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  1. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... burn to avoid getting a staph infection. Toxic shock syndrome treatment Because toxic shock syndrome gets worse quickly, you may be seriously ... toxic shock syndrome in a wound? Resources Toxic Shock Syndrome ... treatment, women's health Family Health, Women January 2017 Copyright © ...

  2. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also ... a skin or wound infection. Bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus (staph), causes toxic shock syndrome. It can ...

  3. [A case of anaphylactoid shock occurring immediately after the initiation of second intravenous administration of high-dose immunoglobulin (IVIg) in a patient with Crow-Fukase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Teruyuki; Ono, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Katuhiko; Tamura, Masato; Mizutani, Tomohiko

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of anaphylactoid shock occurring immediately after the initiation of second intravenous administration of high-dose immunoglobulin (IVIg) in a patient with Crow-Fukase syndrome. The patient was a 57-year-old woman, who was admitted to our hospital because of numbness and muscle weakness in the four extremities, difficulty in walking, and foot edema. On admission, her skin was dry and rough, and also showing scattered pigmentation, small hemangiomas, and hypertrichosis in both legs. She had distal dominant muscle weakness, more prominent in her legs, and was not able to walk. Deep tendon reflexes in her four extremities were markedly diminished or absent. She had a glove and stocking type of paresthesia, severe impairment of vibration, and absence of joint position sensation in her four extremities. On laboratory data, serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was markedly elevated to 5,184 pg/ml (normal: below 220 pg/ml). Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed cell counts of 2/microliter and protein level of 114 mg/dl. Abdominal echo showed marked hepatosplenomegaly. On peripheral nerve conduction study, both motor and sensory conduction velocity were undetectable in her legs. We diagnosed her condition as Crow-Fukase syndrome, and started IVIg of polyethyleneglycol-treated gamma-globulin (PEG-glob) at 400 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days for polyneuropathy. Since the first IVIg mildly improved muscle weakness, we tried the second IVIg of PEG-glob. However, immediately after the initiation of second IVIg of PEG-glob, she developed hypotention, dyspnea, cold sweating, cyanosis, and became lethargic. We immediately stopped IVIg and started first-aid treatment with epinephrine and corticosteroid for these symptoms. This treatment was successful and the patient fully recovered without any sequelae. Since serum IgE level remained unchanged and lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) was positive against the same rot number of PEG-glob, we diagnosed

  4. Dengue shock syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Sepehrar, Mona; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Nataraju, Aravinda Settikere; Kumbhat, Mounica; Sathyanarayana, Deepak; Gummadi, Siddharth; Burra, Hemanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) tropical disease in humans affecting 50–528 million people worldwide. The acute abdominal complications of dengue fever are acute appendicitis, acute pancreatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis and non-specific peritonitis. Acute pancreatitis with new onset diabetes in dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is very rarely reported. We describe a case of 30-year-old man admitted in intensive care unit and was diagnosed with DSS with RT-PCR, NS1 antigen and dengue IgM antibody being positive. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography confirmed acute pancreatitis. Patient required insulin after recovery. Diabetes mellitus caused by DSS is under-reported and lack of awareness may increase mortality and morbidity. PMID:28031845

  5. Staphylococcus aureus of phage type 187 isolated from people occurred to be a genes carrier of eneterotoxin C and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).

    PubMed

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Galiński, Janusz

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the genotype properties of Staphylococcus aureus of phage type 187 strains that constitute a separate group among the strains of S. aureus. Sixteen strains were collected from the hospital patients (n=12) and the healthy carriers (n=4) in 13 medical centres in Poland during 1991 and 2005. Biotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, phage typing, detection the genes of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin, genotyping of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), also amplification and restriction analysis of the coagulase (coa) and the protein A genes (spa) (PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)) was tested. The results of this study showed that all staphylococcus of phage type 187 belonged to the human biotype (A) and appeared to be sensitive to all of the tested antibiotics, including methicillin (MSSA). Finding out the toxin genes showed that almost all of them (93.8%) had the enterotoxin C gene (sec) and TSST-1 gene (tst). The PFGE typing proved that the phage type 187 strains (except for one) constitute one PFGE type. These results and the identical restriction patterns in the PCR/RFLP method, also the same biotype, sensitivity to antibiotics and the presence genes of the same type of toxins confirmed that the phage type 187 strains constitute one clone within our country. Additionally, the fact that almost all of them have the enterotoxin genes and tst gene allows to consider them the strains of potentially high virulence.

  6. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock-like ... men. Risk factors include: Recent childbirth Infection with Staphylococcus aureus ( S aureus ), commonly called a Staph infection Foreign ...

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Akhrass, Fadi; Abdallah, Lina; Berger, Steven; Hanna, Rami; Reynolds, Nina; Thompson, Shellie; Hallit, Rabih; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present 2 patients with Streptococcus agalactiae toxic shock-like syndrome and review another 11 well-reported cases from the literature. Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome is a devastating illness with a high mortality rate, therefore we stress the importance of early supportive management, antimicrobial therapy, and surgical intervention. Toxic shock-like syndrome is likely to be underestimated in patients with invasive Streptococcus agalactiae infection who present with shock. Early diagnosis requires high suspicion of the illness, along with a thorough mucocutaneous examination. Streptococcus agalactiae produces uncharacterized pyrogenic toxins, which explains the ability of the organism to cause toxic shock-like syndrome. PMID:23263717

  8. Toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, J K

    1988-01-01

    In the past 10 years, we have learned much about TSS and S. aureus and its toxins. A number of important biologic principles have been reemphasized in this first decade of TSS research: S. aureus is a very complex organism, one not likely to yield quick answers; in vitro observations must always be confirmed in the patient; animal models may not always be reliable replicates of human disease; and epidemiologic associations cannot be equated with causation. Toxic shock is an intricate phenomenon with many interesting scientific facets. Unraveling its mysteries will undoubtedly teach us more about the complex interaction of patients and microorganisms. PMID:3069202

  9. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Occurring in a Patient with Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mull, Jamie L; Madden, Lisa M; Bayliss, Susan J

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occurring in an African American boy with Gorlin syndrome with a novel PTCH1 mutation. Before developing MDS, the patient had been treated with chemotherapy and radiation for a medulloblastoma. He received a bone marrow transplant for the MDS and eventually died of treatment complications. Secondary hematologic malignancies are a known complication of certain chemotherapeutics, although whether a patient with Gorlin syndrome has a greater propensity for the development of such malignancies is unclear.

  10. Mermaid and Potter's syndrome occurring simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Liatsikos, E N; Perimenis, P; Dandinis, K; Kaladelfou, E; Barbalias, G A

    1999-01-01

    We herein report a case of a female embryo who died in utero and at autopsy she was found to have bilateral renal agenesis with the extrarenal manifestations of Potter's syndrome together with mermaid syndrome which is a rare combination. From all the anomalies of the upper urinary tract bilateral renal agenesis seems to have a cardinal role in the survival of the embryo afflicted with the spectrum of associated anomalies.

  11. Clinical pathology of the shock syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The clinical aspects of shock syndromes are described from their inception as compensated physiology to a stage of decompensation. The clinical significance of hypotension, fluid-responsive and non fluid-responsive hypotension, is discussed. Untimely or inadequate treatment leads to persistent subclinical shock despite adjustments of the macrohemodynamic variables, which evolves in a second hit of physiological deterioration if not aggressively managed. Irreversible shock ensues as consequence of direct hit or as result of inadequate or delayed treatment and is characterized by drug-resistant hypotension. PMID:21769211

  12. Necrotizing Fasciitis and Toxic Shock Syndrome from Clostridium septicum following a Term Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, B. H.; Graybill, W.; Pierce, J. Y.; Kohler, M.; Eriksson, E. A.; Shary, M. T.; Crookes, B.; Soper, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome are life-threatening conditions that can be seen after any surgical procedure. With only 4 previous published case reports in the obstetrics and gynecology literature of these two conditions occurring secondary to Clostridium septicum, we describe a case of necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome occurring after a term cesarean delivery caused by this microorganism, requiring aggressive medical and surgical intervention. PMID:24822140

  13. Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Family Physician's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Although similar cases have been reported as far back as 1927, the term toxic shock syndrome was coined in 1978 to describe an acute fever involving Staph. aureus. The reported mortality rate in Canada is 3.8%, but may be much higher. Association with tampon use was made in 1980, but is still unclear. Treatment remains supportive and is aimed at reducing risk of recurrence, until the role of the exotoxin can be explained. This article reviews reported cases to date, listing diagnostic criteria, signs and symptoms. A high index of suspicion for this new syndrome is recommended. PMID:21286566

  14. Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-06-01

    In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5 Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2 Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine the basis for bubble proliferation when SWs are delivered at fast rate. Bubbles were studied using a high-speed camera (Imacon 200). Experiments were conducted in a test tank filled with nondegassed tap water at room temperature. Acoustic pulses were generated with an electromagnetic lithotripter (DoLi-50). In the focus of the lithotripter the pulses consisted of a ˜60 MPa positive-pressure spike followed by up to -8 MPa negative-pressure tail, all with a total duration of about 7 μs. Nonlinear propagation steepened the shock front of the pulses to become sufficiently thin (˜0.03 μm) to impose differential pressure across even microscopic bubbles. High-speed camera movies showed that the SWs forced preexisting microbubbles to collapse, jet, and break up into daughter bubbles, which then grew rapidly under the negative-pressure phase of the pulse, but later coalesced to re-form a single bubble. Subsequent bubble growth was followed by inertial collapse and, usually, rebound. Most, if not all, cavitation bubbles emitted micro-jets during their first inertial collapse and re-growth. After jetting, these rebounding bubbles could regain a spherical shape before undergoing a second inertial collapse. However, either upon this second inertial collapse, or sometimes upon the first inertial collapse, the rebounding bubble emerged from the collapse as a cloud of smaller bubbles rather than a single bubble. These daughter bubbles could continue to rebound and collapse for a few cycles, but did not coalesce. These observations show that the positive-pressure phase of SWs fragments preexisting bubbles but this initial

  15. Toxic shock syndrome. Possible confusion with Kawasaki's disease.

    PubMed

    Raimer, S S; Tschen, E H; Walker, M K

    1981-07-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a recently recognized condition associated with toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Patients affected with this syndrome are frequently young and have multisystemic complaints such as fever, headache, edema, myalgia, scarlatiniform rash, conjunctival injection, confusion, diarrhea, oliguria, hypotension and shock, This is followed by desquamation of the skin, especially the palms and soles. The majority of cases reported have been in menstruating women who used vaginal tampons regularly. Because similarities exist between toxic shock syndrome and Kawasaki's disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome), as well as other conditions, proper diagnosis and management are of the utmost importance.

  16. Toxic shock syndrome associated with diaphragm use.

    PubMed

    Hyde, L

    1983-03-01

    A case report is presented of toxic shock syndrome associated wtih diaphragm use. The patient, an 18-year old white woman, gravida 1, para 1, was in good health prior to the reported episode. She had a low transverse cesarean section for fetal distress 3 months prior to admission and had not yet resumed menstruation. 48 hours prior to admission, after unprotected intercourse, she developed a vaginal discharge requiring the use of a pad. 12 hours later she used a diaphragm, left it in place overnight, and failed to remove it the next morning. During the day pelvic and lumbar pain developed, followed by vomiting and a fever as high as 103 degrees Farenheit. That evening, 12 hours before admission, the diaphragm was removed with drainage of copious purulent discharge. The edges of the diaphragm and the discharge were blood streaked. She also developed a diffuse macular blanching rash, sparing only the circumoral region. At the time of admission the following morning her blood pressure was 60/0mmHg; pulse, 180 beats/minute; and temperature, 102 degrees Farenheit. Significant physical findings included the rash, conjunctivitis, a pharyngeal infection, and a lack of adenopathy. Pelvic examination showed a vaginal discharge, a very tender, slightly enlarged warm uterus, and normal adnexa. Cultures of the vaginal discharge were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, and sensitive to methicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, colistin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sulfisoxazole, and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The white blood count rose from 11,000/mm on admission to a high of 13,000/mm with a left shift the next day. The patient received 1.2 million units of intravenous penicillin every 4 hours, 80 mg of gentamicin every 8 hours, and 300 mg of clindamycin every 6 hours, as well as fluid replacement of 2 g of methylprednisolone followed by 1 g every 6 hours. The shock, fever, and rash resolved in the following 48 hours. 2 days after

  17. Fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a child with varicella and necrotizing fasciitis of the face.

    PubMed

    Minodier, Philippe; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Vialet, Renaud; Imbert, Guenièvre; Bidet, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    The report described here presents a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to a necrotizing fasciitis of the face in a 3-year-old girl with varicella. Pathogenesis and treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are discussed below.

  18. Kawasaki disease shock syndrome: a rare and severe complication of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Çakan, Mustafa; Gemici, Hakan; Aktay-Ayaz, Nuray; Keskindemirci, Gonca; Bornaun, Helen; İkizoğlu, Tarkan; Çeliker, Alpay

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute systemic vasculitis that occurs most commonly in young children. It affects medium-sized muscular arteries and the coronary arteries are the predominant site of involvement. Morbidity and mortality is generally due to coronary artery aneurysms that develop during the chronic phase. Although it is well known that Kawasaki disease can cause myocarditis, tachycardia and heart failure during acute stage, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome has been recently described. It is characterized by hypotension, signs and symptoms of poor perfusion and a shock-like state. Herein we describe two cases of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome that were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit and followed a course without morbidity or mortality.

  19. Death in pediatric Cushing syndrome is uncommon but still occurs

    PubMed Central

    Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Lodish, Maya B.; Zilbermint, Mihail; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is rare. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of CS may be associated with increased morbidity and, unfortunately, mortality. We performed a retrospective review of all patients with CS under the age of 18 referred to the NIH from 1998 to 2013 in order to describe deceased patients among cases of pediatric CS referred to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The deaths of 4 children (3 females and 1 male), aged 7.5–15.5 years (mean age 11.2 years) with length of disease 2–4 years were recorded among 160 (2.5%) children seen at, or referred to the NIH over the last 15 years. All died at different institutions, prior to coming to the NIH (two of them) or after leaving NIH (two of them). Presenting symptoms included increasing weight and decreasing height gain, facial plethora, dorsocervical fat pad (webbed neck), striae, headache, vision disturbances and depression and other mood or behavior changes; there were no differences between how these patients presented and the others in our cohort. The causes of CS in the deceased patients were also not different, in fact, they spanned the entire spectrum of CS: pituitary disease (on of them), ectopic corticotropin production (one of them), and primary adrenal hyperplasia (1). In one patient, the cause of CS could not be verified. Three died of sepsis and one due to residual disease and complications of the primary tumor. Conclusions Despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric CS, a 2.5% mortality rate was identified in a large cohort of patients with this condition referred to an experienced, tertiary care referral center (although these deaths occurred elsewhere). Pediatricians need to recognize the possibility of death, primarily due to sepsis, in a patient with pediatric CS and act accordingly. PMID:25241829

  20. Preventive transfusion in Dengue shock syndrome-is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Abdel-Latif, Mohammad El-Amin; Goh, Adrian Yu Teik; Chan, Patrick Wai Keong; Lam, Sai Kit

    2003-11-01

    We compared 53 patients with Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) who received preventive transfusions with 53 who did not. Significant differences in the development of pulmonary edema and length of hospitalization (P<.05) and none in hemorrhage (P=.136) were observed. Preventive transfusions did not produce sustained improvements in the coagulation status in DSS.

  1. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Hsu, C Y; Garen, P D; Goust, J M; Biggs, P J

    1984-08-01

    A 33-year-old homosexual man with symptoms and signs of a focal brain process was subsequently found to have an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This report reemphasizes the association of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with AIDS and probably is best viewed as another example of an opportunistic CNS infection complicating deficient cell-mediated immunity.

  2. Kawasaki Shock Syndrome in a 12-Year-Old Girl Mimicking Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Suntharesan, Janani; Wijesekara, Dimuthu Saraji

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is diagnosed when fever lasts for more than 5 days with the presence of four out of five of the following clinical features: bilateral conjunctival congestion, changes in the lips and oral cavity, polymorphous exanthem, changes in peripheral extremities, and acute nonpurulent cervical lymphadenopathy (Nakamura et al., 2012). The average age of onset is 2 years and 90% of patients are below 5 years of age. Boys are more affected than girls (Cox and Sallis, 2009). This case report describes an adolescent female who was initially managed as having septic shock and subsequently found to have Kawasaki shock syndrome. PMID:28101385

  3. Toxic shock syndrome: an opportunity for nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Creehan, P A

    1995-01-01

    Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a potentially fatal illness caused by a particular strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The clinical presentation is similar to that of septic shock. The incidence of TSS peaked in the late 1970s and early 1980s, probably as a result of availability of super absorbent tampons. Although most commonly associated with menstruation, the overall incidence of menstrual and nonmenstrual TSS in men and women ranges from 1 to 3 per 100,000. There are almost equal numbers of menstrual and nonmenstrual cases of TSS identified annually. S aureus, the causative microorganism in cases of TSS, has been isolated from many body tissues. Toxic shock syndrome presents as a flu-like illness with high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, general malaise, and muscle weakness. Nursing and medical management focus on controlling or preventing potentially serious complications, such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, electrolyte imbalances, disseminated intravascular coagulation, encephalopathy, and cardiomyopathy. Judicious use of tampons and barrier contraceptive devices may decrease the risk of developing TSS.

  4. Maternal manifestation of Ballantyne's syndrome occurring concomitantly with the development of fetal congenital mesoblastic nephroma.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Shigeki; Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Mukoda, Yukiko; Saito, Koyomi; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2014-04-01

    Various fetal or placental disorders cause Ballantyne's (mirror) syndrome. For the first time, we report a maternal manifestation of Ballantyne's syndrome occurring concomitantly with the development of fetal congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN). In a pregnant woman with a CMN fetus, lung edema, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and high serum human chorionic gonadotrophin level occurred, all of which characterize maternal manifestation of Ballantyne's syndrome. The fetus and placenta were devoid of 'edema', lacking 'triple edema', and thus this condition was not diagnosed as Ballantyne's syndrome; however, we considered this condition as the maternal manifestation of Ballantyne's syndrome. We performed emergent cesarean section at 28 weeks. Delivery acutely ameliorated maternal symptoms. Tumor was resected and was confirmed as CMN. Maternal manifestations of Ballantyne's syndrome, such as lung edema and hypertension, can occur in a mother with fetal CMN even without fetal and/or placental edema. The clinical course of this patient may suggest an etiology of Ballantyne's syndrome.

  5. Hypovolemia and hypovolemic shock in children with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Tsau, Y K; Lu, F L; Chen, C H

    2000-01-01

    Hypovolemic shock is not an uncommon presentation in nephrotic syndrome, yet it is seldom mentioned in the literature. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of hypovolemia and hypovolemic shock in the acute nephrotic stage, and the association of hemoconcentration and abdominal pain with hypovolemic status. Two hundred and twenty-five patients with a total of 328 admissions to the pediatric ward of our hospital during 1983 to 1996 were retrospectively reviewed for hypovolemic episodes. Clinical presentation and laboratory data including hemoglobin, serum sodium, albumin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were investigated. Thirteen patients with 19 episodes (5.8%) of hypovolemic shock were found, and had more severe hemoconcentration (hemoglobin 19.6 +/- 2.2 g/dL) and hyponatremia (127.3 +/- 7.2 mEq/L). Another 33 patients with 41 symptomatic hypovolemic episodes without hypotension (12.5%) were found, and their hemoglobin levels were higher compared to patients without hypovolemic symptoms. Among 61 episodes of abdominal pain and hemoconcentration, 58 were responsive to albumin infusion. This suggested the presence of hypovolemia. Twenty patients had abdominal pain without hemoconcentration, and 18 of them had primary peritonitis. Hypovolemia was found in patients at the acute nephrotic stage, and was usually associated with hemoconcentration and abdominal pain. A combined examination of hemoglobin and serum sodium is the best indicator of hypovolemic status. Both primary peritonitis and hypovolemic episodes should be taken into consideration when managing abdominal pain in children with nephrotic syndrome.

  6. The Hyperferritinemic Syndrome: macrophage activation syndrome, Still’s disease, septic shock and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last few years, accumulating data have implicated a role for ferritin as a signaling molecule and direct mediator of the immune system. Hyperferritinemia is associated with a multitude of clinical conditions and with worse prognosis in critically ill patients. Discussion There are four uncommon medical conditions characterized by high levels of ferritin, namely the macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD), catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS) and septic shock, that share a similar clinical and laboratory features, and also respond to similar treatments, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism. Ferritin is known to be a pro-inflammatory mediator inducing expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, yet it has opposing actions as a pro-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant. We propose that the exceptionally high ferritin levels observed in these uncommon clinical conditions are not just the product of the inflammation but rather may contribute to the development of a cytokine storm. Summary Here we review and compare four clinical conditions and the role of ferritin as an immunomodulator. We would like to propose including these four conditions under a common syndrome entity termed “Hyperferritinemic Syndrome”. PMID:23968282

  7. Rely and Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Technological Health Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Vostral, Sharra L.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines factors leading to the identification of Toxic Shock Syndrome with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in 1978 and the specific role of Rely tampons in generating a technologically rooted health crisis. The concept biologically incompatible technology is offered to explain the relationship between constituent bacteria, women’s menstrual cycles, and a reactive technology that converged to create the ideal environment for the S. aureus bacteria to live and flourish in some women. The complicated and reactive relationship of the Rely tampon to emergent disease, corporate interests, public health, and injury law reveals the dangers of naturalizing technologies. PMID:22180682

  8. Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Sendi, Parham; el Hay, Muad Abd; Brandt, Claudia M.

    2017-01-01

    Gene mutations in the virulence regulator CovR/S of group A Streptococcus play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. We screened 25 group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates obtained from patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and found only 1 GBS clone harboring this kind of mutation. PMID:27983484

  9. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S A; Shanbag, P; Chavan, V; Shenoy, P

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 7-year-old boy with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome who presented with acute respiratory distress and cor pulmonale. We wish to highlight this unusual presentation as the diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome depends chiefly on a high degree of clinical suspicion. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of appropriate therapy will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

  10. Dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are major causes of hospital admission and mortality in children. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of supportive treatments for dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding blood component transfusion to standard intravenous fluids; adding corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulin to standard intravenous fluids; and crystalloids versus colloids. PMID:25860404

  11. Recurrent Streptococcus agalactiae Toxic Shock Syndrome Triggered by a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masataka; Takazono, Takahiro; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Sawai, Toyomitsu; Nishino, Tomoya; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by group B streptococcus (GBS) is a rare, but lethal disease. We experienced a 45-year-old woman with pustular psoriasis who developed toxic shock-like syndrome during infliximab treatment. Surprisingly, similar episodes recurred three times in one year with restarting of infliximab treatments. In the third episode, GBS were detected in blood, urine, and vaginal secretion cultures. These episodes of shock syndrome were possibly due to GBS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome possibly caused by GBS which was induced by anti-TNF-α inhibitor therapy. The restarting of biological agents in patients with a history of toxic shock syndrome should therefore be avoided as much as possible. PMID:27803422

  12. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  13. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Madhumita

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  14. [A patient with toxic shock syndrome following correction of the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, D H; Moffie, B G; van der Mey, A G; Thompson, J

    1990-11-03

    A male aged 30 suffered from toxic shock syndrome after septorhinoplasty with positioning of a tampon. Initial treatment consisted of removing the tampon and supportive care, as a result of which the patient recovered. The patient was a carrier of Staphylococcus aureus which produced toxic shock syndrome toxin-I (TSST-I). Anti-TSST-I antibodies were already found in the serum in the initial phase of the disease.

  15. Comment on "Electrostatic compressive and rarefactive shocks and solitons in relativistic plasmas occurring in polar regions of pulsar"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this comment is to show the solution of the KdVB equation used by Shah et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 335:529-537, 2011, doi: 10.1007/s10509-011-0766-y) is not correct. So, the numerical results that are predicted in this manuscript should not be helpful for further investigations in a plasma laboratory. For this reason, we have employed the Bernoulli's equation method to obtain the correct form of analytical solution to this equation, which is appropriate for the study of electrostatic compressive and rarefactive shocks and solitons in relativistic plasmas occurring in polar regions of pulsar.

  16. Tachyarrhythmia Cycle Length in Appropriate versus Inappropriate Defibrillator Shocks in Brugada Syndrome, Early Repolarization Syndrome, or Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Seok; Kwon, Chang-Hee; Choi, Jin Hee; Jo, Uk; Kim, Yoo Ri; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Implantable cardioverter–defibrillators (ICDs) are indicated in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS), early repolarization syndrome (ERS), or idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) who are at high risk for sudden cardiac death. The optimal ICD programming for reducing inappropriate shocks in these patients remains to be determined. We investigated the difference in the mean cycle length of tachyarrhythmias that activated either appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks in these three patient groups to determine the optimal ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone for minimizing inappropriate ICD shocks. Subjects and Methods We selected 41 patients (35 men) (mean age±standard deviation=42.6±13.0 year) who received ICD shocks between April 1996 and April 2014 to treat BS (n=24), ERS (n=9), or IVF (n=8). Clinical and ICD interrogation data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for all events with ICD shocks. Results Of the 244 episodes, 180 (73.8%) shocks were appropriate and 64 (26.2%) were inappropriate. The mean cycle lengths of the tachyarrhythmias that activated appropriate and inappropriate shocks were 178.9±28.7 ms and 284.8±24.4 ms, respectively (p<0.001). The cutoff value with the highest sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between appropriate and inappropriate shocks was 235 ms (sensitivity, 98.4%; specificity, 95.6%). When we programmed a single VF zone of ≤270 ms, inappropriate ICD shocks were reduced by 70.5% and appropriate shocks were missed in 1.7% of these patients. Conclusion Programming of a single VF zone of ≤270 ms in patients with BS, ERS, or IVF could reduce inappropriate ICD shocks, with a low risk of missing appropriate shocks. PMID:27014348

  17. Altered expression of glomerular heat shock protein 27 in experimental nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Smoyer, W E; Gupta, A; Mundel, P; Ballew, J D; Welsh, M J

    1996-01-01

    Although nephrotic syndrome is a very common kidney disease, little is known about the molecular changes occurring within glomerular capillary loops during development of disease. The characteristic histologic change is retraction (effacement) of the distal "foot" processes of glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) which surround the capillary loops. The GEC foot processes are an essential part of the kidney's filtration barrier, and their structure is regulated primarily by actin microfilaments, cytoskeletal proteins present in high concentrations in foot processes. Actin polymerization has been reported to be regulated via phosphorylation of the low molecular weight heat shock protein, hsp27. We localized hsp27 within normal rat GECs using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Induction of nephrotic syndrome and GEC foot process effacement using the puromycin aminonucleoside rat model resulted in significant increases in: (a) renal cortical hsp27 mRNA expression (826 +/- 233%, x +/- SEM, P < 0.01 vs. control); (b) glomerular hsp27 protein expression (87 +/- 2%, P < 0.001 vs. control); and (c) glomerular hsp27 phosphorylation (101 +/- 32%, P < 0.05 vs. control). These findings support the hypothesis that hsp27, by regulating GEC foot process actin polymerization, may be important in maintaining normal foot process structure, and regulating pathophysiologic GEC cytoskeletal changes during development of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:8675679

  18. Plantar Purpura as the Initial Presentation of Viridians Streptococcal Shock Syndrome Secondary to Streptococcus gordonii Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chen-Yi; Su, Kuan-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Shu-Fang; Chin, Hsien-Kuo; Chang, Chin-Wen; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Ben, Ren-Jy; Yeh, Yen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Viridians streptococcal shock syndrome is a subtype of toxic shock syndrome. Frequently, the diagnosis is missed initially because the clinical features are nonspecific. However, it is a rapidly progressive disease, manifested by hypotension, rash, palmar desquamation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome within a short period. The disease course is generally fulminant and rarely presents initially as a purpura over the plantar region. We present a case of a 54-year-old female hospital worker diagnosed with viridians streptococcal shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus gordonii. Despite aggressive antibiotic treatment, fluid hydration, and use of inotropes and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the patient succumbed to the disease. Early diagnosis of the potentially fatal disease followed by a prompt antibiotic regimen and appropriate use of steroids are cornerstones in the management of this disease to reduce the risk of high morbidity and mortality. PMID:27366188

  19. Effect of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Patients With Fabella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fabella is a small sesamoid bone generally located in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius behind the lateral condyle of the femur. Fabella syndrome is the occurrence of posterolateral knee pain associated with the fabella. It is a rare cause of knee pain that is often misdiagnosed. Fabella syndrome can be managed with conservative or surgical treatment. We applied radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a new treatment strategy for fabella syndrome and achieved a successful outcome. PMID:28119844

  20. Heat shock-induced degradation of Msn2p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor, occurs in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lallet, S; Garreau, H; Poisier, C; Boy-Marcotte, E; Jacquet, M

    2004-10-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the zinc finger transcription factor Msn2p is a central component of the general stress response. It is activated in response to a wide variety of environmental changes, including physicochemical stresses as well as nutritional starvation, and induces the expression of a large set of genes required for cellular adaptation. The transcriptional activity of Msn2p in response to stresses is transient, and must therefore be strictly controlled. It is mainly regulated by reversible translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon the onset of stress, under the control of the cAMP-APK and the TOR pathways. In this report, we describe a new level of control: heat shock-induced degradation of Msn2p by the 26S proteasome. This degradation occurs in the nucleus and is further enhanced when Msn2p is fully active. Moreover, we show that the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Srb10p, a component of the transcription machinery, plays a role in the enhanced degradation of Msn2p upon heat shock. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms by which Msn2p is transiently activated in response to stress.

  1. Necrotizing arteritis occurring in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration of a patient without systemic vasculitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hirotsugu; Hara, Kei; Matsumoto, Jun; Nashiro, Tamaki; Nagano, Masaaki; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kurata, Atsushi; Kuroda, Masahiko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Horiuchi, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing arteritis is a complex lesion of pulmonary hypertension, as are plexiform lesions, and is classically recognized as grade 6 in the Heath and Edwards grading scheme for hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. The vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension, such as plexiform lesions. However, necrotizing arteritis occurring in an intralobar sequestration of a patient without systemic vasculitis syndrome has never been reported to our knowledge. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old woman with pulmonary sequestration detected on a medical checkup. She was treated with surgery, and subsequent pathological analyses revealed necrotizing vasculitis in her sequestrated lung. We suspected systemic vasculitis syndromes, such as Takayasu arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. However, physical and blood examination did not show any other abnormalities, and hence, she did not have systemic vasculitis syndrome. Immunohistochemical analyses of the resected specimen showed that inflammatory cells of the arteries were mainly composed of T lymphocytes. T-lymphocytic inflammation with little neutrophil and histiocyte infiltration may be a pathological feature of necrotizing arteritis observed in pulmonary sequestration. This is the first case to our knowledge of necrotizing arteritis in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration of a patient without systemic vasculitis syndrome.

  2. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome associated with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome. Use of transpulmonary thermodilution technique for volume management.

    PubMed

    Saugel, Bernd; Umgelter, Andreas; Martin, Friedrich; Phillip, Veit; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang

    2010-07-05

    Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disorder characterized by increased capillary hyperpermeability leading to hypovolemic shock due to a markedly increased shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia and a monoclonal gammopathy are characteristic laboratory findings. Here we present a patient who suffered from SCLS with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome of both lower legs and thighs. Volume and catecholamine management was guided using transpulmonary thermodilution. Extended hemodynamic monitoring for volume and catecholamine management as well as monitoring of muscle compartment pressure is of crucial importance in SCLS patients.

  3. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Occurring in a Kidney Transplant Patient with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma, Kandria Jumil; Liu, Jessie

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) occurring in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality usually due to delays in diagnosis, drug toxicity encountered with antimycobacterial therapy, and drug-drug interactions. TB in SOT patients may mimic other infectious and noninfectious posttransplant complications such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a host response resulting in paradoxical worsening of an infectious disease which occurs after the employment of effective therapy and reversal of an immunosuppressed state. We describe the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a unique complication occurring during the treatment of extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurring after transplant which resulted from decreasing immunosuppression in a patient who received Alemtuzumab induction therapy. Although (IRIS) has been originally described in HIV/AIDS patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), solid organ transplant recipients with diagnosed or occult TB whose immune system may undergo immune reconstitution during their posttransplant course represent a new high risk group. PMID:28367350

  4. Selective expansion of T cells expressing V beta 2 in toxic shock syndrome

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Infection with Staphylococcus aureus and the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that TSST-1 is a powerful but selective stimulator of human T cells, and that the majority of activated cells express the TCR V beta 2 gene segment. We therefore studied patients with toxic shock syndrome using a modification of the PCR to determine if expansion of V beta 2+ T cells is a marker of the in vivo disease process. Five of eight patients studied demonstrated markedly elevated levels of circulating V beta 2+ T cells, whereas none showed significantly elevated levels of T cells expressing other V beta gene segments. The results suggest that toxin-mediated T cell activation, which involves a large fraction of the human T cell repertoire, may be critical in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:2117641

  5. Shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many organs can be damaged as a result. Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very rapidly. As many 1 in 5 people who suffer shock will die from it. Considerations The main types ...

  6. Heart failure and cardiogenic shock associated with the TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris; Schrueder, Neshaad; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Meintjes, Graeme

    2012-04-12

    Heart failure has not been described in the setting of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We describe a case of cardiogenic shock in the setting of TB-IRIS four weeks after commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Possible aetiologies and pathophysiology as well as suggested diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this problem are discussed.

  7. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marina

    2017-01-01

    We describe successful management of 3 patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) attributable to group G Streptococcus infection. This small series supports recognition of group G Streptococcus in the etiology of STSS. We propose intravenous immunoglobulin be used in treatment as it is for STSS caused by group A Streptococcus. PMID:27983491

  8. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome may be more likely if multiple pregnancy occurs following assisted conception.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R S; Joels, L A; Jenkins, J M

    1995-01-01

    Whereas modern assisted conception with such techniques as in vitro fertilisation now helps many subfertile couples to fulfill their ambition to have a child, it has not been without a price. The increased incidence of multiple pregnancies, with their attendant maternal and perinatal sequelae following assisted conception is well known, but perinatologists may be far less familiar with the Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) which is the other major complication when controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is used during assisted conception treatment. Mild forms of OHSS are common and require no more than symptomatic treatment. Severe forms of OHSS are uncommon occurring in 0.6% to 14% of IVF cycles, but are nonetheless very important to identify as they may lead to thrombo-embolic disease, cardiorespiratory dysfunction, renal failure and even death [6]. This review considers whether OHSS may be related to multiple pregnancy by reviewing the available literature and local experience.

  9. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Life Saving Role of Peritoneal Lavage and Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Minako; Oyama, Fumie; Ito, Asami; Yokota, Megumi; Matsukura, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Kasai, Tomonori; Nitobe, Yohshiro; Morikawa, Akiko; Ozaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We encountered a case where an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS; ie, Streptococcus pyogenes) initially caused primary peritonitis and then subsequently caused streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The patient’s life was likely saved by an emergency laparotomy followed by extensive peritoneal lavage and drainage. CASE PRESENTATION A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for lower abdominal pain and numbness in the extremities. She presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. An emergency laparotomy was performed, and ascites that resembled pus and general peritonitis were noted. Peritoneal lavage and drainage were performed, and GAS was isolated from peritoneal fluid. Gram staining of cervical polyp specimens revealed Gram-positive bacteria. CONCLUSIONS The patient was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to an ascending GAS infection originating from vagina. PMID:27579001

  10. Heat shock proteins and chronic fatigue in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bårdsen, Kjetil; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Norheim, Katrine Brække; Jonsson, Grete; Omdal, Roald

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue occurs frequently in patients with cancer, neurological diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases, but the biological mechanisms that lead to and regulate fatigue are largely unknown. When the innate immune system is activated, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are produced to protect cells. Some extracellular HSPs appear to recognize cellular targets in the brain, and we hypothesize that fatigue may be generated by specific HSPs signalling through neuronal or glial cells in the central nervous system. From a cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, 20 patients with high and 20 patients with low fatigue were selected. Fatigue was evaluated with a fatigue visual analogue scale. Plasma concentrations of HSP32, HSP60, HSP72 and HSP90α were measured and analysed to determine if there were associations with the level of fatigue. Plasma concentrations of HSP90α were significantly higher in patients with high fatigue compared with those with low fatigue, and there was a tendency to higher concentrations of HSP72 in patients with high fatigue compared with patients with low fatigue. There were no differences in concentrations of HSP32 and HSP60 between the high- and low-fatigue groups. Thus, extracellular HSPs, particularly HSP90α, may signal fatigue in chronic inflammation. This supports the hypothesis that fatigue is generated by cellular defence mechanisms.

  11. Hitch-hiker taken for a ride: an unusual cause of myocarditis, septic shock and adult respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kushawaha, Anurag; Brown, Mark; Martin, Ismael; Evenhuis, Walther

    2013-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a serious tick-borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii that is endemic in southeastern USA. Although RMSF has been described as causing the classic clinical triad of fever, headache and a characteristic rash, serious and potentially life-threatening manifestations can occur. Cardiopulmonary involvement, although infrequent, may occur with severe cases of RMSF. Rickettsial myocarditis is an uncommon occurrence. We present a case of a previously healthy 26-year-old man, who was hitch-hiking across the southeastern USA, with serologically proven RMSF causing adult respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock and myocarditis manifested by elevated cardiac enzymes and decrease in myocardial function. After treatment with antibiotics, the myocarditis resolved. Therefore, although unusual, clinicians should be aware of possible myocardial involvement in patients with appropriate tick-exposure histories or other clinical signs of RMSF. PMID:23314875

  12. Clinical Audit of Gastrointestinal Conditions Occurring among Adults with Down Syndrome Attending a Specialist Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to syndromic and environmental gastrointestinal conditions. Method: In a hospital-based clinic for adults with DS, a chart audit was conducted to assess the range and frequency of gastrointestinal conditions. Results: From January 2003 to March 2005, 57 patients attended the clinic,…

  13. Ataxia and secretory diarrhea: two unusual paraneoplastic syndromes occurring concurrently in the same patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Smith, Charles R; Gerstle, J Ted; Weitzman, Sheila S; Chan, Helen S L

    2004-09-01

    The presence of rare paraneoplastic syndromes, the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMA), presumably caused by antineuronal antibody production, and diarrhea, caused by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) secreted by neuroblastoma, may strongly signal the presence of neuroblastoma. The authors describe a child who presented with both syndromes concurrently; this has never been described previously in the same patient. However, diagnosis of neuroblastoma was delayed by a workup focused on the prolonged diarrhea rather than the ataxia. The diarrhea resolved after tumor resection, whereas OMA required further therapy. Increased awareness of VIP-secretory diarrhea, especially in an ataxic child, might contribute to an earlier diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

  14. Severe regimen-related toxicity occurring in a patient with XYY syndrome receiving allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shibata, S; Kami, M; Kishi, Y; Hamaki, T; Ueyama, J-I; Miyakoshi, S; Morinaga, S-I; Hirabayashi, N; Kanda, Y; Mutou, Y

    2002-07-01

    A 23-year-old man with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in the first chronic phase underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from his HLA-identical sibling. Pretransplant evaluations showed that he had a low risk of transplantation-related mortality and that the interval between the diagnosis of CML and PBSCT was only 6 months. However, he developed a variety of complications, including acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, severe hepatic damage, hemorrhagic cystitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage leading to hypovolemic shock. Pathological examination of the colonic mucosa showed vascular endothelial damage and thrombotic lesions, leading to the diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy. Later, we found that he had the constitutional abnormality XYY. XYY syndrome is a frequent congenital abnormality, and mental disorders and congenital abnormalities of kidney and liver are common manifestations. Considering his clinical course, it was interesting that complications were severe in the organs which are frequently involved in cases of XYY syndrome. These organs may have poor function or poor reserves and may be more vulnerable to endothelial damage caused by high-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy. Patients with XYY syndrome might have a high risk of transplantation-related mortality.

  15. NSD1 Mutations Are the Major Cause of Sotos Syndrome and Occur in Some Cases of Weaver Syndrome but Are Rare in Other Overgrowth Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Jenny; Hanks, Sandra; Temple, I. Karen; Davies, Sally; Murray, Alexandra; Upadhyaya, Meena; Tomkins, Susan; Hughes, Helen E.; Cole, Trevor R. P.; Rahman, Nazneen

    2003-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is a childhood overgrowth syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, height and head circumference >97th percentile, advanced bone age, and developmental delay. Weaver syndrome is characterized by the same criteria but has its own distinctive facial gestalt. Recently, a 2.2-Mb chromosome 5q35 microdeletion, encompassing NSD1, was reported as the major cause of Sotos syndrome, with intragenic NSD1 mutations identified in a minority of cases. We evaluated 75 patients with childhood overgrowth, for intragenic mutations and large deletions of NSD1. The series was phenotypically scored into four groups, prior to the molecular analyses: the phenotype in group 1 (n=37) was typical of Sotos syndrome; the phenotype in group 2 (n=13) was Sotos-like but with some atypical features; patients in group 3 (n=7) had Weaver syndrome, and patients in group 4 (n=18) had an overgrowth condition that was neither Sotos nor Weaver syndrome. We detected three deletions and 32 mutations (13 frameshift, 8 nonsense, 2 splice-site, and 9 missense) that are likely to impair NSD1 functions. The truncating mutations were spread throughout NSD1, but there was evidence of clustering of missense mutations in highly conserved functional domains between exons 13 and 23. There was a strong correlation between presence of an NSD1 alteration and clinical phenotype, in that 28 of 37 (76%) patients in group 1 had NSD1 mutations or deletions, whereas none of the patients in group 4 had abnormalities of NSD1. Three patients with Weaver syndrome had NSD1 mutations, all between amino acids 2142 and 2184. We conclude that intragenic mutations of NSD1 are the major cause of Sotos syndrome and account for some Weaver syndrome cases but rarely occur in other childhood overgrowth phenotypes. PMID:12464997

  16. Shock.

    PubMed

    Wacker, David A; Winters, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock are complex and challenging cases in the ED. A systematic approach to assessment and management is essential to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The simplified, systematic approach described in this article focuses on determining the presence of problems with cardiac function (the pump), intravascular volume (the tank), or systemic vascular resistance (the pipes). With this approach, the emergency physician can detect life-threatening conditions and implement time-sensitive therapy.

  17. KCOT Occurring in Bilateral Maxillary Sinus in Non-Syndromic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Newaskar, Vilas; Rajmohan, Sushmita; Dashore, Dolly

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) also termed as Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour (KCOT) (WHO 2005) is a pathology with unique behavior because of which it is under much scrutiny and continued study. The pathology usually presents itself commonly in mandible and less commonly in maxilla. The occurrence of KCOT in maxillary sinus is reported as rare and multiple occurrences are mostly associated along with the presence of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCC) syndrome. Here, we present a rare case of bilateral Maxillary OKC involving maxillary sinuses, without the presence of NBCC syndrome. An interesting feature of this case is the presence of left upper third molar in ectopic position in maxillary sinus and a vertically impacted right third molar suggesting an origin from the dental lamina. PMID:27656578

  18. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Mylène; Dunn, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Three 8-week-old kittens were presented with a history of acute, generalized weakness and severe fever. One cat was dead upon presentation, and necropsy findings were supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. During their clinical courses, two of the three kittens developed a progressive, marked swelling of one or more limbs. One moribund and severely hypothermic cat was euthanized a few hours after presentation, and necropsy was also supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. One kitten recovered. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome was suspected because of the fulminant progression of the septicemia.

  19. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion associated with staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by burns.

    PubMed

    Yokochi, Takaoki; Sakanishi, Shinpei; Ishidou, Yuuki; Kawano, Go; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Akita, Yukihiro; Obu, Keizo

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) associated with toxic shock syndrome caused by burns. A one-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital for treatment of severe burns. On day 3, she exhibited a fever, generalized rash and multiple organ failure. She was diagnosed with toxic shock syndrome after burns. She had seizures with fever twice on the same day, followed by secondary seizures on day 8 and transient deterioration of the gross motor functions involved in sitting alone and rolling over. On day 9, MRI diffusion-weighted images showed bright tree appearance (BTA). We conclude that she developed AESD.

