatotropic carrier since conjugates...herpesviruses and retroviruses in vitro (51) and against herpesviruses in vivo (52). Combinations of acyclovir with either vidarabine, vidarabine monophosphate
Yang, Aijun; James, Andrew T
Texture and water holding are important for silken tofu manufacturers and are affected by many factors, including soybean variety and processing conditions. In this study we evaluated these two key quality attributes of silken tofu produced from two soybean varieties - Bunya and Cowrie - using a soak or a dry processing method with glucono-δ-lactone or nigari as coagulant at concentrations of 1.5-5.0 g kg⁻¹. The soak method produced substantially firmer silken tofu with either coagulant. The optimum coagulant concentration to achieve maximum hardness was 2.5-3.0 g kg⁻¹. At 3.0 g kg⁻¹, Bunya produced silken tofu with firmer texture for each of the coagulant-method combinations and lower water loss, an indicator for water holding capacity, for the soak method. The two varieties differed significantly in the composition of major protein subunits for the seed and soymilk. Bunya had no 11SA4, less 11S and more 7S and therefore a lower 11S/7S ratio. Both variety and processing conditions affect textural properties and water loss of silken tofu. The absence of 11SA4 and subsequent protein subunit compositions are important in determining these two key quality attributes. Variety Bunya produces silken tofu with firmer texture and lower water loss. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
The author presents the results of researches done at the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology in Bucharest on the infections induced by arboviruses. The characteristics of three tick encephalitis virus strains (two strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks and one from a patient with encephalitis symptoms) are given. Most of the report is devoted to the results of serological survey conducted in a human population, in several domestic birds and mammals from some districts of Romania, as well as in migratory birds from the Danube delta, with regards to the incidence of some Toga-, Bunya- and Reoviruses.
Schneider, Katherine; Wronka-Edwards, Loni; Leggett-Embrey, Melissa; Walker, Eric; Sun, Peifang; Ondov, Brian; Wyman, Travis H; Rosovitz, M J; Bohn, Sherry S; Burans, James; Kochel, Tadeusz
High consequence human pathogenic viruses must be handled at biosafety level 2, 3 or 4 and must be rendered non-infectious before they can be utilized for molecular or immunological applications at lower biosafety levels. Here we evaluate psoralen-inactivated Arena-, Bunya-, Corona-, Filo-, Flavi- and Orthomyxoviruses for their suitability as antigen in immunological processes and as template for reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. The method of virus inactivation using a psoralen molecule appears to have broad applicability to RNA viruses and to leave both the particle and RNA of the treated virus intact, while rendering the virus non-infectious.
Markin, V A; Markov, V I
In this review modern data on dangerous and particularly dangerous viral haemorrhagic fevers caused by a group of viruses belonging to the families of phylo-, arena-, flavi-, bunya- and togaviruses are presented. Morbidity rates and epidemics caused by Marburg virus, Ebola fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Argentinian and Bolivian haemorrhagic fever viruses, dengue haemorrhagic fever virus, Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Hantaviruses are analyzed. Mechanisms of the evolution of the epidemic manifestation of these infections are considered. The importance of the development of tools and methods of diagnosis, rapid prevention and treatment of exotic haemorrhagic fevers is emphasized.
Schneider, Katherine; Wronka-Edwards, Loni; Leggett-Embrey, Melissa; Walker, Eric; Sun, Peifang; Ondov, Brian; Wyman, Travis H.; Rosovitz, MJ; Bohn, Sherry S.; Burans, James; Kochel, Tadeusz
High consequence human pathogenic viruses must be handled at biosafety level 2, 3 or 4 and must be rendered non-infectious before they can be utilized for molecular or immunological applications at lower biosafety levels. Here we evaluate psoralen-inactivated Arena-, Bunya-, Corona-, Filo-, Flavi- and Orthomyxoviruses for their suitability as antigen in immunological processes and as template for reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. The method of virus inactivation using a psoralen molecule appears to have broad applicability to RNA viruses and to leave both the particle and RNA of the treated virus intact, while rendering the virus non-infectious. PMID:26569291
Kikkert, Marjolein; Van Lent, Jan; Storms, Marc; Bodegom, Pentcho; Kormelink, Richard; Goldbach, Rob
A model for the maturation of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) particles is proposed, mainly based on results with a protoplast infection system, in which the chronology of different maturation events could be determined. By using specific monoclonal and polyclonal antisera in immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, the site of TSWV particle morphogenesis was determined to be the Golgi system. The viral glycoproteins G1 and G2 accumulate in the Golgi prior to a process of wrapping, by which the viral nucleocapsids obtain a double membrane. In a later stage of the maturation, these doubly enveloped particles fuse to each other and to the endoplasmic reticulum to form singly enveloped particles clustered in membranes. Similarities and differences between the maturation of animal-infecting (bunya)viruses and plant-infecting tospoviruses are discussed. PMID:9971812
Datiko, Demeke; Bekele, Afework
An investigation on human-herbivore conflict was carried out in CCNP between 2011 and 2012 in seven randomly selected villages (Chebera, Serri, Yora, Shita, Delba, Chuchra, Chewda) around the Park. A total of 312 household samples were identified for interview. Group discussion and field observation were also carried out. Among the respondents, the majority (83.9%) faced crop damage. African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), Desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Wild pig (Sus scrofa), Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and Anubis baboon (Papio anubis) were identified as the most problematic animals in the area. However, buffalo, monkey and warthog were considered as the notorious pest. Crop damage and threats to human safety were the major problems encountered resulting in conflict between human and wildlife. Most respondents had a negative attitude towards the problem-posing animals. This will lead to a change in public attitude from one that supports wildlife conservation to sees wild herbivores as a threat and a potential negative consequence for wildlife conservation. Active measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the future of the wildlife management in the park.
