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Sample records for shoot growth leaf

  1. Shoot growth and leaf dimorphism in Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1970-01-01

    Boston ivy, a common ornamental vine in the grape family, successively produces two kinds of leaves during the growing season. The two "early leaves" at the base of each shoot are preformed in the winter bud, and their expansion in the spring is accompanied by little stem elongation. At maturity they have large three-lobed blades and long petioles. Most short...

  2. Overexpression of KNAT1 in lettuce shifts leaf determinate growth to a shoot-like indeterminate growth associated with an accumulation of isopentenyl-type cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Frugis, G; Giannino, D; Mele, G; Nicolodi, C; Chiappetta, A; Bitonti, M B; Innocenti, A M; Dewitte, W; Van Onckelen, H; Mariotti, D

    2001-08-01

    Leaves are specialized organs characterized by defined developmental destiny and determinate growth. The overexpression of Knotted1-like homeobox genes in different species has been shown to alter leaf shape and development, but a definite role for this class of genes remains to be established. Transgenics that overexpress Knotted1-like genes present some traits that are characteristic of altered cytokinin physiology. Here we show that lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves that overexpress KNAT1, an Arabidopsis kn1-like gene, acquire characteristics of indeterminate growth typical of the shoot and that this cell fate change is associated with the accumulation of specific types of cytokinins. The possibility that the phenotypic effects of KNAT1 overexpression may arise primarily from the modulation of local ratios of different cytokinins is discussed.

  3. Overexpression of KNAT1 in Lettuce Shifts Leaf Determinate Growth to a Shoot-Like Indeterminate Growth Associated with an Accumulation of Isopentenyl-Type Cytokinins1

    PubMed Central

    Frugis, Giovanna; Giannino, Donato; Mele, Giovanni; Nicolodi, Chiara; Chiappetta, Adriana; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Innocenti, Anna Maria; Dewitte, Walter; Van Onckelen, Harry; Mariotti, Domenico

    2001-01-01

    Leaves are specialized organs characterized by defined developmental destiny and determinate growth. The overexpression of Knotted1-like homeobox genes in different species has been shown to alter leaf shape and development, but a definite role for this class of genes remains to be established. Transgenics that overexpress Knotted1-like genes present some traits that are characteristic of altered cytokinin physiology. Here we show that lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves that overexpress KNAT1, an Arabidopsis kn1-like gene, acquire characteristics of indeterminate growth typical of the shoot and that this cell fate change is associated with the accumulation of specific types of cytokinins. The possibility that the phenotypic effects of KNAT1 overexpression may arise primarily from the modulation of local ratios of different cytokinins is discussed. PMID:11500537

  4. Ontogenetic patterns of CO sub 2 exchange of Quercus rubra L. leaves during three flushes of shoot growth II. insertion gradients of leaf photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Isebrands, J.G.; Dickson, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange rates (CERs) of all leaves along the stem of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings (a leaf insertion gradient of profile) were determined at several stages of ontogeny. Seedlings were grown and measured under growth chamber conditions favorable for the production of multiple flushes of shoot growth. The CERs were measured with a portable closed-circuit CO{sub 2} analyzer at ambient photosynthetic photon flux densities and were determined for every leaf of each seedling. Carbon dioxide exchange rates per unit projected area of individual leaves (CERA) increased along leaf-maturation gradients in expanding flushes. After flush growth wasmore » completed, all leaves of a flush has similar CERA. However, because median flush leaves were the largest, they accounted for the greatest proportion of an expanded-flush's CER. First-flush leaves were the major contributors to total seedling CER through the second flush of growth-encompassing half of the period required to produce a three-flush oak seedling. This study's data, based on short-term CER measurements, showed ontogenetic pattern of CO{sub 2} exchange similar to those reported for northern red oak under steady state laboratory conditions.« less

  5. Gnomonia canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot of yellow birch.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth J. Jr. Kessler

    1978-01-01

    Describes a canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot disease of yellow birch seedlings in the northern Great Lakes region and tells how and when trees become infected by the fungal causal agent, Gnomonia setacea.

  6. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia x candida Pers.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3-, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weigh...