  20. Refractory Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin as Salvage Therapy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Dennis; Altshuler, Jerry; Altshuler, Diana; Schwartz, David; Torregrossa, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Infections from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE) can cause a wide variety of infections, ranging from mild cellulitis to invasive disease, such as endocarditis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS). Despite prompt and appropriate antibiotics, mortality rates associated with shock have remained exceedingly high, prompting the need for adjunctive therapy. IVIG has been proposed as a possible adjunct, given its ability to neutralize a wide variety of superantigens and modulate a dysregulated inflammatory response. We present the first reported cases of successful IVIG therapy for reversing shock in the treatment of SDSE TSLS. PMID:27597908

  1. Epithelial Proinflammatory Response and Curcumin-Mediated Protection from Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1

    PubMed Central

    Schaefers, Matthew M.; Breshears, Laura M.; Anderson, Michele J.; Lin, Ying-Chi; Grill, Alex E.; Panyam, Jayanth; Southern, Peter J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus initiates infections and produces virulence factors, including superantigens (SAgs), at mucosal surfaces. The SAg, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1) induces cytokine secretion from epithelial cells, antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T lymphocytes, and causes toxic shock syndrome (TSS). This study investigated the mechanism of TSST-1-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines from human vaginal epithelial cells (HVECs) and determined if curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, could reduce TSST-1-mediated pathology in a rabbit vaginal model of TSS. TSST-1 caused a significant increase in NF-κB-dependent transcription in HVECs that was associated with increased expression of TNF- α, MIP-3α, IL-6 and IL-8. Curcumin, an antagonist of NF-κB-dependent transcription, inhibited IL-8 production from ex vivo porcine vaginal explants at nontoxic doses. In a rabbit model of TSS, co-administration of curcumin with TSST-1 intravaginally reduced lethality by 60% relative to 100% lethality in rabbits receiving TSST-1 alone. In addition, TNF-α was undetectable from serum or vaginal tissue of curcumin treated rabbits that survived. These data suggest that the inflammatory response induced at the mucosal surface by TSST-1 is NF-κB dependent. In addition, the ability of curcumin to prevent TSS in vivo by co-administration with TSST-1 intravaginally suggests that the vaginal mucosal proinflammatory response to TSST-1 is important in the progression of mTSS. PMID:22431984

  2. Mutants of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1: mitogenicity and recognition by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, L; Choi, E M; Connolly, K; Thompson, M R; Bonventre, P F

    1990-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), a 22-kilodalton protein made by strains of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the chromosomal toxin gene, may elicit toxic shock syndrome in humans. In vitro, TSST-1 induces T cells to proliferate and macrophages to secrete interleukin-1. To conduct a structure-function analysis, point mutations on the TSST-1 gene were generated by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids critical for activity of the toxin. Specific tyrosine and histidine residues were replaced by alanines. Wild-type and mutant TSST-1 gene constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the products were tested for their mitogenic potential and reactivity with a TSST-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb 8-5-7). Four of the mutants were similar to the wild type; i.e., the mutant toxins stimulated murine T cells and reacted with MAb 8-5-7 equally as well as the wild type. Two mutants exhibited a decrease in mitogenic activity, but one of these retained the capacity to bind with MAb 8-5-7 while the other was no longer recognized by the same antibody. One double mutant demonstrated minimal mitogenic activity and did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays with MAb 8-5-7. The data show that specific residues near the carboxy terminus of TSST-1 are essential for mitogenic activity and in forming the epitope recognized by neutralizing MAb 8-5-7. Images PMID:1696937

  3. Guillain-Barré syndrome: report of two rare clinical cases occurring after allergenic bone grafting in oral maxillofacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott; Bramanti, Ennio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Guillaine-Barré Syndrome (GBS), also known as post-infectious polyneuropathy or acute idiopathic polyneuritis, is an infrequent disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The cause of GBS is unknown. It has been associated in the past with microbial infections, vaccinations, surgical procedures and debilitation of the patient. The classic signs of GBS occurring in the two patients being reported here are muscle weakness, motor and sensory impairment and ascending paralysis with respiratory involvement. The documented cases involved GBS syndrome following oral and maxillofacial surgery in which allogeneic-banked freeze-dried bone have been utilized along with autogenous grafting. There were no incidents of viral infection, vaccination or the other prodromal incidents involved in these cases. It is believed that the description of these two cases would be of interest in that it may stimulate the reporting of similar anecdotal occurrences by other surgeons. Both patients fully recovered from the GBS and are presently alive and well. PMID:26261679

  4. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  5. Guillain–Barré Syndrome (42 Cases) Occurring During a Zika Virus Outbreak in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Watrin, Louise; Ghawché, Frédéric; Larre, Philippe; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Mathis, Stéphane; Fournier, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Zika virus (transmitted by mosquitoes) reached French Polynesia for the first time in 2013, leading to an epidemic affecting 10% of the total population. So far, it has not been known to induce any neurological complications, but, a few weeks after the outbreak, an unexpectedly high number of 42 patients presented with Guillain–Barré syndrome. We report the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of this series. Males predominated with a sex ratio of 2.82 (mean age: 46). All patients (except 2) were native Polynesian. At admission, 55% were able to walk unaided against 38% at nadir, 24% had swallowing troubles (nadir: 45%), 74% had motor weakness of the limbs (nadir: 86%) and deep tendon reflexes were diminished or not found in the vast majority of patients. Mean duration of the progressive phase and of the plateau phase was respectively 7 and 9 days. Thirty-eight percent of the patients were admitted in intensive care unit and 10 patients underwent tracheotomy. Nerve electrophysiological studies at admission showed marked distal motor conduction alterations, which had almost completely disappeared at the 4th month; this pattern was more suggestive of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) than of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Lumbar puncture showed elevated proteins in 90% of the cases, with cell count always inferior to 50/μL. This epidemic raises several questions, such as the potential existence of interactions between Zika virus and Polynesian HLA system and/or the consequences of several recombination events of this virus. This situation should call for increased vigilance, especially in countries where Aedes mosquitoes are present. PMID:27057874

  6. Update through 1985 on the incidence of toxic shock syndrome among members of a prepaid health plan.

    PubMed

    Petitti, D B; Reingold, A L

    1989-01-01

    Through hospital records of men and women aged 15-34 years who were members of the Northern California Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program, trends in the incidence of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) requiring hospitalization in 1984-1985 were examined, and the results were compared with those for the period 1972-1983. No definite or probable cases of TSS were found in men during either 1984 or 1985. A total of 16 cases of TSS (10 definite and six probable) were found in women in 1984-1985. Ten (71%) of 14 cases for which the menstrual status of the patient could be determined unambiguously from the medical record occurred during menstruation, and two of the four nonmenstrual cases occurred in postpartum women using barrier contraception. Of the 16 cases, 14 (88%) were diagnosed as TSS or probable TSS by the attending physician, although only nine (64%) of the 14 diagnosed cases were given the correct discharge code. While trends in the incidence of TSS requiring hospitalization in women 15-34 years of age generally paralleled changes in the absorbency of available tampons, the contribution of other factors (e.g., changes in the chemical composition of tampons, changes in patterns of tampon use) to these trends could not be assessed.

  7. Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Ford, Bradley; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa can be colonized by many bacteria including commensal organisms and potential pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains of S. aureus produce the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, which can penetrate the vaginal epithelium to cause toxic shock syndrome. We have observed that a female was mono-colonized with Enterococcus faecalis vaginally as tested in aerobic culture, even upon repeated culture for six months, suggesting this organism was negatively influencing colonization by other bacteria. In recent studies, we demonstrated an "outside-in" mechanism of cytokine signaling and consequent inflammation that facilitates the ability of potential pathogens to initiate infection from mucosal surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that this strain of E. faecalis may make anti-inflammatory factors which block disease progression of more pathogenic organisms. E. faecalis MN1 inhibited interleukin-8 production from human vaginal epithelial cells in response to the vaginal pathogens Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. We further demonstrated that this organism secretes two tetramic acid compounds which appear responsible for inhibition of interleukin-8 production, as well as inhibition of T cell proliferation due to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Microbicides that include anti-inflammatory molecules, such as these tetramic acid compounds naturally produced by E. faecalis MN1, may be useful in prevention of diseases that develop from vaginal infections.

  8. Enterococcus faecalis Inhibits Superantigen Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1-Induced Interleukin-8 from Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells through Tetramic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Ford, Bradley; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa can be colonized by many bacteria including commensal organisms and potential pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains of S. aureus produce the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, which can penetrate the vaginal epithelium to cause toxic shock syndrome. We have observed that a female was mono-colonized with Enterococcus faecalis vaginally as tested in aerobic culture, even upon repeated culture for six months, suggesting this organism was negatively influencing colonization by other bacteria. In recent studies, we demonstrated an “outside-in” mechanism of cytokine signaling and consequent inflammation that facilitates the ability of potential pathogens to initiate infection from mucosal surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that this strain of E. faecalis may make anti-inflammatory factors which block disease progression of more pathogenic organisms. E. faecalis MN1 inhibited interleukin-8 production from human vaginal epithelial cells in response to the vaginal pathogens Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. We further demonstrated that this organism secretes two tetramic acid compounds which appear responsible for inhibition of interleukin-8 production, as well as inhibition of T cell proliferation due to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Microbicides that include anti-inflammatory molecules, such as these tetramic acid compounds naturally produced by E. faecalis MN1, may be useful in prevention of diseases that develop from vaginal infections. PMID:23613823

  9. MicroRNA Expression for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematologic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Port, Matthias; Herodin, Francis; Valente, Marco; Drouet, Michel; Ullmann, Reinhard; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Lamkowski, Andreas; Majewski, Matthäus; Abend, Michael

    2016-01-01

    For effective medical management of radiation-exposed persons after a radiological/nuclear event, blood-based screening measures in the first few days that could predict hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) are needed. For HARS severity prediction, we used microRNA (miRNA) expression changes measured on days one and two after irradiation in a baboon model. Eighteen baboons underwent different patterns of partial or total body irradiation, corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts (BCC) the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. In a two Stage study design we screened 667 miRNAs using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) platform. In Stage II we validated candidates where miRNAs had to show a similar regulation (up- or down-regulated) and a significant 2-fold miRNA expression difference over H0. Seventy-two candidate miRNAs (42 for H1-2 and 30 for H2-3) were forwarded for validation. Forty-two of the H1-2 miRNA candidates from the screening phase entered the validation step and 20 of them showed a statistically significant 2–4 fold up-regulation relative to the unexposed reference (H0). Fifteen of the 30 H2-3 miRNAs were validated in Stage II. All miRNAs appeared 2–3 fold down-regulated over H0 and allowed an almost complete separation of HARS categories; the strongest candidate, miR-342-3p, showed a sustained and 10-fold down-regulation on both days 1 and 2. In summary, our data support the medical decision making of the HARS even within the first two days after exposure where diagnostic tools for early medical decision are required but so far missing. The miRNA species identified and in particular miR-342-3p add to the previously identified mRNAs and complete the portfolio of identified mRNA and miRNA transcripts for HARS prediction and medical management. PMID:27846229

  10. MicroRNA Expression for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematologic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons.

    PubMed

    Port, Matthias; Herodin, Francis; Valente, Marco; Drouet, Michel; Ullmann, Reinhard; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Lamkowski, Andreas; Majewski, Matthäus; Abend, Michael

    2016-01-01

    For effective medical management of radiation-exposed persons after a radiological/nuclear event, blood-based screening measures in the first few days that could predict hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) are needed. For HARS severity prediction, we used microRNA (miRNA) expression changes measured on days one and two after irradiation in a baboon model. Eighteen baboons underwent different patterns of partial or total body irradiation, corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts (BCC) the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. In a two Stage study design we screened 667 miRNAs using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) platform. In Stage II we validated candidates where miRNAs had to show a similar regulation (up- or down-regulated) and a significant 2-fold miRNA expression difference over H0. Seventy-two candidate miRNAs (42 for H1-2 and 30 for H2-3) were forwarded for validation. Forty-two of the H1-2 miRNA candidates from the screening phase entered the validation step and 20 of them showed a statistically significant 2-4 fold up-regulation relative to the unexposed reference (H0). Fifteen of the 30 H2-3 miRNAs were validated in Stage II. All miRNAs appeared 2-3 fold down-regulated over H0 and allowed an almost complete separation of HARS categories; the strongest candidate, miR-342-3p, showed a sustained and 10-fold down-regulation on both days 1 and 2. In summary, our data support the medical decision making of the HARS even within the first two days after exposure where diagnostic tools for early medical decision are required but so far missing. The miRNA species identified and in particular miR-342-3p add to the previously identified mRNAs and complete the portfolio of identified mRNA and miRNA transcripts for HARS prediction and medical management.

  11. Study of instabilities in geoelectric time series measured during the preparation process of a main shock occurred in Mexico by means of the multifractal analysis and Tsallis statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Rojas, Alejandro; Flores-Márquez, Elsa Leticia

    2016-04-01

    In [1] has been shown that the q-value that appears in Tsallis statistics is related to the extremes αmax and αmin of the multifractal spectrum f(α). This relationship has been used in order to study the underlying statistics describing properly the fully developed turbulence. One of the features for those systems indicates that the underlying statistics is not extensive. In this work we study the fluctuations, like a Seismo Electrical Signals, observed in geoelectric time series measured prior a main shock in México with M = 6. 6, occurred on 24 October 1993. For this time series we obtain the multifractal spectrum and then we can calculate the q-values of the Tsalliśstatistics. Our findings indicate a possible measure of the correlation between the preparation processes and the instability of the system. [1] Lyra M L and Tsallis C 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 53

  12. Successful Treatment of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome with the Addition of Linezolid

    PubMed Central

    Bojikian, Karine D.; Lucar, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy. While the patient was hemodynamically stable, the patient's wounds, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia all progressively worsened. After initiation of linezolid, the patient slowly improved clinically. The present report is the first to highlight the role of linezolid in streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and TSS not improving with standard therapy. PMID:28299216

  13. [Systemic capillary leak syndrome: hypoalbuminemia, hemoconcentration and shock. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Guillén, N M; León-López, R; de la Cal-Ramírez, M A; Dueñas-Jurado, J M

    2014-03-01

    Systemic capillary leak syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and often recurrent episodes characterized by increased capillary permeability that allows a leakage of fluid and proteins from the circulatory system to the interstitial space leading to shock and massive edema. The lack of recognition of this disease may be due to its unespecific signs and symptons of presentation, its rapid clinical progression and high mortality of the acute episodes. General physicians are usually the first to evaluate patients with this kind of disorder, either in the pre-hospital situation, hospital emergency units or even (in the milder cases) in the health centers. Its poor outcome and the improvement in the prognosis, if appropriate treatment is initiated, leads us to emphasize the importance of recognizing this pathology in order to start the appropriate intensive care and emergency treatment.

  14. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, P; Diez, A; Mourad, W; Parsonnet, J; Geha, R S; Chatila, T

    1989-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, and interferon-gamma induced the expression of class II molecules as well as TSST-1 binding sites on human skin-derived fibroblasts. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-DR, but not to HLA-DP or HLA-DQ, strongly inhibited TSST-1 binding. Affinity chromatography of 125I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the alpha and beta chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells. Images PMID:2542966

  15. Synthetic human monoclonal antibodies toward staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) protective against toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karauzum, Hatice; Chen, Gang; Abaandou, Laura; Mahmoudieh, Mahta; Boroun, Atefeh R; Shulenin, Sergey; Devi, V Sathya; Stavale, Eric; Warfield, Kelly L; Zeitlin, Larry; Roy, Chad J; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Aman, M Javad

    2012-07-20

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent toxin that can cause toxic shock syndrome and act as a lethal and incapacitating agent when used as a bioweapon. There are currently no vaccines or immunotherapeutics available against this toxin. Using phage display technology, human antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) were selected against SEB, and proteins were produced in Escherichia coli cells and characterized for their binding affinity and their toxin neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. Highly protective Fabs were converted into full-length IgGs and produced in mammalian cells. Additionally, the production of anti-SEB antibodies was explored in the Nicotiana benthamiana plant expression system. Affinity maturation was performed to produce optimized lead anti-SEB antibody candidates with subnanomolar affinities. IgGs produced in N. benthamiana showed characteristics comparable with those of counterparts produced in mammalian cells. IgGs were tested for their therapeutic efficacy in the mouse toxic shock model using different challenge doses of SEB and a treatment with 200 μg of IgGs 1 h after SEB challenge. The lead candidates displayed full protection from lethal challenge over a wide range of SEB challenge doses. Furthermore, mice that were treated with anti-SEB IgG had significantly lower IFNγ and IL-2 levels in serum compared with mock-treated mice. In summary, these anti-SEB monoclonal antibodies represent excellent therapeutic candidates for further preclinical and clinical development.

  16. Synthetic Human Monoclonal Antibodies toward Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) Protective against Toxic Shock Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Karauzum, Hatice; Chen, Gang; Abaandou, Laura; Mahmoudieh, Mahta; Boroun, Atefeh R.; Shulenin, Sergey; Devi, V. Sathya; Stavale, Eric; Warfield, Kelly L.; Zeitlin, Larry; Roy, Chad J.; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Aman, M. Javad

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent toxin that can cause toxic shock syndrome and act as a lethal and incapacitating agent when used as a bioweapon. There are currently no vaccines or immunotherapeutics available against this toxin. Using phage display technology, human antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) were selected against SEB, and proteins were produced in Escherichia coli cells and characterized for their binding affinity and their toxin neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. Highly protective Fabs were converted into full-length IgGs and produced in mammalian cells. Additionally, the production of anti-SEB antibodies was explored in the Nicotiana benthamiana plant expression system. Affinity maturation was performed to produce optimized lead anti-SEB antibody candidates with subnanomolar affinities. IgGs produced in N. benthamiana showed characteristics comparable with those of counterparts produced in mammalian cells. IgGs were tested for their therapeutic efficacy in the mouse toxic shock model using different challenge doses of SEB and a treatment with 200 μg of IgGs 1 h after SEB challenge. The lead candidates displayed full protection from lethal challenge over a wide range of SEB challenge doses. Furthermore, mice that were treated with anti-SEB IgG had significantly lower IFNγ and IL-2 levels in serum compared with mock-treated mice. In summary, these anti-SEB monoclonal antibodies represent excellent therapeutic candidates for further preclinical and clinical development. PMID:22645125

  17. Like Father, Like Daughter-inherited cutis aplasia occurring in a family with Marfan syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Islam, Yasmin Florence Khodeja; Williams, Charles A; Schoch, Jennifer Jane; Andrews, Israel David

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a newborn with co-occurrence of Marfan syndrome and aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and a family history significant for Marfan syndrome and ACC in the father. This case details a previously unreported mutation in Marfan syndrome and describes a novel coinheritance of Marfan syndrome and ACC.

  18. Recurrent differentiation syndrome or septic shock? Unresolved dilemma in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Ramzi; Ghédira, Hela; Amor, Ramzi Ben; Menif, Samia; Belhadjali, Zaher; Meddeb, Balkis

    2011-03-01

    Differentiation syndrome (DS) is a life-threatening complication observed in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) receiving induction therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). A bimodal incidence of DS has been observed, with a majority of cases occurring during the first week of ATRA treatment ("early" DS), but a substantial number of cases occurring during the third or even fourth week of ATRA treatment ("late" DS). However, to our knowledge occurrence of both early and late DS in the same patient has not been reported. We report an APL patient treated with the AIDA regimen, who experienced both early and late DS, a situation where differential diagnosis was difficult.

  19. Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-06-01

    Altered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n=18), TS+ADHD (N=17), ADHD (n=13) and typically developing controls (n=20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no)×2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed.

  20. [Following sensory neuropathy, anti-Hu antibody-positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome presenting with limbic encephalitis occurs after complete remission].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Yuki; Umemura, Toshitaka; Shimono, Tetufumi; Yokoi, Takamasa; Kamijo, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological disorder that frequently precedes the detection of malignancy. We report the case of a 68-year-old male with small-cell lung cancer who developed paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with presence of the anti-Hu antibody, after achieving complete remission of the tumor by chemotherapy. The patient visited our hospital because of progressive sensory disturbance of the distal extremities at 65 years of age. Though paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy was suspected, we could not find any tumor and he did not improve with steroids or immunoglobulin therapy. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed large mediastinal lymphadenopathy. He was subsequently diagnosed with small cell lung cancer at one year and three months after the neurological symptoms occurred. As his serum analysis was positive for the anti-Hu antibody, we diagnosed paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy. The lung cancer disappeared with chemotherapy, but he had developed short-term memory loss six months later. Brain fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging showed an abnormal high-intensity lesion in the left medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus. We therefore made the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis following subacute sensory neuropathy associated with the anti-Hu antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient presenting with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in which limbic encephalitis developed after tumor disappearance. So we must recognize the possibility of neurological symptoms occurring during remission. As the mechanism of pathogenesis, delayed neuronal cell damage due to immune responses against the tumor is implicated.

  1. Effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the treatment of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Kiyani, Abolghasem; Dehghan, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new and noninvasive treatment including extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of CTS. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on 60 patients with moderate CTS in selected health centers of Isfahan Medical University from November 2014 to April 2015. Patients with CTS were randomly divided into two groups. Conservative treatment including wrist splint at night for 3 months, consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 2 weeks, and oral consumption of Vitamin B1 for a month was recommended for both groups. The first group was treated with ESWT, one session per week for 4 weeks. Focus probe with 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, and 0.15 energy and shock numbers 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 were used from the first session to the fourth, respectively. The evaluated parameters were assessed before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, Student’s t-test, and Chi-square test. Results: All parameters were significantly decreased in the ESWT group after 3 months. These results remained almost constant after 6 months compared with 3 months after treatment. However, only two parameters considerably improved after 3 months of treatment in the control group. The entire indexes in the control group implicated the regression of results in long-term period. Conclusion: It is recommended to use ESWT as a conservative treatment in patients with CTS. PMID:27563630

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome with purulent meningitis and septic shock: A case from mainland China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yun; Wong, Chi-Chun; Lai, San-Chuan; Lin, Zheng-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Liang; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Kong-Han; Chen, Shu-Jie; Si, Jian-Min

    2016-03-07

    We present a rare case of invasive liver abscess syndrome due to Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) with metastatic meningitis and septic shock. A previously healthy, 55-year-old female patient developed fever, liver abscess, septic shock, purulent meningitis and metastatic hydrocephalus. Upon admission, the clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging examinations were compatible with a diagnosis of K. pneumoniae primary liver abscess. Her distal metastasis infection involved meningitis and hydrocephalus, which could flare abruptly and be life threatening. Even with early adequate drainage and antibiotic therapy, the patient's condition deteriorated and she ultimately died. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of K. pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome with septic meningitis reported in mainland China. Our findings reflect the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, complications, comorbid medical conditions and treatment of this disease.

  3. Comparison of cotton and cotton/rayon tampons for effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, P M

    1995-10-01

    Studies were done to compare tampons made solely of cotton and made of both cotton and rayon for effect on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Under stationary in vitro conditions in which tampons were either oversaturated or 50% saturated with culture media, the same amount of or more TSST-1 was made with cotton tampons than with cotton/rayon tampons. Similarly, when tested with the tampon sac method, cotton tampons yielded the same amount of or more toxin than did the cotton/rayon tampons. Bacterial cell numbers generally paralleled toxin production. These data indicate that cotton tampons neither prevent TSST-1 production nor significantly adsorb toxin onto the fibers to make toxin unavailable to cause toxic shock syndrome, in contrast to results of a previous study.

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome with purulent meningitis and septic shock: A case from mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yun; Wong, Chi-Chun; Lai, San-Chuan; Lin, Zheng-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Liang; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Kong-Han; Chen, Shu-Jie; Si, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of invasive liver abscess syndrome due to Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) with metastatic meningitis and septic shock. A previously healthy, 55-year-old female patient developed fever, liver abscess, septic shock, purulent meningitis and metastatic hydrocephalus. Upon admission, the clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging examinations were compatible with a diagnosis of K. pneumoniae primary liver abscess. Her distal metastasis infection involved meningitis and hydrocephalus, which could flare abruptly and be life threatening. Even with early adequate drainage and antibiotic therapy, the patient’s condition deteriorated and she ultimately died. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of K. pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome with septic meningitis reported in mainland China. Our findings reflect the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, complications, comorbid medical conditions and treatment of this disease. PMID:26973425

  5. Spontaneous mutations in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patients play roles in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Matsumura, Takayuki; Nihonmatsu, Hisako; Ohya, Hitomi; Okuno, Rumi; Mitsui, Chieko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Mari; Shimada, Naomi; Ato, Manabu; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a widespread human pathogen and causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). STSS isolates have been previously shown to have high frequency mutations in the csrS/csrR (covS/covR) and/or rgg (ropB) genes, which are negative regulators of virulence. However, these mutations were found at somewhat low frequencies in emm1-genotyped isolates, the most prevalent STSS genotype. In this study, we sought to detect causal mutations of enhanced virulence in emm1 isolates lacking mutation(s) in the csrS/csrR and rgg genes. Three mutations associated with elevated virulence were found in the sic (a virulence gene) promoter, the csrR promoter, and the rocA gene (a csrR positive regulator). In vivo contribution of the sic promoter and rocA mutations to pathogenicity and lethality was confirmed in a GAS mouse model. Frequency of the sic promoter mutation was significantly higher in STSS emm1 isolates than in non-invasive STSS isolates; the rocA gene mutation frequency was not significantly different among STSS and non-STSS isolates. STSS emm1 isolates possessed a high frequency mutation in the sic promoter. Thus, this mutation may play a role in the dynamics of virulence and STSS pathogenesis. PMID:27349341

  6. [[Staphylococcus aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in the lower genital tract of the female].

    PubMed

    Puig de Centorbi, O N; Calleri de Milán, M C; Abdón de Cuadrado, A M; Ciácera de Carrizo, S C; Giménez, D F

    1987-01-01

    Staphylococcus sp was investigated in the female lower genital tract of 102 healthy women aged between 18 and 48 years in San Luis, Argentina. Three hundred and six samples were obtained from labia, introitus and vagina (posterior fornix). Samples were plated on sheep blood, mannitol salt and Baird-Parker media. Strains were identified by tube coagulase test; thermonuclease, fibrinolysin, pigment and hemolysin production; glucose and mannitol utilization and novobiocin sensitivity. Antibiotic susceptibility was assayed. Strains were examined for their ability to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). Fourteen women (13.7%) had S. aureus in one or more samples: 10.7% labia, 3.9% introitus and 3.9% vaginal. All strains were sensitive to cephalotin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamycin and chloramphenicol; 21.0% were intermediate to methicillin; 15.7% were resistant to methicillin, 94.7% to penicillin and 21.0% to tetracycline. Three strains (15.7%) produced SEB, three (15.7%) SED, one (5.7%) SEC and three (15.7%) TSST-1. Only one strain (5.7%) produced both SEB and TSST-1. All strains produced hemolysins. Coagulase negative staphylococci were found in 40.1% of vaginal samples: S. epidermidis (32.2%) and S. saprophyticus (9.8%) were identified.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in rheumatoid arthritis: antibody response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tabarya, D; Hoffman, W L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and to compare antibody responses to two superantigens, staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in rheumatoid arthritis patients and normal subjects. METHODS: 88 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 110 control subjects were cultured for nasal carriage of S aureus; 62 isolates were bacteriophage typed. Twenty five patients and 11 spouses were tested for antibodies to TSST-1, SEA, and sonicate extracts of Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli; 19 patients were HLA-DR typed. RESULTS: 50% of patients and 33% of normal subjects were S aureus carriers. Bacteriophage typing of isolates suggested significant differences between strains isolated from the two groups. Patients showed higher IgG (P = 0.0025) and IgA (P = 0.0372) antibody levels to TSST-1 than normal spouses and these responses were not related to rheumatoid factor titres or HLA-DR type. CONCLUSION: When compared to normals, rheumatoid arthritis patients more often carry S aureus in their nasal vestibule, carry a distinct subpopulation of S aureus strains, and have higher average antibody levels to TSST-1. PMID:8976639

  8. Neutralization of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 by monoclonal antibodies in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, P F; Thompson, M R; Adinolfi, L E; Gillis, Z A; Parsonnet, J

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) were generated by immunization of mice with purified TSST-1 and subsequent fusion of spleen cells with myeloma cells. Antibody-producing clones, identified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were maintained as ascites tumors, and MAbs were purified by protein A chromatography. High-titered clones were further characterized and tested for the ability to neutralize several biological activities of TSST-1. The MAbs, which are of several immunoglobulin subtypes, reacted specifically with purified TSST-1 and TSST-1 present in Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatants. Three MAbs neutralized TSST-1-induced mitogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Three of eight MAbs tested were able to neutralize induction by TSST-1 of interleukin-1 production by human monocytes. One neutralizing MAb, 8-5-7, was tested for the ability to protect rabbits from a constant infusion of TSST-1. Rabbits given the MAb had an attenuated clinical illness and were protected from the hypocalcemia, lipemia, and hepatic and renal insufficiency seen in control rabbits. Six of seven control rabbits died, compared with only one of seven rabbits treated with MAb 8-5-7. These experiments suggest that MAb 8-5-7 is directed against an antigenic determinant critical to the toxicity of TSST-1 and that the MAbs should be useful as probes in structure-function analyses of the TSST-1 molecule. Images PMID:3257201

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Aya; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Down's syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down's syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin.

  10. Propensity of Tampons and Barrier Contraceptives to Amplify Staphylococcus aureusToxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-I

    PubMed Central

    Tierno, Philip M.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: Although the incidence of reported cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) has declined in recent years, the disease continues to occur in menstruating women using the newer, less-absorbent tampons or barrier contraceptives. Extant tampons and other vaginal devices were tested for the ability to induce TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1) by a TSS strain of Staphylococcus aureus MN8, a known high-toxin producer. Tested for the first time were 20 varieties of tampons, including 2 all-cotton brands newly introduced in the United States, a polyurethane contraceptive sponge, a latex diaphragm, and a polymer menstrual collection cup. Methods: All products were washed in sterile distilled water prior to use to reduce the effect of leachable chemicals. Duplicate experiments with unwashed products were also performed. Entire tampons and other test products were immersed in brain heart infusion broth plus yeast extract (BHIY) and inoculated with S. aureus MN8, a known TSST-1 producer. After incubation, the culture supernatants were assayed for TSST-1 by gel immunodiffusion. Results: Except for all-cotton tampons, greater amounts of TSST-1 were detected in the supernatant fluid of washed tampons than detected in those which were not washed. While TSST-1 levels in unwashed non-cotton tampons ranged from 0.5 to 8 μg/ml, when these products were washed, TSST-1 levels increased to 2–32 μg/ml. In all-cotton tampons, whether washed or not, there was no detectable TSST-1. Conclusions: The propensity for all-cotton tampons not to amplify TSST-1 in vitro suggests they would lower the risk for tampon-associated TSS. PMID:18475381

  11. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome from necrotizing soft-tissue infection of the breast caused by a mucoid type strain.

    PubMed

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishitobi, Natsuko; Yamamori, Yuji; Wakuri, Miho; Sano, Chiaki; Tominaga, Kiyoshi; Ikebe, Tadayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a severe infectious disease. We report a Japanese case of Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by a highly mucoid strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. A 31-year old female with shock vital sign presented at a tertiary medical center. Her left breast was necrotizing and S. pyogenes was detected by Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic kits. Intensive care, including administration of antibiotics and skin debridement, was performed. After 53 days in our hospital, she was discharged. The blood cultures and skin swab cultures all grew S. pyogenes which displayed a highly mucoid morphology on culture media. In her course of the disease, the Streptococcus strain had infected two other family members. All of the strains possessed the T1 and M1 antigens, as well as the emm1.0 gene. As for fever genes, the strains were all positive for speA, speB, and speF, but negative for speC. All of the strains exhibited and the same pattern in PFGE with the SfiI restriction enzyme. The strain might have spread in the local area by the data from the Japanese Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic kits are very useful for detecting S. pyogenes. However, they can not be used to diagnose severe streptococcul disease by highly mucoid strain alone. Careful observation of patients and colony morphology are useful methods for diagnosing severe streptococcal disease by highly mucoid strain.

  12. Pro-inflammatory exoprotein characterization of toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chi; Anderson, Michele J.; Kohler, Petra L.; Strandberg, Kristi L.; Olson, Michael E.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated Staphylococcus aureus colonizer of the nose and is a major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Exoproteins derived from these organisms have been suggested to contribute to their colonization and causation of human diseases, but have not been well-characterized. Two representative S. aureus USA200 isolates, MNPE (α-toxin positive) and CDC587 (α-toxin mutant), isolated from pulmonary post-influenza TSS and menstrual vaginal TSS, respectively, were evaluated. Biochemical, immunobiological and cell-based assays, including mass spectrometry, were used to identify key exoproteins derived from the strains that are responsible for pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity on human vaginal epithelial cells. Exoproteins associated with virulence were produced by both strains, and cytolysins (α-toxin and γ-toxin), superantigens, and proteases were identified as the major exoproteins, which caused epithelial cell inflammation and cytotoxicity. Exoprotein fractions from MNPE were more pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic than those from CDC587 due to high concentrations of α-toxin. CDC587 produced a small amount of α-toxin, despite the presence of a stop codon (TAG) at codon 113. Additional exotoxin identification studies of USA200 strain [S. aureus MN8 (α-toxin mutant)] confirmed that MN8 also produced low levels of α-toxin despite the same stop codon. The differences observed in virulence factor profiles of two USA200 strains provide insight into environmental factors that select for specific virulence factors. Cytolysins, superantigens, and proteases were identified as potential targets, where toxin neutralization may prevent or diminish epithelial damage associated with S. aureus. PMID:21749039

  13. Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1-Mediated Toxicity Inhibited by Neutralizing Antibodies Late in the Course of Continual in Vivo and in Vitro Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stich, Norbert; Model, Nina; Samstag, Aysen; Gruener, Corina S.; Wolf, Hermann M.; Eibl, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) results from the host’s overwhelming inflammatory response and cytokine storm mainly due to superantigens (SAgs). There is no effective specific therapy. Application of immunoglobulins has been shown to improve the outcome of the disease and to neutralize SAgs both in vivo and in vitro. However, in most experiments that have been performed, antiserum was either pre-incubated with SAg, or both were applied simultaneously. To mirror more closely the clinical situation, we applied a multiple dose (over five days) lethal challenge in a rabbit model. Treatment with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) neutralizing antibody was fully protective, even when administered late in the course of the challenge. Kinetic studies on the effect of superantigen toxins are scarce. We performed in vitro kinetic studies by neutralizing the toxin with antibodies at well-defined time points. T-cell activation was determined by assessing T-cell proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), determination of IL-2 release in the cell supernatant (ELISA), and IL-2 gene activation (real-time PCR (RT-PCR)). Here we show that T-cell activation occurs continuously. The application of TSST-1 neutralizing antiserum reduced IL-2 and TNFα release into the cell supernatant, even if added at later time points. Interference with the prolonged stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines is likely to be in vivo relevant, as postexposure treatment protected rabbits against the multiple dose lethal SAg challenge. Our results shed new light on the treatment of TSS by specific antibodies even at late stages of exposure. PMID:24887085

  14. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-mediated toxicity inhibited by neutralizing antibodies late in the course of continual in vivo and in vitro exposure.

    PubMed

    Stich, Norbert; Model, Nina; Samstag, Aysen; Gruener, Corina S; Wolf, Hermann M; Eibl, Martha M

    2014-05-30

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) results from the host's overwhelming inflammatory response and cytokine storm mainly due to superantigens (SAgs). There is no effective specific therapy. Application of immunoglobulins has been shown to improve the outcome of the disease and to neutralize SAgs both in vivo and in vitro. However, in most experiments that have been performed, antiserum was either pre-incubated with SAg, or both were applied simultaneously. To mirror more closely the clinical situation, we applied a multiple dose (over five days) lethal challenge in a rabbit model. Treatment with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) neutralizing antibody was fully protective, even when administered late in the course of the challenge. Kinetic studies on the effect of superantigen toxins are scarce. We performed in vitro kinetic studies by neutralizing the toxin with antibodies at well-defined time points. T-cell activation was determined by assessing T-cell proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), determination of IL-2 release in the cell supernatant (ELISA), and IL-2 gene activation (real-time PCR (RT-PCR)). Here we show that T-cell activation occurs continuously. The application of TSST-1 neutralizing antiserum reduced IL-2 and TNFα release into the cell supernatant, even if added at later time points. Interference with the prolonged stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines is likely to be in vivo relevant, as postexposure treatment protected rabbits against the multiple dose lethal SAg challenge. Our results shed new light on the treatment of TSS by specific antibodies even at late stages of exposure.

  15. Effect of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) on hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) syndrome. Methods In this monocentric, randomized, patient-assessor blinded, placebo-controlled trial, patients with HSP were randomly divided into the rESWT (n=17) and control (n=17) groups. Treatment was administered four times a week for 2 weeks. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score and Constant-Murley score (CS) were assessed before and after treatment, and at 2 and 4 weeks. The Modified Ashworth Scale and Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores and range of motion of the shoulder were also assessed. Results VAS scores improved post-intervention and at the 2-week and 4-week follow-up in the intervention group (p<0.05). Respective differences in VAS scores between baseline and post-intervention in the intervention and control groups were –1.69±1.90 and –0.45±0.79, respectively (p<0.05), between baseline and 2-week follow-up in the intervention and control groups were –1.60±1.74 and –0.34±0.70, respectively (p<0.05), and between baseline and 4-week follow-up in the intervention and control groups were –1.61±1.73 and –0.33±0.71, respectively (p<0.05). Baseline CS improved from 19.12±11.02 to 20.88±10.37 post-intervention and to 20.41±10.82 at the 2-week follow-up only in the intervention group (p<0.05). Conclusion rESWT consisting of eight sessions could be one of the effective and safe modalities for pain management in people with HSP. Further studies are needed to generalize and support these results in patients with HSP and a variety conditions, and to understand the mechanism of rESWT for treating HSP. PMID:27446789

  16. First Generation Gene Expression Signature for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematological Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons.

    PubMed

    Port, M; Herodin, F; Valente, M; Drouet, M; Lamkowski, A; Majewski, M; Abend, M

    2016-07-01

    We implemented a two-stage study to predict late occurring hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) in a baboon model based on gene expression changes measured in peripheral blood within the first two days after irradiation. Eighteen baboons were irradiated to simulate different patterns of partial-body and total-body exposure, which corresponded to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. Blood samples taken before irradiation served as unexposed control (H0, n = 17). For stage I of this study, a whole genome screen (mRNA microarrays) was performed using a portion of the samples (H0, n = 5; H1-2, n = 4; H2-3, n = 5). For stage II, using the remaining samples and the more sensitive methodology, qRT-PCR, validation was performed on candidate genes that were differentially up- or down-regulated during the first two days after irradiation. Differential gene expression was defined as significant (P < 0.05) and greater than or equal to a twofold difference above a H0 classification. From approximately 20,000 genes, on average 46% appeared to be expressed. On day 1 postirradiation for H2-3, approximately 2-3 times more genes appeared up-regulated (1,418 vs. 550) or down-regulated (1,603 vs. 735) compared to H1-2. This pattern became more pronounced at day 2 while the number of differentially expressed genes decreased. The specific genes showed an enrichment of biological processes coding for immune system processes, natural killer cell activation and immune response (P = 1 × E-06 up to 9 × E-14). Based on the P values, magnitude and sustained differential gene expression over time, we selected 89 candidate genes for validation using qRT-PCR. Ultimately, 22 genes were confirmed for identification of H1-3 classifications and seven genes for identification of H2-3 classifications using qRT-PCR. For H1-3 classifications, most genes were

  17. [A case report of toxic shock-like syndrome associated with prevalence of streptococcal pharingitis in the family].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Sakashita, H; Takada, C; Otsuka, Y; Ooe, K; Tsumita, R

    1994-09-01

    A case of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in a previously healthy, 57 year old Japanese female has been reported. Initially, she had a sore throat and low grade fever for 5 days. Because of sudden severe pain on the extremities and erythema on bilateral forearms, she was hospitalized. On admission, her conciousness was clear. Although profound hypotension, anuria and prolonged blood coagulation were observed. Antibiotics, fluid therapy and dopamine were given. Four hours after admission, she died in spite of resuscitation efforts, by sudden cardiac arrest. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in her blood. At the same time as when she died, three of the five people of the patient's family living with her, had pharingitis or pneumonia. From the pharynxs of the three people with pharingitis, Streptococcus pyogenes was also isolated. The serotype of all organisms was T11, and they produced exotoxintype B in vitro. This case suggests that infection of Streptococcus pyogenes is not essential for the development of toxic shock-like syndrome.

  18. Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Aaron N.; Stach, Christopher S.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted factors of Staphylococcus aureus can activate host signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) contributes to mucosal cytokine production through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands and subsequent EGFR activation. The secreted hemolysin, α-toxin, can also induce EGFR signaling and directly interacts with ADAM10, a sheddase of EGFR ligands. The current work explores the role of EGFR signaling in menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS), a disease mediated by TSST-1. The data presented show that TSST-1 and α-toxin induce ADAM- and EGFR-dependent cytokine production from human vaginal epithelial cells. TSST-1 and α-toxin also induce cytokine production from an ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa (PVM) model. EGFR signaling is responsible for the majority of IL-8 production from PVM in response to secreted toxins and live S. aureus. Finally, data are presented demonstrating that inhibition of EGFR signaling with the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 significantly increases survival in a rabbit model of mTSS. These data indicate that EGFR signaling is critical for progression of an S. aureus exotoxin-mediated disease and may represent an attractive host target for therapeutics. PMID:27414801

  19. [Postpartum endocrine syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Châtel, P; Luton, D

    2008-05-01

    Postpartum endocrine syndromes occur in the year after delivery. They are due to immunologic and vascular modifications during pregnancy. The Sheehan syndrome is the first described postpartum endocrine syndrome and consists on a hypophyse necrosis in relation with a hypovolemic shock during delivery. The immunologic consequences of the pregnancy are the most frequent, sometimes discrete and transitory. The physiological evolution of the endocrine glands during pregnancy and the most frequent post-partum endocrine syndromes are discussed: postpartum lymphocytic hypophysitis, thyroiditis and Sheehan' syndrome.

  20. Mild Electrical Stimulation and Heat Shock Ameliorates Progressive Proteinuria and Renal Inflammation in Mouse Model of Alport Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryosuke; Morino-Koga, Saori; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Sato, Takashi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerulopathy with proteinuria and nephritis caused by defects in genes encoding type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membrane. All male and most female patients develop end-stage renal disease. Effective treatment to stop or decelerate the progression of proteinuria and nephritis is still under investigation. Here we showed that combination treatment of mild electrical stress (MES) and heat stress (HS) ameliorated progressive proteinuria and renal injury in mouse model of Alport syndrome. The expressions of kidney injury marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were suppressed by MES+HS treatment. The anti-proteinuric effect of MES+HS treatment is mediated by podocytic activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt and heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72)-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect of MES+HS was mediated by glomerular activation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38-dependent pathways ex vivo. Collectively, our studies show that combination treatment of MES and HS confers anti-proteinuric and anti-inflammatory effects on Alport mice likely through the activation of multiple signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt, Hsp72, JNK1/2, and p38 pathways, providing a novel candidate therapeutic strategy to decelerate the progression of patho-phenotypes in Alport syndrome. PMID:22937108

  1. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B toxic shock syndrome induced by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Takeru; Kikuchi, Ken; Abe, Shinji; Kato, Hidehito; Hayashi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Taisuke; Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Takeda, Shinhiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Imanishi, Ken'ichi; Yagi, Junji; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    We herein report a case of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) associated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus and a community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection in a 16-year-old Vietnamese girl. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was detected in the patient's serum, and the level of anti-SEB antibodies was found to be elevated. A flow cytometric analysis showed evidence of activated SEB-reactive Vβ3+ and Vβ12+ T cells. These data suggest that the CA-MRSA-induced activation of SEB-reactive T cells may cause TSS in patients with pH1N1 virus infection. Moreover, this is the first report describing immunological confirmation of SEB contributing directly to TSS in a patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of TSS.

  2. The effect of site-specific monoclonal antibodies directed to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in experimental Staphylococcus aureus arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Verdrengh, M; Kum, W; Chow, A; Tarkowski, A

    1999-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a large number of potential virulence factors, among these the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We have recently demonstrated that TSST-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of septic arthritis. Recent data show that the TSST-1 molecule is composed of two distinct domains, one proposed to interact with T cell receptor (TCR) and one with the MHC class II. The aim of this study was to assess if interaction between TSST-1-specific MoAbs directed to sites on the MHC and/or TCR Vβ affects the development of experimental S. aureus-induced arthritis. For that purpose we used a panel of seven MoAbs, which were injected intraperitoneally before and after inoculation with a TSST-1-producing S. aureus strain. Administration of antibodies did not affect the development of arthritis, suggesting inefficacy of such a procedure in neutralization of exotoxin-mediated disease manifestations. PMID:10540189

  3. Glycerol Monolaurate and Dodecylglycerol Effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chi; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Anderson, Michele J.; Fair, Christina L.; Schaefers, Matthew M.; Muthyala, Ramaiah; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a 12 carbon fatty acid monoester, inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production, but is degraded by S. aureus lipase. Therefore, dodecylglycerol (DDG), a 12 carbon fatty acid monoether, was compared in vitro and in vivo to GML for its effects on S. aureus growth, exotoxin production, and stability. Methodology/Principal Findings Antimicrobial effects of GML and DDG (0 to 500 µg/ml) on 54 clinical isolates of S. aureus, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types USA200, USA300, and USA400, were determined in vitro. A rabbit Wiffle ball infection model assessed GML and DDG (1 mg/ml instilled into the Wiffle ball every other day) effects on S. aureus (MN8) growth (inoculum 3×108 CFU/ml), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and mortality over 7 days. DDG (50 and 100 µg/ml) inhibited S. aureus growth in vitro more effectively than GML (p<0.01) and was stable to lipase degradation. Unlike GML, DDG inhibition of TSST-1 was dependent on S. aureus growth. GML-treated (4 of 5; 80%) and DDG-treated rabbits (2 of 5; 40%) survived after 7 days. Control rabbits (5 of 5; 100%) succumbed by day 4. GML suppressed TNF-α at the infection site on day 7; however, DDG did not (<10 ng/ml versus 80 ng/ml, respectively). Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that DDG was stable to S. aureus lipase and inhibited S. aureus growth at lower concentrations than GML in vitro. However, in vivo GML was more effective than DDG by reducing mortality, and suppressing TNF-α, S. aureus growth and exotoxin production, which may reduce toxic shock syndrome. GML is proposed as a more effective anti-staphylococcal topical anti-infective candidate than DDG, despite its potential degradation by S. aureus lipase. PMID:19838303

  4. Synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist enhances vaccine efficacy in an experimental model of toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morefield, Garry L; Hawkins, Lynn D; Ishizaka, Sally T; Kissner, Teri L; Ulrich, Robert G

    2007-11-01

    The development of new protein subunit vaccines has stimulated the search for improved adjuvants to replace traditional aluminum-containing products. We investigated the adjuvant effects of a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist on vaccine efficacy in an experimental model of toxic shock syndrome. The TLR4 agonist E6020 has a simplified structure consisting of a hexa-acylated acyclic backbone. The vaccine examined is a recombinantly attenuated form of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (STEBVax). Using cells stably transfected with TLRs, E6020 transduced signals only through TLR4, suggesting monospecificity, while Escherichia coli 055:B5 lipopolysaccharide activated both the TLR2/6 heterodimer and TLR4. Coadministration of E6020 with STEBVax, by the intramuscular or intranasal route, induced significant levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in BALB/c mice. Further, increased IgG production resulted from the combination of E6020 with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (AH). The antibody response to the vaccine coadministered with E6020 was a mixed Th1/Th2 response, as opposed to the Th2-biased response obtained with AH. Mice vaccinated with STEBVax coadministered with AH, TLR4 agonists, or a combination of both adjuvants were protected from toxic shock. Our data demonstrate the effectiveness of the synthetic TLR4 agonist E6020 as an alternative adjuvant for protein subunit vaccines that may also be used in combination with traditional aluminum-containing adjuvants.