Dhoke, Sujata P.; Dwivedi, Rambabu; Vyas, Mahesh
Introduction: The world is facing most of the health problems due to nutritional imbalance, and Mamsakshaya (wasting) is one of them. Mamsakshaya explained in Kiyantahshirasiya Adhyaya can be considered as a separate entity, and it can be correlated with Karshya vyadhi. Mamsakshaya occurs due to diminished Prithvi and Jala Mahabhuta in the body and also due to improper diet and environmental factors. Kharjurapaka (KP) is having Prithvi and Jala Mahabhuta dominance and Guru (heavy), Shita (cold), Snigdha (unctuous) Guna (property) which are similar to conjugation of Mamsa Dhatu. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate Brimhana (nourishment) effect of KP on having signs and symptoms of Mamsakshaya patients. Materials and Methods: The study was therapeutic, interventional, randomized placebo controlled clinical trial carried out on 34 patients of Mamsakshaya. Patients were divided into two Groups. In Group A (trial group), KP (20 g) once in a day with normal water was administered for 30 days, and in Group B (control group), placebo tablet (500 mg) of roasted wheat flour for 30 days duration was administered. Effect of therapy was assessed on subjective and objective parameters, anthropometrical parameters such as body mass index (BMI), weight, and chest circumference. Results: It was found that Group A showed significant results in BMI and sign and symptom of Mamsakshaya in comparison to Group B. Conclusion: KP showed better efficacy in comparison with placebo group. PMID:27833368
Hodgkinson, Jane Helen; McLoughlin, Stephen; Cox, Malcolm
The relationship between geological fabric and drainage patterns in the 81.8 km 2 Laceys Creek sub-catchment of the North Pine River catchment, southeast Queensland, Australia, is analysed using a new channel-ordination system. The Laceys Creek catchment is situated on the South D'Aguilar Block, which underwent metamorphism, faulting and uplift from the Late Carboniferous to Late Triassic. The catchment drains exposures of two main rock units, the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds and the Bunya Phyllite. Both units are composed of metamorphosed deep-sea sediments that accumulated as an accretionary wedge during late Palaeozoic subduction of the palaeo-Pacific plate under the eastern margin of the Australian craton. The new channel ordination system used in this study allows improved classification of stream segments of equal prominence or rank in comparison to previous schemes. A 10 m contour digital elevation model (DEM) was produced within which drainage channels were digitised. Planar geological features, including bedding, faults, joints and cleavage, were mapped in the field and collated with data from previous geological mapping programs. Regional and local trends of geological fabric are reflected in the variable orientation of channels of different rank in the catchment. Cleavage and fractures are the dominant planar features of the Bunya Phyllite and these correlate most closely with the orientation of middle-order incised stream segments. In contrast, middle-order channels on the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds most closely correlate with bedding, which dominates the fabric of this unit. Although anthropogenic factors exert local influence and climatic processes exert broad influence on the catchment, this study focuses on structural and lithological fabrics, which are the apparent dominant controls on middle-order channel orientations. Identification of congruent patterns between bedrock fabric and channel ranks is variable, depending on the scale and number of channels
Hinson, Juanita M; Davé, Sonia; McMenamy, Scott S; Davé, Kirti; Turell, Michael J
The outbreak of disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2006 and the recent spread of this virus to the Americas in 2013 indicate the potential for this virus to spread and cause significant disease. However, there are currently no accurate and reliable field-usable, diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of CHIKV within the vector populations in order to implement appropriate vector control and personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect CHIKV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes containing a single CHIKV-infected mosquito. The CHIKV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, and provided clear results within 1 h. It was highly specific and did not cross-react with samples spiked with a variety of other alpha, bunya, and flaviviruses. The CHIKV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of CHIKV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment and the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas.