  7. Shoot Growth Patterns of Young Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1970-01-01

    Most shoot elongation on Pinus taeda L. seedlings and saplings near Durham. North Carolina. was supplied by the lirst growth Ilush, which began about April 1 and ended in mid-May 1967. New growth per shoot declined with distance from the tree top. All leaders had three flushes and half had four. Variation in internode growth was dependent upon...

  8. Shoot growth and heterophylly in Acer

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1971-01-01

    In Acer and many other woody genera, leaf form changes drastically and often abruptly during the life of the plant. Heterophylly is of two principal kinds in these woody plants: (1) changes during seedling and post-seedling stages, and (2) changes during the development of single annual shoots of adult plants. Type (1) is ubiquitous in Acer] type (2) is a regular...

  9. The growth and form of plant shoots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelakkot, Raghunath; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Growing plant stems and shoots exhibit a variety of shapes that embody growth in response to various stimuli. We provide a quantitative biophysical theory for these shapes by accounting for the inherent observed passive and active effects: (i) the passive elastic deflection of the shoot due to its own weight, and (ii) the active controllable growth response of the shoot in response to its orientation relative to gravity, and (iii) proprioception, the shoot's growth response to its own observable shape, which is itself determined by its elasticity and weight. A morphospace diagram in terms of two dimensionless parameters representing a scaled local active gravitropic sensitivity, and a scaled passive elastic sag shows how a variety of observed transient and steady morphologies with effective positive, negative and even oscillatory gravitropic behaviors arise in a sentient growing filament naturally, without the need for ad-hoc complex spatio-temporal control strategies.

  10. On the growth and form of shoots

    PubMed Central

    Chelakkot, Raghunath

    2017-01-01

    Growing plant stems and shoots exhibit a variety of shapes that embody growth in response to various stimuli. Building on experimental observations, we provide a quantitative biophysical theory for these shapes by accounting for the inherent observed passive and active effects: (i) the active controllable growth response of the shoot in response to its orientation relative to gravity, (ii) proprioception, the shoot's growth response to its own observable current shape, and (iii) the passive elastic deflection of the shoot due to its own weight, which determines the current shape of the shoot. Our theory separates the sensed and actuated variables in a growing shoot and results in a morphospace diagram in terms of two dimensionless parameters representing a scaled local active gravitropic sensitivity, and a scaled passive elastic sag. Our computational results allow us to explain the variety of observed transient and steady morphologies with effective positive, negative and even oscillatory gravitropic behaviours, without the need for ad hoc complex spatio-temporal control strategies in terms of these parameters. More broadly, our theory is applicable to the growth of soft, floppy organs where sensing and actuation are dynamically coupled through growth processes via shape. PMID:28330990

  11. Active suppression of a leaf meristem orchestrates determinate leaf growth

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, John Paul; Furumizu, Chihiro; Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Bowman, John L

    2016-01-01

    Leaves are flat determinate organs derived from indeterminate shoot apical meristems. The presence of a specific leaf meristem is debated, as anatomical features typical of meristems are not present in leaves. Here we demonstrate that multiple NGATHA (NGA) and CINCINNATA-class-TCP (CIN-TCP) transcription factors act redundantly, shortly after leaf initiation, to gradually restrict the activity of a leaf meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana to marginal and basal domains, and that their absence confers persistent marginal growth to leaves, cotyledons and floral organs. Following primordia initiation, the restriction of the broadly acting leaf meristem to the margins is mediated by the juxtaposition of adaxial and abaxial domains and maintained by WOX homeobox transcription factors, whereas other marginal elaboration genes are dispensable for its maintenance. This genetic framework parallels the morphogenetic program of shoot apical meristems and may represent a relic of an ancestral shoot system from which seed plant leaves evolved. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15023.001 PMID:27710768