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for dengue shock syndrome at MICB and PLCE1.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Pang, Junxiong; Davila, Sonia; Long, Hoang Truong; Ong, Rick T H; Dunstan, Sarah J; Wills, Bridget; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Tram, Ta; Gan, Tran Thi; Binh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Tri, Le Trung; Lien, Le Bich; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Lanh, Mai Ngoc; Nguyet, Nguyen Minh; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Van N Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tan, Dennis E K; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hibberd, Martin L; Simmons, Cameron P

    2011-10-16

    Hypovolemic shock (dengue shock syndrome (DSS)) is the most common life-threatening complication of dengue. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 2,008 pediatric cases treated for DSS and 2,018 controls from Vietnam. Replication of the most significantly associated markers was carried out in an independent Vietnamese sample of 1,737 cases and 2,934 controls. SNPs at two loci showed genome-wide significant association with DSS. We identified a susceptibility locus at MICB (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I polypeptide-related sequence B), which was within the broad MHC region on chromosome 6 but outside the class I and class II HLA loci (rs3132468, P(meta) = 4.41 × 10(-11), per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.46)). We identified associated variants within PLCE1 (phospholipase C, epsilon 1) on chromosome 10 (rs3765524, P(meta) = 3.08 × 10(-10), per-allele OR = 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.86)). We identify two loci associated with susceptibility to DSS in people with dengue, suggesting possible mechanisms for this severe complication of dengue.

  6. Bifurcation balloon for left main shock syndrome: facilitating the simultaneous percutaneous reperfusion of the LAD and circumflex.

    PubMed

    de Man, Karen; Patterson, Mark; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2006-11-01

    Acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery frequently causes cardiogenic shock and, when this occurs with an initial TIMI 0 flow, has an extremely poor prognosis. The use of a bifurcation system has not been described previously in this situation but has advantages that may result in a simpler and quicker solution then other strategies. This case describes a distal LMCA occlusion, 2 weeks post-stenting of the proximal LAD and proximal Cx, where this strategy was successfully used as a bridge to surgery. Such a strategy may be crucially beneficial in this commonly fatal condition.

  7. Dynamic Angular Petrissage as Treatment for Axillary Web Syndrome Occurring after Surgery for Breast Cancer: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul A.; Cunningham, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of breast cancer, axillary web syndrome (AWS), also called lymphatic cording, typically presents in the weeks after axillary surgery. This painful condition, likely lymphofibrotic in origin, restricts upper extremity range of motion (ROM). There is no established treatment, although physical therapy and other approaches have been used to variable effect. This report describes treatment of a female client with AWS, who had recently undergone a unilateral simple mastectomy with sentinel node biopsy plus axillary dissection. Methods The client presented with pain upon movement (self-reported as 5 on the 0–10 Oxford Pain Scale), visible cording and restricted use of the ipsilateral upper extremity. Clinical assessment included determining the extent of AWS cording (taut, from axilla to wrist) and measuring glenohumeral joint ROM (140° flexion by goniometer). A therapeutic massage with movement protocol, termed dynamic angular petrissage, was administered over two sessions: Swedish massage combined with dynamically taking the limb through all possible angles of movement (passive ROM), controlling stretch and tension while simultaneously and segmentally applying petrissage and non-petrissage techniques to the underlying soft tissue. Careful attention was taken to not break the cord. Home care consisted of prescribed exercises performed by the patient. Results After Session One, pain was reduced (to 0/10), ROM improved (to 170° flexion), and cording was visibly reduced. After Session Two the cord was residually apparent only on hyperextension, with no ROM restrictions in glenohumeral joint flexion. Follow-up at three months revealed absence of visual or palpable evidence of cording, unrestricted glenohumeral joint ROM, and absence of movement-associated pain. Conclusion The signs and symptoms of AWS were quickly and effectively eliminated, without causing any pain or discomfort to the client. We propose that dynamic angular petrissage may be

  8. Physiopathology of shock

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Shock syndromes are of three types: cardiogenic, hemorrhagic and inflammatory. Hemorrhagic shock has its initial deranged macro-hemodynamic variables in the blood volume and venous return. In cardiogenic shock there is a primary pump failure that has cardiac output/mean arterial pressure as initial deranged variables. In Inflammatory Shock it is the microcirculation that is mainly affected, while the initial deranged macrocirculation variable is the total peripheral resistance hit by systemic inflammatory response. PMID:21769210

  9. Vascular Endothelium and Hypovolemic Shock.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Endothelium is a site of metabolic activity and has a major reservoir of multipotent stem cells. It plays a vital role in the vascular physiological, pathophysiological and reparative processes. Endothelial functions are significantly altered following hypovolemic shock due to ischemia of the endothelial cells and by reperfusion due to resuscitation with fluids. Activation of endothelial cells leads to release of vasoactive substances (nitric oxide, endothelin, platelet activating factor, prostacyclin, mitochondrial N-formyl peptide), mediators of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins, interferons) and thrombosis. Endothelial cell apoptosis is induced following hypovolemic shock due to deprivation of oxygen required by endothelial cell mitochondria; this lack of oxygen initiates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of apoptogenic proteins. The glycocalyx structure of endothelium is compromised which causes an impairment of the protective endothelial barrier resulting in increased permeability and leakage of fluids in to the tissue causing edema. Growth factors such as angiopoetins and vascular endothelial growth factors also contribute towards pathophysiology of hypovolemic shock. Endothelium is extremely active with numerous functions, understanding these functions will provide novel targets to design therapeutic agents for the acute management of hypovolemic shock. Hypovolemic shock also occurs in conditions such as dengue shock syndrome and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, defining the role of endothelium in the pathophysiology of these conditions will provide greater insight regarding the functions of endothelial cells in vascular regulation.

  10. Atypical Double Right Coronary Artery Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome, Cardiogenic Shock and Complete Heart Block

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Shravan; Chaturvedi, Vikash; Agrawal, Puneet; Razi, Mahmadula; Mahrotra, Anupam; Mishra, Vikas; Kumar, Mukesh; Abdali, Nasar; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Thakur, Ramesh; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Pandey, Umeshwar

    2017-01-01

    Double right coronary artery (RCA) is an extremely rare coronary artery anomaly. We here report an atherosclerotic double RCA which appeared after primary percutaneous intervention performed to treat a 34-year-old male presenting with acute inferior myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock and complete heart block. This is an unusual case as double RCA had been hidden by total atherosclerotic occlusion of the proximal part of the RCA and complete restoration of patency led complete heart block back to normal sinus rhythm. PMID:28179971

  11. Dilated cardiomyopathy with cardiogenic shock in a child with Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Swati; Choudhry, Swati; Debelenko, Larisa; L'Ecuyer, Thomas

    2016-02-16

    Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a mitochondrial myopathy resulting from mitochondrial DNA deletion. This syndrome primarily involves the central nervous system, eyes, skeletal muscles and the heart. The most well-known cardiac complications involve the conduction system; however, there have been case reports describing cardiomyopathy. We describe a case of a child with KSS who presented with decompensated cardiac failure from dilated cardiomyopathy representing cardiomyocyte involvement of KSS. Our patient had a rapidly progressing course, despite maximal medical management, requiring emergent institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and transition to a ventricular assist device. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient in the literature to have dilated cardiomyopathy in KSS.

  12. [Presence of enterotoxin C and toxic shock syndrome toxin--1 (TSST-1) genes in population of Staphylococcus aureus phage type 187].

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Katarzyna; Piechowicz, Lidia; Galiński, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether Staphylococcus aureus of phage type 187 possess the genes of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrom toxin. Sixteen phage type 187 strains were isolated from the hospital patients (12) and the carriers (4) in twelve medical centres in Poland during 1991 and 2005. Biotyping, phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, detection of the genes of enterotoxins (sea--sed) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst) was tested. The results of this study showed that all staphylococci of phage type 187 belonged to the human biotype (A) and appeared to be sensitive to all of the tested antibiotics, including methicillin (MSSA). Almost all of them (93.8%) had the enterotoxin C gene and TSST-1 gene. This fact allows to consider them the strains of potentially high virulence.

  13. Investigation by improved syringe method of effect of tampons on production in vitro of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, A C; Downs, S A

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven types of commercial tampons from five manufacturers were tested in a sealed-syringe method to determine their effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. In this improvement of the syringe method, the available air is limited to that which is contained within the sealed syringe containing the tampon. The culture medium was buffered, and blood and CO2 were included in the incubation to better simulate the vaginal environment during menstruation. Variables of tampon weight, composition, air volume, and absorbency were examined for their effect on the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Generally, with the exception of brand E, toxin production in the presence of tampons was equal to or lower than that in a sealed control syringe containing air but no tampon. PMID:2808672

  14. Role of cognitive parameters in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is becoming recognized as one of the most important vector-borne human diseases. It is predominant in tropical and subtropical zones but its geographical distribution is progressively expanding, making it an escalating global health problem of today. Dengue presents with spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, undifferentiated mild fever, dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with or without shock (DSS), a life-threatening illness characterized by plasma leakage due to increased vascular permeability. Currently, there are no antiviral modalities or vaccines available to treat and prevent dengue. Supportive care with close monitoring is the standard clinical practice. The mechanisms leading to DHF/DSS remains poorly understood. Multiple factors have been attributed to the pathological mechanism, but only a couple of these hypotheses are popular in scientific circles. The current discussion focuses on underappreciated factors, temperature, natural IgM, and endotoxin, which may be critical components playing roles in dengue pathogenesis. PMID:24305068

  15. Distributive shock due to systemic capillary leak syndrome treated with high-dose immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, James Robert; Keating, Liza; Chan, Antoni; Walden, Andrew

    2013-04-09

    A female patient in her 60s presented with a history of malaise, chills, headache and vomiting. She was in shock on presentation with a high haematocrit and a low albumin with evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Severe limb and truncal oedema developed with worsening hypotension leading to intensive care unit admission for multiple organ support. Extensive radiological, microbiological and immunological work up was negative with the exception of a monoclonal gammopathy. A review of patient investigations led to a diagnosis of Clarkson's disease. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins led to a rapid decline in the creatine kinase (CK) level and vasopressor requirements. The patient was discharged home on long-term terbutaline and has made a good recovery.

  16. Effect of radial shock wave therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yung-Tsan; Ke, Ming-Jen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chih-Ya; Lin, Ching-Yueh; Li, Tsung-Ying; Shih, Feng-Mei; Chen, Liang-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Three recent studies demonstrated the positive effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for treating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, none have entirely proved the effects of ESWT on CTS because all studies had a small sample size and lacked a placebo-controlled design. Moreover, radial ESWT (rESWT) has not been used to treat CTS. We conducted a prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study to assess the effect of rESWT for treating CTS. Thirty-four enrolled patients (40 wrists) were randomized into intervention and control groups (20 wrists in each). Participants in the intervention group underwent three sessions of rESWT with nightly splinting, whereas those in the control group underwent sham rESWT with nightly splinting. The primary outcome was visual analog scale (VAS), whereas the secondary outcomes included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. Evaluations were performed before treatment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the third rESWT session. A significantly greater improvement in the VAS, BCTQ scores, and CSA of the median nerve was noted in the intervention group throughout the study as compared to the control group (except for BCTQ severity at week 12 and CSA at weeks 1 and 4) (p < 0.05). This is the first study to assess rESWT in a randomized placebo-controlled trial and demonstrate that rESWT is a safe and effective method for relieving pain and disability in patients with CTS. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:977-984, 2016.

  17. Septic shock non-thyroidal illness syndrome causes hypothyroidism and conditions for reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Castro, Isabel; Quisenberry, Leah; Calvo, Rosa-Maria; Obregon, Maria-Jesus; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2013-04-01

    Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is part of the neuroendocrine response to stress, but the significance of this syndrome remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NTIS on thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH molecular targets, as well as the relationship between septic shock nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) activation and TH receptor β (THRB) gene expression at a multi-tissue level in a pig model. Prepubertal domestic pigs were given i.v. saline or LPS for 48 h. Serum and tissue TH was measured by chemiluminescence and RIA. Expression of THRs and cofactors was measured by real-time PCR, and deiodinase (DIO) activity was measured by enzyme assays. Tissue NF-kB nuclear binding activity was evaluated by EMSA. LPS-treated pigs had decreased TH levels in serum and most tissues. DIO1 expression in liver and kidney and DIO1 activity in kidney decreased after LPS. No changes in DIO2 activity were observed between groups. LPS induced an increase in hypothalamus, thyroid, and liver DIO3 activity. Among the other studied genes, monocarboxylate transporter 8 and THRB were the most commonly repressed in endotoxemic pigs. LPS-induced NF-kB activation was associated with a decrease in THRB gene expression only in frontal lobe, adrenal gland, and kidney cortex. We conclude that LPS-induced NTIS in pigs is characterized by hypothyroidism and tissue-specific reduced TH sensitivity. The role of NF-kB in regulating THRB expression during endotoxemia, if any, is restricted to a limited number of tissues.

  18. Pre- and perinatal complications in relation to Tourette syndrome and co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Abdulkadir, Mohamed; Tischfield, Jay A; King, Robert A; Fernandez, Thomas V; Brown, Lawrence W; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Coffey, Barbara J; de Bruijn, Sebastian F T M; Elzerman, Lonneke; Garcia-Delgar, Blanca; Gilbert, Donald L; Grice, Dorothy E; Hagstrøm, Julie; Hedderly, Tammy; Heyman, Isobel; Hong, Hyun Ju; Huyser, Chaim; Ibanez-Gomez, Laura; Kim, Young Key; Kim, Young-Shin; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kook, Sodahm; Kuperman, Samuel; Lamerz, Andreas; Leventhal, Bennett; Ludolph, Andrea G; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Maras, Athanasios; Messchendorp, Marieke D; Mir, Pablo; Morer, Astrid; Münchau, Alexander; Murphy, Tara L; Openneer, Thaïra J C; Plessen, Kerstin J; Rath, Judith J G; Roessner, Veit; Fründt, Odette; Shin, Eun-Young; Sival, Deborah A; Song, Dong-Ho; Song, Jungeun; Stolte, Anne-Marie; Tübing, Jennifer; van den Ban, Els; Visscher, Frank; Wanderer, Sina; Woods, Martin; Zinner, Samuel H; State, Matthew W; Heiman, Gary A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Dietrich, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Pre- and perinatal complications have been implicated in the onset and clinical expression of Tourette syndrome albeit with considerable inconsistencies across studies. Also, little is known about their role in co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with a tic disorder. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of pre- and perinatal complications in relation to the presence and symptom severity of chronic tic disorder and co-occurring OCD and ADHD using data of 1113 participants from the Tourette International Collaborative Genetics study. This study included 586 participants with a chronic tic disorder and 527 unaffected family controls. We controlled for age and sex differences by creating propensity score matched subsamples for both case-control and within-case analyses. We found that premature birth (OR = 1.72) and morning sickness requiring medical attention (OR = 2.57) were associated with the presence of a chronic tic disorder. Also, the total number of pre- and perinatal complications was higher in those with a tic disorder (OR = 1.07). Furthermore, neonatal complications were related to the presence (OR = 1.46) and severity (b = 2.27) of co-occurring OCD and also to ADHD severity (b = 1.09). Delivery complications were only related to co-occurring OCD (OR = 1.49). We conclude that early exposure to adverse situations during pregnancy is related to the presence of chronic tic disorders. Exposure at a later stage, at birth or during the first weeks of life, appears to be associated with co-occurring OCD and ADHD.

  19. Assessment of the pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in piglets for understanding streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome, meningitis, and sequelae.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yuhai; Li, Jing; Yang, Limin; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Yun; Jia, Xiaojuan; Sun, Lei; Yin, Yanbo; Qin, Chuan; Wang, Beinan; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-10-10

    Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) is an zoonotic pathogen that had caused outbreaks in 1998 and 2005 in China. It is still not very clear how the disease progresses into the streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) or meningitis, as well as the sequelae from the survivals. The present study used piglets as infection model to systematically investigate the pathogenesis of the infection caused by the SS2 strain 05ZYH33. The infected piglets showed joint swelling, lameness, and crouch at beginning, then developed into septic-like shock syndrome (SLSS) or prostration syndrome, at last the survivals showed physical activity impairment. The morbidity and mortality were 100% (71% for SLSS, 29% for prostration syndrome) and 29%, respectively. The pigs exhibiting SLSS had deep invasive infections in tissues and organs, and displayed more severe bacteremia and cytokine secretion in the bloodstream and organs than pigs with prostration syndrome. Moreover, the polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 genes varied between the pigs affected with SLSS and prostration syndrome. Several lines of evidence indicated that SS2 infection progression into SLSS or relatively lighter prostration syndrome in pigs is closely related to the degrees of bacteremia and cytokine storm, which may be inherently determined by the diversity of innate immunity-associated genes. Furthermore, brain lesions, such as venous thrombosis, may directly contribute to the sequelae in human cases, were identified in the pigs. These results might help us to further understand the pathogenesis of SS2 in humans.

  20. Guillain-Barré Syndrome Presenting with Sinus Node Dysfunction and Refractory Shock

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Le Dung; Abbas, Farrukh; Rao, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Guillain-Barré syndrome Symptoms: Bradycardia • refractory hypotension Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that is usually associated with preceding respiratory or gastrointestinal infection and has the hallmark manifestation of ascending flaccid paralysis. We report an atypical presentation of GBS. Case Report: A 76-year-old male presented with acute onset of diaphoresis and altered mental status. He subsequently developed severe bradycardia and refractory hypotension, which initially responded to dopamine infusion. A temporary pacemaker wire was placed to stabilize the heart rate but hypotension persisted. Acute autonomic dysfunction was suspected. Head and chest imaging was unrevealing. Lumbar puncture revealed albuminocytologic dissociation that was consistent with a diagnosis of GBS. Hospital course was complicated with acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis. Plasmapharesis was initiated. The patient eventually died of multi-organ failure. Conclusions: Autonomic dysfunction is a known but rare presentation of GBS. In patients presenting with refractory bradycardia and hypotension, GBS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:28283677

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with toxic shock syndrome, using polyethylene infection chambers in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Scott, D F; Kling, J M; Kirkland, J J; Best, G K

    1983-01-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) were compared with non-TSS strains of S. aureus with respect to their virulence in rabbits. When the organisms were injected into subcutaneous chambers (perforated polyethylene golf balls) to assess virulence, a rapid mortality was observed with TSS but not with non-TSS strains. Of 16 TSS strains, 11 caused lethal infections in 33 rabbits tested, and none of the 5 control strains caused mortality in 10 rabbits. This evidence of enhanced virulence associated with TSS strains did not appear to be associated with the size of the inoculum. In addition, strains which produced lethal infections appeared to do so despite a reduction in the size of the original inoculum during the first 24 h. All of the TSS strains and none of the non-TSS strains elaborated extracellular protein(s) with a neutral pI when grown in a dialyzed beef heart medium. No other physiological difference was noted between the TSS and non-TSS strains.

  2. Efficacy of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Moayednia, Amir; Emadi, Masoud; Khorami, Mohammad Hatef; Haghdani, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for symptoms alleviation in chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Materials and Methods. 40 patients with CPPS were randomly allocated into either the treatment or sham group. In the first group, patients were treated by ESWT once a week for 4 weeks by a defined protocol. In the sham group, the same protocol was applied but with the probe being turned off. The follow-up assessments were done at 1, 2, 3, and 12 weeks by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and NIH-developed Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Results. Pain domain scores at follow-up points in both treatment and sham groups were reduced, more so in the treatment group, which were significant at weeks 2, 3, and 12. Urinary scores became significantly different at weeks 3 and 12. Also, quality of life (QOL) and total NIH-CPSI scores at all four follow-up time points reduced more significantly in the treatment group as compared to the sham group. Noticeably, at week 12 a slight deterioration in all variables was observed compared to the first 3 weeks of the treatment period. Conclusions. our findings confirmed ESWT therapy as a safe and effective method in CPPS in short term. PMID:24000311

  3. Serological characterization of dengue virus infections observed among dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome cases in upper Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Kurosawa, Yae; Lwin, Yee Yee; Lin, Sanda; Aye, Kay Thi; Thet Khin, Pe; Myint, Tin; Htwe, Khin; Mapua, Cynthia A; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hirayama, Kenji; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-07-01

    In Myanmar, dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. From Pyinmana Hospital in 2004 and Mandalay Children Hospital in 2006, 160 patients diagnosed clinically to have DHF/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were examined for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels. A focus reduction neutralization test was also used to determine primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. By using IgM-capture ELISA, 139 cases were confirmed as DENV infections. Of these IgM-positives, 94 samples were collected 7-24 days from the onset of illness, to which 13 (14%) and 81 (86%) were determined to be primary and secondary DENV infections, respectively. The 13 primary DENV infection cases were spread among the various severity groups (DHF grade I-IV and DSS) and represented age groups ranging from <1 year of age to 9 years of age. The patients in these primary infection cases showed a remarkably high IgM with a low IgG titer response compared with the secondary infection cases. No significant differences were observed in IgG titers with clinical severity. The data obtained in this study suggest that primary DENV infection cases exist certainly among DHF/DSS cases in Myanmar, and that additional mechanism(s) aside from the antibody-dependent enhancement mechanism could have influenced the clinical severity in DHF/DSS cases.

  4. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin F and pyrogenic exotoxin C by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from toxic shock syndrome-associated sources.

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, P F; Weckbach, L; Staneck, J; Schlievert, P M; Thompson, M

    1983-01-01

    A total of 136 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were tested for production of staphylococcal enterotoxin F (SEF) and pyrogenic exotoxin C (PEC), both of which have been identified as reliable indicators of toxic shock syndrome (TSS)-associated strains. SEF and PEC production by isolates from TSS-associated and other sources was tested independently in two laboratories, after which the two sets of data were compared. A 100% concordance between SEF and PEC production was obtained. The TSS toxin candidates were produced by 30 of 136 isolates, and in all instances SEF and PEC were made concurrently by the same strains; in no case was one toxin made and not the other. In the five groups of S. aureus tested, toxins were detected as follows: 23 of 25 (92%) acute TSS isolates, 2 of 48 (4.2%) genital non-TSS isolates, 2 of 16 (12.5%) recovered TSS isolates, 1 of 23 (4.3%) clinical nongenital isolates, and 2 of 24 (8.3%) enterotoxigenic food outbreak isolates. Comparison of purified SEF and purified PEC by immunological and biochemical criteria by immunodiffusion, isoelectric focusing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analysis show that the toxins are immunologically identical and strongly suggest that the two nominal TSS toxins are in fact a single protein. Images PMID:6189784

  5. Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Lansing, Allan M.

    1963-01-01

    Septic shock may be defined as hypotension caused by bacteremia and accompanied by decreased peripheral blood flow, evidenced by oliguria. Clinically, a shaking chill is the warning signal. The immediate cause of hypotension is pooling of blood in the periphery, leading to decreased venous return: later, peripheral resistance falls and cardiac failure may occur. Irreversible shock is comparable to massive reactive hyperemia. Reticuloendothelial failure, histamine release, and toxic hypersensitivity may be factors in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Adrenal failure does not usually occur, but large doses of corticosteroid are employed therapeutically to counteract the effect of histamine release or hypersensitivity to endotoxin. The keys to successful therapy are time, antibiotics, vasopressors, cortisone and correction of acidosis. PMID:14063936

  6. High-volume hemofiltration and prone ventilation in subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Rodrigo; Romero, Carlos; Ugalde, Diego; Bustos, Patricio; Diaz, Gonzalo; Galvez, Ricardo; Llanos, Osvaldo; Tobar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of two patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe respiratory failure and refractory septic shock using simultaneous prone position ventilation and high-volume hemofiltration. These rescue therapies allowed the patients to overcome the critical situation without associated complications and with no detrimental effects on the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Prone position ventilation is now an accepted therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and high-volume hemofiltration is a non-conventional hemodynamic support that has several potential mechanisms for improving septic shock. In this manuscript, we briefly review these therapies and the related evidence. When other conventional treatments are insufficient for providing safe limits of oxygenation and perfusion as part of basic neuroprotective care in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, these rescue therapies should be considered on a case-by-case basis by an experienced critical care team. PMID:25028955

  7. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  8. [Heart failure and anaphylactic shock. A report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Verdier, F; Petitjeans, F; Griffet, V; Caignault, J-R; Guerard, S

    2011-04-01

    Anaphylactic shock can sometimes take the appearance of heart failure, in relation to an acute coronary syndrome, even with normal coronary arteries, that we illustrate by two observations. We firstly report the case of an anaphylactic shock caused by succinylcholine, after anesthesia induction for inguinal hernia surgery in a 50-year-old man with cardiovascular risks, who presented with ventricular fibrillation followed by a cardiac arrest. An acute and severe anterior coronary syndrome was suspected and treated with thrombolysis. Then the electrocardiogram normalized, as well as the left ventricular function. No significant coronary stenosis was retrospectively revealed by coronarography, and a severe coronary vasospasm induced by the anaphylactic reaction was confirmed. We also describe the case of an anaphylactoid shock caused by cisatracurium infusion, that occurred at the beginning of an adnexectomy in a 55-year-old woman without any particular history. She presented with a cardiogenic shock after intravenous administration of epinephrine. The echocardiograpghic evaluation pointed out an aspect of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, and the coronarography showed normal coronary arteries. The left ventricular dysfunction completely normalized, strongly suggesting the diagnosis of Takotsubo-like syndrome after the anaphylactic shock and its treatment. Both of these cases point out the major interest of cardiologic and allergic evaluation in case of heart failure during general anesthesia. Coronary vasospasm and stress-induced cardiomyopathy are two pathologies that may be observed during anaphylactic shock, and their diagnosis should be considered after elimination of coronary thrombosis.

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome with and without septic shock requiring norepinephrine administration: a dose–response study

    PubMed Central

    Mourgeon, Eric; Puybasset, Louis; Law-Koune, Jean-Dominique; Lu, Qin; Abdennour, Lamine; Gallart, Lluis; Malassine, Patrick; Rao, GS Umamaheswara; Cluzel, Philippe; Bennani, Abdelhai; Coriat, Pierre; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Background: The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether the presence of septic shock could influence the dose response to inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in NO-responding patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results: Eight patients with ARDS and without septic shock (PaO2 = 95 ± 16 mmHg, PEEP = 0, FiO2 = 1.0), and eight patients with ARDS and septic shock (PaO2 = 88 ± 11 mmHg, PEEP = 0, FiO2 = 1.0) receiving exclusively norepinephrine were studied. All responded to 15 ppm inhaled NO with an increase in PaO2 of at least 40 mmHg, at FiO2 1.0 and PEEP 10 cmH2O. Inspiratory intratracheal NO concentrations were recorded continuously using a fast response time chemiluminescence apparatus. Seven inspiratory NO concentrations were randomly administered: 0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, 15, 45 and 150 ppm. In both groups, NO induced a dose-dependent decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI), and venous admixture (QVA/QT), and a dose-dependent increase in PaO2/FiO2 (P ≤ 0.012). Dose-response of MPAP and PVRI were similar in both groups with a plateau effect at 4.5 ppm. Dose-response of PaO2/FiO2 was influenced by the presence of septic shock. No plateau effect was observed in patients with septic shock and PaO2/FiO2 increased by 173 ± 37% at 150 ppm. In patients without septic shock, an 82 ± 26% increase in PaO2/FiO2 was observed with a plateau effect obtained at 15 ppm. In both groups, dose-response curves demonstrated a marked interindividual variability and in five patients pulmonary vascular effect and improvement in arterial oxygenation were dissociated. Conclusion: For similar NOinduced decreases in MPAP and PVRI in both groups, the increase in arterial oxygenation was more marked in patients with septic shock. PMID:11056694

  10. Surfactants, Aromatic and Isoprenoid Compounds, and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Suppress Staphylococcus aureus Production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1▿

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Peter J.; Syverson, Rae Ellen; Milligan-Myhre, Kathy; Frolova, Olga; Schroeder, Sarah; Kidder, Joshua; Hoang, Thanh; Proctor, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening illness manifest through the actions of Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Previous studies have shown that tampon additives can influence staphylococcal TSST-1 production. We report here on the TSST-1-suppressing activity of 34 compounds that are commonly used additives in the pharmaceutical, food, and perfume industries. Many of the tested chemicals had a minimal impact on the growth of S. aureus and yet were potent inhibitors of TSST-1 production. The TSST-1-reducing compounds included surfactants with an ether, amide, or amine linkage to their fatty acid moiety (e.g., myreth-3-myristate, Laureth-3, disodium lauroamphodiacetate, disodium lauramido monoethanolamido, sodium lauriminodipropionic acid, and triethanolamine laureth sulfate); aromatic compounds (e.g. phenylethyl and benzyl alcohols); and several isoprenoids and related compounds (e.g., terpineol and menthol). The membrane-targeting and -altering effects of the TSST-1-suppressing compounds led us to assess the activity of molecules that are known to inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., cerulenin, triclosan, and hexachlorophene). These compounds also reduced S. aureus TSST-1 production. This study suggests that more additives than previously recognized inhibit the production of TSST-1. PMID:19223628

  11. Effects of blood and different media on the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus in the tampon sac method.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Denzin, L K; Bergdoll, M S

    1988-12-01

    The use of three different agar concentrations in the tampon sac method resulted in slightly higher fluid uptake by the tampons when a 0.5% agar concentration was used. However, there was essentially no difference in the total amount of toxin produced. The largest amount of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 was produced with brain heart infusion agar, followed closely by 3% NZ-amine NAK-1% yeast extract medium. The addition of plasma and serum to the inoculum resulted in increases (62 and 73%, respectively) in toxin production. The addition of whole blood to the inoculum had a variable effect on toxin production, with an increase in the amount of toxin produced with some tampons and not with others. Over fivefold differences in the amount of toxin produced were obtained when duplicate experiments were done on successive days, whereas the differences were less than twofold for experiments done on the same day. This was related to the effect of small changes in the parameters on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production.

  12. Catecholamines in shock.

    PubMed

    Alho, A; Jäättelä, A; Lahdensuu, M; Rokkanen, P; Avikainen, V; Karaharju, E; Tervo, T; Lepistö, P

    1977-06-01

    The role of endogenous catecholamines in various clinical shock and stress states is reviewed; the effects, especially on the peripheral circulation, of catecholamine secretion are the same independent of the cause. Risks of using sympathomimetic agents in the treatment of shock are evaluated. A prolonged noradrenaline activity is to be expected in surgical stress states, e.g. multiple injuries, fat embolism syndrome, burns and infections; therapeutic approaches to minimize the sympathoadrenal activity are outlined.

  13. Detection and quantitation of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in vitro and in vivo by noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Rosten, P M; Bartlett, K H; Chow, A W

    1987-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), an exotoxin produced by many Staphylococcus aureus strains, is implicated as the prime causal agent of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). A sensitive and specific noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) capable of detecting TSST-1 at concentrations from 0.5 to 16 ng/ml was developed. This assay did not detect other staphylococcal enterotoxins including A, B, C1, C2, C3, D, and E. Possible interactions with protein A were readily eliminated by pretreatment of test samples with 10% normal rabbit serum. The assay was adapted for rapid screening of TSST-1 production by S. aureus isolates in culture supernatants in vitro and for detection of TSST-1 in vaginal washings of TSS patients and healthy controls in vivo. All 35 S. aureus isolates confirmed to be TSST positive by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and 59 of 60 isolates confirmed to be TSST-1 negative gave concordant results by ELISA. Interestingly, toxigenic S. aureus strains isolated from TSS patients quantitatively produced significantly more TSST-1 in vitro compared with toxigenic control strains (P less than 0.05, Mann-Whitney rank sum test). TSST-1 could be detected by ELISA in three of four vaginal washings collected within 3 days of hospitalization from three women with acute menstrual TSS, compared with 0 of 17 washings from nine TSS patients hospitalized longer than 3 days (P = 0.003, Fisher's exact test) and 1 of 15 washings from 14 healthy control women (P = 0.016). This noncompetitive ELISA should be particularly useful for rapid screening of TSST-1 production by S. aureus isolates, for the purification and biochemical characterization of TSST-1, and for human and animal studies of the pathogenesis of TSS. PMID:3818927

  14. Secondary infection as a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome: an historical perspective and role of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria G; Alvarez, Mayling; Halstead, Scott B

    2013-07-01

    Today, dengue viruses are the most prevalent arthropod-borne viruses in the world. Since the 1960s, numerous reports have identified a second heterologous dengue virus (DENV) infection as a principal risk factor for severe dengue disease (dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, DHF/DSS). Modifiers of dengue disease response include the specific sequence of two DENV infections, the interval between infections, and contributions from the human host, such as age, ethnicity, chronic illnesses and genetic background. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus infection has been proposed as the early mechanism underlying DHF/DSS. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies raised following a first dengue infection combine with a second infecting virus to form infectious immune complexes that enter Fc-receptor-bearing cells. This results in an increased number of infected cells and increased viral output per cell. At the late illness stage, high levels of cytokines, possibly the result of T cell elimination of infected cells, result in vascular permeability, leading to shock and death. This review is focused on the etiological role of secondary infections (SI) and mechanisms of ADE.

  15. Preliminary investigation of human serum albumin-Vβ inhibition on toxic shock syndrome induced by staphylococcus enterotoxin B in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qifeng; Li, Lin; Pian, Yaya; Hao, Huaijie; Zheng, Yuling; Zang, Yating; Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) is a superantigen that can induce massive activation of T cells with specific Vβ and inflammatory cytokine cascades, which mediate shock. To date, no SEB vaccine has been developed for preventing toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of a fusion protein human serum albumin-Vβ (HSA-Vβ) on TSS induced by SEB. Compared with Vβ, the preparation of HSA-Vβ was much easier to handle owing to its solubility. Affinity testing showed that HSA-Vβ had high affinity for SEB. In vitro results showed that HSA-Vβ could effectively inhibit interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, in vivo, HSA-Vβ reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in the serum and protected mice from SEB lethal challenge when administered simultaneously with SEB or 30 min after SEB. In summary, we simplified the preparation of Vβ by fusion with HSA, creating the HSA-Vβ protein, which effectively inhibited cytokine production and protected mice from lethal challenge with SEB. These data indicated that HSA-Vβ may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SEB-induced TSS.

  16. Physics of collisionless shocks: theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockem Novo, A.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks occur in various fields of physics. In the context of space and astrophysics they have been investigated for many decades. However, a thorough understanding of shock formation and particle acceleration is still missing. Collisionless shocks can be distinguished into electromagnetic and electrostatic shocks. Electromagnetic shocks are of importance mainly in astrophysical environments and they are mediated by the Weibel or filamentation instability. In such shocks, charged particles gain energy by diffusive shock acceleration. Electrostatic shocks are characterized by a strong electrostatic field, which leads to electron trapping. Ions are accelerated by reflection from the electrostatic potential. Shock formation and particle acceleration will be discussed in theory and simulations.

  17. Characterisation of the Bacterial and Fungal Communities Associated with Different Lesion Sizes of Dark Spot Syndrome Occurring in the Coral Stephanocoenia intersepta

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Burn, Deborah; Croquer, Aldo; Leary, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The number and prevalence of coral diseases/syndromes are increasing worldwide. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) afflicts numerous coral species and is widespread throughout the Caribbean, yet there are no known causal agents. In this study we aimed to characterise the microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) associated with DSS lesions affecting the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta using nonculture molecular techniques. Bacterial diversity of healthy tissues (H), those in advance of the lesion interface (apparently healthy AH), and three sizes of disease lesions (small, medium, and large) varied significantly (ANOSIM R  = 0.052 p<0.001), apart from the medium and large lesions, which were similar in their community profile. Four bacteria fitted into the pattern expected from potential pathogens; namely absent from H, increasing in abundance within AH, and dominant in the lesions themselves. These included ribotypes related to Corynebacterium (KC190237), Acinetobacter (KC190251), Parvularculaceae (KC19027), and Oscillatoria (KC190271). Furthermore, two Vibrio species, a genus including many proposed coral pathogens, dominated the disease lesion and were absent from H and AH tissues, making them candidates as potential pathogens for DSS. In contrast, other members of bacteria from the same genus, such as V. harveyii were present throughout all sample types, supporting previous studies where potential coral pathogens exist in healthy tissues. Fungal diversity varied significantly as well, however the main difference between diseased and healthy tissues was the dominance of one ribotype, closely related to the plant pathogen, Rhytisma acerinum, a known causal agent of tar spot on tree leaves. As the corals’ symbiotic algae have been shown to turn to a darker pigmented state in DSS (giving rise to the syndromes name), the two most likely pathogens are R. acerinum and the bacterium Oscillatoria, which has been identified as the causal agent of the colouration in Black

  18. Induction by toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 of a circulating tumor necrosis factor-like substance in rabbits and of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 from human mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Ikejima, T; Okusawa, S; van der Meer, J W; Dinarello, C A

    1988-11-01

    A shock-like syndrome was induced in rabbits by administering toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like activity was detected in sera of rabbits 3.5 h after injection, as measured by cytotoxic effects on the tumorigenic L929 murine fibroblast cell line. Appearance of this activity in sera coincided with onset of significant shock-related hemodynamic changes. TSST-1 stimulated release of TNF-like material from rabbit mononuclear cells in culture. Human mononuclear cells also secreted a cytotoxic substance shown to be TNF by radioimmunoassay. Maximal TNF secretion was higher in human mononuclear cells stimulated with TSST-1 than in those stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide, however, was a more potent inducer of interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta from the same cells than was TSST-1. Because TNF and interleukin-1 act synergistically during induction of a shock-like state, these results suggest that part of the TSST-1-induced shock is due to production of interleukin-1 and TNF.

  19. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-12-02

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect.

  20. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect. PMID:27910920

  1. [Historical vision of shock].

    PubMed

    Dosne Pasqualini, C

    1998-01-01

    The concept of shock and its close relationship with that of stress dates back to the experiments of Hans Selye initiated in 1936 at McGill University in Montreal, with whom I collaborated between 1939 and 1942. It was demonstrated that the General Adaptation Syndrome begins with an Alarm Reaction, which consists of a Stage of Shock and one of Counter-Shock, followed by a Stage of Adaptation and finally a Stage of Exhaustion. My Ph.D. thesis concluded that shock was due to an adrenal insufficiency postulating that active metabolic processes drain the body of certain essential compounds the lack of which causes shock. My interest in the role of the glucose metabolism in shock led me to work with Bernardo Houssay in 1942 at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Buenos Aires and in 1944 with C.N.H. Long at Yale University. There I developed a method for the induction of hemorrhagic shock in the guinea pig with 94% lethality; curiously, the administration of 200 mg of ascorbic acid prevented death. Upon my return to Buenos Aires, these results were confirmed and moreover, it was demonstrated that the administration of cortisone led to 40% survival of the animals while desoxycorticosterone had no effect. At the time, no explanation was available but to-day, half a century later, this Symposium should be able to explain the mechanisms leading to death by hemorrhagic shock.

  2. Understanding hypovolaemic, cardiogenic and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Garretson, Sharon; Malberti, Shelly

    Shock is a complex physiological syndrome. If it is not detected and treated promptly, it can lead to death. This article reviews and summarises the latest findings, treatment and nursing and medical interventions for three of the most common forms of shock, namely, hypovolaemic, cardiogenic and septic shock.

  3. Functional analysis and treatment of chronic hair pulling in a child with cri du chat syndrome: effects on co-occurring thumb sucking.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Christina M; Pace, Gary M; Luiselli, James K; Flaherty, Jennifer; Christian, Lauren; Kleinmann, Ava

    2008-01-01

    The relation between hair pulling and thumb sucking in a child with Cri du Chat syndrome was evaluated during the assessment and treatment of hair pulling. A functional analysis suggested that both behaviors were maintained by automatic reinforcement and possibly by attention. Treatment combining differential reinforcement (praise), response interruption, and access to toys decreased hair pulling. A corresponding decrease in thumb sucking was observed even though it was not directly treated. After an initial evaluation in a controlled setting, the treatment was extended to the participant's classroom setting. A 1-year follow up revealed that hair pulling, but not thumb sucking, remained at near-zero frequency. Clinical and research-to-practice implications are discussed.

  4. Electron Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction: Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, M.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mazelle, C. X.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles (cosmic rays) in space. While most of the past studies about particle acceleration assume the presence of a single shock, in space two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. Hietala et al. [2011] observed the collision of an interplanetary shock and the earth's bow shock and the associated acceleration of energetic ions. The kinetic natures of a shock-shock collision has not been well understood. Only the work done by using hybrid simulation was reported by Cargill et al. [1986], in which they focus on a collision of two supercritical shocks and the resultant ion acceleration. We expect similarly that electron acceleration can also occur in shock-shock collision. To investigate the electron acceleration process in a shock-shock collision, we perform one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the simulation energetic electrons are observed between the two approaching shocks before colliding. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). The reflected electrons create a temperature anisotropy and excite large amplitude waves upstream via the electron fire hose instability. The large amplitude waves can scatter the energetic electrons in pitch angle so that some of them gain large pitch angles and are easily reflected when they encounter the shocks subsequently. The reflected electrons can sustain, or probably even strengthen, them. We further discuss observational results of an interaction of interplanetary shocks and the earth's bow shock by examining mainly Cluster data. We focus on whether or not electrons are accelerated in the shock-shock interaction.

  5. Heat shock factor 2 is a stress-responsive mediator of neuronal migration defects in models of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Fatimy, Rachid; Miozzo, Federico; Le Mouël, Anne; Abane, Ryma; Schwendimann, Leslie; Sabéran-Djoneidi, Délara; de Thonel, Aurélie; Massaoudi, Illiasse; Paslaru, Liliana; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Christians, Elisabeth; Rakic, Pasko; Gressens, Pierre; Mezger, Valérie

    2014-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a frequent cause of mental retardation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development defects induced by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are unclear. We used normal and Hsf2-deficient mice and cell systems to uncover a pivotal role for heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) in radial neuronal migration defects in the cortex, a hallmark of fetal alcohol exposure. Upon fetal alcohol exposure, HSF2 is essential for the triggering of HSF1 activation, which is accompanied by distinctive post-translational modifications, and HSF2 steers the formation of atypical alcohol-specific HSF1-HSF2 heterocomplexes. This perturbs the in vivo binding of HSF2 to heat shock elements (HSEs) in genes that control neuronal migration in normal conditions, such as p35 or the MAPs (microtubule-associated proteins, such as Dclk1 and Dcx), and alters their expression. In the absence of HSF2, migration defects as well as alterations in gene expression are reduced. Thus, HSF2, as a sensor for alcohol stress in the fetal brain, acts as a mediator of the neuronal migration defects associated with FASD.

  6. Heat shock factor 2 is a stress-responsive mediator of neuronal migration defects in models of fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Fatimy, Rachid; Miozzo, Federico; Le Mouël, Anne; Abane, Ryma; Schwendimann, Leslie; Sabéran-Djoneidi, Délara; de Thonel, Aurélie; Massaoudi, Illiasse; Paslaru, Liliana; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Christians, Elisabeth; Rakic, Pasko; Gressens, Pierre; Mezger, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a frequent cause of mental retardation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development defects induced by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are unclear. We used normal and Hsf2-deficient mice and cell systems to uncover a pivotal role for heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) in radial neuronal migration defects in the cortex, a hallmark of fetal alcohol exposure. Upon fetal alcohol exposure, HSF2 is essential for the triggering of HSF1 activation, which is accompanied by distinctive post-translational modifications, and HSF2 steers the formation of atypical alcohol-specific HSF1–HSF2 heterocomplexes. This perturbs the in vivo binding of HSF2 to heat shock elements (HSEs) in genes that control neuronal migration in normal conditions, such as p35 or the MAPs (microtubule-associated proteins, such as Dclk1 and Dcx), and alters their expression. In the absence of HSF2, migration defects as well as alterations in gene expression are reduced. Thus, HSF2, as a sensor for alcohol stress in the fetal brain, acts as a mediator of the neuronal migration defects associated with FASD. Subject Categories Development & Differentiation; Neuroscience PMID:25027850

  7. Effects of Early Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration on E-Selectin, Hemodynamic Stability, and Ventilatory Function in Patients with Septic-Shock-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of 72-hour early-initiated continuous venovenous hemofiltration (ECVVH) treatment in patients with septic-shock-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (not acute kidney injury, AKI) with regard to serum E-selectin and measurements of lung function and hemodynamic stability. Methods. This prospective nonblinded single institutional randomized study involved 51 patients who were randomly assigned to receive or not receive ECVVH, an ECVVH group (n = 24) and a non-ECVVH group (n = 27). Besides standard therapies, patients in ECVVH group underwent CVVH for 72 h. Results. At 0 and 24 h after initiation of treatment, arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), and E-selectin level were not significantly different between groups (all P > 0.05). Compared to non-ECVVH group, PaO2/FiO2 is significantly higher and EVLWI and E-selectin level are significantly lower in ECVVH group (all P < 0.05) at 48 h and 72 h after initiation of treatment. The lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in intensive care unit (ICU) were shorter in ECVVH group (all P < 0.05), but there was no difference in 28-day mortality between two groups. Conclusions. In patients with septic-shock-induced ARDS (not AKI), treatment with ECVVH in addition to standard therapies improves endothelial function, lung function, and hemodynamic stability and reduces the lengths of mechanical ventilation and stay in ICU. PMID:28044135

  8. A fatal case of streptococcal and meningococcal meningitis in a 2-years-old child occurring as Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Portunato, Federica; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Varnier, Oliviero E; De Stefano, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    We report a fatal case of streptococcal and meningococcal meningitis in a previously healthy 2-year-old child, a simultaneous co-infection of both pathogens that is poorly reported in the reviewed literature. The lack of a clinical diagnosis in addition to the medico-legal aspects arising from possible professional liability for the emergency service doctor who had failed to recognize the child's symptoms led to a forensic autopsy within 48 h after the death. After external and internal examination, Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome (WFS) was suspected. Consequently, cerebrospinal fluid, whole blood, nasal and pharyngeal swab and pleural liquid samples were selected and collected for microbiological studies. All tested samples resulted Neisseria meningitidis DNA and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA positive. The NM genotyping Real-Time PCR resulted positive for NM serotype C. Microscopic histological study confirmed these findings. We underline that when a patient presents fever and petechiae (50-60% of patients), WFS must be considered, even when the patient has a non-toxic appearance. Due to its rapid progression and often devastating consequences, therapy should be started as soon as WFS is suspected. Emphasis should also be placed on the importance of public education programs and on broadening protection against meningitis through new vaccines. In such cases, from a forensic point of view, there is a strong need for a robust, multidisciplinary approach in order to reach the correct post-mortem diagnosis.