Reguera, Juan; Gerlach, Piotr; Rosenthal, Maria; Gaudon, Stephanie; Coscia, Francesca; Günther, Stephan; Cusack, Stephen
Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5′ end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate. In contrast, Lassa arenavirus EN has only acidic metal co-ordinating residues. We present three high resolution structures of Lassa virus EN with different bound ion configurations and show in comparative biophysical and biochemical experiments with Hantaan, La Crosse and influenza ENs that the isolated Lassa EN is essentially inactive. The results are discussed in the light of EN activation mechanisms revealed by recent structures of full-length influenza virus polymerase. PMID:27304209
Kuiken, Carla; Thurmond, Jim; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Yoon, Hyejin
Hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse set of over 80 viral species, found in 10 different genera comprising five different families: arena-, bunya-, flavi-, filo- and togaviridae. All these viruses are highly variable and evolve rapidly, making them elusive targets for the immune system and for vaccine and drug design. About 55 000 HFV sequences exist in the public domain today. A central website that provides annotated sequences and analysis tools will be helpful to HFV researchers worldwide. The HFV sequence database collects and stores sequence data and provides a user-friendly search interface and a large number of sequence analysis tools, following the model of the highly regarded and widely used Los Alamos HIV database [Kuiken, C., B. Korber, and R.W. Shafer, HIV sequence databases. AIDS Rev, 2003. 5: p. 52–61]. The database uses an algorithm that aligns each sequence to a species-wide reference sequence. The NCBI RefSeq database [Sayers et al. (2011) Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, D38–D51.] is used for this; if a reference sequence is not available, a Blast search finds the best candidate. Using this method, sequences in each genus can be retrieved pre-aligned. The HFV website can be accessed via http://hfv.lanl.gov. PMID:22064861
Kuiken, Carla; Thurmond, Jim; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Yoon, Hyejin
Hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse set of over 80 viral species, found in 10 different genera comprising five different families: arena-, bunya-, flavi-, filo- and togaviridae. All these viruses are highly variable and evolve rapidly, making them elusive targets for the immune system and for vaccine and drug design. About 55,000 HFV sequences exist in the public domain today. A central website that provides annotated sequences and analysis tools will be helpful to HFV researchers worldwide. The HFV sequence database collects and stores sequence data and provides a user-friendly search interface and a large number of sequence analysis tools, following the model of the highly regarded and widely used Los Alamos HIV database [Kuiken, C., B. Korber, and R.W. Shafer, HIV sequence databases. AIDS Rev, 2003. 5: p. 52-61]. The database uses an algorithm that aligns each sequence to a species-wide reference sequence. The NCBI RefSeq database [Sayers et al. (2011) Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, D38-D51.] is used for this; if a reference sequence is not available, a Blast search finds the best candidate. Using this method, sequences in each genus can be retrieved pre-aligned. The HFV website can be accessed via http://hfv.lanl.gov.
Raza, Ghulam; Singh, Mohan B.
Soybean, a major legume crop, is the source of vegetable oil and protein. There is a need for transgenic approaches to breeding superior soybean varieties to meet future climate challenges. Efficient plant regeneration is a prerequisite for successful application of genetic transformation technology. Soybean cultivars are classified into different maturity groups based on photoperiod requirements. In this study, nine soybean varieties belonging to different maturity group were regenerated successfully from three different explants: half split hypocotyl, complete hypocotyl, and cotyledonary node. All the genotypes and explant types responded by producing adventitious shoots. Shoot induction potential ranged within 60–87%, 50–100%, and 75–100%, and regeneration rate ranged within 4.2–10, 2.7–4.2, and 2.6–10.5 shoots per explant using half split hypocotyl, complete hypocotyl, and cotyledonary explants, respectively, among all the tested genotypes. Bunya variety showed the best regeneration response using half split and complete hypocotyl explants and the PNR791 with cotyledonary node. The regenerated shoots were successfully rooted and acclimatized to glasshouse conditions. This study shows that commercial varieties of soybean are amenable to shoot regeneration with high regeneration frequencies and could be exploited for genetic transformation. Further, our results show no correlation between shoots regeneration capacity with the maturity grouping of the soybean cultivars tested. PMID:28691031