  9. Cutaneous necrotizing venulitis: a sequential analysis of the morphological alterations occurring after mast cell degranulation in a patient with a unique syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Soter, N A; Mihm, M C; Dvorak, H F; Austen, K F

    1978-01-01

    An unusual patient, with dermal nodules, flexion contractures of the fingers and toes, cold-induced urticaria, dermographism and serum hypocomplementaemia, had necrotizing cutaneous venulitis underlying the spontaneous lesions. Since necrotizing cutaneous venulitis could be experimentally induced by the physical stimuli of cold or trauma, the time-course of histopathological events was documented in the skin of this patient. The histopathological alterations were studied in 1 micron thick, Epon-embedded skin biopsy specimens over an interval of 6 days. The early massive degranulation of the mast cells was followed by the sequential infiltration of neutrophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic polymorphonuclear leucocytes, by the development of venular endothelial cell necrosis and by the deposition of fibrin. The persistent serum hypocomplementaemia involved the classic activating and amplification pathways. It seems possible that the unusual combination of pathobiological processes involving the mast cells and the complement system in this patient has created a unique syndrome, in which venules are damaged and the sheaths of the extensor tendons of the hands and feet become affected in time. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:668192

  10. Reversible kallmann syndrome, delayed puberty, and isolated anosmia occurring in a single family with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Nelly; Acierno, James S; Meysing, Astrid U; Dwyer, Andrew A; Hayes, Frances J; Crowley, William F

    2005-03-01

    Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene have been shown to cause autosomal dominant KS. To date, the detailed reproductive phenotype of KS associated with mutations in the FGFR1 has yet to be described. We report a kindred comprising a male proband with KS and spontaneous reversibility, whose mother had delayed puberty and whose maternal grandfather isolated anosmia. The proband presented at age 18 yr with KS and was subsequently treated with testosterone (T) therapy. Upon discontinuation of T therapy, he recovered from his hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, as evidenced by a normal LH secretion pattern, sustained normal serum T levels, and active spermatogenesis. The three members of this single family harbor the same FGFR1 mutation (Arg(622)X) in the tyrosine kinase domain. This report demonstrates 1) the first genetic cause of the rare variant of reversible KS, 2) the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a proband carrying an FGFR1 mutation suggests a role of FGFR1 beyond embryonic GnRH neuron migration, and 3) a loss of function mutation in the FGFR1 gene causing delayed puberty.

  11. Heat Shock Protein HSP27 Secretion by Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Linked to Intracellular Expression Levels, Occurs Independently of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathway and HSP27's Phosphorylation Status, and Is Mediated by Exosome Liberation

    PubMed Central

    Klinkmann, Gerd; Diesing, Karoline; Koensgen, Dominique; Burchardt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC) patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock. Intra- and extracellular HSP27 amounts were assessed by Western blotting and ELISA. Protein secretion was blocked by brefeldin A and the impact of the HSP27 phosphorylation status was analyzed overexpressing HSP27 phosphomutants. The present study demonstrated that HSP27 secretion by OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells depends on intracellular HSP27 concentrations. Moreover, HSP27 secretion is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum secretory pathway and HSP27 phosphorylation. Notably, analysis of OC cell-born exosomes not only confirmed the concentration-dependent correlation of HSP27 expression and secretion but also demonstrated a concentration-dependent incorporation of HSP27 protein into exosomes. Thus, secreted HSP27 may become more important as an extracellular factor which controls the tumor microenvironment and might be a noninvasive biomarker. PMID:28325957

  12. When shock waves collide

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  13. When shock waves collide

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less

  14. A case report of Sheehan's syndrome with acute onset, hyponatremia and severe anemia.

    PubMed

    Anfuso, Salvatore; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Soncini, Emanuele; Chiodera, Paolo; Fadda, Giovanni Maria; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2009-04-01

    Sheehan's syndrome is a well-known cause of panhypopituitarism secondary to pituitary apoplexy, that generally occurs after an intra- or postpartum bleeding episode characterized by severe hypertension or hemorrhagic shock. The diagnosis can be difficult and is often formulated after some years from the syndrome occurrence. We report the case of a woman with an early diagnosis of early-onset Sheehan's syndrome associated with severe hyponatremia following dystocic childbirth complicated by postpartum hemorrhage.

  15. Shock waves data for minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  16. Coronary stenting during burn shock: diagnostic and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Shea C; Fidler, Philip E; Atweh, Nabil A

    2006-01-01

    Myocardial injury is known to occur in victims of both thermal and electrical burns. A variety of mechanisms have been ascribed to the pathogenesis of cardiac damage during burn shock. However, limited evidence exists that coronary artery thrombosis plays a frequent role. Distinguishing between acute coronary syndrome (impending myocardial infarction from coronary artery occlusion) vs global cardiac injury is essential; the care diverges drastically. The following case describes a patient who was angiographically proven to have acute coronary thrombosis amidst burn shock ftera 50% TBSA electrical flash burn. Managing the patient's burn shock, myocardial injury, and multiple surgical procedures while considering antiplatelet medications for a newly placed coronary artery stent presented a number of challenges not previously reported.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus.

  18. Oligonucleotide probes for detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus strains containing genes for enterotoxins A, B, and C and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Neill, R J; Fanning, G R; Delahoz, F; Wolff, R; Gemski, P

    1990-01-01

    Different synthetic DNA nucleotide sequences were evaluated as gene probes for the specific detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus strains encoding enterotoxins A (SEA), B (SEB), and C (SEC) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Identification of sequences unique to each toxin, based on knowledge of their nucleotide sequences, led to preparation of the specific 18-base oligonucleotide probes EA1 (encoding amino acids 177 to 182 of SEA), EB2 (encoding amino acids 105 to 110 of SEB), EC5 (encoding amino acids 125 to 131 of SEC1), and TS1 (encoding amino acids 160 to 166 of TSST-1). In colony blot hybridization analyses, these probes hybridized specifically with DNA from strains that produced the respective toxin serotypes. An excellent (greater than or equal to 93%) correlation between hybridization results (genotype) and toxin protein detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phenotype) was observed in the characterization of both reference and clinical strains of S. aureus for SEA, SEB, and TSST-1. A lower correlation (64%) for SEC reflected a lack of sensitivity in detecting toxin production. Our findings demonstrate that molecular DNA hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotide probes provides another approach for establishing the toxigenicity of S. aureus. Images PMID:2380378

  19. Expression of type 8 capsular polysaccharide and production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 are associated among vaginal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Liu, M J; Parsonnet, J; Arbeit, R D

    1990-01-01

    A colony immunoblot method was developed for serotyping the capsular polysaccharides expressed by Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The method was rapid and specific and was performed with either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the capsule types. S. aureus isolates were obtained from patients with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) or other staphylococcal infections and from asymptomatic women with vaginal colonization. Among the vaginal isolates of S. aureus, expression of the type 8 capsule was significantly (P less than 0.001) more frequent among strains that produced TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1) than it was among TSST-1-negative strains. In contrast, the frequency of type 8 capsule expression was similar among both TSST-1-positive and -negative strains of S. aureus from patients with nonvaginal TSS. When all vaginal and nonvaginal isolates were compared, TSST-1-negative S. aureus strains were equally distributed among the type 5 and 8 and nontypeable capsule groups, whereas TSST-1-positive strains were predominantly capsule type 8. Images PMID:2279990

  20. SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY TARGETING OF THE KIDNEY AND PANCREAS DOES NOT INCREASE THE SEVERITY OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A PORCINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Rajash K.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Liu, Ziyue; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Mandeville, Jessica A.; Gnessin, Ehud; Lingeman, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) treatment of the kidney of metabolic syndrome (MetS) pigs worsens glucose tolerance or increases the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods Nine-month-old female Ossabaw miniature pigs were fed a hypercaloric atherogenic diet to induce MetS. At 15 months of age, pigs were treated with 2000 SWs or 4000 SWs (24 kV at 120 SWs/min) using the unmodified Dornier HM3 lithotripter. SWs were targeted to the upper pole calyx of the left kidney so as to model treatment that would also expose the tail of the pancreas to SWs. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) were performed on conscious, fasting pigs before SWL and at 1 month and 2 months post-SWL with blood samples taken for glucose and insulin measurement. Results Pigs fed the hypercaloric atherogenic diet were obese, dyslipidemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant—consistent with the development of MetS. Assessment of insulin resistance, glucose tolerance and pancreatic beta cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels, and the glucose and insulin response profile to IVGTTs, were similar before and after SWL. Conclusions The MetS status of SWL treated pigs was unchanged 2 months following treatment of the kidney with 2000 high-amplitude SWs or overtreatment with 4000 high-amplitude SWs. These findings do not support a single SWL treatment of the kidney as a risk factor for the onset of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24657667

  1. The 60- and 70-kDa heat-shock proteins and their correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Eliana A P; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Orsatti, Claudio L; Tardivo, Ana Paula; Uemura, Gilberto; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha S; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the association between circulating levels of 60 and 70 kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP60 and 70) and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). This cross-sectional study included 311 Brazilian women (age ≥45 years with amenorrhea ≥12 months). Women showing three or more of the following diagnostic criteria were diagnosed with MetS: waist circumference (WC) ≥88 cm, blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dl, and glucose ≥100 mg/dl. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters were collected. HSP60, HSP70, antibodies to HSP60 and HSP70, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in serum. Student's t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis. Of the 311 women, 30.9 % (96/311) were diagnosed with MetS. These women were, on average, obese with abdominal fat deposition and had lower HDL values as well as higher triglycerides and glucose levels. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) test values in these women were compatible with insulin resistance (P < 0.05). CRP and HSP60 concentrations were higher in women with MetS than in women without MetS (P < 0.05). HSP60, anti-HSP70, and CRP concentrations increased with the number of features indicative of MetS (P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between anti-HSP70 and WC, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, and between CRP and WC, blood pressure, glucose, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides (P < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, serum HSP60 and anti-HSP70 concentrations increased with accumulating features of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest a greater immune activation that is associated with cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

  2. Shock induced dissociation of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Loughran, E.D.; Mortensen, G.F.; Gray, G.T. III; Shaw, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the physical processes occurring on the Hugoniot, shock-recovery experiments were performed. Cylindrical recovery systems were used that enabled a wide range of single-shock Hugoniot states to be examined. Mass spectroscopy was used to examine the gaseous dissociation products. X-ray and TEM measurements were made to characterize the post-shock carbon structures. A dissociation product equation of state is presented to interpret the observed results. Polyethylene (PE) samples that were multiply shocked to their final states dissociated at much higher pressures than single-shocked samples. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Shock effects in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

  4. Shock front nonstationarity of supercritical perpendicular shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Tohru; Oonishi, Makiko; LembèGe, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe

    2003-06-01

    The shock front nonstationarity of perpendicular shocks in super-critical regime is analyzed by examining the coupling between "incoming" and "reflected" ion populations. For a given set of parameters including the upstream Mach number (MA) and the fraction α of reflected to incoming ions, a self-consistent, time-stationary solution of the coupling between ion streams and the electromagnetic field is sought for. If such a solution is found, the shock is stationary; otherwise, the shock is nonstationary, leading to a self-reforming shock front often observed in full particle simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks. A parametric study of this numerical model allows us to define a critical αcrit between stationary and nonstationary regimes. The shock can be nonstationary even for relatively low MA(2-5). For a moderate MA(5-10), the critical value αcrit is about 15 to 20%. For very high MA (>10), αcrit saturates around 20%. Moreover, present full simulations show that self-reformation of the shock front occurs for relatively low βi and disappears for high βi, where βi is the ratio of upstream ion plasma to magnetic field pressures. Results issued from the present theoretical model are found to be in good agreement with full particle simulations for low βi case; this agreement holds as long as the motion of reflected ions is coherent enough (narrow ion ring) to be described by a single population in the model. The present model reveals to be "at variance" with full particle simulations results for the high βi case. Present results are also compared with previous hybrid simulations.

  5. Is this septic shock? A rare case of distributive shock.

    PubMed

    Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Fior, Alberto; Santos, Ana; Reis, Luís; Bento, Luís

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of shock in a patient without significant clinical history, admitted to the intensive care unit for suspected septic shock. The patient was initially treated with fluid therapy without improvement. A hypothesis of systemic capillary leak syndrome was postulated following the confirmation of severe hypoalbuminemia, hypotension, and hemoconcentration--a combination of three symptoms typical of the disease. The authors discussed the differential diagnosis and also conducted a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  6. Is this septic shock? A rare case of distributive shock

    PubMed Central

    Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Fior, Alberto; Santos, Ana; Reis, Luís; Bento, Luís

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of shock in a patient without significant clinical history, admitted to the intensive care unit for suspected septic shock. The patient was initially treated with fluid therapy without improvement. A hypothesis of systemic capillary leak syndrome was postulated following the confirmation of severe hypoalbuminemia, hypotension, and hemoconcentration - a combination of three symptoms typical of the disease. The authors discussed the differential diagnosis and also conducted a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:25607273

  7. Suppressive and Facilitative Effects of Shock Intensity and Interresponse Times Followed by Shock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everly, Jessica B.; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Although response-dependent shock often suppresses responding, response facilitation can occur. In two experiments, we examined the suppressive and facilitative effects of shock by manipulating shock intensity and the interresponse times that produced shock. Rats' lever presses were reinforced on a variable-interval 40-s schedule of food…

  8. Targeting TREM-1 Signaling in the Presence of Antibiotics is Effective Against Streptococcal Toxic-Shock-Like Syndrome (STSLS) Caused by Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Zhao, Jianqing; Lin, Lan; Pan, Shan; Fu, Lei; Han, Li; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Anding

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis), a major swine pathogen, is also a severe threat to human health. Infection with highly virulent strains of S. suis can cause human Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS), which is associated with high serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and a high mortality rate. Our previous study indicated that highly virulent S. suis infection could activate the TREM-1 signaling pathway, which promotes host clearance of S. suis during early infection. However, it remained to be elicited whether TREM-1 signaling could be a target against STSLS in the presence of antibiotic. In the present study, mice were infected with a highly virulent S. suis strain and then treated with rTREM-1 (the recombinant extracellular domain of TREM-1) to block TREM-1 signaling, antibiotics, both rTREM-1 and antibiotics, or PBS. The survival rates, clinical signs, serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and serum bacterial loads were evaluated. Treatment with rTREM-1 could aggravate the outcome of infection as described previously. Although the conventional treatment with antibiotics contributed to effective S. suis clearance, it did not improve survival significantly. In comparison, due to the reduction of the exaggerated pro-inflammatory response, treatment combined with rTREM-1 and antibiotics not only led to efficient bacterial clearance but also alleviated inflammation. In conclusion, TREM-1 signaling contributed to severe inflammatory response and benefited S. suis clearance. Therefore, blocking TREM-1 signaling could still be a target for the treatment of STSLS in the presence of antibiotics.

  9. Functional definition and global regulation of Zur, a zinc uptake regulator in a Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feng, Youjun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Huimin; Zheng, Beiwen; Han, Huiming; Wang, Changjun; Yan, Jinghua; Tang, Jiaqi; Gao, George F

    2008-11-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all living organisms and plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes. However, an excess of zinc is extremely deleterious to cells. Bacteria have evolved complex machineries (such as efflux/influx systems) to control the concentration at levels appropriate for the maintenance of zinc homeostasis in cells and adaptation to the environment. The Zur (zinc uptake regulator) protein is one of these functional members involved in the precise control of zinc homeostasis. Here we identified a zur homologue designated 310 from Streptococcus suis serotype 2, strain 05ZYH33, a highly invasive isolate causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Biochemical analysis revealed that the protein product of gene 310 exists as a dimer form and carries zinc ions. An isogenic gene replacement mutant of gene 310, the Delta310 mutant, was obtained by homologous recombination. Physiological tests demonstrated that the Delta310 mutant is specifically sensitive to Zn(2+), while functional complementation of the Delta310 mutant can restore its duration capability, suggesting that 310 is a functional member of the Zur family. Two-dimensional electrophoresis indicated that nine proteins in the Delta310 mutant are overexpressed in comparison with those in the wild type. DNA microarray analyses suggested that 121 genes in the Delta310 mutant are affected, of which 72 genes are upregulated and 49 are downregulated. The transcriptome of S. suis serotype 2 with high Zn(2+) concentrations also showed 117 differentially expressed genes, with 71 upregulated and 46 downregulated. Surprisingly, more than 70% of the genes differentially expressed in the Delta310 mutant were the same as those in S. suis serotype 2 that were differentially expressed in response to high Zn(2+) concentration, consistent with the notion that 310 is involved in zinc homeostasis. We thus report for the first time a novel zinc-responsive regulator, Zur, from Streptococcus suis

  10. Rapid and Rigorous IL-17A Production by a Distinct Subpopulation of Effector Memory T Lymphocytes Constitutes a Novel Mechanism of Toxic Shock Syndrome Immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Peter A; Goswami, Ankur; Mazzuca, Delfina M; Kim, Kyoungok; O'Gorman, David B; Hess, David A; Welch, Ian D; Young, Howard A; Singh, Bhagirath; McCormick, John K; Haeryfar, S M Mansour

    2017-04-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens (SAgs) that provoke a swift hyperinflammatory response typified by a cytokine storm. The precipitous decline in the host's clinical status and the lack of targeted therapies for TSS emphasize the need to identify key players of the storm's initial wave. Using a humanized mouse model of TSS and human cells, we herein demonstrate that SAgs elicit in vitro and in vivo IL-17A responses within hours. SAg-triggered human IL-17A production was characterized by remarkably high mRNA stability for this cytokine. A distinct subpopulation of CD4(+) effector memory T (TEM) cells that secrete IL-17A, but not IFN-γ, was responsible for early IL-17A production. We found mouse "TEM-17" cells to be enriched within the intestinal epithelium and among lamina propria lymphocytes. Furthermore, interfering with IL-17A receptor signaling in human PBMCs attenuated the expression of numerous inflammatory mediators implicated in the TSS-associated cytokine storm. IL-17A receptor blockade also abrogated the secondary effect of SAg-stimulated PBMCs on human dermal fibroblasts as judged by C/EBP δ expression. Finally, the early IL-17A response to SAgs was pathogenic because in vivo neutralization of IL-17A in humanized mice ameliorated hepatic and intestinal damage and reduced mortality. Together, our findings identify CD4(+) TEM cells as a key effector of TSS and reveal a novel role for IL-17A in TSS immunopathogenesis. Our work thus elucidates a pathogenic, as opposed to protective, role for IL-17A during Gram-positive bacterial infections. Accordingly, the IL-17-IL-17R axis may provide an attractive target for the management of SAg-mediated illnesses.

  11. Combination of flucloxacillin and gentamicin inhibits toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus in both logarithmic and stationary phases of growth.

    PubMed Central

    van Langevelde, P; van Dissel, J T; Meurs, C J; Renz, J; Groeneveld, P H

    1997-01-01

    Production of exotoxins by staphylococci and streptococci may lead to the development of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Because clindamycin inhibits exotoxin production, its use has been advocated for the treatment of TSS. However, the bacteriostatic action of clindamycin might be a disadvantage for the treatment of overwhelming infections. We investigated the effects of flucloxacillin and gentamicin on exotoxin production, because incubation with these antibiotics combines bactericidal action with protein synthesis inhibition. Staphylococcus aureus during the logarithmic and stationary phases of growth was incubated with either clindamycin, flucloxacillin, or a combination of flucloxacillin and gentamicin at concentrations of 2 or 10 times the MIC. In logarithmic-phase cultures clindamycin had a static effect on bacterial growth. After incubation with flucloxacillin, either alone or in combination with gentamicin, a rapid and large reduction in the number of viable bacteria was demonstrated. In stationary-phase cultures none of the antibiotics significantly changed the number of viable bacteria. TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1) production during logarithmic-phase growth was inhibited by > or =95% by all antibiotics. In stationary-phase cultures, clindamycin, flucloxacillin, and the combination of flucloxacillin and gentamicin inhibited TSST-1 production by 95, 30, and 75%, respectively, compared with the level of exotoxin production in the controls. The present results indicate that clindamycin inhibits TSST-1 production and exerts bacteriostatic activity in both bacterial growth phases. Because the combination of flucloxacillin and gentamicin combines the inhibition of exotoxin production with high bactericidal activity at least in logarithmic-phase cultures, it should be considered an alternative to clindamycin for the treatment of exotoxin-mediated diseases, especially in patients with overwhelming infections. PMID:9257741

  12. Targeting TREM-1 Signaling in the Presence of Antibiotics is Effective Against Streptococcal Toxic-Shock-Like Syndrome (STSLS) Caused by Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Zhao, Jianqing; Lin, Lan; Pan, Shan; Fu, Lei; Han, Li; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Anding

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S.suis), a major swine pathogen, is also a severe threat to human health. Infection with highly virulent strains of S. suis can cause human Streptococcal toxic-shock-like syndrome (STSLS), which is associated with high serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and a high mortality rate. Our previous study indicated that highly virulent S. suis infection could activate the TREM-1 signaling pathway, which promotes host clearance of S. suis during early infection. However, it remained to be elicited whether TREM-1 signaling could be a target against STSLS in the presence of antibiotic. In the present study, mice were infected with a highly virulent S. suis strain and then treated with rTREM-1 (the recombinant extracellular domain of TREM-1) to block TREM-1 signaling, antibiotics, both rTREM-1 and antibiotics, or PBS. The survival rates, clinical signs, serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and serum bacterial loads were evaluated. Treatment with rTREM-1 could aggravate the outcome of infection as described previously. Although the conventional treatment with antibiotics contributed to effective S. suis clearance, it did not improve survival significantly. In comparison, due to the reduction of the exaggerated pro-inflammatory response, treatment combined with rTREM-1 and antibiotics not only led to efficient bacterial clearance but also alleviated inflammation. In conclusion, TREM-1 signaling contributed to severe inflammatory response and benefited S. suis clearance. Therefore, blocking TREM-1 signaling could still be a target for the treatment of STSLS in the presence of antibiotics. PMID:26618144

  13. Turbulence in electrostatic ion acoustic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Means, R. W.; Coroniti, F. V.; Wong, A. Y.; White, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Three types of collisionless electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are investigated using a double plasma (DP) device: (1) laminar shocks; (2) small amplitude turbulent shocks in which the turbulence is confined to be upstream of the shock potential jump; and (3) large amplitude turbulent shocks in which the wave turbulence occurs throughout the shock transition. The wave turbulence is generated by ions which are reflected from the shock potential; linear theory spatial growth increments agree with experimental values. The experimental relationship between the shock Mach number and the shock potential is shown to be inconsistent with theoretical shock models which assume that the electrons are isothermal. Theoretical calculations which assume a trapped electron equation of a state and a turbulently flattened velocity distrubution function for the reflected ions yields a Mach number vs potential relationship in agreement with experiment.

  14. [Severe sepsis and septic shock].

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Else; Larsen, Kim

    2014-07-07

    Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock are syndromes. The incidence of sepsis is as high as 35% and with mortality rates in the intensive care unit from 27% to 54% in sepsis and septic shock, respectively. Many new treatments have been tested but only few have been implemented in clinical practise. The treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock is based on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines developed by an international expert panel. Early diagnosis, optimization of haemodynamics, rapid identification of focus and adequate antibiotic treatment are the most important strategies.

  15. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  16. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  17. Shock Surface Undulation and Particle Acceleration at Oblique Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Li, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Considering the average Parker spiral magnetic field configuration, CME-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks within 1 AU should have oblique portions over much of their domain. Indeed, CME-driven shocks observed close to Earth are often oblique. However, it is well known that the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which relies on self-consistent wave generation via upstream propagating ions and their scattering, becomes increasingly inefficient with greater shock normal angle. Not only is a higher threshold energy required for the ions to leave the shock upstream, but also, approximately-parallel propagating waves are more quickly convected back into the shock, and the growth rate for waves propagating normal to the shock (the ones with the largest convective growth) decreases. As a result, typical, small-scale hybrid simulations of oblique shocks only show a dilute upstream beam, similar to what is often observed at the oblique Earth's bow shock - and no scattered, highly-energized ions. On the other hand, there are many "energetic storm particle" (ESP) events associated with oblique shocks that have significant fluxes of energetic ions. Recently, we have found that when run for a long time, our hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, electron fluid) show that the initial, weak beam is sufficient to generate compressive, steepening upstream waves. These waves are capable of disturbing the shock surface, resulting in an undulation that is propagating along the surface and growing in amplitude over time. The process is akin to that of the well-known reformation occurring at sufficiently strong quasi-parallel shocks. However, here the perturbations require at least two dimensions, show a strong spatial correlation, and travel along the shock surface. This process not only leads to enhanced ion acceleration, but also means that the shock characteristics are difficult to pinpoint, observationally: both the local jumps and the shock normal angle are highly variable

  18. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 τc , where τc is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.

  19. Particles Acceleration in Converged Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Observations show that there is a proton spectral ``break" with E_{break} at 1-10MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. However, the understanding of this energy spectral ``break" from the diffusive shock acceleration theory still remains uncertain. Although previous numerical methods can hardly predict this ``break" from current theoretical models due to high computational expense, the present paper focuses on simulating this energy spectrum in converged two shocks by Monte Carlo numerical method. Considering the Dec 13 2006 CME-driven shock interaction with an Earth bow shock, we examine whether the energy spectral ``break" could occur on an interaction between two shocks. As result, we indeed obtain the maximum proton energy up to 10MeV, and we further find a proton spectral ``break" appears distinctly at the energy ˜5MeV.

  20. Use of porcine vaginal tissue ex-vivo to model environmental effects on vaginal mucosa to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Catherine C.; Baccam, Mekhine; Mantz, Mary J.; Osborn, Thomas W.; Hill, Donna R.; Squier, Christopher A.

    2014-01-15

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) is a rare, recognizable, and treatable disease that has been associated with tampon use epidemiologically. It involves a confluence of microbial risk factors (Staphylococcus aureus strains that produce the superantigen—TSST-1), as well as environmental characteristics of the vaginal ecosystem during menstruation and host susceptibility factors. This paper describes a series of experiments using the well-characterized model of porcine vaginal mucosa ex-vivo to assess the effect of these factors associated with tampon use on the permeability of the mucosa. The flux of radiolabeled TSST-1 and tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O) through porcine vaginal mucosa was determined at various temperatures, after mechanical disruption of the epithelial surface by tape stripping, after treatment with surfactants or other compounds, and in the presence of microbial virulence factors. Elevated temperatures (42, 47 and 52 °C) did not significantly increase flux of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. Stripping of the epithelial layers significantly increased the flux of labeled toxin in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of benzalkonium chloride (0.1 and 0.5%) and glycerol (4%) significantly increased the flux of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O but sodium lauryl sulfate at any concentration tested did not. The flux of the labeled toxin was significantly increased in the presence of benzalkonium chloride but not Pluronic® L92 and Tween 20 and significantly increased with addition of α-hemolysin but not endotoxin. These results show that the permeability of porcine vagina ex-vivo to labeled toxin or water can be used to evaluate changes to the vaginal environment and modifications in tampon materials, and thus aid in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Model assessed local effects of tampon use on vaginal mucosa. • Risks were evaluated using two tracers to assess permeability in an ex vivo model. • Mechanical damage to the epithelial surface increased tracer penetration.

  1. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.

  2. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  3. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (often called staph) and Streptococcus pyogenes (often called strep), with most cases related ... 3 days after an infection with Staphylococcus or Streptococcus , although this can vary depending on the infection. ...

  4. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... and better habits for using them, such as changing them often. The number of TSS cases dropped ...

  5. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. It's caused by two types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (often called staph) and Streptococcus pyogenes (often ... 2 to 3 days after an infection with Staphylococcus or Streptococcus , although this can vary depending on ...

  6. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by either Staphylococcus aureus (often called staph) and Streptococcus pyogenes (often called strep) bacteria, with most cases ... who has any type of staph infection , including pneumonia, an abscess, a skin or wound infection, the ...

  7. Basic Shock Physiology and Critical Care.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brian K

    2016-05-01

    Veterinarians practicing emergency medicine and/or working with exotic animals must be well versed in the pathophysiology of shock because many exotic pets present with an acute crisis or an acute manifestation of a chronic process causing poor organ perfusion. This article discusses the pathophysiology of shock and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which may lead to organ dysfunction, organ failure, sepsis, and death. The physiology of perfusion, perfusion measurements, categories of shock, and altered function of the immune system, gastrointestinal barrier, and coagulation system are discussed. Veterinarians providing emergency care to patients with shock must also be aware of comorbidities.

  8. Dependence of the Spectrum of Shock-Accelerated Ions on the Dynamics at the Shock Crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedalin, M.; Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of ions occurs due to pitch-angle diffusion in the upstream and downstream regions of the shock and multiple crossing of the shock by these ions. The classical DSA theory implies continuity of the distribution at the shock transition and predicts a universal spectrum of accelerated particles, depending only on the ratio of the upstream and downstream fluid speeds. However, the ion dynamics at the shock front occurs within a collision-free region and is gyrophase dependent. The ions fluxes have to be continuous at the shock front. The matching conditions for the gyrophase-averaged distribution functions at the shock transition are formulated in terms of the transition and reflection probabilities. These probabilities depend on the shock angle and the magnetic compression as does the power spectrum of accelerated ions. Their spectral index is expressed in terms of the reflectivity. The spectrum is typically harder than the spectrum predicted by the classical DSA theory.

  9. [Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for ureteral stone in patient with implanted cardiac pacemaker: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuji; Hou, Kyokushin; Hori, Junichi; Taniguchi, Narumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yachiku, Sunao; Azumi, Makoto; Osanai, Hiroaki

    2003-09-01

    We report a case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for ureteral stone in patient with implanted cardiac pacemaker. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for left back pain due to left single ureteral stone (13 x 7 mm) in 2002. A permanent cardiac pacemaker has been implanted for sick sinus syndrome in 1997. After evaluation for cardiac function and pacemaker function by a cardiologist and a pacemaker technician, SWL (MFL 5000, Dornier) was performed without changing pacemaker mode (DDD mode). Shock waves were incorrectly exposed a few time triggered by arterial pacing amplitude, but no cardiovascular event or malfunction of the pacemaker was occurred during or after SWL. The ureteral stone was successfully fragmented with 2,400 shock waves (24 kV) and the fragments were delivered immediately.

  10. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  11. Comparative study of shock wave therapy and Laser therapy effect in elimination of symptoms among patients with myofascial pain syndrome in upper trapezius

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Parisa; Vahdatpour, Babak; Andalib, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of laser therapy and shock wave therapy for symptoms treatment among patients with MPS in the upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 46 patients were selected based on the clinical criteria and physiathrist diagnosis. Subjects were randomized into two groups as follows: Twenty individuals were assigned to exercise-medication-laser therapy group, and 26 to exercise-medication-shock wave therapy group. The pain was assessed based on visual analog scale (VAS), neck disability index (NDI), and SPADI in three stages: Before treatment, subsequently after treatment, and a month after treatment. Results: One man and 19 women, age group of 45.3 ± 7.7 years, were assigned into laser therapy group. Two men and 24 women, average age group of 42.3 ± 10.4 were assigned into shock wave therapy group. A significant difference was found among our study groups before treatment and after starting treatment for VAS, NDI, and SPDI indices, that is, two methods of treatments were effective (P < 0.001). However, among these two treatment methods, laser therapy provided higher effect on VAS and NDI as compared to the radial shock wave method (P < 0.05) in 2 weeks from starting the treatment (consequent to treatment). Conclusion: According to this study results, we can conclude that shock wave and laser therapy results on similar effect in long-term for relieve of pain and eliminating symptoms in patients with myofascial but laser provides a faster optimal results. PMID:27656607

  12. Identification of functional antigenic segments of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by differential immunoreactivity and by differential mitogenic responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using active toxin fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Edwin, C; Kass, E H

    1989-01-01

    When toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 was subjected to papain hydrolysis, two serologically active fragments of 16.3 kilodaltons (16K fragment) and 12.4 kilodaltons (12K fragment) were generated, whereas a third fragment of 9.7 kilodaltons (10K fragment) was inactive. The biologic activities of the fragments were evaluated in vitro by determining their ability to promote nonspecific proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The 12K fragment was significantly (P less than or equal to 0.013) more stimulatory than the 16K fragment. When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were preincubated for a period of 24 h with various concentrations of the 16K fragment, followed by incubation with a constant amount (2 x 10(-2) ng/ml) of whole toxin, the level of DNA synthesis induced by the holotoxin was reduced by approximately 60% when compared with that of controls exposed to whole toxin alone. The 12K fragment did not demonstrate a similar blocking effect. Immunoblots of the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 digest, which were exposed to monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed against native toxin, depicted the presence of two different antigenic regions (epitopes). One MAb, 8-5-7, which has been shown previously to inhibit the biologic activity of the holotoxin in vitro and in vivo, reacted primarily with the 12K fragment. A second MAb, 10-6-1, that did not neutralize interleukin-1 production reacted primarily with the 16K fragment. On the basis of the differential mitogenic responses and the identification of heterologous epitopes, it was concluded that the functional region of the holotoxin can be partitioned into at least two functional segments encompassed between amino acid residues 53 and 87 and between amino acid residues 88 and 194 on the polypeptide chain. Images PMID:2731989

  13. SUPPRESSIVE AND FACILITATIVE EFFECTS OF SHOCK INTENSITY AND INTERRESPONSE TIMES FOLLOWED BY SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Everly, Jessica B.; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Although response-dependent shock often suppresses responding, response facilitation can occur. In two experiments, we examined the suppressive and facilitative effects of shock by manipulating shock intensity and the interresponse times that produced shock. Rats' lever presses were reinforced on a variable-interval 40-s schedule of food presentation. Shock followed either long or short interresponse times. Shock intensity was raised from 0.05 mA to 0.4 mA or 0.8 mA. Overall, shock contingent on long interresponse times punished long interresponse times and increased response rates. Shock contingent on short interresponse times punished short interresponse times and decreased response rates. In Experiment 1, raising the range of interresponse times that produced shock enhanced these effects. In Experiment 2, the effects of shock intensity depended on the interresponse times that produced shock. When long interresponse times produced shock, low intensities increased response rates. High intensities decreased response rates. When short interresponse times produced shock, high shock intensities punished short interresponse times and decreased response rates more than low intensities. The results may explain why punishment procedures occasionally facilitate responding and establish parameters for future studies of punishment. PMID:23144508

  14. What Are the Key Statistics about Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplastic Syndromes What Are the Key Statistics About Myelodysplastic Syndromes? In the United States, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) occur ... in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Research and Treatment? More ... Syndromes About Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. Quasi-perpendicular shocks: Length scale of the cross-shock potential, shock reformation, and implication for shock surfing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholer, Manfred; Shinohara, Iku; Matsukiyo, Shuichi

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) full particle simulations of almost perpendicular supercritical collisionless shocks are presented. The ratio of electron plasma frequency ωpe to gyrofrequency Ωce, the ion to electron mass ratio, and the ion and electron β (β = plasma to magnetic field pressure) have been varied. Due to the accumulation of specularly reflected ions upstream of the shock, ramp shocks can reform on timescales of the gyroperiod in the ramp magnetic field. Self-reformation is not a low ωpe/Ωce process but occurs also in (ωpe/Ωce)2 ≫ 1, low β simulations. Self-reformation also occurs in low ion β runs with an ion to electron mass ratio mi/me = 1840. However, in the realistic mass ratio runs, an electromagnetic instability is excited in the foot of the shock, and the shock profile is considerably changed compared to lower mass ratio runs. Linear analysis based on three-fluid theory (incident ions, reflected ions, and electrons) indicates that the instability is a modified two-stream instability between the decelerated solar wind electrons and the solar wind ions on the whistler mode branch. In the reforming low ion β shocks, part of the potential drop occurs at times across the foot, and part of the potential (˜40%) occurs over a few (˜4) electron inertial lengths in the steepened up ramp. Self-reformation is a low ion β process and disappears for a Mach 4.5 shock at/or above βi ≈ 0.4. It is argued that the ion thermal velocity has to be an order of magnitude smaller than the shock velocity in order for reformation to occur. Since according to these simulations only part of the potential drop occurs for relatively short times over a few electron inertial lengths, it is concluded that coherent shock surfing is not an efficient acceleration mechanism for pickup ions at the low β heliospheric termination shock.

  16. Cellular Alterations in Shock and Ischemia and Their Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudry, Irshad H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in cellular alterations in shock to help physicians and physiologists keep abreast of current research. Specifically addresses changes occurring as a result of hemorrhagic shock and possible ways such lesions could be corrected. (DH)

  17. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  18. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  19. Shock Isolation on Planet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletz, Bjorn T.; Melcher, Jorg

    2014-06-01

    In 2016 the 'InSight' mission will be launched towards planet Mars. Within parts of this mission, sensitive electronics have to be isolated for occurring shocks, as these components are hammered into the Martian soil. A mechanical shock isolation interface - that is based on patented double spiral springs - is integrated into the hammering structure to protect the integrated electronics from the harmful peak accelerations.This paper starts with introducing the theoretical background for the development of such devices and continues with the description and analysis of the actually implemented interface version. Additionally, this paper describes the used mechanism to protect the system during launch. Measurements during the hammering process and the penetration of Mars-like soil prove the effectiveness of the described shock isolation device in real conditions. Finally, this paper highlights the achieved extreme shock reduction performance that reduces the critical accelerations by factor 127 with this novel device.

  20. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1996-05-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted to investigate the shock detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments{close_quote} results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental rates of dehydration of shocked and unshocked serpentine were determined using a differential scanning calorimetric technique. Dehydration rates in shocked serpentine are enhanced by orders of magnitude over corresponding rates in unshocked material, even though the impact experiments were carried out under conditions that inhibited direct impact-induced devolatilization. Extrapolation to temperatures of the Martian surface indicates that dehydration of shocked material would occur 20 to 30 orders of magnitude more rapidly than for unshocked serpentine. The results indicate that impacted planetary surfaces and associated atmospheres would reach chemical equilibrium much more quickly than calculations based on unshocked material would indicate, even during the earliest, coldest stages of accretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that chemical weathering of shocked planetary surfaces by solid-gas reactions would be sufficiently rapid that true equilibrium mineral assemblages should form.

  2. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replicase - Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 and Interaction with Heat Shock 70kDa Protein 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nsp2 replicase protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), when expressed independently, was recently demonstrated to be processed from its precursor by the PL2 protease at or near the G**1196|G**1197 dipeptide in transfected CHO cells. The proteolytic cleavage of nsp...

  3. Observations of shock acceleration processes in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.

    1986-01-01

    Substantial evidence was accumulated over more than two decades that ion acceleration occurs at all collisionless shocks sampled directly in the solar system. The various shock waves in the heliosphere and the associated energetic particle phenomena are shown schematically. Three shocks have attracted considerable attention in recent years: corotating shocks due to the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams during solar minimum, travelling interplanetary shocks due to coronal mass ejections, and planetary bow shocks. The signatures of these shocks and of their energetic particles are briefly reviewed. The most prominent theoretical models for shock acceleration are also reviewed. Recent observations at the earth's bow shock and at quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks are discussed in detail.

  4. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  5. [Shock: concepts for a definition].

    PubMed

    Poderoso, J J; Carreras, M C; Lisdero, C; Schöpfer, F; Riobó, N; Peralta, J

    1998-01-01

    The shock syndrome has been classically considered as a consequence of both decreased tissue perfusion and O2 supply; however, in some types of shock like septic or traumatic ones, regional blood flows may be increased. A decade ago, mitochondrial alterations consistent with uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation were reported in either endotoxemic or hemorrhagic experimental shock or in humans. Recently, the discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and its increase in the shock state, has opened new perspectives in the understanding of this problem. Nitric oxide produces vasodilatation and, at the same time, increases the mitochondrial production of O2 active species like superoxide anion. Both radicals react to form a strong oxidant that is able to nitrate the phenolic rings of proteins: peroxynitrite. This effect leads to the impairment of the activities of different mitochondrial enzymes like succinate dehydrogenase and ATPase and the mitochondrial function and finally, to decreased energy levels and to multiorgan failure. The increase in NO release is due to the effects of circulating peptides and of increased adhesion of neutrophils to the endothelium and to the positive effects of inflammatory mediators like TNF-alpha and cytokines on inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in endothelium and tissues. It is suggested that the shock state is the consequence of an imbalance between NO and O2 and their metabolites.

  6. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  7. Geomagnetic avtivity triggered by interplanetary shocks: The shock impact angle as a controlling factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. M.; Raeder, J.; Tsurutani, B.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    We study the influence of interplanetary (IP) shock impact angles in the shock geoeffectiveness focusing on simulations and observations. In our simulations, we use OpenGGCM simulations to study the magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to shock impacts. Three cases are presented here: two inclined shocks, with 3.7 and 7.4 Mach numbers, and a frontal shock, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with Mach number of 7.4. We find that, in the two inclined cases, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the magnetotail is compressed from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm. By comparing the strong inclined shock and the frontal shock, we find that, despite the inclined shock having a larger Mach number, the frontal shock leads to a larger geomagnetic response in the nightside ionosphere. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as Mach number, can have different geoeffectiveness, depending on their shock normal orientation. In our observational study, we present a survey of IP shocks at 1 AU using Wind and ACE satellite data from Jan 1995 to Dec 2013 to study the same shock-related effects. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index (enhanced AL index), is used to quantify substorm strength. The jumps of the SML index triggered by shock impacts is investigated in terms of shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong and almost frontal shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The highest correlations (R = 0.78) occurs for fixed shock speed and varying the shock impact angle. We attribute this result

  8. Multiple shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we explore a class of states of two CFTs with a large degree of entanglement, but with very weak local two-sided correlation. These states are constructed by perturbing the thermofield double state with thermal-scale operators that are local at different times. Acting on the dual black hole geometry, these perturbations create an intersecting network of shock waves, supporting a very long wormhole. Chaotic CFT dynamics and the associated fast scrambling time play an essential role in determining the qualitative features of the resulting geometries.

  9. Endocrinology of shock.

    PubMed

    Woolf, P D

    1986-12-01

    The development of shock initiates a cascade of responses in an effort to reestablish homeostasis. Three of the most important hormonal and neurohumoral changes are the secretion of glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and vasopressin. Regulation of adrenal function is much more complex than originally thought. Hemorrhage is a potent stimulus for cortisol release, and both ACTH and ACTH-independent mechanisms have been described. The ACTH response to its releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF), is itself amplified by vasopressin, which appears to have intrinsic CRF properties. Because ACTH is synthesized as part of a large precursor molecule (pro-opiomelanocortin) containing the amino acid sequences for several important proteins, stimulation of ACTH release has far-ranging effects, the specifics of which are just being clarified. Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels increase manyfold above baseline within minutes of the onset of hemorrhagic shock. Only patients experiencing cardiac arrest or the rare patient with a very active pheochromocytoma have higher concentrations. The levels reached are far in excess of those required to cause both cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. Because of the presence of the endogenous opiates leucine and methionine enkephalin in the neurosecretory granule, it is very likely that the enkephalins are coreleased with the catecholamines, modifying their cardiovascular effects and producing analgesia. Hypovolemia is also a potent stimulus for vasopressin secretion, which overrides hypotonicity, presenting a clinical picture quite compatible with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, from which it must be differentiated. Vasopressin also is released by pain, nausea, and hypoxia, all of which are likely to be present in the patient with shock.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Dimension limit for thermal shock failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Y. F.; Liu, Q. N.; Tian, H. J.; Lin, Z. K.; Xu, X. H.; Song, F.

    2014-08-01

    We analytically present the characteristic dimensional limit below which the thermal shock failure of ceramics never occurs. This limit, together with the critical temperature difference, separates the state space of the ceramics under thermal shock into two parts - the cracked and the uncracked. Based on the water-quench tests of ceramics, we experimentally proved that when the states of ceramics are in the uncracked region, the ceramics do not produce any cracks during thermal shock. The results provide a guide to prevent thermal shock failure in ceramic.

  11. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of intra-aortic balloon and control systems for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for intra-aortic balloon and control systems for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. Final order.

    PubMed

    2013-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify intra-aortic balloon and control system (IABP) devices when indicated for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for IABPs when indicated for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation.

  12. [A new case of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chaabane, M; Bidat, E; Chevallier, B

    2010-05-01

    We report a case of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) with milk whose signs of milk intolerance began in the 1st days of life, consisting in minor and nonspecific symptoms. The 3 foods in question were cow's milk, soja, and wheat. The diagnosis of FPIES was suspected at the age of 9 months, after 3 hospitalizations for vomiting, sometimes associated with lethargy and hypotension, which occurred around 2h after cow's milk ingestion. Symptoms were not associated with positive specific IgE and cutaneous tests. Signs then occurred with soja and wheat. Because of the late diagnosis, 3 anaphylactic shock episodes occurred. FPIES is an uncommon cell-mediated food allergy reaction. This syndrome is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, especially severe vomiting, sometimes associated with anaphylactic shock. Usually signs occur 2h after ingestion. These reactions begin early, in the 1st months of life, and regress by the age of 3 years in 38-100% of cases depending on the responsible food. They are usually induced by cow's milk and soy proteins. Diagnosis is difficult and delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Oral food challenge is the only examination that confirms the diagnosis. Treatment involves the exclusion of the specific food involved. Severe reactions require treatment of shock and adjunction of corticosteroids.

  13. Shock Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  14. The Treatment of Shock Based Upon Physiological Principles and Impedence Method for Measuring Cardiac Output in Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    cardiogenic shock following intracoronary artery microsphere embolization. The syndrome has been previously characterized by a fall in cardiac output and a...previously been oub- jected to and survived usually lethal cardiogenic shock, 5 dogs were selected. One month after intracoronary embolization, an LD, 0 0

  15. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in different parts of the body) can cause similar problems with cortisol balance. Common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome include upper body obesity, severe fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, ...

  16. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sciatic nerve. The syndrome, which affects more women than men, is uncommon. But when it occurs, it can cause sciatica . Causes The piriformis muscle is involved in nearly every movement you make with your lower body, from walking ...

  17. [Mobius syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vladuţiu, Cristina; Duma, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Mobius syndrom, an anomaly in cranial nerve developement, presents with a remarkable clinical polymorphism. The rare occurence of this pathology and the questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment determined us to make this presentation.

  18. Hypovolemic shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Leslie; Costantini, Todd W; Coimbra, Raul

    2012-12-01

    Several changes in the way patients with hemorrhagic shock are resuscitated have occurred over the past decades, including permissive hypotension, minimal crystalloid resuscitation, earlier blood transfusion, and higher plasma and platelet-to-red cell ratios. Hemostatic adjuncts, such as tranexamic acid and prothrombin complex, and the use of new methods of assessing coagulopathy are also being incorporated into resuscitation of the bleeding patient. These ideas have been incorporated by many trauma centers into institutional massive transfusion protocols, and adoption of these protocols has resulted in improvements in mortality and morbidity. This article discusses each of these new resuscitation strategies and the evidence supporting their use.

  19. Standing shocks in a rotating channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Tivon E.; Tabak, Esteban G.

    2004-10-01

    This paper discusses the stationary shallow water shocks occurring in a reentrant rotating channel with wind stress and topography. Asymptotic predictions for the shock location, strength, and associated energy dissipation are developed by taking the topographic perturbation to be small. It is shown that under appropriate conditions, a mean flow develops under the action of the wind stress, with a transverse profile determined by the need to support stationary shocks. The scaling arguments for the asymptotics are developed by demanding integrated energy and momentum balance, with the result that the free surface perturbation is of the order of the square root of the topographic perturbation. Shock formation requires that linear waves be nondispersive, which sets a solvability condition on the mean flow and which leads to a class of generalized Kelvin waves. Two-dimensional shock-resolving numerical simulations validate the asymptotic expressions and demonstrate the presence of stationary separated flow shocks in some cases.

  20. An Introduction to the Physics of Collisionless Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.T.

    2005-08-01

    Collisionless shocks are important in astrophysical, heliospheric and magnetospheric settings. They deflect flows around obstacles; they heat the plasma, and they alter the properties of the flow as it intersects those obstacles. The physical processes occurring at collisionless shocks depend on the Mach number (strength) and beta (magnetic to thermal pressure) of the shocks and the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock normal. Herein we review how the shock has been modeled in numerical simulations, the basic physical processes at work, including dissipation and thermalization, the electric potential drop at the shock, and the formation of the electron and ion foreshocks.

  1. Geometrical shock dynamics of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostert, Wouter; Pullin, Dale I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    We extend the theory of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD, Whitham 1958), to two-dimensional fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks moving in the presence of nonuniform magnetic fields of general orientation and strength. The resulting generalized area-Mach number rule is adapted to MHD shocks moving in two spatial dimensions. A partially-spectral numerical scheme developed from that of Schwendeman (1993) is described. This is applied to the stability of plane MHD fast shocks moving into a quiescent medium containing a uniform magnetic field whose field lines are inclined to the plane-shock normal. In particular, we consider the time taken for an initially planar shock subject to an initial perturbed magnetosonic Mach number distribution, to first form shock-shocks. Supported by KAUST OCRF Award No. URF/1/2162-01.

  2. Smoother Turbine Blades Resist Thermal Shock Better

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerniak, Paul; Longenecker, Kent; Paulus, Don; Ullman, Zane

    1991-01-01

    Surface treatment increases resistance of turbine blades to low-cycle fatigue. Smoothing removes small flaws where cracks start. Intended for blades in turbines subject to thermal shock of rapid starting. No recrystallization occurs at rocket-turbine operating temperatures.

  3. Mutations in the heat-shock protein A9 (HSPA9) gene cause the EVEN-PLUS syndrome of congenital malformations and skeletal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Royer-Bertrand, Beryl; Castillo-Taucher, Silvia; Moreno-Salinas, Rodrigo; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Murim; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Dikoglu, Esra; Campos-Xavier, Belinda; Girardi, Enrico; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Bonafé, Luisa; Rivolta, Carlo; Unger, Sheila; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We and others have reported mutations in LONP1, a gene coding for a mitochondrial chaperone and protease, as the cause of the human CODAS (cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular and skeletal) syndrome (MIM 600373). Here, we delineate a similar but distinct condition that shares the epiphyseal, vertebral and ocular changes of CODAS but also included severe microtia, nasal hypoplasia, and other malformations, and for which we propose the name of EVEN-PLUS syndrome for epiphyseal, vertebral, ear, nose, plus associated findings. In three individuals from two families, no mutation in LONP1 was found; instead, we found biallelic mutations in HSPA9, the gene that codes for mHSP70/mortalin, another highly conserved mitochondrial chaperone protein essential in mitochondrial protein import, folding, and degradation. The functional relationship between LONP1 and HSPA9 in mitochondrial protein chaperoning and the overlapping phenotypes of CODAS and EVEN-PLUS delineate a family of “mitochondrial chaperonopathies” and point to an unexplored role of mitochondrial chaperones in human embryonic morphogenesis. PMID:26598328

  4. Role of the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 in toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    See, R H; Chow, A W

    1992-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the induction by staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion by human monocytes requires direct T cell-monocyte contact. In the present study, a role for the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in TSST-1-induced cytokine secretion by human monocytes among 12 normal healthy donors was investigated. Monoclonal antibodies to the alpha chain (anti-CD11a) and to the beta chain (anti-CD18) of LFA-1 significantly inhibited TSST-1-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretion (P < 0.025; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, two tailed), while a control monoclonal antibody directed against the monocyte CD14 antigen had no effect. These results suggest that LFA-1 may play an important role in the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta by TSST-1-stimulated human monocytes, likely by promoting cell-cell adhesion between monocytes and lymphocytes. PMID:1399006

  5. Antiphospholipids Syndrome Complicated by a Systemic Capillary Leak-Like Syndrome Treated With Steroids and Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Marcella; Urso, Livio; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Pinto, Vincenzo; Perosa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the onset of systemic capillary leak (SCL)-like syndrome in a 30-year-old woman with antiphospholipids syndrome (APS) during puerperium. Twelve hours after a cesarean section, she presented a sudden fever and abdominal pains followed by dyspnea, severe edema of the limbs and pelvis. Computer tomography shows congestion of interstitial pulmonary parenchyma, pericardial and pleural effusion, edema of intestinal wall and of perivisceral adipose tissue, and periportal lymphedema. Laboratory tests showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and an increase of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Because fever and raised inflammation parameters are not observed in idiopathic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS; Clarkson disease), a diagnosis of SCL-like syndrome was made. Albumin solution, high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) infusion were administered with a rapid improvement of her clinical condition. The prompt treatment with steroids and IVIG likely prevented the life-threatening shock syndrome that can occur in SCLS, with acute hypotensive attacks, and severe limbs edema requiring fasciotomy. All clinical and laboratory findings supported autoinflammation as the underlying pathogenic mechanism of the syndrome. The data indicate that SCL-like syndrome can be considered a novel clinical syndrome, which can complicate APS. PMID:26844485

  6. Vibrational energy transfer in shocked molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Joe

    2010-01-07

    We consider the process of establishing thermal equilibrium behind an ideal shock front in molecular crystals and its possible role in initiating chemical reaction at high shock pressures. A new theory of equilibration via multiphonon energy transfer is developed to treat the scattering of shock-induced phonons into internal molecular vibrations. Simple analytic forms are derived for the change in this energy transfer at different Hugoniot end states following shock compression. The total time required for thermal equilibration is found to be an order of magnitude or faster than proposed in previous work; in materials representative of explosive molecular crystals, equilibration is predicted to occur within a few picoseconds following the passage of an ideal shock wave. Recent molecular dynamics calculations are consistent with these time scales. The possibility of defect-induced temperature localization due purely to nonequilibrium phonon processes is studied by means of a simple model of the strain field around an inhomogeneity. The specific case of immobile straight dislocations is studied, and a region of enhanced energy transfer on the order of 5 nm is found. Due to the rapid establishment of thermal equilibrium, these regions are unrelated to the shock sensitivity of a material but may allow temperature localization at high shock pressures. Results also suggest that if any decomposition due to molecular collisions is occurring within the shock front itself, these collisions are not enhanced by any nonequilibrium thermal state.

  7. Plasma Stratification by Planar Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Brett; Simakov, Andrei; Taitano, William; Chacon, Luis; Daughton, William

    2016-10-01

    A number of experimental observables in neutron yield and capsule compression in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have been evading explanation by standard, single-fluid, hydrodynamic (hydro) numerical simulations. Fuel stratification - resulting from particle diffusion, multi-ion temperature separation (in the case of OMEGA experiments with gas filled capsules), and certain kinetic effects - is a likely culprit. As a preliminary step to elucidate these effects, we consider mass fraction and temperature stratification by shocks in plasmas with two ion species. We present an analytical solution valid for very weak shocks (M - 1 << 1). Employing the state-of-the-art Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, we describe the stratification for shocks with arbitrary mach number, and we rigorously delineate the kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes in terms of Mach number, relative species concentration, and ion species mass ratio - thereby clarifying the conditions under which significant departure from single-fluid hydrodynamics may occur.

  8. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used by the Air Force and NASA for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules that contain the hydrazine can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted in an attempt to investigate the detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. We also present the methodology of our approach, which includes chemical kinetic experiments, chemical equilibrium calculations, and characterization of the equation of state of liquid hydrazine.

  9. [Traumatic shock--physiopathologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Fabiano, G; Pezzolla, A; Filograna, M A; Ferrarese, F

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic shock is a complex phenomenon that represents the culminating element of a series of events. It is, in fact, the outcome of an imbalance-decompensation of the organism's defence mechanisms, in which the oxygen supply to the mitochondria is hampered by a macro and/or microcirculation failure. Basically, it is a form of hypovolemic shock in which further factors have a role, including the activation of inflammation mediators. It should also be stressed that part of the cellular damage is caused by tissue reperfusion. Good hemodynamic compensation is maintained with loss of up to 30% of the circulation mass but, beyond this amount, a fall of the cardiac index, peripheral pO2, and an increase of blood lactates will ensue. Hypoxia causes capillary injury and increased permeability, resulting in the formation of edema and finally in loss of the self-regulating power of the microcirculation. Moreover, it strongly stimulates pro-inflammatory activation of the macrophages and the release of vasoactive substances, such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The inflammatory response is triggered by cascade systems (such as the complement, coagulation, kinins, fibrinolysis), cell elements (endothelium, leukocytes, macrophages, monocytes, mast cells) and the release of mediators (cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, histamine, etc.) and others interacting factors. In severe trauma, the inflammatory process extends beyond the local limits, maintaining and aggravating the state of shock and causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), with involvement and injury of healthy organs and tissues even at a distance from the site of trauma, raising a risk of onset of ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome), sepsis, MODS (Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome). Tissue reperfusion (reoxygenation) also induces the production of toxic metabolites, such as hydroxylated anions, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide: peroxidation of the phospholipid cell membranes alters the barrier

  10. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) occurs when a shingles outbreak affects the facial nerve near one of your ears. In addition to the painful shingles rash, Ramsay Hunt syndrome can cause facial paralysis ...

  11. Rett Syndrome: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia About NICHD Institute ... this: Page Content Rett syndrome is a neurological and developmental genetic disorder that occurs mostly in females. Infants with Rett syndrome seem to grow and ...

  12. Shock wave-droplet interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Khoshmehr, Hamed; Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2016-11-01

    Disintegration of a liquid droplet under the action of a shock wave is experimentally investigated. The shock wave-pulse is electromagnetically generated by discharging a high voltage capacitor into a flat spiral coil, above which an isolated circular metal membrane is placed in a close proximity. The Lorentz force arising due to the eddy current induced in the membrane abruptly accelerates it away from the spiral coil thus generating a shock wave. The liquid droplet placed at the center of the membrane, where the maximum deflection occurs, is disintegrated in the process of interaction with the shock wave. The effects of droplet viscosity and surface tension on the droplet destruction are studied with high-speed photography. Water-glycerol solution at different concentrations is used for investigating the effect of viscosity and various concentrations of water-sugar and water-ethanol solution are used for studying the effect of surface tension. Here we report on how the metamorphoses, which a liquid drop undergoes in the process of interaction with a shock wave, are affected by varied viscosity and surface tension.

  13. Viscous Shear Layers Formed by Non-Bifurcating Shock Waves in Shock-Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Kevin; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Shock-tubes are test apparatuses that are used extensively for chemical kinetic measurements. Under ideal conditions, shock-tubes provide a quiescent region behind a reflected shock wave where combustion may take place without complications arising from gas-dynamic effects. However, due to the reflected shock wave encountering a boundary layer, significant inhomogeneity may be introduced into the test region. The bifurcation of the reflected shock-wave is well-known to occur under certain conditions; however, a viscous shear layer may form behind a non-bifurcating reflected shock wave as well and may affect chemical kinetics and ignition of certain fuels. The focus of this talk is on the development of the viscous shear layer and the coupling to the ignition in the regime corresponding to the negative temperature conditions.

  14. Analysis of shock-wave propagation in aqueous foams using shock tube experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, G.; Mariani, C.; Houas, L.; Chinnayya, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Del Prete, E.; Haas, J.-F.; Rambert, N.; Counilh, D.; Faure, S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports experimental results of planar shock waves interacting with aqueous foams in a horizontal conventional shock tube. Four incident shock wave Mach numbers are considered, ranging from 1.07 to 1.8, with two different foam columns of one meter thickness and expansion ratios of 30 and 80. High-speed flow visualizations are used along with pressure measurements to analyse the main physical mechanisms that govern shock wave mitigation in foams. During the shock/foam interaction, a precursor leading pressure jump was identified as the trace of the liquid film destruction stage in the foam fragmentation process. The corresponding pressure threshold is found to be invariant for a given foam. Regarding the mitigation effect, the results show that the speed of the shock is drastically reduced and that wetter is the foam, slower are the transmitted waves. The presence of the foam barrier attenuates the induced pressure impulse behind the transmitted shock, while the driest foam appears to be more effective, as it limits the pressure induced by the reflected shock off the foam front. Finally, it was found that the pressure histories in the two-phase gas-liquid mixture are different from those previously obtained within a cloud of droplets. The observed behavior is attributed to the process of foam fragmentation and to the modification of the flow topology past the shock. These physical phenomena occurring during the shock/foam interaction should be properly accounted for when elaborating new physical models.

  15. A new class of solutions for interstellar magnetohydrodynamic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, W. G.; Draine, B. T.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the equations of motion for steady MHD shock waves proopagating in interstellar clouds, for boundary conditions that preclude C shocks. In addition to J shocks, in which the neutral fluid component becomes subsonic at an adiabatic jump front, the equations admit a new class of solutions, called C-asterisk shocks, in which the transition to subsonic flow occurs continuously at a sonic point. Numerical methods are developed for computing the structure of J and C-asterisk shocks propagating in diffuse interstellar clouds. The effects of chemical, ionization, and recombination processes are included in this treatment. An alternative numerical method, which uses artificial viscosity to facilitate integration through sonic points, is analyzed and shown to be invalid. A set of exemplary solutions, computed for realistic shock parameters, shows that C-asterisk shocks occur for a broad range of conditions relevant to diffuse interstellar clouds.

  16. Shock-induced devolatilization of calcite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.; Vizgirda, J.; Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the release adiabats by Vizgirda (1981) indicate that substantial vaporization takes place upon release from shock pressures of 37 GPa for calcite and 14 GPa for aragonite. The present investigation includes the first controlled partial vaporization experiments on calcite. The experiments were conducted to test the predictions of the release adiabat experiments. The quantities of the gaseous species produced from shocked calcite and their carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined, and the shock-induced effect on the Mn(2+) electron spin resonance spectrum in the shock-recovered calcite was observed. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that shock stresses at the 17-18 GPa level give rise to volatilization of 0.03-0.3 (mole) percent of calcite to CO2 and CO. The devolatilization of calcite occurs at low pressure at significantly lower entropy densities than predicted on the basis of thermodynamic continuum models.

  17. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  18. Impact angle control of interplanetary shock geoeffectiveness: A statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Raeder, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of interplanetary (IP) shocks using Wind and ACE satellite data from January 1995 to December 2013 to study how IP shock geoeffectiveness is controlled by IP shock impact angles. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. The yearly number of IP shocks is found to correlate well with the monthly sunspot number. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index, an enhanced version of the familiar AL index, is used in our statistical analysis. The jumps of the SML index triggered by IP shock impacts on the Earth's magnetosphere are investigated in terms of IP shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong (high speed) and almost frontal (small impact angle) shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The strongest correlation (correlation coefficient R = 0.78) occurs for fixed IP shock speed and for varied IP shock impact angle. We attribute this result, predicted previously with simulations, to the fact that frontal shocks compress the magnetosphere symmetrically from all sides, which is a favorable condition for the release of magnetic energy stored in the magnetotail, which in turn can produce moderate to strong auroral substorms, which are then observed by ground-based magnetometers.

  19. Syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Christopher; Seaward, James

    2012-05-01

    Although most cases of craniosynostosis are nonsyndromic, craniosynostosis is known to occur in conjunction with other anomalies in well-defined patterns that make up clinically recognized syndromes. Patients with syndromic craniosynostoses are much more complicated to care for, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to address all of their needs effectively. This review describes the most common craniosynostosis syndromes, their characteristic features and syndrome-specific functional issues, and new modalities utilized in their management. General principles including skull development, the risk of developing increased intracranial pressure in craniosynostosis syndromes, and techniques to measure intracranial pressure are discussed. Evolving techniques of the established operative management of craniosynostosis are discussed together with more recent techniques including spring cranioplasty and posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis.

  20. Role of molecular dynamics on descriptions of shock front processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karo, A. M.

    1981-07-01

    A computational approach, based on classical molecular dynamics, is used to form a realistic picture of shock induced processes occurring at the shock front and resulting from the detailed, violent motion associated with shock motion on an atomic scale. Prototype studies of phase transitions are discussed. The interaction of the shock front with defects, surfaces, voids, and inclusions, and across grain boundaries are summarized. The critical question of how mechanical energy imparted to a condensed material by shock loading is converted to the activation energy required to overcome some initial energy barrier in an initiation process, is addressed.

  1. SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D

    2013-05-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a disorder characterized by Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis. As the osteoarticular and skin manifestations often do not occur simultaneously and there are no validated diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical and imaging investigation is necessary to establish the many differential diagnoses of SAPHO syndrome. The etiopathogenesis involves infectious (probably Propionibacterium acnes), immunologic, and genetic factors. Treatment is based on information gathered from case reports and small series, and is related to specific skin or articular symptoms.

  2. PRECURSORS TO INTERSTELLAR SHOCKS OF SOLAR ORIGIN

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2015-08-20

    On or about 2012 August 25, the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma. In the nearly three years that the spacecraft has been in interstellar space, three notable particle and field disturbances have been observed, each apparently associated with a shock wave propagating outward from the Sun. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the third and most impressive of these disturbances, with brief comparisons to the two previous events, both of which have been previously reported. The shock responsible for the third event was first detected on 2014 February 17 by the onset of narrowband radio emissions from the approaching shock, followed on 2014 May 13 by the abrupt appearance of intense electron plasma oscillations generated by electrons streaming outward ahead of the shock. Finally, the shock arrived on 2014 August 25, as indicated by a jump in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. Various disturbances in the intensity and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays were also observed ahead of the shock, some of which are believed to be caused by the reflection and acceleration of cosmic rays by the magnetic field jump at the shock, and/or by interactions with upstream plasma waves. Comparisons to the two previous weaker events show somewhat similar precursor effects, although differing in certain details. Many of these effects are very similar to those observed in the region called the “foreshock” that occurs upstream of planetary bow shocks, only on a vastly larger spatial scale.

  3. Shock experiments on maskelynite-bearing anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, P.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1984-01-01

    A series of shock recovery experiments over 9.9-60.4 GPa have been carried out on naturally shocked anorthosite from the Mistastin impact structure in Labrador consisting primarily of diaplectic plagioclase glass or maskelynite, An(50), and pyroxene. Petrographic observations of the experimental products indicate that the component minerals and diaplectic glasses generally retained their initial character throughout, the only exception being the increase in fracturing which occurred in the 9.9 GPa shot. Reshocking at pressures higher than the initial shock tends to lower the refractive index of maskelynite. The increase in refractive index of maskelynite reshocked to pressures lower than the initial pressure is interpreted as due to shock densification of the diaplectic glass above the Hugoniot elastic limit and below the mixed phase regime. The data suggest that the low-high-low density transition of maskelynite occurs about 8 GPa below that of the crystal of corresponding composition.

  4. Fluorescence depolarization measurements under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jue; Banishev, Alexandr; Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the time-dependent fluorescence depolarization of emissive probe molecules enable real-time observations of molecular rotations in shocked materials. In shocked solids, molecular rotations occur as a result of shear deformations. An apparatus is described to measure time-dependent fluorescence depolarization of shocked materials using laser-driven flyer plates and either a picosecond or a nanosecond probe laser. The emission was separated into parallel and perpendicular channels and imaged onto a streak camera. Time-dependent fluorescence depolarization of rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye dissolved in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was measured with a 16 ns duration impact at 1 km s-1. A partial depolarization of the dye emission was observed to occur during a 150 ns period after the shock.

  5. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  6. Shocks generate crossover behavior in lattice avalanches.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James

    2013-11-22

    A spatial avalanche model is introduced, in which avalanches increase stability in the regions where they occur. Instability is driven globally by a driving process that contains shocks. The system is typically subcritical, but the shocks occasionally lift it into a near- or supercritical state from which it rapidly retreats due to large avalanches. These shocks leave behind a signature-a distinct power-law crossover in the avalanche size distribution. The model is inspired by landslide field data, but the principles may be applied to any system that experiences stabilizing failures, possesses a critical point, and is subject to an ongoing process of destabilization that includes occasional dramatic destabilizing events.

  7. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Diagnosed? The first step in diagnosing cardiogenic shock ... is cardiogenic shock. Tests and Procedures To Diagnose Shock and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical ...

  8. Neptune inbound bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow shock at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic shock-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow shock normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow shock for a near subsolar crossing. The shock was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The shock can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular shock. Finally, the shock microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.

  9. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  10. A possible shock effect associated with seaquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, J.; Eberstein, I.; Curtis, S.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of earthquakes felt on board vessels at sea are discussed along with the possibility of cohesive shock wave propagating through the ocean. The large earthquake of shallow focus which occurred on 29 April 1970, in the Guatemala Basin is analyzed. The thermal information recorded by ITOS-1 spacecraft showed an anomalous temperature enhancement of +3 K in the immediate vicinity, indicating a thermal effect attributed to shock waves.

  11. Biomass shock pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  12. Colliding Two Shocks: 1-D full Particle-in-Cell Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Hada, T.; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Mazelle, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Shock-shock interactions occur on various places in space and the interaction can produce high energy particles. A coronal mass ejection driven shock can collide with the Earth's bow shock [Hietala et al., 2011]. This study reported that ions are accelerated by the first Fermi acceleration between the two shocks before the collision. An electron acceleration through an interplanetary shock-Earth's bow shock interaction was also reported [Terasawa et al., 1997]. Shock-shock interactions can occur in astrophysical phenomena as well as in the heliosphere. For example, a young supernova shock can collide with the wind termination shock of a massive star if they are close to each other [Bykov et al., 2013]. Although hybrid simulations (ions and electrons treated as super-particles and mass-less fluid, respectively) were carried out to understand the kinetic nature of a shock-shock interaction [Cargill et al., 1986], hybrid simulations cannot resolve electron dynamics and non-thermal electrons. We, therefore, use one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to investigate a shock-shock interaction in which two shocks collide head-on. In a case of quasi-perpendicular shocks, electrons are accelerated by the mirror reflection between the two shocks before the collision (Fermi acceleration). On the other hand, because ions cannot go back upstream, the electron acceleration mechanism does not occur for ions. In a case of quasi-parallel shocks, ions can go back upstream and are accelerated at the shocks. The accelerated ions have great effect on the shock structure.

  13. Shock, Post-Shock Annealing, and Post-Annealing Shock in Ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal and shock histories of ureilites can be divided into four periods: 1) formation, 2) initial shock, 3) post-shock annealing, and 4) post-annealing shock. Period 1 occurred approx.4.55 Ga ago when ureilites formed by melting chondritic material. Impact events during period 2 caused silicate darkening, undulose to mosaic extinction in olivines, and the formation of diamond, lonsdaleite, and chaoite from indigenous carbonaceous material. Alkali-rich fine-grained silicates may have been introduced by impact injection into ureilites during this period. About 57% of the ureilites were unchanged after period 2. During period 3 events, impact-induced annealing caused previously mosaicized olivine grains to become aggregates of small unstrained crystals. Some ureilites experienced reduction as FeO at the edges of olivine grains reacted with C from the matrix. Annealing may also be responsible for coarsening of graphite in a few ureilites, forming euhedral-appearing, idioblastic crystals. Orthopyroxene in Meteorite Hills (MET) 78008 may have formed from pigeonite by annealing during this period. The Rb-Sr internal isochron age of approx.4.0 Ga for MET 78008 probably dates the annealing event. At this late date, impacts are the only viable heat source. About 36% of ureilites experienced period 3 events, but remained unchanged afterwards. During period 4, approx.7% of the ureilites were shocked again, as is evident in the polymict breccia, Elephant Moraine (EET) 83309. This rock contains annealed mosaicized olivine aggregates composed of small individual olivine crystals that exhibit undulose extinction. Ureilites may have formed by impact-melting chondritic material on a primitive body with heterogeneous O isotopes. Plagioclase was preferentially lost from the system due to its low impedance to shock compression. Brief melting and rapid burial minimized the escape of planetary-type noble gases from the ureilitic melts. Incomplete separation of metal from silicates

  14. DNA fragmentation in mouse organs during endotoxic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Bohlinger, I.; Leist, M.; Gantner, F.; Angermüller, S.; Tiegs, G.; Wendel, A.

    1996-01-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome has still an unpredictable outcome, and patients often die of multiple organ failure despite circulatory stabilization therapy. The still incompletely understood pathophysiological mechanisms include organ damage due to direct toxic actions of cytokines elicited by overactivation of the host response. To study this process of organ failure in experimental septic shock, we injected mice with a lethal dose of endotoxin and examined apoptotic and necrotic tissue damage biochemically, histologically, and ultrastructurally. Endotoxin administration caused oligonucleosomal as well as random DNA fragmentation in liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. In the liver, DNA fragmentation was not restricted to hepatocytes but also occurred in nonparenchymal cells. The DNA fragmentation was mediated by tumor necrosis factor and attenuated by endogenous nitric oxide release. Unlike the situation in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice, in which injection or release of tumor necrosis factor causes massive hepatocyte apoptosis, liver failure due to high doses of endotoxin was characterized by single-cell necrosis, a low incidence of apoptosis, and simultaneous damage to nonparenchymal cells. We conclude that, even though endotoxin causes cytokine-mediated DNA fragmentation in several organs including the liver, hepatocyte apoptosis itself seems to be a minor phenomenon in high-dose endotoxic shock in mice. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8863685

  15. Implications of heterogeneity in the shock wave propagation of dynamically shocked materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaJeunesse, Jeff

    The field of shock physics as a whole has only recently begun to pay particular attention to modeling heterogeneous materials under shock loading. These materials are important because of their practicality in terms of creating stronger, more shock resistant materials. To understand why they absorb shock impact energy better than homogeneous materials means that the small-scale processes that occur during the shock loading of these heterogeneous materials needs to be understood. Recent computational experiments, called mesoscale simulations, have shown that explicitly incorporating small-scale heterogeneous features into hydrocode simulations allows the bulk shock response of the heterogeneous material to be observed while not requiring the use of empirically determined constitutive equations. Including these features in simulations can offer insights into the irreversible mechanisms that dominate the propagation of shock waves in heterogeneous materials. Three cases where the mesoscale approach for modeling the dynamic shock loading of heterogeneous materials are presented. These materials fall into three categories: granular - dry sand, granular with binder - concrete, and granular contained in a metal foam with a binder - granular explosive contained in an aluminum foam. The processes in which shock waves propagate through each material are addressed and relationships between the three materials are discussed. Particle velocity profiles for dry sand and concrete was obtained from Harvard University and Eglin Air Force Base, respectively. Mesoscale simulations using CTH are conducted for each type of heterogeneous material and the results are compared to the experimental data.

  16. Cardiovascular failure and cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ankitkumar K; Hollenberg, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    Cardiovascular system failure is commonly faced by the intensivist. Heart failure can occur due to a host of predisposing cardiac disorders or as secondary effects of systemic illness. When the heart is unable to provide an adequate cardiac output to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, cardiogenic shock ensues. Without prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, these patients have significant morbidity and mortality, with in-hospital mortality approaching 60% for all age groups. Accurate and rapid identification of cardiogenic shock as a medical emergency, with expeditious implementation of appropriate therapy, can lead to improved clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss optimal strategies for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiogenic shock. We discuss the diverse therapeutic strategies employed for cardiogenic shock, including pharmacological (e.g., vasoactive agents, fibrinolytic agents), mechanical (e.g., intraaortic balloon pumps, left ventricular assist devices, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), and surgical approaches such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valvular repair or replacement (e.g., for acute mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal rupture, or free wall rupture).

  17. A Transmission Electron Microscope Study of Experimentally Shocked Pregraphitic Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1995-01-01

    A transmission electron microscope study of experimental shock metamorphism in natural pre-graphitic carbon simulates the response of the most common natural carbons to increased shock pressure. The d-spacings of this carbon are insensitive to the shock pressure and have no apparent diagnostic value, but progressive comminution occurs in response to increased shock pressure up to 59.6 GPa. The function, P = 869.1 x (size(sub minimum )(exp -0.83), describes the relationship between the minimum root-mean-square subgrain size (nm) and shock pressure (GPa). While a subgrain texture of natural pregraphitic carbons carries little information when pre-shock textures are unknown, this texture may go unnoticed as a shock metamorphic feature.

  18. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Lichte, Philipp; Kobbe, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Campbell, Graeme C; Beckmann, Rainer; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Bergmann, Christian; Kadyrov, Mamed; Fischer, Horst; Glüer, Christian C; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  19. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the most common inherited disorders of connective tissue. It is an autosomal dominant condition occurring once ... with the most notable occurring in eye, skeleton, connective tissue and cardiovascular systems. Marfan syndrome is caused by ...

  20. Dumping syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dumping syndrome occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine. The ... causing nausea, cramping, diarrhea, sweating, faintness, and palpitations. Dumping usually occurs after the consumption of too much ...

  1. Structure in Radiating Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Forrest

    2010-11-01

    The basic radiative shock experiment is a shock launched into a gas of high-atomic-number material at high velocities, which fulfills the conditions for radiative losses to collapse the post-shock material to over 20 times the initial gas density. This has been accomplished using the OMEGA Laser Facility by illuminating a Be ablator for 1 ns with a total of 4 kJ, launching the requisite shock, faster than 100 km/sec, into a polyimide shock tube filled with Xe. The experiments have lateral dimensions of 600 μm and axial dimensions of 2-3 mm, and are diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. Repeatable structure beyond the one-dimensional picture of a shock as a planar discontinuity was discovered in the experimental data. One form this took was that of radial boundary effects near the tube walls, extended approximately seventy microns into the system. The cause of this effect - low density wall material which is heated by radiation transport ahead of the shock, launching a new converging shock ahead of the main shock - is apparently unique to high-energy-density experiments. Another form of structure is the appearance of small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces and creating regions of enhanced and diminished aerial density within the layer. The authors have applied an instability theory, a variation of the Vishniac instability of decelerating shocks, to describe the growth of these perturbations. We have also applied Bayesian statistical methods to better understand the uncertainties associated with measuring shocked layer thickness in the presence of tilt. Collaborators: R. P. Drake, H. F. Robey, C. C. Kuranz, C. M. Huntington, M. J. Grosskopf, D. C. Marion.

  2. The clinical and hemodynamic presentation of the shock patient.

    PubMed

    Summers, G

    1990-06-01

    It is the nurse's responsibility to assess the critically ill patient and to interpret data so that therapy can be directed to optimally treat that individual. Shock is a complex progressive syndrome that includes specific types, such as cardiogenic, septic, anaphylactic, and hypovolemic. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters provide clues to the specific type of shock and its clinical progress. The progression of the shock state must be monitored by critical care nurses who are knowledgeable of and proficient in clinical assessment skills and the acquisition and interpretation of significant hemodynamic data.

  3. Advances in Vascular Hyporeactivity After Shock: The Mechanisms and Managements.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenyang; Yang, Guangming; Li, Tao; Liu, Liangming

    2015-12-01

    Vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators is greatly reduced after severe trauma, shock, and sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This reduced vascular reactivity severely interferes with the treatment of shock and other critical conditions. In particular, it interferes with the efficacy of vasoactive agents. Consequently, it is very important to elucidate the mechanisms and search for the effective treatment measures. In recent years, a lot of studies focused on the characteristics and the change rules of vascular hyporeactivity and mechanisms following shock. Also, the treatment approaches based on various mechanisms have been a hot pot these years.

  4. Ion heating and energy redistribution across supercritical perpendicular shocks: Application to planetary and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, Y. D.; Richardson, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate how the ion dissipative process across supercritical perpendicular shocks depends on the shock front micro-structures. At a collisionless plasma shock, the dissipation and micro-structure of the shock font are dominated by wave-particle interactions. Comparison of the ion thermalization at different kinds of shocks, e.g., planetary and interplanetary shocks, can quantify how much interaction is occurring at the shock boundary. Investigation of this problem for diverse solar wind (SW) conditions will yield important information on the dependences of the ion thermalization and energy redistribution on plasma parameters. With the aid of a successful automatic separation method [Yang et al., 2009], the incident ions at the shock can be divided into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions. Corresponding heating efficiency of each population of ions at the shock can be calculated respectively. Wilkinson & Schwartz [1990] have theorized that the amount of reflected ions at perpendicular shocks depends on plasma parameters. Based on the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conservation laws, they found that the fraction reflected is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the ratio of specific heat capacities γ chosen in the R-H relations. The main goal of this work is to investigate how the plasma parameters, e.g. the particle velocity distribution, the plasma beta value, seed populations, etc. (from a particle dynamic point of view), control the amount of reflected ions by using one-dimensional (1-D) full-particle-cell simulations. The simulation results may help to explain the ion heating efficiency and energy redistribution at shocks observed by Cluster, Wind, Voyager, etc.

  5. Lethal endotoxic shock using alpha-galactosylceramide sensitization as a new experimental model of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Koide, Naoki; Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Kakumu, Shinichi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yokochi, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The effect of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated lethality was examined. Administration of LPS killed all mice pretreated with alpha-GalCer, but not untreated control mice. The lethal shock in alpha-GalCer-sensitized mice was accompanied by severe pulmonary lesions with marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and massive cell death. On the other hand, hepatic lesions were focal and mild. A number of cells in pulmonary and hepatic lesions underwent apoptotic cell death. alpha-GalCer sensitization was ineffective for the development of the systemic lethal shock in Valpha14-positive natural killer T cell-deficient mice. Sensitization with alpha-GalCer led to the circulation of a high level of interferon (IFN)-gamma and further augmented the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in response to LPS. The lethal shock was abolished by the administration of anti-IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha antibody. Further, the lethal shock did not occur in TNF-alpha-deficient mice. Taken together, alpha-GalCer sensitization rendered mice very susceptible to LPS-mediated lethal shock, and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were found to play a critical role in the preparation and execution of the systemic lethal shock, respectively. The LPS-mediated lethal shock using alpha-GalCer sensitization might be useful for researchers employing experimental models of sepsis and septic shock.

  6. Three-dimensional shock-shock interactions on the scramjet inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, D. J.; Tiwari, S. N.; Kumar, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of shock impingement on the inlet of a scramjet engine are investigated numerically. The impinging shock is caused by the vehicle forebody. The interaction of this forebody shock with the inlet leading edge shock results in a very complex fully three-dimensional flowfield containing local regions of high pressure and intense heating. In the present investigation, this complex flowfield is calculated by solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations using a finite-volume flux splitting technique due to van Leer. For zero or small sweep angles a Type IV interaction occurs while for moderate sweep of about 25 deg, a Type V interaction occurs. Both Type IV and Type V interactions are investigated.

  7. Three-dimensional shock-shock interactions on the scramjet inlet

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.J.; Tiwari, S.N.; Kumar, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of shock impingement on the inlet of a scramjet engine are investigated numerically. The impinging shock is caused by the vehicle forebody. The interaction of this forebody shock with the inlet leading edge shock results in a very complex fully three-dimensional flowfield containing local regions of high pressure and intense heating. In the present investigation, this complex flowfield is calculated by solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations using a finite-volume flux splitting technique due to van Leer. For zero or small sweep angles a Type IV interaction occurs while for moderate sweep of about 25 deg, a Type V interaction occurs. Both Type IV and Type V interactions are investigated. 25 refs.

  8. Dumping Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach move to your small intestine in an uncontrolled, abnormally fast manner. This is most often related to changes in your stomach associated with surgery. Dumping syndrome can occur after any stomach operation or removal of the esophagus (esophagectomy). Gastric bypass surgery for ...

  9. Shock absorber control system

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Y.; Ohira, M.; Ushida, M.; Miyagawa, T.; Shimodaira, T.

    1987-01-13

    A shock absorber control system is described for controlling a dampening force of a shock absorber of a vehicle comprising: setting means for setting a desired dampening force changeable within a predetermined range; drive means for driving the shock absorber to change the dampening force of the shock absorber linearly; control means for controlling the drive means in accordance with the desired dampening force when the setting of the desired dampening force has been changed; detecting means for detecting an actual dampening force of the shock absorber; and correcting means for correcting the dampening force of the shock absorber by controlling the drive means in accordance with a difference between the desired dampening force and the detected actual dampening force.

  10. Shock initiation of nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.

    1993-12-31

    The shock initiation processes of nitromethane have been examined by using a fast time-resolved emission spectroscopy at a two-stage gas gun. a broad, but strong emission has been observed in a spectral range between 350 and 700 nm from shocked nitromethane above 9 GPa. The temporal profile suggests that shocked nitromethane detonates through three characteristic periods, namely an induction period, a hock initiation period, and a thermal explosion period. This paper discusses temporal and chemical characteristics of these periods and present the temperature of the shock-detonating nitromethane at pressures between 9 and 15 GPa.

  11. Anti-Shock Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  12. Extracorporeal Life Support for Refractory Cardiac Arrest or Shock: A 10-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Valette, Xavier; Ivascau, Calin; Lehoux, Philippe; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Dalibert, Yves; Masson, Romain; Sabatier, Remi; Buklas, Dimitrios; Seguin, Amélie; Terzi, Nicolas; du Cheyron, Damien; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Daubin, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to identify factors associated with hospital mortality among patients receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS). All consecutive patients treated with ECLS for refractory cardiac arrest or shock in the Caen University Hospital in northwestern France during the last decade were included in a retrospective cohort study. Sixty-four patients were included: 29 with refractory cardiac arrest and 35 with refractory shock. The main reasons for ECLS were acute coronary syndrome (n = 23) and severe poisoning caused by drug intoxication (n = 19). At ECLS initiation, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 16% (±11). Initial blood test results were arterial pH = 7.19 (±0.20) and plasma lactate = 8.02 (±5.88) mmol/L. Forty (63%) patients died including 33 under ECLS. In a multivariate analysis, two factors were independently associated with survival: drug intoxication as the reason for ECLS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.07; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.01-0.28; p < 0.001) and arterial pH (an increase of 0.1 point [AOR, 0.013; 95% CI, <0.001-0.27; p < 0.01]). This study supports early ECLS as a last resort therapeutic option in a highly selected group of patients with refractory cardiac arrest or shock, in particular before profound acidosis occurs and when the cause is reversible.

  13. Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hans H; Danek, Adrian; Walker, Ruth H

    2011-10-25

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington's disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome) and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes. Differential diagnoses

  14. Repetition Blindness Occurs in Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Catherine L.; Morris, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    Theorists have predicted that repetition blindness (RB) should be absent for nonwords because they do not activate preexisting mental types. The authors hypothesized that RB would be observed for nonwords because RB can occur at a sublexical level. Four experiments showed that RB is observed for word-nonword pairs (noon noof), orthographically…

  15. Shock Effects in Experimentally Shocked Samples of the H6 Chondrite Kernouve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. T.; Deutsch, A.; Stoffler, D.

    1993-07-01

    extinction. In the pressure range from 10 to 20 GPa, plagioclase displays undulatory extinction. In the 35-GPa sample most of the plagioclase is transformed to maskelynite (diaplectic glass). This transformation is complete in the 60-GPa sample. The first effects of localized shock-induced melting are observed in the 35- GPa sample, where a few melt pockets occur. The 60-GPa sample shows abundant melt pockets, shock veins, and troilite injections into fractures of the silicates. Troilite of the unshocked sample is monocrystalline. In the pressure range from 10 to 20 GPa, troilite shows undulatory extinction and twinning. The 35- and 60-GPa samples contain only recrystallized troilite. This troilite is polycrystalline and consists of equant grains with 120-degree angles between grain boundaries. Shock Classification and Conclusions: Using the classification scheme of [1], the experimentally shocked Kernouve samples can be classified into the following stages: Unshocked--S1; 10 GPa--S3; 15 and 20 GPa--S4; 35 GPa--S5; and 60 GPa--S6. The transition between shock stage 3 and 4 appears to be somewhat lower than proposed by [1] and occurs in the pressure range of 10 to 15 GPa, probably near to 15 GPa.The investigation of the experimentally shocked chondrite Kernouve shows the same pressure-dependent features as observed in naturally shocked ordinary chondrites [1]. For this reason shock recovery experiments provide an important basis for a better understanding of natural shock features in ordinary chondrites. References: [1] St"ffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867. [2] Bogard D. D. et al. (1987) GCA, 51, 2035-2044. [3] Dai C.-D. et al. (1991) Chin. Sci. Bull., 36, 1984-1988. [4] Sears D. W. et al. (1984) GCA, 48, 343-360. [5] M ller W. F. and Hornemann U. (1969) EPSL, 7, 251-264.

  16. The interaction of hydrodynamic shocks with self-gravitating clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falle, S. A. E. G.; Vaidya, B.; Hartquist, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the results of 3D simulations of the interaction of hydrodynamic shocks with Bonnor-Ebert spheres performed with an adaptive mesh refinement code. The calculations are isothermal and the clouds are embedded in a medium in which the sound speed is either 4 or 10 times that in the cloud. The strengths of the shocks are such that they induce gravitational collapse in some cases and not in others, and we derive a simple estimate for the shock strength required for this to occur. These results are relevant to dense cores and Bok globules in star-forming regions subjected to shocks produced by stellar feedback.

  17. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry and spectroscopy of laser shocked materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bolme, Cynthia A; Mc Grane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Moore, David S.

    2011-01-20

    Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry is used to measure the material motion and changes in the optical refractive index of laser shock compressed materials. This diagnostic has shown us that the ultrafast laser driven shocks are the same as shocks on longer timescales and larger length scales. We have added spectroscopic diagnostics of infrared absorption, ultra-violet - visible transient absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering to begin probing the initiation chemistry that occurs in shock reactive materials. We have also used the femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering to measure the vibrational temperature of materials using the Stokes gain to anti-Stokes loss ratio.

  18. Effects of Interaction Between Normal Shock and Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Coleman duP.

    1944-01-01

    A discussion of the interaction between normal shocks and boundary layers on the basis of experimental evidence obtained in studies of supersonic flows in passages is given. The investigation was made as a result of the inability of the existing normal-shock theory to explain phenomena involving normal shocks that occurred in the presence of boundary layers. Assumptions with regard to the character of the effects of interaction between boundary layer and normal shock are proposed; these assumptions seem to give good agreement with certain experimental results.

  19. Ebolavirus and Haemorrhagic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Matua, Gerald A.; Van der Wal, Dirk M.; Locsin, Rozzano C.

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world’s most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies. PMID:26052448

  20. The Axenfeld syndrome and the Rieger syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, N; Kaback, M

    1978-01-01

    A family is reported in which both the syndrome of Axenfeld and the eye malformations of the syndrome of Rieger occur, indicating that both may be expressions of the same gene. We also review the associated anomalies already reported, emphasise their high incidence, suggest that these are not accidental associations, and propose some possible explanations for the high incidence. Images PMID:416212

  1. Second trimester hepatic rupture in a 35 year old nulliparous woman with HELLP syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J; Ryan, DJ; O'Brien, N; Kirwan, WO

    2009-01-01

    The HELLP syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver blood tests and low platelets) is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10–20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. Hepatic capsular rupture is a rare yet dramatic complication of HELLP syndrome. The majority of cases occur in multiparous women over the age of 30. Classically it presents with acute onset right upper quadrant pain in the presence of constitutional symptoms such as vomiting and pyrexia. However, symptoms and signs are usually non specific. Spontaneous hepatic rupture can be preceded by signs of hypovolaemic shock; yet the diagnosis is infrequently made prior to emergent laparotomy. We present the case of a 35 year old nulliparous woman with a second trimester gestational hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome. We briefly discuss the aetiology, diagnostic difficulties and treatment options associated with this rare presentation. PMID:19527504

  2. Mechanical Properties of Shock-Damaged Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Hongliang; Ahrens, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-strain tests were performed both on shock-damaged gabbro and limestone. The effective Young's modulus decreases with increasing initial damage parameter value, and an apparent work-softening process occurs prior to failure. To further characterize shock-induced microcracks, the longitudinal elastic wave velocity behavior of shock-damaged gabbro in the direction of compression up to failure was measured using an acoustic transmission technique under uniaxial loading. A dramatic increase in velocity was observed for the static compressive stress range of 0-50 MPa. Above that stress range, the velocity behavior of lightly damaged (D(sub 0) less than 0.1) gabbro is almost equal to unshocked gabbro. The failure strength of heavily-damaged (D(sub 0) greater than 0.1) gabbro is approx. 100-150 MPa, much lower than that of lightly damaged and unshocked gabbros (approx. 230-260 MPa). Following Nur's theory, the crack shape distribution was analyzed. The shock-induced cracks in gabbro appear to be largely thin penny-shaped cracks with c/a values below 5 x 10(exp -4). Moreover, the applicability of Ashby and Sammis's theory relating failure strength and damage parameter of shock-damaged rocks was examined and was found to yield a good estimate of the relation of shock-induced deficit in elastic modulus with the deficit in compressive strength.

  3. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  4. Blueberry shock virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry shock disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, shock affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...

  5. What Is Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... think that you or someone else is in shock, call 9–1–1 right away for emergency treatment. Prompt medical care can save your life and ... half of the people who go into cardiogenic shock survive. This is because of ... improved treatments, such as medicines and devices. These treatments can ...

  6. Normal Shock Vortex Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Figure 9: Breakdown map for normal-shock vortex-interaction. References [1] O. Thomer, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Numerical Simulation of Normal...and Oblique-Shock Vortex Interaction, ZAMM Band 80, Sub. 1, pp. 181-184, 2000. [2] O. Thomer, E. Krause, W. Schroder and M. Meinke , Computational

  7. Shock Dynamics for particle-laden thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Bertozzi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    We study the shock dynamics for a recently proposed system of conservation laws (Murisic et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 2013]) describing gravity-driven thin film flow of a suspension of particles down an incline. When the particle concentration is above a critical value, singular shock solutions can occur. We analyze the Hugoniot topology associated with the Riemann problem for this system, describing in detail how the transition from a double shock to a singular shock happen. We also derive the singular shock speed based on a key observation that the particles pilling up at the maximum packing fraction near the contact line. These results are further applied to constant volume case to generate a rarefaction-singular shock solution. The particle/fluid front are shown to move linearly to the leading order with time to the one-third power as predicted by the Huppert solution for clear fluid.

  8. Shock propagation and attenuation in high-power excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, Achim; Berger, Peter; Huegel, Helmut

    1993-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on the propagation, reflection, and attenuation of shock waves as they occur in excimer lasers have been performed. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a two-dimensional, unsteady finite difference scheme. The experimental setup is a piston driven shock tube with a rectangular cross section working in air at atmospheric pressure. The shocks were detected interferometrically as well as by means of pressure transducers. This shock tube allows us to investigate basic phenomena of shock diffraction which can be used to confirm the computational results in the range of weak shock waves. In particular, the influence of the shape of the wall contour on the reflection of shock waves has been investigated theoretically. The decay time of pressure and density perturbations differs for various wall configurations in such a way that short electrodes accelerate the attenuation as well as does a strong area increase in the vicinity of them. After each laser pulse there is a shock travelling into the laser channel. Experiments have been carried out on the reflection of this shock at a specially formed bend that is able to focus the shock into a muffling element.

  9. Some recent developments in the prediction of shock interaction phenomena at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The shock strengths for which either Edney type I or type II shock interference patterns can occur when two oblique shocks of opposite families intersect were determined graphically at Mach 10 by using logarithmic shock polar diagrams. The theoretical region of overlap for the two types of interaction was investigated by observing in the Schlieren system of the Langley 15-inch hypersonic flow apparatus the intersection of oblique shocks generated by two sharp 10 degree wedges as the wedge angles of attack and their relative positions were altered. A range of shock strengths for which either of the two interference patterns can exist was demonstrated.

  10. Pathophysiology of shock.

    PubMed

    Houston, M C

    1990-06-01

    Shock is an acute widespread reduction in effective tissue perfusion that invokes an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand, anaerobic metabolism, lactic acidosis, cellular and organ dysfunction, metabolic abnormalities, and, if prolonged, irreversible damage and death. The pathophysiologic events in the various types of shock are different and complex with hemodynamic and oxygenation changes, alterations in the composition of the fluid compartments, and various mediators. Shock results from a change in one or a combination of the following: intravascular volume, myocardial function, systemic vascular resistance, or distribution of blood flow. The clinical types of shock include hypovolemic, cardiogenic, distributive (septic), and obstructive. An understanding of the pathophysiologic changes, rapid diagnosis, appropriate monitoring, and appropriate therapy can reduce the high morbidity and mortality in shock states.

  11. Reflection of curved shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  12. The role of interplanetary shock orientation on SC/SI rise time and geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumaran, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Ebihara, Y.; Kumar, Sandeep; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.

    2017-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks interact with the Earth's magnetosphere, resulting in compression of the magnetosphere which in turn increases the Earth's magnetic field termed as Sudden commencement/Sudden impulse (SC/SI). Apart from IP shock speed and solar wind dynamic pressure, IP shock orientation angle also plays a major role in deciding the SC rise time. In the present study, the IP shock orientation angle and SC/SI rise time for 179 IP shocks are estimated which occurred during solar cycle 23. More than 50% of the Shock orientations are in the range of 140°-160°. The SC/SI rise time decreases with the increase in the orientation angle and IP shock speed. In this work, the type of IP shocks i.e., Radio loud (RL) and Radio quiet (RQ) are examined in connection with SC/SI rise time. The RL associated IP shock speeds show a better correlation than RQ shocks with SC/SI rise time irrespective of the orientation angle. Magnetic Cloud (MC) associated shocks dominate in producing less rise time when compared to Ejecta (EJ) shocks. Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used for three different IP shock orientation categories to see the importance of orientation angle in determining the geoeffectiveness. Simulations results reveal that shocks hitting parallel to the magnetosphere are more geoeffective as compared to oblique shocks by means of change in magnetic field, pressure and Field Aligned Current (FAC).

  13. [Sheehan's syndrome--a forgotten disease with 100 years' history].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Although named after Harold Sheehan, postpartum ischemic pituitary necrosis was reported for the first time 100 years ago in Przeglad Lekarski by Leon Konrad Gliński. In the majority of cases, the syndrome is a consequence of severe postpartum bleeding episode resulting in severe hypotension or hemorrhagic shock. The frequency of Sheehan's syndrome has decreased in developed countries as a result of improved obstetrical care, but this clinical entity remains a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of anterior pituitary dysfunction resulting from the deficiency of multiple pituitary hormones. The order of frequency of hormone loss has generally been found to be growth hormone and prolactin, gonadotropins, ACTH and thyrotropin. Women with Sheehan's syndrome exhibit a variety of signs and symptoms including failure to lactate or resume menses, loss of genital and axillary hair, and often occurring long after delivery clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis is based on laboratory studies, including hormone levels and hormone stimulation tests. Treatment of Sheehan's syndrome involves hormone replacement therapy. The aim of this study is to review current knowledge on clinically relevant aspects of this clinical entity and to provide the reader with recommendations concerning its diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out.

  15. Shock-induced CO2 loss from CaCO3: Implications for early planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Recovered samples from shock recovery experiments on single crystal calcite were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to determine the amount of post-shock CO2, the decarbonization interval and the activation energy, for the removal of remaining CO2 in shock-loaded calcite. Comparison of post-shock CO2 with that initially present determines shock-induced CO2 loss as a function of shock pressure. Incipient to complete CO2 loss occurs over a pressure range of approximately 10 to approximately 70 GPa. Optical and scanning electron microscopy reveal structural changes, which are related to the shock-loading. The occurrence of dark, diffuse areas, which can be resolved as highly vesicular areas as observed with a scanning electron microscope are interpreted as representing quenched partial melts, into which shock-released CO2 was injected. The experimental results are used to constrain models of shock-produced, primary CO2 atmospheres on the accreting terrestrial planets.

  16. Development of the hybrid numerical simulation to clarify shock viscosity effects in a plastic shock wave front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, A.

    Shock viscous stress can be defined as the stress differences between the stress on Rayleigh line and the equilibrium stress at the same strain. The shock viscous stress is one of the important parameters with respect to rising times of elastic and plastic shock wave fronts [1]. Swegle and Grady took the routine program of the shock viscous stress into their one-dimensional finite difference wave code, and they predicted the shock wave rise times occurred in several kind of materials with relatively small stress impacts [2]. Their numerical results seemed to represent the experimental results measured by the velocity interferometer system (VISAR). Strictly speaking, however, their method was not sufficiently accurate because their expression of the shock viscous stress was the stress differences between Rayleigh line and Hugoniot. Recently, we had proposed a new analytical method to get temperature in steady shock wave fronts and the effects were ascertained for a ceramic material and some metals [3-6]. When we derive the temperature in shock wave fronts by our method, we can also get the quasistatic (equilibrium) stresses. Therefore, it is possible to obtain the shock viscous stress analytically. The structured variations in the shock wave rising process are closely related to the dissipative processes in the material, and it is interesting to investigate these structured characteristics.

  17. Nonthermal Electrons at High Mach Number Shocks: Electron Shock Surfing Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.; Shimada, N.

    2002-06-01

    We study the suprathermal electron acceleration mechanism in a perpendicular magnetosonic shock wave in a high Mach number regime by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We find that shock surfing/surfatron acceleration producing suprathermal electrons occurs in the shock transition region, where a series of large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are excited by Buneman instability under the interaction between the reflected ions and the incoming electrons. It is shown that the electrons are likely to be trapped by ESWs, and during the trapping phase they can be effectively accelerated by the shock motional/convection electric field. We discuss that suprathermal electrons can be accelerated up to mic2(v0/c), where mic2 is the ion rest mass energy and v0 is the shock upstream flow velocity. Furthermore, some of these suprathermal electrons may be effectively trapped for an infinitely long time when the Alfvén Mach number MA exceeds several tens, and they are accelerated up to the shock potential energy determined by the global shock size.

  18. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  19. Massive Organ Inflammation in Experimental and in Clinical Meningococcal Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Hellerud, Bernt C; Olstad, Ole K; Nielsen, Erik W; Trøseid, Anne-Marie S; Skadberg, Øyvind; Thorgersen, Ebbe B; Vege, Åshild; Mollnes, Tom E; Brandtzæg, Petter

    2015-11-01

    Fulminant meningococcal sepsis is characterized by a massive growth of bacteria in the circulation, regarded as the primary inflammatory site, with no specific solid organ focus. Here we aimed to study the local inflammatory response in organs using a porcine model of fulminant meningococcal septic shock challenged with exponentially increasing doses of heat inactivated Neisseria meningitidis. The results were compared with those obtained in organs post mortem from three patients with lethal meningococcal septic shock. Nine patients with lethal pneumococcal disease and 14 patients with sudden infant death syndrome served as controls. Frozen tissue were thawed, homogenized and prepared for quantification of bacterial DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and key inflammatory mediators were measured by ELISA in the pig material and by multiplex in the human material. In addition, gene expression assayed by Affymetrix gene expression profiling was performed in the pig study. The porcine model revealed a major influx of N. meningitidis in lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys accompanied with major production of cardinal inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, far exceeding the amount detected in blood. Genes encoding for these mediators revealed a similar profile. By comparing the wild-type with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient meningococcal strain, we documented that LPS was the dominant group of molecules inducing organ inflammation and was required for IL-8 production. IL-10 production was predominantly stimulated by non-LPS molecules. The massive organ inflammation in the porcine model was present in the three patients dying of meningococcal shock and differed markedly from the patients with lethal pneumococcal infections and sudden infant death syndrome. In conclusion, in meningococcal sepsis, a massive local inflammatory response occurs in specific organs.

  20. Shock formation in stellar perturbations and tidal shock waves in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Carsten; Murphy, Jeremiah W.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate whether tidal forcing can result in sound waves steepening into shocks at the surface of a star. To model the sound waves and shocks, we consider adiabatic non-spherical perturbations of a Newtonian perfect fluid star. Because tidal forcing of sound waves is naturally treated with linear theory, but the formation of shocks is necessarily non-linear, we consider the perturbations in two regimes. In most of the interior, where tidal forcing dominates, we treat the perturbations as linear, while in a thin layer near the surface we treat them in full non-linearity but in the approximation of plane symmetry, fixed gravitational field and a barotropic equation of state. Using a hodograph transformation, this non-linear regime is also described by a linear equation. We show that the two regimes can be matched to give rise to a single-mode equation which is linear but models non-linearity in the outer layers. This can then be used to obtain an estimate for the critical mode amplitude at which a shock forms near the surface. As an application, we consider the tidal waves raised by the companion in an irrotational binary system in circular orbit. We find that shocks form at the same orbital separation where Roche lobe overflow occurs, and so shock formation is unlikely to occur.

  1. Comparison of shock severity measures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to clarify the issues associated with quantifying shock severity, this paper compares the merits of two measures of shock severity. The first measure is the widely used absolute acceleration shock response spectrum (SAA). The second measure of shock severity is relatively new and is known as the shock intensity spectrum (SIS). Overall information content of SAA and SIS spectra are compared and discussed in the context of two shock excitations having known amplitude, duration, and frequency content. The first is a burst of band-limited white noise and the second is a classical haversine pulse. After describing both the SAA and SIS shock measures, numerous examples are described which emphasize the strengths and limitations of each shock characterization method. This discussion reveals how the use of different shock measures may alter an engineer's conclusions about relative shock severity between two shock environments. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Flammer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  3. Shock Bench Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvet, B.; Dilhan, D.; Palladino, M.

    2014-06-01

    In 2008 a contract placed by CNES in partnership with ESA has led MECANO ID to develop a shock bench to qualify spacecraft equipment. A spacecraft shall withstand several shocks without degradation: launcher fairing or stages separation, spacecraft separation, the release of appendage (solar arrays, antenna reflectors, booms) and shocks generated when the pyrovalves of the propulsion system are fired.The Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) requirement, to be applied to the equipment, depends on its mass, its size and its location in the satellite. CNES has performed a survey of the pyroshock qualification requirements on CNES and ESA satellites. The outcome of the activity was the input for the bench development (Fig. 1). The design and sizing of the pyroshock bench started with non linear shock analysis with the help of the Dytran software.A lot of solutions have been compared: mono-plate, bi- plate, Hopkinson bar. The bi-plate was chosen thanks to its very rich frequency content. Also, the shock can be generated on one plate with the equipment mounted on the other, to avoid the direct transmission of the shock to the equipment basis.This study led to a 1000 mm x 650 mm steel bi-plate with a 300 mm aluminum cube fitted on one side. The equipment to test is mounted on the cube (Fig. 2 & 3).

  4. Nonstandard Analysis and Jump Conditions for Converging Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Tucker, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is an area of modern mathematics which studies abstract number systems containing both infinitesimal and infinite numbers. This article applies nonstandard analysis to derive jump conditions for one-dimensional, converging shock waves in a compressible, inviscid, perfect gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. Predistributions of the Heaviside function and the Dirac delta measure are introduced to model the flow parameters across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters.

  5. Nonstandard analysis and jump conditions for converging shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baty, Roy S.; Farassat, F.; Tucker, Don H.

    2008-06-01

    Nonstandard analysis is an area of modern mathematics that studies abstract number systems containing both infinitesimal and infinite numbers. This article applies nonstandard analysis to derive jump conditions for one-dimensional, converging shock waves in a compressible, inviscid, perfect gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. Predistributions of the Heaviside function and the Dirac delta measure are introduced to model the flow parameters across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters.

  6. Treatment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-14

    r ( u h eywords: Hantavirus ; HPS; HFRS; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; Bunyav . Introduction Hantaviruses cause two types of serious illness when...Treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,Antiviral Research 78:162-169 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S...shock ith lactic acidosis, a low cardiac index and elevated sys- emic vascular resistance (Enria et al., 2001). Many authors refer the term hantavirus

  7. Echocardiography in shock management.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony S

    2016-08-20

    Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied.In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available. The majority of pathologies found in shocked patients are readily identified using basic level 2D and M-mode echocardiography. A more comprehensive diagnosis can be achieved with advanced levels of competency, for which practice guidelines are also now available. Hemodynamic evaluation and ongoing monitoring are possible with advanced levels of competency, which includes the use of colour Doppler, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging and occasionally the use of more recent technological advances such as 3D or speckled tracking.The four core types of shock-cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and vasoplegic-can readily be identified by echocardiography. Even within each of the main headings contained in the shock classification, a variety of pathologies may be the cause and echocardiography will differentiate which of these is responsible. Increasingly, as a result of more complex and elderly patients, the shock may be multifactorial, such as a combination of cardiogenic and septic shock or hypovolemia and ventricular outflow obstruction.The diagnostic benefit of echocardiography in the shocked patient is obvious. The increasing prevalence of critical care physicians experienced in advanced techniques means echocardiography often supplants the need for more invasive hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in shock.

  8. Standing shocks in the inner solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leer, Egil; Holzer, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    It has been pointed out by several authors that the equations describing rapidly diverging flow in the solar wind and in related astrophysical systems allow for solutions with standing shocks in the acceleration region of the flow. The range of plasma and flow-geometry parameters that allow for such solutions are investigated. It is shown that, for reasonable geometries, shocks can occur only for a very narrow range of flow parameters in the case of the solar wind. Similar results can be expected for related astrophysical systems.

  9. Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vogels, Annick; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  10. Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keleştimur, Fahrettin

    2003-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. It may be rarely seen without massive bleeding or after normal delivery. Improvement in obstetric care and availability of rapid blood transfusion coincided with a remarkable reduction in the frequency of Sheehan's syndrome particularly in western society. But it has recently been reported more often from well-developed countries. It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries. Enlargement of pituitary gland, small sella size, disseminated intravascular coagulation and autoimmunity have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Sheehan's syndrome in women who suffer from severe postpartum hemorrhage. The patients may seek medical advice because of various presentations ranging from non-specific symptoms to coma and the clinical manifestation may change from one patient to another. Failure of postpartum lactation and failure to resume menses after delivery are the most common presenting symptoms. Although a small percentage of patients with Sheehan's syndrome may cause abrupt onset severe hypopituitarism immediately after delivery, most patients have a mild disease and go undiagnosed and untreated for a long time. It may result in partial or panhypopituitarism and GH is one of the hormones lost earliest. The great majority of the patients has empty sella on CT or MRI. Lymphocytic hypophysitis should be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. In this review, the old and recent data regarding Sheehan's syndrome are presented.

  11. Shock formation of HCO/+/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-04-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO(+) relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk (1978). The shock enhancement of HCO(+) detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickinson et al. (1980) is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model.

  12. Sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Early recognition of sepsis and septic shock in children relies on obtaining an attentive clinical history, accurate vital signs, and a physical examination focused on mental status, work of breathing, and circulatory status. Laboratory tests may support the diagnosis but are not reliable in isolation. The goal of septic shock management is reversal of tissue hypoperfusion. The therapeutic end point is shock reversal. Mortality is significantly better among children when managed appropriately. Every physician who cares for children must strive to have a high level of suspicion and keen clinical acumen for recognizing the rare but potentially seriously ill child.

  13. Shocks near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  14. Relative frequencies of seismic main shocks after strong shocks in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a catalogue of Italian earthquakes, covering 55 yr of data from 1960 to 2014 with magnitudes homogeneously converted to Mw, to compute the time-dependent relative frequencies with which strong seismic shocks (4.0 ≤ Mw < 5.0), widely felt by the population, have been followed by main shocks (Mw ≥ 5.0) that threatened the health and the properties of the persons living in the epicentral area. Assuming the stationarity of the seismic release properties, such frequencies are estimates of the probabilities of potentially destructive shocks after the occurrence of future strong shocks. We compared them with the time-independent relative frequencies of random occurrence in terms of the frequency gain that is the ratio between the time-dependent and time-independent relative frequencies. The time-dependent relative frequencies vary from less than 1 per cent to about 20 per cent, depending on the magnitudes of the shocks and the time windows considered (ranging from minutes to years). They remain almost constant for a few hours after the strong shock and then decrease with time logarithmically. Strong earthquakes (with Mw ≥ 6.0) mainly occurred within two or three months of the strong shock. The frequency gains vary from about 10 000 for very short time intervals to less than 10 for a time interval of 2 yr. Only about 1/3 of main shocks were preceded by at least a strong shock in the previous day and about 1/2 in the previous month.

  15. Understanding circulatory shock. Is it hypovolemic, cardiogenic, or vasogenic?

    PubMed

    Teba, L; Banks, D E; Balaan, M R

    1992-05-15

    Circulatory shock comprises a group of complex circulatory syndromes that result from a variety of conditions. It alters the function of most organ systems and has very high mortality. Identification of the type of shock (hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasogenic, or a combination) and optimal treatment are aided by hemodynamic monitoring, including determination of preload, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. Experimental studies and isolation of bioactive substances have improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in shock. Restoration of intravascular volume, cardiac contractility, and vascular tone and control of the underlying septic process when applicable are the basis of current therapy. Close monitoring and support of the affected organ systems in an intensive care environment facilitate recovery. Encouraging results with new treatments indicate improved chances for a satisfactory outcome in patients with circulatory shock.

  16. PIC simulations on the termination shock: Microstructure and electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, S.; Scholer, M.

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the termination shock as a particle accelerator is totally unknown. Voyager data and recent kinetic numerical simulations revealed that the compression ratio of the termination shock is rather low due to the presence of pickup ions, i.e., the termination shock appears to be a weak shock. Nevertheless, two Voyager spacecraft observed not only high energy ions called termination shock particles, which are non-thermal but less energetic compared to the so-called anomalous cosmic rays, but also high energy electrons. In this study we focus especially on microstructure of the termination shock and the associated electron acceleration process by performing one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a variety of parameters. For typical solar wind parameters at the termination shock, a shock potential has no sharp ramp with the spatial scale of the order of electron inertial length which is suitable for the injection of anomalous cosmic ray acceleration. Solar wind ions are not so much heated, which is consistent with Voyager spacecraft data. If a shock angle is close to 90 deg., a shock is almost time stationary or weakly breathing when a relative pickup ion density is 30%, while it becomes non-stationary if the relative pickup ion density is 20%. When the shock angle becomes oblique, a self-reformation occurs due to the interaction of solar wind ions and whistler precursors. Here, the shock angle is defined as the angle between upstream magnetic field and shock normal. For the case with relatively low beta solar wind plasma (electron beta is 0.1 and solar wind ion temperature equals to electron temperature), modified two-stream instability (MTSI) gets excited in the extended foot sustained by reflected pickup ions, and both solar wind electrons and ions are heated. If the solar wind plasma temperature gets five times higher, on the other hand, the MTSI is weakened and the pre-heating of the solar wind plasma in the extended foot is

  17. Beta-hemolytic streptococcal erythroderma syndrome: a clinical and pathogenic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Harmony L; Schlievert, Patrick M; Baddour, Larry M

    2011-10-01

    The syndrome of erythroderma due to beta-hemolytic streptococci is rarely seen and should be distinguished from cellulitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. The authors describe a novel syndrome of nongroup A, beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection truncal erythroderma. The characteristics of this syndrome suggest that local factors were likely operative in the cutaneous manifestations of an exotoxin-associated erythroderma.

  18. Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.

  19. Observations on shock induced chemistry of cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Akin, M C; Chau, R

    2013-07-14

    We use double pass absorption spectroscopy to examine shock induced reactions in situ in cyclohexane and benzene at pressures up to 33.1 GPa. Reactions in cyclohexane begin by 27 GPa and complete by 33.1 GPa. Reactions in benzene are observed to begin by 12 GPa and are complete by 18 GPa. Absorption spectra indicate that the first reaction in cyclohexane occurs within or near the shock front, and that a metastable local equilibrium is reached in the post-shock state. A second process may be observed upon reshock at the lower pressures, suggesting a new equilibrium is reached post-reshock as well. Absorption bands are consistent with the formation of short radicals or fragments upon decomposition; however, spectral resolution is too low to confirm this mechanism.

  20. Passive control of unsteady condensation shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Matsuo, Shigeru; Shimamoto, Katsumi; Yasugi, Shinichi; Yu, Shen

    2000-12-01

    A rapid expansion of moist air or steam in a supersonic nozzle gives rise to nonequilibrium condensation phenomena. Thereby, if the heat released by condensation of water vapour exceeds a certain quantity, the flow will become unstable and periodic flow oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave will occur. For the passive control of shock-boundary layer interaction using the porous wall with a plenum underneath, many papers have been presented on the application of the technique to transonic airfoil flows. In this paper, the passive technique is applied to three types of oscillations of the unsteady condensation shock wave generated in a supersonic nozzle in order to suppress the unsteady behavior. As a result, the effects of number of slits and length of cavity on the aspect of flow field have been clarified numerically using a 3rd-order MUSCL type TVD finite-difference scheme with a second-order fractional-step for time integration.

  1. Compaction shock dissipation in low density granular explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.; Chakravarthy, Sunada

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure of granular explosives can affect dissipative heating within compaction shocks that can trigger combustion and initiate detonation. Because initiation occurs over distances that are much larger than the mean particle size, homogenized (macroscale) theories are often used to describe local thermodynamic states within and behind shocks that are regarded as the average manifestation of thermodynamic fields at the particle scale. In this paper, mesoscale modeling and simulation are used to examine how the initial packing density of granular HMX (C4H8N8O8) C4H8N8O8 having a narrow particle size distribution influences dissipation within resolved, planar compaction shocks. The model tracks the evolution of thermomechanical fields within large ensembles of particles due to pore collapse. Effective shock profiles, obtained by averaging mesoscale fields over space and time, are compared with those given by an independent macroscale compaction theory that predicts the variation in effective thermomechanical fields within shocks due to an imbalance between the solid pressure and a configurational stress. Reducing packing density is shown to reduce the dissipation rate within shocks but increase the integrated dissipated work over shock rise times, which is indicative of enhanced sensitivity. In all cases, dissipated work is related to shock pressure by a density-dependent power law, and shock rise time is related to pressure by a power law having an exponent of negative one.

  2. Ion dynamics at supercritical quasi-parallel shocks: Hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanqing; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui

    2012-09-01

    By separating the incident ions into directly transmitted, downstream thermalized, and diffuse ions, we perform one-dimensional (1D) hybrid simulations to investigate ion dynamics at a supercritical quasi-parallel shock. In the simulations, the angle between the upstream magnetic field and shock nominal direction is θBn=30°, and the Alfven Mach number is MA˜5.5. The shock exhibits a periodic reformation process. The ion reflection occurs at the beginning of the reformation cycle. Part of the reflected ions is trapped between the old and new shock fronts for an extended time period. These particles eventually form superthermal diffuse ions after they escape to the upstream of the new shock front at the end of the reformation cycle. The other reflected ions may return to the shock immediately or be trapped between the old and new shock fronts for a short time period. When the amplitude of the new shock front exceeds that of the old shock front and the reformation cycle is finished, these ions become thermalized ions in the downstream. No noticeable heating can be found in the directly transmitted ions. The relevance of our simulations to the satellite observations is also discussed in the paper.

  3. Ion transport in circulatory and/or septic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Sayeed, M.M.

    1987-05-01

    This review surveys investigations of membrane ion transport in animals in hemorrhagic, endotoxic, or bacteremic shock. The focus of the review is on ion transport studies in the skeletal muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ transport alterations have been shown during the induction of shock via hemorrhage, endotoxin, or live Gram-negative bacteria in the rodent, canine, and primate species. These alterations include impairment of active cellular K/sup +/ accumulation, increased permeability to /sup 24/Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/, and membrane depolarization. The ion transport alterations in the skeletal muscle are compatible with movement of extracellular fluid into the intracellular compartment. Such fluid movements can potentially lead to decreases in circulating plasma volume and thus to circulatory deficits in shock. Studies in the liver of rats subjected to hemorrhagic or endotoxic shock indicated the failure of electrogenic Na/sup +/ pump. Although the hepatic cellular membrane permeability to Na/sup +/ relative to permeability to K/sup +/ appeared unaltered in hemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock caused an increase in permeability to Na/sup +/. Hepatic cellular /sup 45/Ca/sup +/ regulation also appeared to be adversely affected during endotoxic shock. Alterations in hepatic Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ transport and Ca/sup +/ regulation could contribute to impairment in hepatic glucose production during shock. Although mechanisms of altered membrane ion transport during shock states remain unknown, such changes could occur prior to any substantial loss of cellular metabolic energy.

  4. Early Treatment in Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    jasminoides Ellis). It is com- monly sold in the United States as an herbal supplement . In terms of crocetin’s fundamental mode of action in host... supplementation 15 can be beneficial in ameliorating the tissue damage produced following experimental 16 hemorrhagic shock. In the present investigation...experimental rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Our studies were designed to test two 19 hypotheses. First, L-arginine supplementation during resuscitation will

  5. Shock Properties of Kimberlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, G. R.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    Plate impact experiments have been performed on the igneous diamond-bearing matrix kimberlite. Longitudinal and lateral stresses were measured in the uniaxial strain regime using manganin stress gauges. The shock Hugoniot of the kimberlite has been characterized at axial stresses between 1 and 9 GPa. The kimberlite has a low impedance response when compared with similar data for other geological materials. The data indicate that the rock behaves inelastically above shock stresses of 1 GPa.

  6. Fluid therapy in shock.

    PubMed

    Mandell, D C; King, L G

    1998-05-01

    The goal of treatment for all types of shock is the improvement of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The mainstay of therapy for hypovolemic and septic shock is the expansion of the intravascular volume by fluid administration, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products. Frequent physical examinations and monitoring enable the clinician to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation and thus the success of the fluid therapy.

  7. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  8. Early Treatment in Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    1471–2210/2/7. Accessed April 15, 2005. 20. Wang CJ, Lee MJ, Chang MC, Lin JK. Inhibition of tumor promotion in benzo [ a ] pyrene -initiated CD-1 mouse...model. Deliverable: A panel of genes that are reproducibly altered in white blood cells and in liver and muscle by shock and resuscitation. 1. To...Deliverable: Coordinated with objective #1, A panel of genes that are reproducibly altered in white blood cells and in liver and muscle by shock and

  9. Simulation of shock-initiated ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melguizo-Gavilanes, J.; Rezaeyan, N.; Lopez-Aoyagi, M.; Bauwens, L.

    2010-12-01

    The scenario of detonative ignition in shocked mixture is significant because it is a contributor to deflagration to detonation transition, for example following shock reflections. However, even in one dimension, simulation of ignition between a contact surface or a flame and a shock moving into a combustible mixture is difficult because of the singular nature of the initial conditions. Initially, as the shock starts moving into reactive mixture, the region filled with reactive mixture has zero thickness. On a fixed grid, the number of grid points between the shock and the contact surface increases as the shock moves away from the latter. Due to initial lack of resolution in the region of interest, staircasing may occur, whereby the resulting plots consist of jumps between few values a few grid points, and these numerical artifacts are amplified by the chemistry which is very sensitive to temperature, leading to unreliable results. The formulation is transformed, replacing time and space by time and space over time as the independent variables. This frame of reference corresponds to the self-similar formulation in which the non-reactive problem remains stationary, and the initial conditions are well-resolved. Additionally, a solution obtained from short time perturbation is used as initial condition, at a time still short enough for the perturbation to be very accurate, but long enough so that there is sufficient resolution. The numerical solution to the transformed problem is obtained using an essentially non-oscillatory algorithm, which is adequate not only for the early part of the process, but also for the latter part, when chemistry leads to appearance of a shock and eventually a detonation wave is formed. A validation study was performed and the results were compared with the literature, for single step Arrhenius chemistry. The method and its implementation were found to be effective. Results are presented for values of activation energy ranging from mild to

  10. Radio-Loud Coronal Mass Ejections Without Shocks Near Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; SaintCyr, O. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are produced by low energy electrons accelerated in shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs). One can infer shocks near the Sun, in the Interplanetary medium, and near Earth depending on the wavelength range in which the type II bursts are produced. In fact, type II bursts are good indicators of CMEs that produce solar energetic particles. If the type 11 burst occurs from a source on the Earth-facing side of the solar disk, it is highly likely that a shock arrives at Earth in 2-3 days and hence can be used to predict shock arrival at Earth. However, a significant fraction of CMEs producing type II bursts were not associated shocks at Earth, even though the CMEs originated close to the disk center. There are several reasons for the lack of shock at 1 AU. CMEs originating at large central meridian distances (CMDs) may be driving a shock, but the shock may not be extended sufficiently to reach to the Sun-Earth line. Another possibility is CME cannibalism because of which shocks merge and one observes a single shock at Earth. Finally, the CME-driven shock may become weak and dissipate before reaching 1 AU. We examined a set of 30 type II bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment that had the solar sources very close to the disk center (within a CMD of 15 degrees), but did not have shock at Earth. We find that the near-Sun speeds of the associated CMEs average to approx.600 km/s, only slightly higher than the average speed of CMEs associated with radio-quiet shocks. However, the fraction of halo CMEs is only approx.28%, compared to 40% for radio-quiet shocks and 72% for all radio-loud shocks. We conclude that the disk-center radio loud CMEs with no shocks at 1 AU are generally of lower energy and they drive shocks only close to the Sun.

  11. When Yawning Occurs in Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Zoë T.; Hart, Benjamin L.; Greco, Brian J.; Young, Debbie; Padfield, Clare; Weidner, Lisa; Gates, Jennifer; Hart, Lynette A.

    2017-01-01

    Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June–September and in December. In the daytime, handlers managed seven of the elephants for guided interactions with visitors. At night, all elephants were maintained in a large enclosure with six having limited outdoor access. With infrared illumination, the elephants were continuously recorded by video cameras. During the nights, the elephants typically had 1–3 recumbent sleeping/resting bouts, each lasting 1–2 h. Yawning was a regular occurrence upon arousal from a recumbency, especially in the final recumbency of the night. Yawning was significantly more frequent in some elephants. Yawning was rare during the daytime and during periods of standing around in the enclosure at night. In six occurrences of likely contagious yawning, one elephant yawned upon seeing another elephant yawning upon arousal from a final recumbency; we recorded the sex and age category of the participants. The generality of yawning in both African and Asian elephants in other environments was documented in video recordings from 39 zoological facilities. In summary, the study provides evidence that yawning does occur in both African and Asian elephants, and in African elephants, yawning was particularly associated with arousal from nighttime recumbencies. PMID:28293560

  12. When Yawning Occurs in Elephants.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Zoë T; Hart, Benjamin L; Greco, Brian J; Young, Debbie; Padfield, Clare; Weidner, Lisa; Gates, Jennifer; Hart, Lynette A

    2017-01-01

    Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June-September and in December. In the daytime, handlers managed seven of the elephants for guided interactions with visitors. At night, all elephants were maintained in a large enclosure with six having limited outdoor access. With infrared illumination, the elephants were continuously recorded by video cameras. During the nights, the elephants typically had 1-3 recumbent sleeping/resting bouts, each lasting 1-2 h. Yawning was a regular occurrence upon arousal from a recumbency, especially in the final recumbency of the night. Yawning was significantly more frequent in some elephants. Yawning was rare during the daytime and during periods of standing around in the enclosure at night. In six occurrences of likely contagious yawning, one elephant yawned upon seeing another elephant yawning upon arousal from a final recumbency; we recorded the sex and age category of the participants. The generality of yawning in both African and Asian elephants in other environments was documented in video recordings from 39 zoological facilities. In summary, the study provides evidence that yawning does occur in both African and Asian elephants, and in African elephants, yawning was particularly associated with arousal from nighttime recumbencies.

  13. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  14. Mixing and shocks in geophysical shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Tivon

    In the first section, a reduced two-layer shallow water model for fluid mixing is described. The model is a nonlinear hyperbolic quasilinear system of partial differential equations, derived by taking the limit as the upper layer becomes infinitely deep. It resembles the shallow water equations, but with an active buoyancy. Fluid entrainment is supposed to occur from the upper layer to the lower. Several physically motivated closures are proposed, including a robust closure based on maximizing a mixing entropy (also defined and derived) at shocks. The structure of shock solutions is examined. The Riemann problem is solved by setting the shock speed to maximize the production of mixing entropy. Shock-resolving finite-volume numerical models are presented with and without topographic forcing. Explicit shock tracking is required for strong shocks. The constraint that turbulent energy production be positive is considered. The model has geophysical applications in studying the dynamics of dense sill overflows in the ocean. The second section discusses stationary shocks of the shallow water equations in a reentrant rotating channel with wind stress and topography. Asymptotic predictions for the shock location, strength, and associated energy dissipation are developed by taking the topographic perturbation to be small. The scaling arguments for the asymptotics are developed by demanding integrated energy and momentum balance, with the result that the free surface perturbation is of the order of the square root of the topographic perturbation. Shock formation requires that linear waves be nondispersive, which sets a solvability condition on the mean flow and which leads to a class of generalized Kelvin waves. Two-dimensional shock-resolving numerical simulations validate the asymptotic expressions and demonstrate the presence of stationary separated flow shocks in some cases. Geophysical applications are considered. Overview sections on shock-resolving numerical methods

  15. Storm Sudden Commencements Without Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wooyeon; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Oh, Suyeon

    2015-09-01

    Storm sudden commencements (SSCs) occur due to a rapid compression of the Earth's magnetic field. This is generally believed to be caused by interplanetary (IP) shocks, but with exceptions. In this paper we explore possible causes of SSCs other than IP shocks through a statistical study of geomagnetic storms using SYM-H data provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism ? Kyoto and by applying a superposed epoch analysis to simultaneous solar wind parameters obtained with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. We select a total of 274 geomagnetic storms with minimum SYM-H of less than ?30nT during 1998-2008 and regard them as SSCs if SYM-H increases by more than 10 nT over 10 minutes. Under this criterion, we found 103 geomagnetic storms with both SSC and IP shocks and 28 storms with SSC not associated with IP shocks. Storms in the former group share the property that the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), proton density and proton velocity increase together with SYM-H, implying the action of IP shocks. During the storms in the latter group, only the proton density rises with SYM-H. We find that the density increase is associated with either high speed streams (HSSs) or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and suggest that HSSs and ICMEs may be alternative contributors to SSCs.

  16. Damage in canine hearts following defibrillator shocks.

    PubMed

    Lumb, G; Anderson, G J; Kase, M L; Woo, D V

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate possible differences in potential myocardial cell damage following the use of two clinically available difibrillators. One had a damped sine wave (DSW), and the other a truncated exponential waveform (TEW). The latter, therefore, had a lower peak current and voltage. After pilot studies to determine damage potential, an energy content of 10 Joules per kg was selected with three transthoracic shocks at 30 second intervals, delivered with paddles, by both defibrillators. Thirteen dogs were shocked with DSW (10 sacrificed at 24 hours and three at 72 hours). Eleven dogs were shocked with TEW (eight sacrificed at 24 hours and three at 72 hours). Three were used as untreated controls. Observations included ECG monitoring, technetium99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PyP) uptake, and gross and microscopic observations including electron microscopy. This report will concentrate on the morphologic changes. Eleven of 13 dogs shocked with DSW developed ventricular tachycardia, transient heart block, Tc-PyP uptake and myocardial cell death with acute necrosis, and aberrant contraction patterns associated with cell death. Progression of the lesions occurred from 24 to 72 hours. Only two (one at 24 hours and one at 72 hours) of the dogs shocked with TEW showed microscopic foci of necrosis. One was a chance finding (24 hours); the other was associated with an overlying "yellow streak". In neither case were arrhythmias or Tc-PyP uptake observed. The results indicate that in dogs at equivalent energy levels, TEW caused significantly less myocardial damage than DSW.

  17. Year in review 2009: Critical Care - shock

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The research papers on shock that have been published in Critical Care throughout 2009 are related to four major subjects: first, alterations of heart function and, second, the role of the sympathetic central nervous system during sepsis; third, the impact of hemodynamic support using vasopressin or its synthetic analog terlipressin, and different types of fluid resuscitation; as well as, fourth, experimental studies on the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present review summarizes the key results of these studies together with a brief discussion in the context of the relevant scientific and clinical background published both in this and other journals. PMID:21122169

  18. Shock/shock interference on a transpiration cooled hemispherical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Robert J.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of transpiration cooling in reducing the peak heat flux caused by an impinging shock on a bow shock of a hemispherical model. The 12-inch diameter hemispherical transpiration model with helium coolant was tested in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach 12.1 and freestream unit Reynolds number of 0.33 x 10 to the 6th/ft. An incident shock wave, generated by a blunt flat-plate shock generator inclined at 10 deg to the freestream, intersected the bow shock of the model to produce shock/shock interference. The stagnation heat flux without coolant or shock/shock interference was about 1.6 times a smooth surface laminar prediction due to effective roughness of the coolant ejection slots. A coolant mass flux 31 percent of the freestream mass flux reduced the stagnation heat flux to zero without shock/shock interference. However, for the same coolant mass flux and with shock/shock interference the peak heat flux was only reduced 8.3 percent, even though the total integrated heat load was reduced.

  19. The sick building syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sumedha M.

    2008-01-01

    The sick building syndrome comprises of various nonspecific symptoms that occur in the occupants of a building. This feeling of ill health increases sickness absenteeism and causes a decrease in productivity of the workers. As this syndrome is increasingly becoming a major occupational hazard, the cause, management and prevention of this condition have been discussed in this article. PMID:20040980

  20. Large scale motions of Neptune's bow shock: Evidence for control of the shock position by the rotation phase of Neptune's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Smith, Charles W.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Moses, Stewart L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 spacecraft observed high levels of Langmuir waves before the inbound crossing of Neptune's bow shock, thereby signifying magnetic connection of the bow shock. The Langmuir waves occurred in multiple bursts throughout two distinct periods separated by an 85 minute absence of wave activity. The times of onsets, peaks, and disappearances of the waves were used together with the magnetic field directions and spacecraft position, to perform a 'remote-sensing' analysis of the shape and location of Neptune's bow shock prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. The bow shock is assumed to have a parabolidal shape with a nose location and flaring parameter determined independently for each wave event. The remote-sensing analysis give a shock position consistent with the time of the inbound shock crossing. The flaring parameter of the shock remains approximately constant throughout each period of wave activity but differs by a factor of 10 between the two periods. The absence of waves between two periods of wave activity coincides with a large rotation of the magnetic field and a large increase in the solar wind ram pressure' both these effects lead to magnetic disconnection of the spacecraft from shock. The planetwards motion of the shock's nose from 38.5 R(sub N) to 34.5 R(sub N) during the second time period occurred while the solar wind ram pressure remained constant to within 15 percent. This second period of planetwards motion of the shock is therefore strong evidence for Neptune's bow shock moving in response to the rotation of Neptune's oblique, tilted magnetic dipole. Normalizing the ram pressure, the remotely-sensed shock moves sunwards during the first wave period and planetwards in the second wave period. The maximum standoff distance occurs while the dipole axis is close to being perpendicular to the Sun-Neptune direction. The remote-sensing analysis provides strong evidence that the location of Neptune's bow shock is controlled by Neptune's rotation

  1. A Journey with Klinefelter Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Virginia Isaacs

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience having a son with Klinefelter Syndrome. Klinefelter Syndrome, also known as 47,XXY, is estimated to occur in 1 out of 600 males, making it the most common chromosomal disorder. Babies with Klinefelter Syndrome rarely have any physical differences that are detectable, which is the reason that so few…

  2. Viscous hypersonic shock-shock interaction on a blunt body at high altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comeaux, Keith A.; Chapman, Dean R.; Maccormack, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    The shock interaction produced when an incident oblique shock impinges on a blunt body, such as an engine inlet cowl lip of a hypersonic vehicle, is investigated for high altitude flight conditions. A perfect gas, Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of this problem at various altitudes representing continuum through transitional conditions is performed using the modified flux vector splitting method of Steger and Warming (1979). Two series of solutions are produced. First, a number-of-shock-positions are studied at a particular altitude and Mach number. Second, given a fixed shock position and Mach number, the interaction is investigated at several altitudes ranging from continuum to transitional flow conditions. It is shown that the interaction becomes fundamentally different as the density is lowered, and its effect on the overheating problem is progressively diminished. The maximum stagnation point heating at the highest altitude is reached only when the incident shock misses the cowl lip completely, and any interaction with the cowl bow shock that does occur takes place downstream and thus has little effect on the conditions at the stagnation point.

  3. Intense laser driven collision-less shock and ion acceleration in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, K.; Jia, Q.; Cai, H. B.; Taguchi, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Sanz, J. R.; Honrubia, J.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of strong magnetic field with a laser driven coil has been demonstrated by many experiments. It is applicable to the magnetized fast ignition (MFI), the collision-less shock in the astrophysics and the ion shock acceleration. In this paper, the longitudinal magnetic field effect on the shock wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense short pulse laser is investigated by theory and simulations. The transition of a laminar shock (electro static shock) to the turbulent shock (electromagnetic shock) occurs, when the external magnetic field is applied in near relativistic cut-off density plasmas. This transition leads to the enhancement of conversion of the laser energy into high energy ions. The enhancement of the conversion efficiency is important for the ion driven fast ignition and the laser driven neutron source. It is found that the total number of ions reflected by the shock increases by six time when the magnetic field is applied.

  4. Analysis of compaction shock interactions during DDT of low density HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined, low density granular HMX occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong combustion-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting dissipative heating within the microstructure during pore collapse. Inert meso-scale simulations of successive shock loading of low density HMX are performed to examine how dissipation and hot-spot formation are affected by the initial density, and the primary and secondary shock strengths. This information is used to formulate an ignition and burn model for low density HMX that accounts for the effect of shock densensitization on burn. Preliminary DDT predictions are presented that illustrate how primary shock strength affects the transition mechanism.

  5. High-speed helicopter rotor noise - Shock waves as a potent source of sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang; Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of high speed rotor noise prediction. In particular, we propose that from the point of view of the acoustic analogy, shocks around rotating blades are sources of sound. We show that, although for a wing at uniform steady rectilinear motion with shocks the volume quadrupole and shock sources cancel in the far field to the order of 1/r, this cannot happen for rotating blades. In this case, some cancellation between volume quadrupoles and shock sources occurs, yet the remaining shock noise contribution is still potent. A formula for shock noise prediction is presented based on mapping the deformable shock surface to a time independent region. The resulting equation is similar to Formulation 1A of Langley. Shock noise prediction for a hovering model rotor for which experimental noise data exist is presented. The comparison of measured and predicted acoustic data shows good agreement.

  6. Transport of Solar Wind H+ and He++ Ions across Earth’s Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Fu, S. Y.; Kim, H. E.; Ma, Y. Q.; Yang, Z. W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, N.; Hong, J.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Rème, H.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the dependence of mass, energy, and charge of solar wind (SW) transport across Earth’s bow shock. An examination of 111 crossings during quiet SW in both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shock regions shows that 64 crossings had various degrees of heating and thermalization of SW. We found 22 crossings where the SW speed was <400 km s-1. The shock potential of a typical supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock estimated from deceleration of the SW and cutoff energy of electron flat top distribution is ˜50 Volts. We find that the temperatures of H+ and He++ beams that penetrate the shock can sometimes be nearly the same in the upstream and downstream regions, indicating little or no heating had occurred crossing the bow shock. None of the models predict that the SW can cross the bow shock without heating. Our observations are important constraints for new models of collisionless shocks.

  7. Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Feldman, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves are steep wavefronts that are fundamental in nature, especially in high-speed fluid flows. When a shock hits an obstacle, or a flying body meets a shock, shock reflection/diffraction phenomena occur. In this paper, we show how several long-standing shock reflection/diffraction problems can be formulated as free boundary problems, discuss some recent progress in developing mathematical ideas, approaches and techniques for solving these problems, and present some further open problems in this direction. In particular, these shock problems include von Neumann's problem for shock reflection–diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with concave corner, Lighthill's problem for shock diffraction by two-dimensional wedges with convex corner, and Prandtl-Meyer's problem for supersonic flow impinging onto solid wedges, which are also fundamental in the mathematical theory of multidimensional conservation laws. PMID:26261363

  8. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of high blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke. Insulin resistance . This occurs when the body's cells don't ... Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thought to be related to insulin resistance, this disorder involves the release of extra male ...

  9. Dandy-Walker Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes may occur. Other symptoms include increased head circumference, bulging at the back of the skull, abnormal breathing problems, and problems with the nerves that control the eyes, face and neck. Dandy-Walker Syndrome is sometimes associated with disorders ...

  10. Impingement syndrome (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arch of the shoulder blade, it can cause shoulder pain called impingement syndrome. The tendons become compressed, damaged, and inflamed leading to rotator cuff tendonitis. This can occur ... use of the shoulder like baseball pitching, or from an injury.

  11. Sick Sinus Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs in bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is often atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is a chaotic rhythm of the upper chambers ... to prevent fast rhythms. If you have atrial fibrillation or other abnormal heart rhythms that increase your ...

  12. Simulations for detonation initiation behind reflected shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yasunari

    Numerical simulations are carried out for detonation initiation behind reflected shock waves in a shock tube. The two-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with chemical effects are numerically solved by use of a combined method consisting of the Flux-Corrected Transport scheme, the Crank-Nicolson scheme, and a chemical calculation step. Effects of chemical reactions occurring in a shock-heated hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture are estimated by using a simplified reaction model: two progress parameters are introduced to take account of induction reactions as well as exothermic reactions. Simulations are carried out referring to several experiments: generation of multidimensional and unstable reaction shock waves; strong and mild ignitions; and reacting shock waves in hydrogen and oxygen diluted in argon mixture.

  13. Plane shock wave structure in a dilute granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the early time evolution of the Riemann problem of planar shock wave structures for a dilute granular gas by solving Navier-Stokes equations numerically. The one-dimensional reduced Navier-Stokes equations for plane shock wave problem are solved numerically using a relaxation-type numerical scheme. The results on the shock structures in granular gases are presented for different Mach numbers and restitution coefficients. Based on our analysis on early time shock dynamics we conclude that the density and temperature profiles are "asymmetric"; the density maximum and the temperature maximum occur within the shock layer; the absolute magnitudes of longitudinal stress and heat flux which are initially zero at both end states attain maxima in a very short time and thereafter decrease with time.

  14. [Syndromes 2. Pfeiffer syndrome].

    PubMed

    Freihofer, H P

    1998-07-01

    Acrocephalosyndactylias are syndromes characterized by abnormalities of the head (craniosynostosis), the face (hypertelorism, retromaxillism), hands and feet (cutaneous or bony syndactyly). Inheritance is autosomal dominant, but spontaneous cases are described also. The group is divided into several syndromes with varying penetrance and expressivity. As an example of an acrocephalosyndactylia is the Pfeiffer syndrome presented.

  15. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jane A.; Long, C. N. H.; Wilhelmi, Alfred E.

    1944-01-01

    1. With increasing severity of shock following hemorrhage in fasted rats there is an increasing depression in the rate of oxygen uptake, in oxygen, of liver slices from the bled animals. The respiration of kidney tissue is only slightly depressed even in severe states of shock. 2. The rates of oxygen uptake of liver tissue from bled rats are nicely correlated with the increases in blood amino nitrogen that follow severe hemorrhage. 3. A supplement of coenzyme factors, in the form of a hot water extract of normal rat liver, increases the oxygen uptake of liver tissue from rats in mild shock, but is without effect on the respiration of liver slices from rats in moderate or severe shock. 4. The ability of rat liver to oxidize succinate is not impaired even in severe shock, but the extra oxygen uptake does not improve the basal rate of respiration of the tissue. 5. Effects on the rate of oxygen uptake of normal rat liver slices comparable to those seen after hemorrhage could be produced by exposing the tissue to an atmosphere of nitrogen for periods of 15 and 60 minutes. This treatment had more marked effects on the respiration of kidney slices than are found after hemorrhage, but the kidney, unlike the liver, exhibited a marked degree of recovery in the presence of glucose. 6. The significance of these findings is briefly discussed. PMID:19871349

  16. Shocks in fragile matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  17. [SAPHO syndrome].

    PubMed

    Heldmann, F; Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2014-10-01

    The SAPHO syndrome, an acronym for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, is a rare disease which affects bones, joints and the skin. The main osteoarticular features are hyperostosis and osteitis. Osteoarticular symptoms predominantly occur on the anterior chest wall but the spine and the peripheral skeleton can also be involved. The most important skin affections are palmoplantar pustulosis and severe acne. The etiology of this syndrome remains unclear but infectious, immunological and genetic factors are involved. The diagnostic features of SAPHO syndrome are clinical and radiological. The most important diagnostic procedure is Tc-99 m bone scintigraphy but conventional x-rays as well as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also contribute to the final diagnosis. Bone histology and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) may help to differentiate SAPHO syndrome from malignancies and infectious osteomyelitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cornerstone of treatment. The results obtained using antibiotics and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate are inconsistent. Bisphosphonates and anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs have shown promising results in small studies but further research is still necessary.

  18. [Recent data on the physiopathology of septic shock].

    PubMed

    Lissac, J; Kayal, S

    1995-11-01

    This review is going on to emphasize recent advances of the pathophysiology of septic shock (SS) which goes-between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and the multisystem organ failure (MOF). By several recent studies, our knowledge of the cellular and molecular pathophysiology of the SS has dramatically increased. Bacterial products, immunocompetent cells, soluble mediators, and cell-cell interactions between blood cells and endothelium have been reviewed. The metabolic disorders following SS can also be observed during SIRS. Still further, these abnormalities do not accurately predict prognosis, except some of them. A wealth of pre-clinical data suggests the efficacy and potentially useful therapeutic strategies like specific immunotherapy (anti-endotoxin, antimediators). Discrepancies between animals models and unexpected and disappointing clinical trial results during SS are discussed. Blocking simultaneously the hole metabolic patterns of SS which is a complex, multisystem, and multifactorial pathologic process seems to be a utopian situation. Furthermore SS occuring more frequently as a complication of nosocomial infection, the high cost of such a novel therapeutic strategy has to be taken into account.

  19. Shock Detector for SURF model

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  20. Is 5-fluorouracil-induced vasospasm a Kounis syndrome? A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Karabay, C Y; Gecmen, C; Aung, S M; Guler, A; Candan, O; Batgerel, U; Kalayci, A; Kirma, C

    2011-11-01

    Cardiovascular hypersensitivity is a rare and well-documented side-effect of 5-FU (5-fluorouracil). Besides the common complications such as angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, it can also cause cardiogenic shock, and supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Studies have reported that FU-induced angina most commonly occurred due to vasospasm. In our case, 9 hours after stopping the infusion of 5-FU, the patients developed symptoms and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings consistent with acute myocardial infarction. We intend to share this rare case and discuss whether this late complication after 5-FU infusion is an FU-induced vasospasm or rather an allergic reaction leading to Kounis syndrome.

  1. T-wave oversensing and inappropriate shocks: a case report.

    PubMed

    Srivathsan, Komandoor; Scott, Luis R; Altemose, Gregory T

    2008-05-01

    A 27-year-old male with congenital long QT syndrome, SCN5A mutation experienced recurrent inappropriate exercise-related implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. This device showed T-wave oversensing with double, which lead to these device discharges. Dynamic T-wave oversensing was reproducibly provoked at exercise treadmill testing and was confirmed as the mechanism leading to double counting. The insertion of a new pacing and sensing lead with increased R-wave amplitude did not solve the problem. Exchanging the existing ICD generator with one capable of automatic sensitivity control (Biotronik, Lexos DR, Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) completely eliminated T-wave oversensing and inappropriate shocks.

  2. Shock-Induced Effect on Chathodoluminesence of Experimentally Shocked Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Kayama, M.; Tajika, E.; Sekine, Y.; Sekine, T.; Nishido, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a series of shock recovery experiments on single crystals of natural and synthetic quartz. In the presentation, we show the results of the variation of Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral features with increasing shock pressure.

  3. Principles and application of shock-tubes and shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.; Clauss, H. G., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    The principles, theoretical flow equations, calculation techniques, limitations and practical performance characteristics of basic and high performance shock tubes and shock tunnels are presented. Selected operating curves are included.

  4. Mechanical ventilation in Coffin-Lowry syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Edmilson Bastos; de Moura, Érica Leal Teixeira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Oliveira, Vânia Maria

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 27-year-old patient with Coffin-Lowry syndrome with severe community pneumonia, septic shock and respiratory failure. We summarize both the mechanical ventilatory assistance and the hospitalization period in the intensive care unit. PMID:28099645

  5. Dusty Termination Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    2004-09-15

    In astrophysical settings, termination shocks where strong stellar wind outflows interact with the surrounding environments tend to take place in dusty regions. Just to name a few, star formation regions, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei are all good examples. Dynamics and evolution of the associated dust clouds could have important influences on the acceleration and composition of energetic particles resulting from the diffusive shock acceleration at the termination shocks. In this note we provide a brief review of previous work predating the recent detection of ACR Mg, Na, Si and S ions which might have originated from the Kuiper belt dust. Their compositional abundance might be diagnostic of the collisional history of the Kupier belt objects.

  6. TIMING OF SHOCK WAVES

    DOEpatents

    Tuck, J.L.

    1955-03-01

    This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.

  7. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  8. PartialLy Shock-Transformed Olivine in Shocked Chondrites: Mechanisms of Solid-State Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.; Xie, Z.

    2007-12-01

    High-pressure minerals, produced by shock meta-morphism, are common in and around melt veins in highly shocked chondrites. These minerals either crys-tallized from silicate melt in the shock-vein or formed by solid- state transformation of host-rock fragments entrained in the melt or along shock-vein margins. Olivine- ringwoodite transformation kinetics can be used to constrain shock duration if one knows P-T conditions and transformation mechanisms. Here we examine the solid-state transformation of olivine to ringwoodite and the formation of ringwoodite lamellae in Tenham. Partially transformed olivines show a variety of ringwoodite textures. Some have granular textures whereas others have straight or curved ringwoodite lamellae, made up of distinct (1 to 2 ?m) crystals. Many of these polycrystalline ringwoodite lamellae occur in pairs. Where these paired lamellae cross the are offset, suggesting that the lamellae are associated with shearing. Electron diffraction reveals that the ringwoodites in the polycrystalline lamellae, occur in roughly the same crystallographic orientation, defining a lattice-preferred orientation. TEM also shows that the remnant olivine is highly deformed, with high densities of complex dislocations. This olivine has a poorly organized sub-grain structure that grades into polycrystalline olivine. The nearby untransformed olivine is also highly de-formed, but less than the partially transformed olivine. TEM images of complex dislocation and sub-grain microstructures suggests that the transformation of olivine to ringwoodite involves extensive deformation. High densities of dislocations provide potential sites for heterogeneous nucleation of ringwoodite and may enhance Fe-Mg inter-diffusion. The differential stress at the initial stage of the shock results in high strains and local heating. The paired ringwoodite lamellae in olivine appear to result from shearing and possibly shear heating, where nucleation occurs on both sides of a shear

  9. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  10. Interplanetary shocks and foreshocks observed by STEREO during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere modify the solar wind through which they pass. In particular, shocks play an important role in particle acceleration. During the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed 65 forward shocks driven by stream interactions (SI), with magnetosonic Mach numbers Mms ≈ 1.1-4.0 and shock normal angles θBN ~ 20-87°. We analyze the waves associated with these shocks and find that the region upstream can be permeated by whistler waves (f ~ 1 Hz) and/or ultra low frequency (ULF) waves (f ~ 10-2-10-1 Hz). While whistlers appear to be generated at the shock, the origin of ULF waves is most probably associated with local kinetic ion instabilities. We find that when the Mach number (Mms) is low and the shock is quasi-perpendicular (θBN > 45°) whistler waves remain close to the shock. As Mms increases, the shock profile changes and can develop a foot and overshoot associated with ion reflection and gyration. Whistler precursors can be superposed on the foot region, so that some quasi-perpendicular shocks have characteristics of both subcritical and supercritical shocks. When the shock is quasi-parallel (θBN < 45°) a large foreshock with suprathermal ions and waves can form. Upstream, there are whistler trains at higher frequencies whose characteristics can be slightly modified probably by reflected and/or leaked ions and by almost circularly polarized waves at lower frequencies that may be locally generated by ion instabilities. In contrast with planetary bow shocks, most of the upstream waves studied here are mainly transverse and no steepening occurs. Some quasi-perpendicular shocks (45° < θBN < 60°) are preceded by ULF waves and ion foreshocks. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves in the sheath of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We compare SI-driven shock properties with those of shocks generated by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). During the same years

  11. Moebius Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with Moebius syndrome have some degree of autism. There are four recognized categories of Moebius syndrome: ... children with Moebius syndrome have some degree of autism. There are four recognized categories of Moebius syndrome: ...

  12. Coronal magnetic field profiles from shock-CME standoff distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2016-10-01

    Coronagraphs observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and driven shocks in white light images. From these observations the shock's speed and the shock's standoff distance from the CME's leading edge can be derived. Using these quantities, theoretical relationships between the shock's Alfvénic Mach number MA and standoff distance, and empirical radial profiles for the solar wind velocity and number density, the radial magnetic field profile upstream of the shock can be calculated. These profiles cannot be measured directly. We test the accuracy of this method for estimating the radial magnetic field profile upstream of the shock by simulating a sample CME that occurred on 29 November 2013 using the three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic Block-Adaptive-Tree-Solarwind-Roe-Upwind-Scheme code, retrieving shock-CME standoff distances from the simulation, and comparing the estimated and simulated radial magnetic field profiles. We find good agreement between the two profiles (within ±30%) between 1.8 and 10 R⊙. Our simulations confirm that a linear relationship exists between the standoff distance and the inverse compression ratio at the shock. We also find very good agreement between the empirical and simulated radial profiles of the number density and speed of the solar wind and inner corona.

  13. Peptidomic Analysis of Rat Plasma: Proteolysis in Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Santamaria, Marco H; DeLano, Frank A; Kistler, Erik B; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Tedeschi, Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    It has been previously shown that intestinal proteases translocate into the circulation during hemorrhagic shock and contribute to proteolysis in distal organs. However, consequences of this phenomenon have not previously been investigated using high-throughput approaches. Here, a shotgun label-free quantitative proteomic approach was utilized to compare the peptidome of plasma samples from healthy and hemorrhagic shock rats to verify the possible role of uncontrolled proteolytic activity in shock. Plasma was collected from rats after hemorrhagic shock (HS) consisting of 2-h hypovolemia followed by 2-h reperfusion, and from healthy control (CTRL) rats. A new two-step enrichment method was applied to selectively extract peptides and low molecular weight proteins from plasma, and directly analyze these samples by tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred twenty-six circulating peptides were identified in CTRL and 295 in HS animals. Ninety-six peptides were present in both conditions; of these, 57 increased and 30 decreased in shock. In total, 256 peptides were increased or present only in HS confirming a general increase in proteolytic activity in shock. Analysis of the proteases that potentially generated the identified peptides suggests that the larger relative contribution to the proteolytic activity in shock is due to chymotryptic-like proteases. These results provide quantitative confirmation that extensive, system-wide proteolysis is part of the complex pathologic phenomena occurring in hemorrhagic shock.

  14. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  15. Mechanisms of shock-induced reactions in high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which shock waves initiate chemical reactions in explosives is key to understanding their unique and defining property: the ability to undergo rapid explosive decomposition in response to mechanical stimulus. Although shock-induced reactions in explosives have been studied experimentally and computationally for decades, the nature of even the first chemical reactions that occur in response to shock remain elusive. To predictively understand how explosives respond to shock, the detailed sequence of events that occurs - mechanical deformation, energy transfer, bond breakage, and first chemical reactions - must be understood at the quantum-mechanical level. This paper reviews recent work in this field and ongoing experimental and theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories in this important area of explosive science.

  16. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (Broken-Heart Syndrome): A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Raizada, Amol; Gedela, Maheedhar; Stys, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also called "broken heart" syndrome or apical ballooning syndrome, is a reversible cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular dysfunction and ballooning of the left ventricular apex on imaging during systole. It predominantly occurs in post-menopausal women and is commonly associated with emotional or physical stress. Patients commonly present with chest pain and electrocardiographic evidence of ST segment elevation or T-wave-mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but with an absence of angiographic evidence of obstructive coronary disease. The exact cause is unknown, but potential contributors include catecholamine excess and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. There is no consensus on pharmacological treatment of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Based on the suspected pathophysiology of the disease, adrenergic blockade using beta-blocker therapy is employed. Near complete resolution of left ventricular wall motion dyskinesis occurs in the majority of takotsubo cardiomyopathy patients within a month. Although the prognosis is generally favorable, there are reports of complications during the acute phase, including cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema, ventricular tachycardia, apical thrombus formation, and death. This review article will briefly discuss the epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of this condition.

  17. Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, Thomas P.

    2012-08-30

    In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.

  18. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  19. [Corticosteroids and septic shock].

    PubMed

    Bouletreau, P; Petit, P; Latarjet, J

    1976-01-01

    According to the data in the literature, the authors attempted to sum-up present attitudes on the value of corticoids in the treatment of septic shock. If their cardiovascular effects after a period of enthusiasm, are presently rather controversial, their cellular and sub-cellular actions, on the lysosomal membranes, capillary permeability and perhaps the intimate mechanisms of cellular oxygenation seem to be more real. However, the contra-indications which persist in the results of clinical works have resulted in the fact that the exact place of cortico-steroids in the therapeutic arsenal of septic shock still remains to be specified.

  20. Two variants of fat embolism syndrome evolving in a young patient with multiple fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bajuri, Mohd Yazid; Johan, Rudy Reza; Shukur, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a continuum of fat emboli. Variants of FES: acute fulminant form and classic FES are postulated to represent two different pathomechanisms. Acute fulminant FES occurs during the first 24 h. It is attributed to massive mechanical blockage pulmonary vasculature by the fat emboli. The classic FES typically has a latency period of 24–36 h manifestation of respiratory failure and other signs of fat embolism. Progression of asymptomatic fat embolism with FES frequently represents inadequate treatment of hypovolaemic shock. We present a rare case of two variants of FES evolving in a patient with multiple fractures to emphasis the importance of adequate and appropriate treatment of shock in preventing the development of FES. Since supportive therapy which is a ventilatory support remains as the treatment of FES, it is appropriate to treat FES in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:23576653

  1. Impact-shocked zircons: Discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.

  2. A new configuration of irregular reflection of shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdeva, L. G.; Gavrenkov, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    A new configuration of shock waves has been found in the reflection of shock waves in a stationary supersonic gas flow in addition to the wellknown regular and Mach reflections. This new three-shock configuration occurs with a negative angle of reflection and Mach numbers greater than 3 and an adiabatic index smaller than 1.4. It has been shown that this new configuration is unstable and leads to a radical change of the total flow pattern. The emergence of this new kind of instability can negatively affect operation of aircraft and rocket engines due to the failure of the flow to be as conventionally predicted.

  3. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  4. Anaphylactic shock due to kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Daoyang; Shu, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    A 44-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency department (ED) with an episode of severe anaphylaxis displaying generalized urticaria and dyspnea 1 hour after consuming a kiwifruit. Initially, the patient reported discrete itching of his abdominal skin and was in moderate respiratory distress. The patient's wheal response and itch were attenuated 30 minutes after emergency treatment with intravenous antianaphylaxis drugs. However, he had symptoms of the chest distress, dizzy, and dysphoria. His vital signs exacerbated. After sufficient antianaphylaxis treatment, the patient's anaphylaxis shock symptoms had not been significantly improved. We reviewed the history. The patient had eaten a full fresh kiwifruit, so there may be some kiwifruit pulp left in the patient's stomach. After self-induced vomiting, the patient's clinical condition gradually improved without any changes in dosage of dopamine. After another 10 hours of observation and preventive therapy training, the patient was discharged. Cases of patients with anaphylactic reaction to kiwifruit and dragon fruit have not been reported yet. In the ED, it is easy to overlook the prolonged exposure to allergen in patients with oral allergy syndrome. If the patient has consumed much food or drugs to cause the allergic reaction, self-induced vomiting or gastric lavage to clean allergen may be useful.

  5. Flow behind concave shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.

  6. The equation of state of HF under shock compression

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L E; Howard, W M

    1999-06-01

    We develop a model of chemical equilibrium mixtures containing the elements H, C, F. We show that the shock response of a wide variety of molecular and polymeric fluorocarbons can be modeled as a chemical equilibrium mixture of a small number of dissociation product molecules. HF is known to strongly associate in the supercritical fluid phase. We predict that such an association also occurs under shock conditions.

  7. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  8. Maskelynite: Formation by Explosive Shock.

    PubMed

    Milton, D J; de Carli, P S

    1963-05-10

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.

  9. Maskelynite: Formation by explosive shock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, D.J.; De Carli, P. S.

    1963-01-01

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.

  10. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  11. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  12. Shock compression of nitrobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozu, Naoshi; Arai, Mitsuru; Tamura, Masamitsu; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Masatake; Kondo, Ken-Ichi

    1999-06-01

    The Hugoniot (4 - 30 GPa) and the isotherm (1 - 7 GPa) of nitrobenzene have been investigated by shock and static compression experiments. Nitrobenzene has the most basic structure of nitro aromatic compounds, which are widely used as energetic materials, but nitrobenzene has been considered not to explode in spite of the fact its calculated heat of detonation is similar to TNT, about 1 kcal/g. Explosive plane-wave generators and diamond anvil cell were used for shock and static compression, respectively. The obtained Hugoniot consists of two linear lines, and the kink exists around 10 GPa. The upper line agrees well with the Hugoniot of detonation products calculated by KHT code, so it is expected that nitrobenzene detonates in that area. Nitrobenzene solidifies under 1 GPa of static compression, and the isotherm of solid nitrobenzene was obtained by X-ray diffraction technique. Comparing the Hugoniot and the isotherm, nitrobenzene is in liquid phase under experimented shock condition. From the expected phase diagram, shocked nitrobenzene seems to remain metastable liquid in solid phase region on that diagram.

  13. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  14. Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

    2007-06-01

    A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

  15. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  16. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  17. [The effect of triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) on canine hemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, H; Shatney, C H

    1988-10-01

    The euthyroid sick ("low T3") syndrome occurs in circulatory collapse and could influence survival. To evaluate the role of T3 and rT3 in shock, 36 mongrel dogs were subjected to hemorrhagic shock. In 13 dogs 15 micrograms/kg of T3 was given after 60 min of hypotension and 15 micrograms/kg of rT3 was administered IV 30 min before hemorrhage in 10 dogs. An equal volume of saline was injected in 13 dogs for control study. These dogs were bled rapidly into a reservoir to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. After 60 min of hypotension the reservoir line was clamped for 30 min. The shed blood was then reinfused over 30 min. T3 administration caused significant increases during the clamped period in cardiac output, stroke volume, MAP, right and left ventricular stroke work and systemic vascular resistance, with a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In the group receiving rT3 the only significant hemodynamic-metabolic differences were PVR and mean arterial pH. In the control group, 6 of 13 dogs died, whereas 9 of 10 dogs given rT3 died (p less than 0.03) and only one of 13 T3 dogs died (p less than 0.05). This study strongly suggests that T3 improves survival by acting on cardiovascular receptors or via the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and that exogeneous rT3 is detrimental during the stress of shock and may play a biologically causative role in the sick euthyroid syndrome.

  18. Post-shock mesenteric lymph drainage ameliorates cellular immune function in rats following hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Xing, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Li-Min; Niu, Chun-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Disturbance of immunity is an important factor to modulate inflammatory responses after severe shock. Post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return plays an adverse role in multiple organ injuries induced by the hemorrhagic shock, and the inflammatory factors are involved in this process. However, whether the PSML can exacerbate immune dysfunctions that modulate inflammatory response to the hemorrhagic shock remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of PSML drainage on the distribution of T lymphocyte subgroup, the release of inflammatory factors, and apoptosis of thymocytes were investigated; the effect of PSML on the specific parameters of cellular immune function was also determined. Results showed that PSML drainage reduced the increased levels of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes, IFN-γ, and the ratios of CD3 + CD4+/CD3 + CD4- in blood of the shocked rats at 3 h after resuscitation; PSML drainage also abolished the decreased IL-4 level and restored the higher ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 to normal levels. Tissue injury, including enlarged intermembrance space and edema with congestion in the medulla, increased apoptotic cells and bax expression, decreased number of cells in the S phase, and bcl-2 expression were observed in the thymus after hemorrhagic shock. PSML drainage reversed these effects. In particular, PSML drainage increased the proliferation index and decreased p53 expression of thymocytes. These results suggest that hyperimmunity occurred at early stages of hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation and that PSML drainage could markedly improve cellular immune function that is responsible for the reduced inflammatory responses.

  19. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  20. The Collisions of Chondrules Behind Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, F. J.; Hood, L. L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the reasons that the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of chondrules has remained so elusive is that each proposed mechanism must be able to explain a large number of features observed in chondrules. Most models of chondrule formation focus on matching the expected thermal histories of chondrules: rapid heating followed by cooling during crystallization at rates between approx. 10-1000 K/hr [1], and references therein]. Thus far, only models for large shock waves in the solar nebula have quantitatively shown that the thermal evolution of millimeter-sized particles in the nebula can match these inferred thermal histories [2-4]. While this is a positive step for the shock wave model, further testing is needed to see if other properties of chondrules can be explained in the context of this model. One area of interest is understanding the collisional evolution of chondrules after they encounter a shock wave. These collisions could lead to sticking, destruction, or bouncing. Here we focus on understanding what conditions are needed for these different outcomes to occur and try to reconcile the seemingly contradictory conclusions reached by studies of compound chondrule formation and chondrule destruction by collisions behind a shock wave.

  1. Shock compression and quasielastic release in tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.N.; Hixson, R.S.; Tonks, D.L.; Gray, G.T. III

    1993-06-01

    Previous studies of quasielastic release in shock-loaded FCC metals have shown a strong influence of the defect state on the leading edge, or first observable arrival, of release wave, due to large density of pinned dislocation segments behind the shock front, their relatively large pinning separation, and a very short response time as determined by drag coefficient in shock-compressed state. This effect is entirely equivalent to problems associated with elastic moduli determination using ultrasonic methods. This is particularly true for FCC metals, which have an especially low Peierls stress, or inherent lattice resistance, that has little influence in pinning dislocation segments and inhibiting anelastic deformation. BCC metals, on the other hand, have a large Peierls stress that essentially holds dislocation segments in place at low net applied shear stresses and thus allows fully elastic deformation to occur in the complete absence of anelastic behavior. Shock-compression and release experiments have been performed on tantalum (BCC), with the observation that the leading release disturbance is indeed elastic. This conclusion is established by examination of experimental VISAR records taken at the tantalum/sapphire (window) interface in a symmetric-impact experiment which subjects the sample to a peak longitudinal stress of approximately 7.3 GPa, in comparison with characteristic code calculations.

  2. Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

  3. Shock induced crystallization of amorphous Nickel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental work has shown the efficacy of amorphous Ni/crystalline Al composites as energetic materials, with flame velocities twice that of a comparable crystalline Ni/crystalline Al system. Of further interest is the recrystallization mechanisms in the pure amorphous Ni powders, both thermally induced and mechanically induced. We present large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced recrystallization in loosely packed amorphous Nickel powders. We study the time dependent nucleation and growth processes by holding the shocked samples at the induced pressures and temperatures for extended periods following the passage of the shock (up to 6 ns). We find that the nanostructure of the recrystallized Ni and time scales of recrystallization are dependent on the piston velocity. At low piston velocities, nucleation events are rare, leading to long incubation times and a relatively coarse nanostructure. At higher piston velocities, local variations in temperature due to jetting phenomena and void collapse, give rise to multiple nucleation events on time scales comparable to the passage of the shock wave, leading to the formation of a fine-grained nanostructure. Interestingly, we observe that the nucleation and growth process occurs in two steps, with the first nuclei crystallizing into the BCC structure, before evolving over time into the expected FCC structure. U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, HDTRA1-10-1-0119 (Program Manager Suhithi Peiris).

  4. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A. E-mail: s.sim@qub.ac.uk

    2013-04-20

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L{sub X}, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L{sub X}/L{sub bol}). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  5. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  6. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: caudal regression syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency Caudal regression syndrome is estimated to occur in 1 to ... parts of the skeleton, gastrointestinal system, and genitourinary ... caudal regression syndrome results from the presence of an abnormal ...

  8. Abrupt reflow enhances cytokine-induced proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells during simulated shock and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranran; Zijlstra, Jan G; Kamps, Jan A A M; van Meurs, Matijs; Molema, Grietje

    2014-10-01

    Circulatory shock and resuscitation are associated with systemic hemodynamic changes, which may contribute to the development of MODS (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). In this study, we used an in vitro flow system to simulate the consecutive changes in blood flow as occurring during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in vivo. We examined the kinetic responses of different endothelial genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells preconditioned to 20 dyne/cm unidirectional laminar shear stress for 48 h to flow cessation and abrupt reflow, respectively, as well as the effect of flow cessation and reflow on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation. Endothelial CD31 and VE-cadherin were not affected by the changes in flow in the absence or presence of TNF-α. The messenger RNA levels of proinflammatory molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), and IL-8 (interleukin 8) were significantly induced by flow cessation respectively acute reflow, whereas ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) was downregulated on flow cessation and induced by subsequent acute reflow. Flow cessation also affected the Ang/Tie2 (Angiopoietin/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase) system by downregulating Tie2 and inducing its endothelial ligand Ang2, an effect that was further extended on acute reflow. Furthermore, the induction of proinflammatory adhesion molecules by TNF-α under flow cessation was significantly enhanced on subsequent acute reflow. This study demonstrated that flow alterations per se during shock and resuscitation contribute to endothelial activation and that these alterations interact with proinflammatory factors coexisting in vivo such as TNF-α. The abrupt reflow-related enhancement of cytokine-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation supports the concept that sudden regain of flow during resuscitation has an aggravating effect on endothelial activation, which may play a significant role in vascular

  9. [Metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takata, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shimpei

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is a combination of disorders including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes when occurring together. In Japan, diagnosis criteria of Mets consists of an increased waist circumference and 2 or more of CVD risk factors. Annual health checkups and health guidance using Mets criteria were established in 2008 for the prevention of life-style related diseases in Japan. In this issue, history and diagnostic criteria of Mets and concerns for Mets concept were described.

  10. Particle Acceleration and Nonthermal Emission in Relativistic Astrophysical Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    The common observational feature of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and AGN jets is a broad nonthermal spectrum of synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation. It is usually assumed that the emitting electrons are accelerated to a power-law distribution at relativistic shocks, via the so-called Fermi mechanism. Despite decades of research, the Fermi acceleration process is still not understood from first principles. An assessment of the micro-physics of particle acceleration in relativistic shocks is of paramount importance to unveil the properties of astrophysical nonthermal sources, and it is the subject of this dissertation. In the first part of this thesis, I explore by means of fully-kinetic first-principle particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations the properties of relativistic shocks that propagate in electron-positron and electron-proton plasmas carrying uniform magnetic fields. I find that nonthermal particle acceleration only occurs if the upstream magnetization is weak (sigma<0.001), or if the pre-shock field is nearly aligned with the shock direction of propagation (quasi-parallel shocks). Relativistic shocks in PWNe, GRBs and AGN jets are usually thought to be appreciably magnetized (sigma>0.01) and quasi-perpendicular, yet they need to be efficient particle accelerators, in order to explain the prominent nonthermal signatures of these sources. Motivated by this discrepancy, I then relax the assumption of uniform pre-shock fields, and investigate the acceleration efficiency of perpendicular shocks that propagate in high-sigma flows with alternating magnetic fields. This is the geometry expected at the termination shock of pulsar winds, but it could also be relevant for Poynting-dominated jets in GRBs and AGNs. I show by means of PIC simulations that compression of the flow at the shock will force annihilation of nearby field lines, a process known as shock-driven reconnection. Magnetic reconnection can efficiently transfer the energy of

  11. Hantaviruses and cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Souza, William Marciel de; Ferrés, Marcela; Enria, Delia Alcira

    2014-07-17

    Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging health problem in South America due to urban growth and to the expansion of agriculture and cattle-raising areas into ecosystems containing most of the species of Sigmodontinae rodents that act as hantavirus reservoirs. About 4000 HCPS cases have been reported in South America up to 2013, associated with the following hantaviruses: Andes, Anajatuba, Araraquara (ARQV), Paranoá, Bermejo, Castelo dos Sonhos, Juquitiba, Araucária, Laguna Negra, Lechiguanas, Maripa, Oran, Rio Mamore and Tunari. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by contact with or through aerosols of excreta and secretions of infected rodents. Person-to-person transmission of hantavirus has also been reported in Argentina and Chile. HCPS courses with a capillary leaking syndrome produced by the hantavirus infecting lung endothelial cells and mostly with a severe inflammatory process associated with a cytokine storm. HCPS starts as a dengue-like acute febrile illness but after about 3 days progresses to respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock, leading to a high fatality rate that reaches 50% for patients infected with ARQV.

  12. Multipoint study of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Kajdic, Primoz; Russell, Christopher T.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Jian, Lan K.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2016-04-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks are driven in the heliosphere by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs). These shocks perturb the solar wind plasma, and play an active role in the acceleration of ions to suprathermal energies. Shock fronts evolve as they move from the Sun. Their surfaces can be far from uniform and be modulated by changes in the ambient solar wind (magnetic field orientation, flow velocity), shocks rippling, and perturbations upstream and downstream from the shocks, i.e., electromagnetic waves. In this work we use multipoint observations from STEREO, WIND, and MESSENGER missions to study shock characteristics at different helio-longitudes and determine the properties of the waves near them. We also determine shock longitudinal extensions and foreshock sizes. The variations of geometry along the shock surface can result in different extensions of the wave and ion foreshocks ahead of the shocks, and in different wave modes upstream and downtream of the shocks. We find that the ion foreshock can extend up to 0.2 AU ahead of the shock, and that the upstream region with modified solar wind/waves can be very asymmetric.

  13. [Leucostasis in the lung during hypovolemic-traumatic shock (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schlag, G; Redl, H

    1980-11-01

    The cause of the posttraumatic respiratory distress syndrome is not yet well known and cannot be proved with certainty. The early stage of posttraumatic lung failure has been examined both from a morphological and biochemical aspect. Lung biopsies taken during hypovolemic-traumatic shock show besides endothelial damage an accumulation of leucocytes with free granules, similar to lysosomes. Based on these results further tests have been carried out to achieve a similar reaction in the hypovolemic-traumatic shock model in the dog, enabling us to undertake more extensive examinations and to use new methods of treatment. The lung biopsies taken at the beginning and after finishing the test were observed by light-transmission and scanning electron-microscope. Similar to the results obtained from humans, we found a massive leucostasis with degranulated cells. A parallel increase of lysosomal enzyme activity and a peripheral leucocytosis was seen while after reinfusion a distinct decrease was found. The massive occurence of leucocytes in the lung may be caused either by chemotaxis or by the sieve function of the lung after peripheral leucocytes aggregation. Both could have an immunological cause, especially due to involvement of the complement system. Septic reasons in the early stage of shock can be disregarded. More likely the complex effects of the interactions complement--fibrinolysis--kallikrein system are involved. Presumably the leucocytes caused direct damage to the endothelial cells. Lysosomal enzymes as reason for producing the damage would be one possibility; an other is the recently discovered effect of oxygen radicals produced during the close contact between leucocytes and endothelium and the simultaneously activated complement system.

  14. Pathophysiologic characteristics of hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Moore, K E; Murtaugh, R J

    2001-11-01

    In the late 1800s, while caring for a trauma victim, Warren characterized shock as "a momentary pause in the act of death." A great deal about shock has been discovered since this first description. Dorland's Medical Dictionary defines shock as a condition of profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs. Shock is now being defined at the cellular level as the inadequate delivery of nutrients to the cells of the body. Because oxygen is the only nutrient that cells cannot store in any appreciable quantity, shock is also equivalent to inadequate oxygen delivery (DO2). Although there are many types of shock, this article concentrates on the pathophysiologic characteristics of hypovolemic shock.

  15. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  16. Hepatorenal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a functional renal failure in patients with liver disease with portal hypertension and it constitutes the climax of systemic circulatory changes associated with portal hypertension. This term refers to a precisely specified syndrome featuring in particular morphologically intact kidneys, where regulatory mechanisms have minimised glomerular filtration and maximised tubular resorption and urine concentration, which ultimately results in uraemia. The syndrome occurs almost exclusively in patients with ascites. Type 1 HRS develops as a consequence of a severe reduction of effective circulating volume due to both an extreme splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and a reduction of cardiac output. Type 2 HRS is characterised by a stable or slowly progressive renal failure so that its main clinical consequence is not acute renal failure, but refractory ascites, and its impact on prognosis is less negative. Liver transplantation is the most appropriate therapeutic method, nevertheless, only a few patients can receive it. The most suitable “bridge treatments” or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin. Terlipressin is at an initial dose of 0.5-1 mg every 4 h by intravenous bolus to 3 mg every 4 h in cases when there is no response. Renal function recovery can be achieved in less than 50% of patients and a considerable decrease in renal function may reoccur even in patients who have been responding to therapy over the short term. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt plays only a marginal role in the treatment of HRS. PMID:23049205

  17. [Crush syndrome].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

    2007-08-01

    Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure.

  18. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

  19. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  20. Regularized Moment Equations and Shock Waves for Rarefied Granular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Lakshminarayana; Alam, Meheboob

    2016-11-01

    It is well-known that the shock structures predicted by extended hydrodynamic models are more accurate than the standard Navier-Stokes model in the rarefied regime, but they fail to predict continuous shock structures when the Mach number exceeds a critical value. Regularization or parabolization is one method to obtain smooth shock profiles at all Mach numbers. Following a Chapman-Enskog-like method, we have derived the "regularized" version 10-moment equations ("R10" moment equations) for inelastic hard-spheres. In order to show the advantage of R10 moment equations over standard 10-moment equations, the R10 moment equations have been employed to solve the Riemann problem of plane shock waves for both molecular and granular gases. The numerical results are compared between the 10-moment and R10-moment models and it is found that the 10-moment model fails to produce continuous shock structures beyond an upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 , while the R10-moment model predicts smooth shock profiles beyond the upstream Mach number of 1 . 34 . The density and granular temperature profiles are found to be asymmetric, with their maxima occurring within the shock-layer.

  1. ON THE EXISTENCE OF SHOCKS IN IRRADIATED EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin

    2012-12-10

    Supersonic flows are expected to exist in the atmospheres of irradiated exoplanets, but the question of whether shocks develop lingers. Specifically, it reduces to whether continuous flow in a closed loop may become supersonic and if some portions of the supersonic flow steepen into shocks. We first demonstrate that continuous, supersonic flow may exist in two flavors: isentropic and non-isentropic, with shocks being included in the latter class of solutions. Supersonic flow is a necessary but insufficient condition for shocks to develop. The development of a shock requires the characteristics of neighboring points in a flow to intersect. We demonstrate that the intersection of characteristics may be quantified via the knowledge of the Mach number. Finally, we examine three-dimensional simulations of hot Jovian atmospheres and demonstrate that shock formation is expected to occur mostly on the dayside hemisphere, upstream of the substellar point, because the enhanced temperatures near the substellar point provide a natural pressure barrier for the returning flow. Understanding the role of shocks in irradiated exoplanetary atmospheres is relevant to correctly modeling observables such as the peak offsets of infrared phase curves.

  2. Stability of shock waves in high temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Madhusmita; Bhattacharya, Chandrani; Menon, S. V. G.

    2011-10-15

    The Dyakov-Kontorovich criteria for spontaneous emission of acoustic waves behind shock fronts are investigated for high temperature aluminum and beryllium plasmas. To this end, the Dyakov and critical stability parameters are calculated from Rankine-Hugoniot curves using a more realistic equation of state (EOS). The cold and ionic contributions to the EOS are obtained via scaled binding energy and mean field theory, respectively. A screened hydrogenic model, including l-splitting, is used to calculate the bound electron contribution to the electronic EOS. The free electron EOS is obtained from Fermi-Dirac statistics. Predictions of the model for ionization curves and shock Hugoniot are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. It is observed that the electronic EOS has significant effect on the stability of the planar shock front. While the shock is stable for low temperatures and pressures, instability sets in as temperature rises. The basic reason is ionization of electronic shells and consequent increase in electronic specific heat. The temperatures and densities of the unstable region correspond to those where electronic shells get ionized. With the correct modeling of bound electrons, we find that shock instability for Al occurs at a compression ratio {approx}5.4, contrary to the value {approx}3 reported in the literature. Free electrons generated in the ionization process carry energy from the shock front, thereby giving rise to spontaneously emitted waves, which decay the shock front.

  3. Shock Initiation of Energetic Materials at Different Initial Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Tarver, C M

    2005-01-14

    Shock initiation is one of the most important properties of energetic materials, which must transition to detonation exactly as intended when intentionally shocked and not detonate when accidentally shocked. The development of manganin pressure gauges that are placed inside the explosive charge and record the buildup of pressure upon shock impact has greatly increased the knowledge of these reactive flows. This experimental data, together with similar data from electromagnetic particle velocity gauges, has allowed us to formulate the Ignition and Growth model of shock initiation and detonation in hydrodynamic computer codes for predictions of shock initiation scenarios that cannot be tested experimentally. An important problem in shock initiation of solid explosives is the change in sensitivity that occurs upon heating (or cooling). Experimental manganin pressure gauge records and the corresponding Ignition and Growth model calculations are presented for two solid explosives, LX-17 (92.5 % triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) with 7.5 % Kel-F binder) and LX-04 (85 % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX) with 15 % Viton binder) at several initial temperatures.

  4. EFFECTS OF NEUTRAL PARTICLES ON MODIFIED SHOCKS AT SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka; Takahara, Fumio

    2010-09-20

    H{alpha} emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) implies the existence of neutral hydrogens in the ambient medium. In the precursor of an SNR shock modified by cosmic rays (CRs), upstream plasmas are pushed by the CR pressure, but neutral particles are not, so that the relative velocity appears and some neutral particles become pickup ions by the charge exchange process in the precursor. We investigate how the pickup ions generated in the precursor affect the shock structure and the particle acceleration. If the CR pressure is larger than 20% of the shock ram pressure, the compression of the subshock becomes smaller than that without pickup ions because of the pressure of the pickup ions. Moreover, even if the shock is modified by CRs, the total compression ratio can be smaller than 4. In addition, the pickup ions play an important role for the injection into the particle acceleration. If the shock is a quasi-perpendicular shock and if the multiply reflected ion acceleration occurs, the CR spectrum can be harder than that of the test particle diffusive shock acceleration below GeV.

  5. SUPERDIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2012-05-10

    The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is extended to the case of superdiffusive transport, i.e., when the mean square deviation grows proportionally to t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} > 1. Superdiffusion can be described by a statistical process called Levy random walk, in which the propagator is not a Gaussian but it exhibits power-law tails. By using the propagator appropriate for Levy random walk, it is found that the indices of energy spectra of particles are harder than those obtained where a normal diffusion is envisaged, with the spectral index decreasing with the increase of {alpha}. A new scaling for the acceleration time is also found, allowing substantially shorter times than in the case of normal diffusion. Within this framework we can explain a number of observations of flat spectra in various astrophysical and heliospheric contexts, for instance, for the Crab Nebula and the termination shock of the solar wind.

  6. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  7. Dressler's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome may also be called postpericardiotomy syndrome, post-myocardial infarction syndrome and post-cardiac injury syndrome. With recent ... Dressler's syndrome. References LeWinter MM. Pericardial complications of myocardial infarction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 27, ...

  8. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys. Images PMID:6576377

  9. Transmission of Naturally Occurring Lymphoma in Macaque Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Ronald D.; Blake, Beverly J.; Chalifoux, Laura V.; Sehgal, Prabhat K.; King, Norval W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1983-08-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys.

  10. Effects of Interplanetary Shock Inclinations on Nightside Auroral Power Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. M.; Raeder, J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    We derive fast forward interplanetary (IP) shock speeds and impact angles to study the geoeffectiveness of 461 IP shocks that occurred from January 1995 to December 2013 using ACE and Wind spacecraft data. The geomagnetic activity is inferred from the SuperMAG project data. SuperMAG is a large chain which employs more than 300 ground stations to compute enhanced versions of the traditional geomagnetic indices. The SuperMAG auroral electroject SME index, an enhanced version of the traditional AE index, is used as an auroral power (AP) indicator. AP intensity jumps triggered by shock impacts are correlated with both shock speed and impact angle. It is found that high AP intensity events typically occur when high speed IP shocks impact the Earth's magnetosphere with the shock normal almost parallel to the Sun-Earth line. This result suggests that symmetric and strong magnetospheric compression leads to favorable conditions for intense auroral power release, as shown previously by simulations and observations. Some potential mechanisms will be discussed.

  11. Clinical review: Hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Reines, H David; Wulf-Gutierrez, Marian E

    2004-01-01

    This review addresses the pathophysiology and treatment of hemorrhagic shock – a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead sequentially to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. Hemorrhagic shock can be rapidly fatal. The primary goals are to stop the bleeding and to restore circulating blood volume. Resuscitation may well depend on the estimated severity of hemorrhage. It now appears that patients with moderate hypotension from bleeding may benefit by delaying massive fluid resuscitation until they reach a definitive care facility. On the other hand, the use of intravenous fluids, crystalloids or colloids, and blood products can be life saving in those patients who are in severe hemorrhagic shock. The optimal method of resuscitation has not been clearly established. A hemoglobin level of 7–8 g/dl appears to be an appropriate threshold for transfusion in critically ill patients with no evidence of tissue hypoxia. However, maintaining a higher hemoglobin level of 10 g/dl is a reasonable goal in actively bleeding patients, the elderly, or individuals who are at risk for myocardial infarction. Moreover, hemoglobin concentration should not be the only therapeutic guide in actively bleeding patients. Instead, therapy should be aimed at restoring intravascular volume and adequate hemodynamic parameters. PMID:15469601

  12. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Vehicle Dynamics and Vibration: Test and Criteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    established for aft fuselage and epennage concentration, temperature, and mean stress [ external skin panels to verify the ability to effects ...curvature effects . The panel frequency 3. The most damaging structural response was then used in the allowable acoustic occurs at the fundamental mode...Watertown, MA SUMMARY OF MIL-STD-81OD PANEL SESSION Pyrotechnic Shock and Shock Testing and Analysis PYROTECHNIC SHOCK TEST AND TEST SIMULATION M. E

  13. Babesia Species Occurring in Austrian Ixodes ricinus Ticks▿

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Marion; Narodoslavsky-Gföller, Melanie; Kanzler, Michaela; Stanek, Gerold; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-transmitted disease of veterinary and medical importance. The first Austrian case of human babesiosis was recently recorded. In the current study, ticks at all life cycle stages (instars), including 853 Ixodes ricinus and 11 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, from sampling sites throughout Austria were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. by using 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing, and the overall mean infection rate was 51.04%. The infection rates for sampling sites were highly variable, ranging from 0% to almost 100%. Different instars and different sexes were infected almost equally. Babesia isolates occurring in Austrian ticks were identified as Babesia divergens, Babesia divergens-like, and Babesia sp. strain DD by sequencing a fragment of the heat shock protein 70 gene and internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of Babesia spp. in Austrian ticks. PMID:18539787

  14. The sudden onset of mastocytosis in the course of venom-induced anaphylactic reaction in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Malwina; Helbig, Grzegorz; Woźniczka, Krzysztof; Kopera, Małgorzata; Pająk, Jacek; Kyrcz-Krzemień, Sławomira

    2015-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disease resulting from a proliferation of clonal, abnormal mast cells in tissues and organs, defined as Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm. We present a male patient with clinically, morphologically and immunohistochemically confirmed mastocytosis with preceding myelodysplastic syndrome, occurred after wasp bite in the course of anaphylactic reaction. The propensity to hymenoptera venom-induced anaphylaxis and the presence of an increased population of atypical mast cells in bone marrow found after anaphylactic shock may suggest the possible relationship between hymenoptera venom allergy and anaphylaxis and the development of mastocytosis of unusual course in a predisposed person.

  15. [Fatal lactic acidosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Lasso, M; Pérez, J; Noriega, L M; Northland, R

    2000-10-01

    Type B lactic acidosis occurs without any evidence of cellular hypoxia and is associated with the use of drugs or toxins. We report a 36 years old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that was admitted to the hospital with a severe lactic acidosis. She had been treated with didanosine, stavudine and efavirenz for four months prior to admission. Despite the use of high bicarbonate doses and vasoactive drugs, the patient had a catastrophic evolution and died in shock and multiple organ failure, 68 hours after admission. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1139-43).

  16. Radiative effects in radiative shocks in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. P.; Doss, F. W.; McClarren, R. G.; Adams, M. L.; Amato, N.; Bingham, D.; Chou, C. C.; DiStefano, C.; Fidkowski, K.; Fryxell, B.; Gombosi, T. I.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Holloway, J. P.; van der Holst, B.; Huntington, C. M.; Karni, S.; Krauland, C. M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Larsen, E.; van Leer, B.; Mallick, B.; Marion, D.; Martin, W.; Morel, J. E.; Myra, E. S.; Nair, V.; Powell, K. G.; Rauchwerger, L.; Roe, P.; Rutter, E.; Sokolov, I. V.; Stout, Q.; Torralva, B. R.; Toth, G.; Thornton, K.; Visco, A. J.

    2011-09-01

    Using modern high-energy-density facilities it is straightforward to produce radiative shock waves in which the transfer of energy by radiation controls the hydrodynamic structure of the system. Some of these experiments use shock tubes. This paper discusses such experiments, with an emphasis on the simple physical relations that determine the primary features of such shocks and on the details and impact of radiative energy transfer in such systems. Notable aspects include the creation of high-density shocked layers, the flow of radiative energy toward regions of higher energy density, and the creation of secondary shocks by ablation of the tube walls ahead of the primary shock front. Simulations of one such experimental system are also shown.

  17. Interplanetary Circumstances of Quasi-Perpendicular Interplanetary Shocks in 1996-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    The angle (theta(sub Bn)) between the normal to an interplanetary shock front and the upstream magnetic field direction, though often thought of as a property "of the shock," is also determined by the configuration of the magnetic field immediately upstream of the shock. We investigate the interplanetary circumstances of 105 near-Earth quasi-perpendicular shocks during 1996-2005 identified by theta(sub Bn) greater than or equal to 80 degrees and/or by evidence of shock drift particle acceleration. Around 87% of these shocks were driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs); the remainder were probably the forward shocks of corotating interaction regions. For around half of the shocks, the upstream field was approximately perpendicular to the radial direction, either east-west or west-east or highly inclined to the ecliptic. Such field directions will give quasi-perpendicular configurations for radially propagating shocks. Around 30% of the shocks were propagating through, or closely followed, ICMEs at the time of observation. Another quarter were propagating through the heliospheric plasma sheet (HPS), and a further quarter occurred in slow solar wind that did not have characteristics of the HPS. Around 11% were observed in high-speed streams, and 7% in the sheaths following other shocks. The fraction of shocks found in high-speed streams is around a third of that expected based on the fraction of the time when such streams were observed at Earth. Quasi-perpendicular shocks are found traveling through ICMEs around 2-3 times more frequently than expected. In addition, shocks propagating through ICMEs are more likely to have larger values of theta(sub Bn) than shocks outside ICMEs.

  18. Shock Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steve; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the height of shock formation in coronal plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction, and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). Our models show that shock formation occurs at relatively low coronal heights, typically within 1.2 RsuN, depending on the model parameters. The shock formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking criterion given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that shock heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although such waves are probably not the main energy supply mechanism.

  19. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desilva, S. L.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary.

  20. Shock wave structure in heterogeneous reactive media

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.

    1997-06-01

    Continuum mixture theory and mesoscale modeling are applied to describe the behavior of shock-loaded heterogeneous media. One-dimensional simulations of gas-gun experiments demonstrate that the wave features are well described by mixture theory, including reflected wave behavior and conditions where significant reaction is initiated. Detailed wave fields are resolved in numerical simulations of impact on a lattice of discrete explosive {open_quotes}crystals{close_quotes}. It is shown that rapid distortion first occurs at material contact points; the nature of the dispersive fields includes large amplitude fluctuations of stress over several particle pathlengths. Localization of energy causes {open_quotes}hot-spots{close_quotes} due to shock focusing and plastic work as material flows into interstitial regions.

  1. Mortality of one-week-old chickens during naturally occurring Marek's disease virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a serious economic disease of chickens which occurs worldwide. MD can present as one of several forms, with the most commonly occurring forms being the lymphoproliferative diseases. Under experimental conditions, an early mortality syndrome has been recognized following infec...

  2. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of particle energization from low Mach number fast mode shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehong; Workman, Jared C.; Blackman, Eric G.; Ren, Chuang; Siller, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Astrophysical shocks are often studied in the high Mach number limit but weakly compressive fast shocks can occur in magnetic reconnection outflows and are considered to be a site of particle energization in solar flares. Here we study the microphysics of such perpendicular, low Mach number collisionless shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with a reduced ion/electron mass ratio and employ a moving wall boundary method for initial generation of the shock. This moving wall method allows for more control of the shock speed, smaller simulation box sizes, and longer simulation times than the commonly used fixed wall, reflection method of shock formation. Our results, which are independent of the shock formation method, reveal the prevalence shock drift acceleration (SDA) of both electron and ions in a purely perpendicular shock with Alfvén Mach number MA=6.8 and ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β=8. We determine the respective minimum energies required for electrons and ions to incur SDA. We derive a theoretical electron distribution via SDA that compares to the simulation results. We also show that a modified two-stream instability due to the incoming and reflecting ions in the shock transition region acts as the mechanism to generate collisionless plasma turbulence that sustains the shock.

  4. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, Eric Larsson, Johan Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2010-02-20

    Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

  5. Vorticity-production mechanisms in shock/mixing-layer interaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritarelli, R. C.; Kleiser, L.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigate analytically the importance of different vorticity-production mechanisms contributing to the shock-induced vorticity caused by the interaction of a steady oblique shock wave with a steady, planar, supersonic, laminar mixing layer. The inviscid analysis is performed under the condition of a supersonic post-shock flow, which guarantees that the shock refraction remains regular. Special attention is paid to the vorticity production induced by a change in shock strength along the shock. Our analysis subdivides the total vorticity production into its contributions due to bulk or volumetric compression, pre-shock density gradients and variable shock strength. The latter is the only contribution dependent on the shock-wave curvature. The magnitudes of these contributions are analysed for two limiting cases, i.e., the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a constant-density shear layer and the interaction with a constant-velocity mixing layer with density gradients only. Possible implications for shock/mixing-layer interactions occurring in scramjet combustors are briefly discussed.

  6. Numerical studies of diffusive shock acceleration at spherical shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Jones, T. W.

    2006-05-01

    We have developed a cosmic ray (CR) shock code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with which the particle distribution, the gas flow and their nonlinear interaction can be followed numerically in a frame comoving with an expanding shock. In order to accommodate a very wide dynamic range of diffusion length scales in the CR shock problem, we have incorporated subzone shock tracking and adaptive mesh refinement techniques. We find the spatial grid resolution required for numerical convergence is less stringent in this code compared to typical, fixed-grid Eulerian codes. The improved convergence behavior derives from maintaining the shock discontinuity inside the same grid zone in the comoving code. That feature improves numerical estimates of the compression rate experienced by CRs crossing the subshock compared to codes that allow the subshock to drift on the grid. Using this code with a Bohm-like diffusion model we have calculated the CR acceleration and the nonlinear feedback at supernova remnant shocks during the Sedov-Taylor stage. Similarly to plane-parallel shocks, with an adopted thermal leakage injection model, about 10 -3 of the particles that pass through the shock and up to 60% of the explosion energy are transferred to the CR component. These results are in good agreement with previous nonlinear spherical CR shock calculations of Berezhko and collaborators.

  7. Molecular Simulation of Shock Hugoniot for Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirk, T.; Chantawansri, T.; Byrd, E.; Rice, B.; Andzelm, J.

    2012-02-01

    The behavior of polymers under extreme conditions (high pressure and temperature) is of interest for a variety of applications, such as polymer-bonded explosives, coatings, adhesives, and light-weight armor. Material properties and response at extreme conditions can be determined through shock experiments, which are often difficult to measure experimentally because of difficulties in traversing a large range of pressures (up to hundreds of gigapascals) and temperatures (thousands of kelvin) with available instrumentation. In addition, interesting behavior, such as observed behind a shock front, occurs at extremely short time- and length-scales (nanoscale), which poses problems in characterizing the material using current experimental capabilities. To further understand shocked systems, simulation methods such as molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanics (QM) can be used to provide insight into atomic-level phenomena. Using classical MD and QM, we have calculated the principle shock Hugoniot curves for four polymers: poly[methyl methacrylate], poly[ethylene], poly[styrene], and hydroxyl-terminated poly[butadiene]. In the MD calculations, we considered both a non-reactive (i.e. PCFF) and reactive (i.e. ReaxFF) forcefield, respectively, where calculations were performed in LAMMPS. The QM calculations were performed with density functional theory (DFT) using dispersion corrections as implemented in CP2K. We have applied both atom centered pseudopotentials (DCACPs) and Grimme van der Waals corrections in our study. Overall, results obtained by QM show much better agreement with available experimental data for the range of up to 20 GPa than classical force fields. At pressures where reactions can occur the short simulation time available in MD modeling prevents us from fully exploring possible reaction pathways.

  8. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  9. Interplanetary Proton and Electron Enhancements Associated with Radio-loud and Radio-quiet CME-driven Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, P. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results on electron and proton acceleration in association with radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during 1996-2006. The CME-driven shocks are classified into RL or RQ shocks based on the presence or the lack of type II radio bursts in the metric and decameter-hectometric wavelength range. We studied proton flux enhancements at L1 in the 66 keV - 50 MeV energy range observed by the ACE/EPAM and SOHO/ERNE instruments. Electron flux enhancements were studied in the 38-53~keV energy channel of EPAM. In general, the RL shocks are more likely to be associated with an energetic storm particle (ESP) event than RQ shocks. Approximately one third of RQ shocks and slightly over a half of RL shocks produced an ESP event at energies above 1.8 MeV. In overall both RQ and RL electron ESP events are rarer, but they follow a similar pattern to the proton observations, i.e. ESP events are observed in approximately one fifth versus two fifths of shocks, respectively. We also studied correlations of ESP event size with CME and shock properties. As expected, the ESP events associated with the RQ shocks are less intense than those with RL shocks. In addition, particle acceleration in RQ shocks occurs predominately in quasi-perpendicular shocks. There is a modest positive correlation between ESP event size and the CME and shock speed and the Mach number. Again, the correlations are stronger for the RL shocks. It appears that shocks can accelerate particles, although less efficiently, even when they do not produce observable type II radio bursts. The variation between the presence of type IIs and ESP events is probably connected to variations in the coronal conditions of shock formation and to the consequent evolution of the shock as it travels through diverse coronal and interplanetary plasmas.

  10. CMEs as a Shock Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Martínez, Guadalupe; Becerril, Carlos; Lopez-Lopez, Jose Luis

    Interplanetary shocks are associated to approximately one third of the CMEs detected in the interplanetary medium. Even though they have been associated to fast CMEs (V>1000 km/s) it has been shown that some slow ones (V 300 km/s) presented shocks at 1 AU. The structure of the features observed in coronograph images can be hardly compared to the ones detected beyond the coronograph field of view, where the shock is clearly identify. For a few cases, the shock in front of the CME has been distinguish in white light images, but, is there a real visual difference between the CME itself and the considered shock? In this work we compare the optical characteristics of CMEs and some hydrodynamic parameters of ICMEs to show that the feature observed in white light images can be considered as a shock structure.

  11. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Stoeffler, Dieter

    1992-01-01

    Shock effects were studied in 69 carbonaceous chondrites, including CM2, CO3, CV3, ungrouped C2-C4, and CK4-6 chondrites, using optical microscopy of thin sections. It is shown that the classification scheme of Stoeffler et al. (1991) for the progressive stages of shock metamorphism in ordinary chondrites is also applicable to carbonaceous chondrites. On the basis of shock effects in olivine, the 69 carbonaceous chondrites could be assigned to four shock stage, S1 to S4. The CM2 and CO3 groups were found to be the least shocked chondrite groups, whereas the CK4-6 and CV3 were the most strongly shocked groups.

  12. Anaphylactic shock in neuropsychoimmunological research.

    PubMed

    Marković, B M; Dimitrijević, M; Janković, B D

    1992-01-01

    Anaphylaxis appears to be an excellent experimental model for investigating the interactions between central nervous system (CNS) and immune system. Both afferent and efferent regulatory pathways of anaphylactic response are well characterized. The potent mediators of anaphylactic shock, such as histamine and serotonin, are at the same time neurotransmitters, acting in the CNS, and regulators/modulators of the immune system, since receptors for these substances exist on the membrane of the cells of the immune system. In this article the results of studies on the relationship between anaphylaxis and CNS, performed by both pioneers and contemporary investigators, are briefly reviewed. Recent experiments done in our laboratory are presented, which showed that (a) anaphylactic shock can be induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the shocking dose of antigen; (b) rats can learn to associate the induction of anaphylactic shock with neutral stimuli from the environment; and (c) stress in the form of electric tail-shocks reduces the intensity of anaphylactic shock.

  13. The Mirizzi syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pemberton, M.; Wells, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Mirizzi syndrome is an unusual presentation of gallstones which occurs when a gallstone becomes impacted in either Hartmann's pouch of the gallbladder or the cystic duct, causing obstruction of the common hepatic duct by extrinsic compression. The diagnosis of this syndrome is of importance because surgery in its presence is associated with an increased incidence of bile duct injury. The pathology, clinical presentation and management of this syndrome are discussed, and several illustrative case reports presented. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9307740

  14. Flexible Multi-Shock Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L. (Inventor); Crews, Jeanne L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Flexible multi-shock shield system and method are disclosed for defending against hypervelocity particles. The flexible multi-shock shield system and method may include a number of flexible bumpers or shield layers spaced apart by one or more resilient support layers, all of which may be encapsulated in a protective cover. Fasteners associated with the protective cover allow the flexible multi-shock shield to be secured to the surface of a structure to be protected.

  15. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... example, polycystic ovary syndrome can cause menstrual disturbances, weight gain beginning in adolescence, excess hair growth, and impaired insulin action and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome-a combination of ...

  16. [Deep vein thrombosis revealing myeloproliferative syndrome in two adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, A; Heissat, S; Caron, N; Viremouneix, L; Pracros, J-P; Javouhey, E; Lachaux, A; Mialou, V

    2014-05-01

    Deep vein thrombosis occurs in 30% of patients with essential thrombocythemia, but rarely at initial diagnosis. We report two pediatric patients with essential thrombocythemia revealed by atypical deep vein thrombosis. First, a 16-year-old girl presented Budd-Chiari syndrome revealed by a hemorrhagic shock. Clinical exam revealed isolated splenomegaly. A search for thrombophilia found a factor V Leiden homozygous mutation and a Jak2 mutation. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a myeloproliferative disorder. The second case, a 17-year-old girl, had a routine examination by her physician that revealed splenomegaly. Ultrasonography displayed thrombus in the splenic and portal vein. An isolated Jak2 mutation was found and a myeloproliferative disorder was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. The diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder was made in both patients presenting atypical venous thrombosis with a Jak2 mutation and confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. These initial presentations of myeloproliferative disorders are rare in childhood and possibly underdiagnosed.

  17. West syndrome in a patient with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Fuyu; Kuroda, Yukiko; Naruto, Takuya; Ohashi, Ikuko; Takano, Kyoko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a rare recognizable malformation syndrome defined by characteristic facial features, profound developmental delay, severe growth failure, and multiple congenital anomalies. The causative gene of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome, SETBP1, has been identified, but limited cases have been confirmed by molecular analysis. We present a 9-month-old girl affected by West syndrome with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Congenital severe hydronephrosis, typical facial features, and multiple anomalies suggested a clinical diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Hypsarrhythmia occurred at 7 months of age and was temporarily controlled by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy during 5 weeks. SETBP1 mutational analysis showed the presence of a recurrent mutation, p.Ile871Thr. The implications in management of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome are discussed.

  18. Martian bow shock - Phobos observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H.; Eroshenko, E.; Sauer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Data obtained with the Magma magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 + or - .03 R(M). The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  19. Martian bow shock: Phobos observations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H. ); Yeroshenko, Ye. ); Sauer, K. ); Luhmann, J.G.; Ong, M.; Russell, C.T. )

    1990-05-01

    Data obtained with the MAGMA magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 {plus minus} .03 R{sub M}. The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  20. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, Dieter; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1991-01-01

    This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and the sequence of progressively increasing degrees of shock metamorphosis are very similar in H, L, and LL groups. Differences in the frequency distribution of shock stages are relatively minor. It is suggested that the collisional histories of the H, L, and LL parent bodies were similar. Petrologic type-3 chondrites are deficient in stages S4 and S6 and, with increasing petrologic type, the frequency of stages S4 to S6 increases. It is suggested that the more porous and volatile-rich Type-3 chondrites are subject to melting at a lower shock pressure than the nonporous chondrites of higher petrologic type. Stage S3 is the most abundant in nearly all petrologic types.

  1. Shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, W; Arndt, J; Müller, W F; Stöffler, D

    1970-01-30

    Indications of shock metamorphism produced by pressures up to the megabar region have been observed in the fine material and the breccias, but very rarely in the coarser fragments of crystalline rocks. These indications are deformation structures in plagioclase and pyroxene, diaplectic plagioclase glasses, and glasses formed by shock-induced melting of lunar rocks. Two sources of shock waves have been distinguished: primary impact of meteorites and secondary impact of crater ejecta. There are two major chemical types of shock-induced melts. The differences in chemistry may be related to impact sites in mare and highland areas.

  2. Martian bow shock - PHOBOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Sauer, K.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ong, M.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-05-01

    Data obtained with the Magma magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 + or - .03 R(M). The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  3. Chromite-Plagioclase Assemblages as a New Shock Indicator; Implications for the Shock and Thermal Histories of Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Chromite in ordinary chondrites (OC) can be used as a shock indicator. A survey of 76 equilibrated H, L and LL chondrites shows that unshocked chromite grains occur in equant, subhedral and rounded morphologies surrounded by silicate or intergrown with metallic Fe-Ni and/or troilite. Some unmelted chromite grains are fractured or crushed during whole-rock brecciation. Others are transected by opaque veins; the veins form when impacts cause localized heating of metal-troilite intergrowths above the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C), mobilization of metal-troilite melts, and penetration of the melt into fractures in chromite grains. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages occur in nearly every shock-stage S3-S6 OC; the assemblages range in size from 20-300 microns and consist of 0.2-20-micron-size euhedral, subhedral, anhedral and rounded chromite grains surrounded by plagioclase or glass of plagioclase composition. Plagioclase has a low impedance to shock compression. Heat from shock-melted plagioclase caused adjacent chromite grains to melt; chromite grains crystallized from this melt. Those chromite grains in the assemblages that are completely surrounded by plagioclase are generally richer in Al2O3, than unmelted, matrix chromite grains in the same meteorite. Chromite veinlets (typically 0.5-2 microns thick and 10-300 microns long) occur typically in the vicinity of chromite-plagioclase assemblages. The veinlets formed from chromite-plagioclase melts that were injected into fractures in neighboring silicate grains; chromite crystallized in the fractures and the residual plagioclase-rich melt continued to flow, eventually pooling to form plagioclase-rich melt pockets. Chromite-rich chondrules (consisting mainly of olivine, plagioclase-normative mesostasis, and 5-15 vol.% chromite) occur in many shocked OC and OC regolith breccias but they are absent from primitive type-3 OC. They may have formed by impact melting chromite, plagioclase and adjacent mafic silicates during higher

  4. The Occurrence of Ringwoodite in Shock Veins of the Elephant Moraine 79001 Martian Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton-Hauck, E. L.

    2012-03-01

    Ringwoodite in EET A79001 has been confirmed using optical microscopy and raman spectroscopy. This phase occurs as polycrystalline aggregates within and adjacent to shock veins. A shock pressure of 18-23 GPa is estimated for EET A79901 lithology A.

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  6. [Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Cause of a Cardiogenic Shock].

    PubMed

    Fevereiro, Maria do Carmo; Simões, Maria Inês; Lampreia, Fátima; Marcão, Isabel; Godinho, António; Lopes, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, of unknown etiology, is characterized by sudden and transient systolic dysfunction of the mid-apical segments of the left ventricle without significant coronary disease, and full normalization of segmental changes. More common in middle-aged women, it is cause of differential diagnosis with acute coronary syndrome. We present the case of a 59 year old woman admitted to the emergency room with sudden chest pain and dyspnea. At presentation: acute hypotensive pulmonary edema requiring aminergic support and invasive ventilation. Blood tests showed elevated necrosis myocardial enzymes. Serial electrocardiograms: sinus rhythm with progressive inversion of the T wave through the precordial leads (v2 - v6). Control echocardiograms: overall decreased systolic function with apical akinesia, and full reversal of the changes in 2 weeks. Cardiogenic shock of unknown etiology was admitted and a coronary computed tomography angiography was performed excluding coronary heart disease, supporting the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  7. Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, inexpensive shock-absorbing system, developed by Langley Research Center 20 years ago, is now in service as safety device for an automated railway at Duke University Medical Center. The transportation system travels at about 25 miles per hour, carrying patients, visitors, staff and cargo. At the end of each guideway of the system are "frangible," (breakable) tube "buffers." If a slowing car fails to make a complete stop at the terminal, it would bump and shatter the tubes, absorbing energy that might otherwise jolt the passengers or damage the vehicle.

  8. SHOCK-EXCITED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1957-12-17

    S> A shock-excited quartz crystal oscillator is described. The circuit was specifically designed for application in micro-time measuring work to provide an oscillator which immediately goes into oscillation upon receipt of a trigger pulse and abruptly ceases oscillation when a second pulse is received. To achieve the instant action, the crystal has a prestressing voltage applied across it. A monostable multivibrator receives the on and off trigger pulses and discharges a pulse through the crystal to initiate or terminate oscillation instantly.

  9. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, Carl M; Adams, Chris D; Hull, Lawrence M; Gray III, George T; Prime, Michael B; Addessio, Francis L; Wynn, Thomas A; Brown, Eric N

    2012-08-24

    Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to

  10. Management of septic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J D

    1993-01-01

    There have been important advances in the resuscitation of patients in septic shock in recent years. Survival can be improved by earlier recognition and therefore eradication of the sepsis combined with logical supportive measures. As with any acutely ill patient consultation with intensive care unit staff may be useful. Consultation with the intensive care unit does not necessarily imply the need for admission and mechanical ventilation; helpful advice may be forthcoming. Equally, referral to the intensive care unit does not mean an admission of failure but merely a recognition that additional skills and technical facilities are necessary for the patient's survival. PMID:8324438

  11. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  12. Dual Mode Shock-Expansion/Reflected-Shock Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdos, John I.; Bakos, Robert J.; Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Rogers, R. Clayton

    1998-01-01

    NASA s HYPULSE facility at GASL has been reconfigured to permit free jet testing of the Hyper-X flowpath at flight Mach numbers of 7 and 10. Among the required changes are addition of a converging-diverging nozzle to permit operation in a reflected shock tunnel mode, a 7 ft. diameter test cabin and a 30 in. diameter contoured nozzle. However, none of these changes were allowed to interfere with rapid recovery of the prior shock-expansion tunnel mode of operation, and indeed certain changes should enhance facility usefulness and productivity in either mode. A previously-developed shock-induced detonation mode of driving the facility has been successfully applied to both reflected shock tunnel operation at Mach 10 flight conditions, with tailored interface operation, and shock-expansion tunnel operation at flight conditions corresponding to Mach numbers from 12 to 25. Tailored interface operation at Mach 7 has been achieved with an unheated helium driver. In the present paper, the rationale for a dual mode shock expansion/reflected shock tunnel is discussed, and the capabilities and limitations for each mode are outlined. The physical changes in the HYPULSE facility to achieve dual mode capability are also described. Limited calibration data obtained to date in the new reflected shock tunnel mode are presented and the anticipated flight simulation map with dual mode operation is also outlined.

  13. Numerical study of unsteady viscous hypersonic blunt body flows with an impinging shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopfer, G. H.; Yee, H. C.; Kutler, P.

    1988-01-01

    A complex two-dimensional, unsteady, viscous hypersonic shock wave interaction is numerically simulated by a high-resolution, second-order fully implicit shock-capturing scheme. The physical model consists of a nonstationary oblique shock impinging on the bow shock of a blunt body. Studies indicated that the unsteady flow patterns are slightly different from their steady counterparts. However, for the sample cases investigated the peak surface pressures for the unsteady flows seem to occur at very different impingement locations than for the steady flow cases.

  14. Experimental study of shock-wave reflection from a thermally accommodating wall.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    Shock-tube experiments have been conducted to study the nonequilibrium gas-surface interaction which occurs when a thick shock wave in argon reflects from a coplanar, heat-conducting wall. Fast-response instrumentation was used to monitor variations in temperature and normal stress on the surface of the shock-tube end wall during and immediately following reflection of the incident shock wave. The laboratory observations are compared with computer predictions obtained by Deiwert using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo method, and excellent agreement is obtained when a suitable average thermal accommodation coefficient is chosen for the wall surface.

  15. Isolated Horner Syndrome From an Elongated Styloid Process (Eagle Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chang, Caitlin A; Lin, Tony; Fung, Kevin; Sharma, Manas; Fraser, J Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs when an elongated styloid process causes otolaryngological or neurological symptoms or signs. We report a patient who had an isolated asymptomatic Horner syndrome that resulted from a pinned internal carotid artery being dynamically injured by an elongated styloid process during chiropractic neck manipulation. There was no evidence of arterial dissection.

  16. Fast molecular shocks. II - Emission from fast dissociative shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Dalgarno, A.

    1989-01-01

    The line radiations emitted in the cooling gas behind a fast dissociative shock are studied. The intensities emitted in high rotational transitions of the neutral molecules CO, SiO, HCN, CN, NO, and SO are estimated, as well as in rovibrational transitions of the molecular ions HeH(+) and OH(+) in radio recombination lines of atomic hydrogen and in fine-structure transitions of C, C(+), O, and Si(+). The predictions are compared with the observed intensities of line emission from the Orion-KL region. For Orion-KL the observations do not exclude, but probably do not require, the presence of a fast dissociative shock. Emission from SiO in high-J rotational states and from vibrationally excited OH(+), HeH(+), HeH(+), and SO(+) may be detectable from dissociative shocks under suitable conditions of preshock density and shock velocity; such emission may prove to be a useful diagnostic probe of fast shock activity.

  17. Hyperferritinemic syndrome: Still's disease and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by fulminant Chikungunya infection: a case report of two patients.

    PubMed

    Betancur, Juan-Felipe; Navarro, Erika-Paola; Echeverry, Alex; Moncada, Pablo A; Cañas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2015-11-01

    There are four medical conditions characterized by high levels of ferritin, the macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), adult onset Still' s disease (AOSD), catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), and septic shock, that share similar clinical and laboratory features, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism. This common syndrome entity is termed "the hyperferritinemic syndrome." Here, we describe two different cases of hyperferritinemic syndrome triggered by Chikungunya fever virus infection: a 21-year-old female with SLE and a 32-year-old male patient who developed AOSD after the coinfection of dengue and Chikungunya viruses.

  18. Prospects for management of gastrointestinal injury associated with the acute radiation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Walker, R.I.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of total-body ionizing radiation on the digestive tract is dose-dependent and time-dependent. At low doses (1.5 Gy), one observes only a short prodromal syndrome consisting of nausea, vomiting, and gastric suppression. At doses greater than 6 Gy, the prodromal syndrome is more marked, and it is followed after a 2-5-day remission period by a subacute syndrome, characterized by diarrhea and hematochezia. This gastrointestinal syndrome is superimposed onto a radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. The combination of intestinal and hemopoietic syndromes results in dehydration, anemia, and infection, leading eventually to irreversible shock and death. The treatment of prodromal symptoms is based on the administration of antiemetics and gastrokinetics, although an effective treatment devoid of side effects is not yet available for human therapy. The treatment of the gastrointestinal subacute syndrome remains difficult and unsuccessful after exposure to total body doses greater than 8-10 Gy. Supportive therapy to prevent infection and dehydration may be effective if restoration or repopulation of the intestinal and bone marrow stem cells does occur. In addition, bone marrow transplantation may improve the prospect of treating the hemopoietic syndrome, although the experience gained in Chernobyl suggests that this treatment is difficult to apply in the case of nuclear accidents. Administration of radioprotectants before irradiation decreases damage to healthy cells, while not protecting cancerous tissues. In the future, stimulation of gastrointestinal and hemopoietic progenitor cells may be possible using cell growth regulators, but much remains to be done to improve the treatment of radiation damage to the gastrointestinal tract. 77 references.

  19. Prospects for management of gastrointestinal injury associated with the acute radiation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Walker, R.I.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of total-body ionizing radiation on the digestive tract is dose-dependent and time-dependent. At low doses (1.5 Gy), one observes only a short prodromal syndrome consisting of nausea, vomiting, and gastric suppression. At doses>6 Gy, the prodromal syndrome is more marked, and it is followed after a 2-5-day remission period by a subacute syndrome, characterized by diarrhea and hematochezia. This gastrointestinal syndrome is superimposed onto a radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. The combination of intestinal and hemopoietic syndromes results in dehydration, anemia, and infection, leading eventually to irreversible shock and death. The treatment of prodromal symptoms is based on the administration of antiemetics and gastrokinetics, although an effective treatment devoid of side effects is not yet available for human therapy. The treatment of the gastrointestinal subacute syndrome remains difficult and unsuccessful after exposure to total-body doses >8-10 Gy. Supportive therapy to prevent infection and dehydration may be effective if restoration or repopulation of the intestinal and bone marrow stem cells does occur. In addition, bone marrow transplantation may improve the prospect of treating the hemopoietic syndrome, although the experience gained in Chernobyl suggests that this treatment is difficult to apply in the case of nuclear accidents. Administration of radioprotectants before irradiation decreases damage to healthy cells, while not protecting cancerous tissues. In the future, stimulation of gastrointestinal and hemopoietic progenitor cells may be possible using cell growth regulators, but much remains to be done to improve the treatment of radiation damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Formation of Chondrules by Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, M. A.; Boley, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    We describe and assess current shock models for chondrule formation, particularly those driven by gravitational disk instabilities and bow shocks. We discuss predictions made by shock models and further work needed.

  1. IPShocks: Database of Interplanetary Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isavnin, Alexey; Lumme, Erkka; Kilpua, Emilia; Lotti, Mikko; Andreeova, Katerina; Koskinen, Hannu; Nikbakhsh, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Fast collisionless shocks are one of the key interplanetary structures, which have also paramount role for solar-terrestrial physics. In particular, coronal mass ejection driven shocks accelerate particles to high energies and turbulent post-shock flows may drive intense geomagnetic storms. We present comprehensive Heliospheric Shock Database (ipshocks.fi) developed and hosted at University of Helsinki. The database contains currently over 2000 fast forward and fast reverse shocks observed by Wind, ACE, STEREO, Helios, Ulysses and Cluster spacecraft. In addition, the database has search and sort tools based on the spacecraft, time range, and several key shock parameters (e.g., shock type, shock strength, shock angle), data plots for each shock and data download options. These features allow easy access to shocks and quick statistical analyses. All current shocks are identified visually and analysed using the same procedure.

  2. Literature analysis of Acanthopanax anaphylactic shock in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the occurrence characteristics of Acanthopanax (刺五加 cì wǔ jiā) anaphylactic shock and to provide objective evidence for the rational use of the medicine. Fifty-seven cases of Acanthopanax anaphylactic shock were collected from several professional databases in China. The statistical data of the patients were analyzed with Visual FoxPro 6.0 and Office Excel 2003 by Microsoft (Redmond, WA, USA). The male:female incidence ratio was 0.5:1. Fifty-six (98.25%) patients were older than 30 years. Thirty-nine (68.42%) patients had an unknown allergy history. Nine (15.79%) patients used Acanthopanax for unlabeled indications. In most (98.25 %) patients, Acanthopanax was used in the form of dosage injection. Anaphylactic shock occurred within 30 minutes after treatment in 52 (94.54%) patients, and all episodes occurred during the infusion process. In two (3.51%) patients, the episode occurred when they used Acanthopanax for the second time. In one (1.75%) patient, the episode occurred during the third time of use. The clinical symptoms of anaphylactic shock are diversified, but all patients presented with cardiovascular and respiratory system symptoms. Acanthopanax injections that led to anaphylactic shock were produced exclusively by four manufacturers. Four (7.02%) patients died and 49 (85.96%) patients were cured, but the status of four patients is unknown. Because an Acanthopanax injection may cause anaphylactic shock and can be fatal in severe cases, physicians and patients must pay close attention to using it rationally. Clinicians should carefully consult the allergic constitution of their patients, strictly follow the guidelines of the drug, use Acanthopanax in the oral dosage form as much as possible, and strengthen therapeutic monitoring. PMID:26587397

  3. Mechanochemistry for Shock Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, William; Ren, Yi; Su, Zhi; Moore, Jeffrey; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Using our laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus we have developed a technique for detecting mechanically driven chemical reactions that attenuate shock waves. In these experiments 75 μm laser-driven flyer-plates travel at speeds of up to 2.8 km/s. Photonic Doppler velocimetry is used to monitor both the flight speed and the motions of an embedded mirror behind the sample on the supporting substrate. Since the Hugoniot of the substrate is known, mirror motions can be converted into the transmitted shock wave flux and fluence through a sample. Flux shows the shock profile whereas fluence represents the total energy transferred per unit area, and both are measured as a function of sample thickness. Targets materials are micrograms of carefully engineered organic and inorganic compounds selected for their potential to undergo negative volume, endothermic reactions. In situ fluorescence measurements and a suite of post mortem analytical methods are used to detect molecular chemical reactions that occur due to impact.

  4. TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials)

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive ...

  5. Soda-lime glass behavior under laser shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loison, D.; Guin, J.-P.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.; Nivard, M.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Seisson, G.; Hebert, D.; Berthe, L.; Boustie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and modeling the behavior of glass is an issue for certain aeronautical, military and civil applications. For example, parts of satellites and shuttles are made of glasses. During their lifetime, they are subjected to potentially damaging high velocity impacts. To determine the behavior of these structures during and after impact we used instrumented laser driven shock loading performed on high power intensity laser facilities. Transverse shadowgraphs of the front wave propagating inside the transparent material are collected at different times. These shadowgraphs provide information regarding the shock wave velocity. PDV or VISAR measurements provide time-resolved free surface velocity to determine material velocity when the shock wave breakout occurs. For some laser shots, shock wave corresponds to elastic wave then Hugoniot elastic limit may be determined. Under high pressure conditions glass permanently densifies and traces of such a plastic deformation are looked for on the path of the shock wave. Those experimental data are necessary to characterize the material behavior under such conditions and to model the mechanical behavior of glass structures. In this presentation we will present experimental results obtained for soda-lime silica glass samples loaded by laser induced shock.

  6. Parallel collisionless shocks forming in simulations of the LAPD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidl, Martin S.; Jenko, Frank; Niemann, Chris; Winske, Dan

    2016-10-01

    Research on parallel collisionless shocks, most prominently occurring in the Earth's bow shock region, has so far been limited to satellite measurements and simulations. However, the formation of collisionless shocks depends on a wide range of parameters and scales, which can be accessed more easily in a laboratory experiment. Using a kJ-class laser, an ongoing experimental campaign at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA is expected to produce the first laboratory measurements of the formation of a parallel collisionless shock. We present hybrid kinetic/MHD simulations that show how beam instabilities in the background plasma can be driven by ablating carbon ions from a target, causing non-linear density oscillations which develop into a propagating shock front. The free-streaming carbon ions can excite both the resonant right-hand instability and the non-resonant firehose mode. We analyze their respective roles and discuss optimizing their growth rates to speed up the process of shock formation.

  7. Transition of dislocation glide to shear transformation in shocked tantalum

    DOE PAGES

    Hsiung, Luke L.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.

    2017-02-28

    A TEM study of pure tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys explosively shocked at a peak pressure of 30 GPa (strain rate: ~1 x 104 sec-1) is presented. While no ω (hexagonal) phase was found in shock-recovered pure Ta and Ta-5W that contain mainly a low-energy cellular dislocation structure, shock-induced ω phase was found to form in Ta-10W that contains evenly distributed dislocations with a stored dislocation density higher than 1 x 1012 cm-2. The TEM results clearly reveal that shock-induced α (bcc) → ω (hexagonal) shear transformation occurs when dynamic recovery reactions which lead the formation low-energy cellular dislocation structure becomemore » largely suppressed in Ta-10W shocked under dynamic (i.e., high strain-rate and high-pressure) conditions. A novel dislocation-based mechanism is proposed to rationalize the transition of dislocation glide to twinning and/or shear transformation in shock-deformed tantalum. Lastly, twinning and/or shear transformation take place as an alternative deformation mechanism to accommodate high-strain-rate straining when the shear stress required for dislocation multiplication exceeds the threshold shear stresses for twinning and/or shear transformation.« less

  8. Shock structure measured in a transonic fan using laser anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Simonyi, P. Susan

    1987-01-01

    Shock structure measurements acquired in a low aspect ratio transonic fan rotor are presented and analyzed. The rotor aspect ratio is 1.56 and the design tip relative Mach number is 1.38. The rotor flowfield was surveyed at near maximum efficiency and near stall operating conditions. Intra-blade velocity measurements acquired with a laser fringe anemometer on blade-to-blade planes in the supersonic region from 10 to 60 percent span are presented. The three-dimensional shock surface determined from the velocity measurments is used to determine the shock surface normal Mach number in order to properly calculate the ideal shock jump conditions. The ideal jump conditions are calculated based upon the Mach numbers measured on a surface of revolution and based upon the normal Mach number to indicate the importance of accounting for shock three dimensionality in turbomachinery design. Comparison of the shock locations with those predicted by a 3-D Euler code showed very good agreement and indicated the usefulness of integrating computational and experimental work to enhance the understanding of the flow physics occurring in transonic turbomachinery passages.

  9. Shock Geometry and Spectral Breaks in Large SEP Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Zank, G. P.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mason, G. M.; Desai, M. I.

    2009-09-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are traditionally classified as "impulsive" or "gradual." It is now widely accepted that in gradual SEP events, particles are accelerated at coronal mass ejection-driven (CME-driven) shocks. In many of these large SEP events, particle spectra exhibit double power law or exponential rollover features, with the break energy or rollover energy ordered as (Q/A)α, with Q being the ion charge in e and A the ion mass in units of proton mass mp . This Q/A dependence of the spectral breaks provides an opportunity to study the underlying acceleration mechanism. In this paper, we examine how the Q/A dependence may depend on shock geometry. Using the nonlinear guiding center theory, we show that α ~ 1/5 for a quasi-perpendicular shock. Such a weak Q/A dependence is in contrast to the quasi-parallel shock case where α can reach 2. This difference in α reflects the difference of the underlying parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients κ|| and κbottom. We also examine the Q/A dependence of the break energy for the most general oblique shock case. Our analysis offers a possible way to remotely examine the geometry of a CME-driven shock when it is close to the Sun, where the acceleration of particle to high energies occurs.

  10. The Link Between Shocks, Turbulence, and Magnetic Reconnection in Collisionless Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Vu, H. X.; Omelchenko, Y. A.; Scudder, J.; Daughton, W.; Dimmock, A.; Nykyri, K.; Wan, M.; Sibeck, D.; Tatineni, M.; Majumdar, A.; Loring, B.; Geveci, B.

    2014-01-01

    Global hybrid (electron fluid, kinetic ions) and fully kinetic simulations of the magnetosphere have been used to show surprising interconnection between shocks, turbulence and magnetic reconnection. In particular collisionless shocks with their reflected ions that can get upstream before retransmission can generate previously unforeseen phenomena in the post shocked flows: (i) formation of reconnecting current sheets and magnetic islands with sizes up to tens of ion inertial length. (ii) Generation of large scale low frequency electromagnetic waves that are compressed and amplified as they cross the shock. These 'wavefronts' maintain their integrity for tens of ion cyclotron times but eventually disrupt and dissipate their energy. (iii) Rippling of the shock front, which can in turn lead to formation of fast collimated jets extending to hundreds of ion inertial lengths downstream of the shock. The jets, which have high dynamical pressure, 'stir' the downstream region, creating large scale disturbances such as vortices, sunward flows, and can trigger flux ropes along the magnetopause. This phenomenology closes the loop between shocks, turbulence and magnetic reconnection in ways previously unrealized. These interconnections appear generic for the collisionless plasmas typical of space, and are expected even at planar shocks, although they will also occur at curved shocks as occur at planets or around ejecta.

  11. Floating shock fitting via Lagrangian adaptive meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanrosendale, John

    1995-01-01

    In recent work we have formulated a new approach to compressible flow simulation, combining the advantages of shock-fitting and shock-capturing. Using a cell-centered on Roe scheme discretization on unstructured meshes, we warp the mesh while marching to steady state, so that mesh edges align with shocks and other discontinuities. This new algorithm, the Shock-fitting Lagrangian Adaptive Method (SLAM), is, in effect, a reliable shock-capturing algorithm which yields shock-fitted accuracy at convergence.

  12. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  13. [Management of pediatric septic shock].

    PubMed

    Llor, J; Parret, L; Stucki, P; Cotting, J

    2005-06-01

    Septic shock is a frequent admission cause in intensive care unit. In spite of the important progresses in the understanding of his physiopathology, mortality due to septic shock is about 20%. Recently, it has been demonstrated that an early goal-directed therapy permitted to improve the patient prognosis. With a good hemodynamic management and early antibiotherapy, mortality could be reduced.

  14. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  15. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    that allows military practitioners to operationalize cognitive shock against any given rival while experiencing diverse ecologies . 15. SUBJECT...operationalize cognitive shock against any given rival while experiencing diverse ecologies . iv Contents Acknowledgements...the emerging ecology rather than the more static concepts of force and control.8 This paper explores perception of depth and its potential

  16. Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    times only for high concentrations (of order 1% fuel or greater). The requirements of engine (IC, HCCI , CI and SI) modelers also present a different...Paper 03F-61 Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data D. F. Davidson and R. K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering ... Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Abstract Chemical kinetic modelers make extensive use of shock tube ignition data

  17. SPHERICAL SHOCK WAVES IN SOLIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Introduction-Reasons for Studying Spherical Shock Waves, Physics of Cavity Expansion due to Explosive Impact, General Nature of Shock Waves...Governing Differential Equation of Self-Similar Motion; Application of the Theory of Self-Similar Motion to the Problem of Expansion of a Spherical

  18. Pin puller impact shock attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auclair, G. F.; Leonard, B. S.; Robbins, R. E.; Proffitt, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a pin arresting mechanism for a pyrotechnically actuated pin puller is reviewed. The investigative approach is discussed and the impact shock test results for various candidate designs are presented. The selected pin arresting design reduced the peak value of the shock response spectrum by five to one.

  19. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  20. Effect of shock interactions on the attitude stability of a toroidal ballute for reentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Hirotaka; Abe, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    The effect of shock interactions on the attitude stability of a reentry vehicle system with a toroidal ballute was investigated. The hypersonic wind tunnel experimental results showed that when the shock interaction occurred near or outside the ballute, an unstable oscillation of the ballute was observed. This was caused by the local high-pressure region on the ballute surface created by the shock interaction between the shock from the reentry capsule and the shock from the ballute. To avoid this unstable oscillation, the radius of the ballute should be designed to be large enough so that the shock from the capsule will be located inside the ballute, which can avoid the local high-pressure region on the ballute surface.