  12. Giant Shoot Apical Meristems in Cacti Have Ordinary Leaf Primordia but Altered Phyllotaxy and Shoot Diameter

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) in most seed plants are quite uniform in size and zonation, and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis and other model plants are revealing details of SAM morphogenesis. Some cacti have SAMs much larger than those of A. thaliana and other seed plants. This study examined how SAM size affects leaf primordium (LP) size, phyllotaxy and shoot diameter. • Methods. Apices from 183 species of cacti were fixed, microtomed and studied by light microscopy. • Key Results Cactus SAM diameter varies from 93 to 2565 µm, the latter being 36 times wider than SAMs of A. thaliana and having a volume 45 thousand times larger. Phyllotaxy ranges from distichous to having 56 rows of leaves and is not restricted to Fibonacci numbers. Leaf primordium diameter ranges from 44 to 402 µm, each encompassing many more cells than do LP of other plants. Species with high phyllotaxy have smaller LP, although the correlation is weak. There is almost no correlation between SAM diameter and LP size, but SAM diameter is strongly correlated with shoot diameter, with shoots being about 189·5 times wider than SAMs. • Conclusions Presumably, genes such as SHOOT‐MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL and CLAVATA must control much larger volumes of SAM tissue in cacti than they do in A. thaliana, and genes such as PERIANTHIA might establish much more extensive fields of inhibition around LP. These giant SAMs should make it possible to more accurately map gene expression patterns relative to SAM zonation and LP sites. PMID:15145794

  13. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber. PMID:26320238

  15. Leaf position optimization for step-and-shoot IMRT.

    PubMed

    De Gersem, W; Claus, F; De Wagter, C; Van Duyse, B; De Neve, W

    2001-12-01

    To describe the theoretical basis, the algorithm, and implementation of a tool that optimizes segment shapes and weights for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivered by multileaf collimators. The tool, called SOWAT (Segment Outline and Weight Adapting Tool) is applied to a set of segments, segment weights, and corresponding dose distribution, computed by an external dose computation engine. SOWAT evaluates the effects of changing the position of each collimating leaf of each segment on an objective function, as follows. Changing a leaf position causes a change in the segment-specific dose matrix, which is calculated by a fast dose computation algorithm. A weighted sum of all segment-specific dose matrices provides the dose distribution and allows computation of the value of the objective function. Only leaf position changes that comply with the multileaf collimator constraints are evaluated. Leaf position changes that tend to decrease the value of the objective function are retained. After several possible positions have been evaluated for all collimating leaves of all segments, an external dose engine recomputes the dose distribution, based on the adapted leaf positions and weights. The plan is evaluated. If the plan is accepted, a segment sequencer is used to make the prescription files for the treatment machine. Otherwise, the user can restart SOWAT using the new set of segments, segment weights, and corresponding dose distribution. The implementation was illustrated using two example cases. The first example is a T1N0M0 supraglottic cancer case that was distributed as a multicenter planning exercise by investigators from Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The exercise involved a two-phase plan. Phase 1 involved the delivery of 46 Gy to a concave-shaped planning target volume (PTV) consisting of the primary tumor volume and the elective lymph nodal regions II-IV on both sides of the neck. Phase 2 involved a boost of 24 Gy to the primary tumor

  16. Morphogenesis at the inflorescence shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis: surface geometry and growth in comparison with the vegetative shoot.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geometry and surface growth based on the sequential replica method is used to compare morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis in the reproductive and vegetative phases of development. Formation of three types of lateral organs takes place at the Anagallis shoot apical meristem (SAM): vegetative leaf primordia are formed during the vegetative phase and leaf-like bracts and flower primordia during the reproductive phase. Although the shapes of all the three types of primordia are very similar during their early developmental stages, areal growth rates and anisotropy of apex surface growth accompanying formation of leaf or bract primordia are profoundly different from those during formation of flower primordia. This provides an example of different modes of de novo formation of a given shape. Moreover, growth accompanying the formation of the boundary between the SAM and flower primordium is entirely different from growth at the adaxial leaf or bract primordium boundary. In the latter, areal growth rates at the future boundary are the lowest of all the apex surface, while in the former they are relatively very high. The direction of maximal growth rate is latitudinal (along the future boundary) in the case of leaf or bract primordium but meridional (across the boundary) in the case of flower. The replica method does not enable direct analysis of growth in the direction perpendicular to the apex surface (anticlinal direction). Nevertheless, the reconstructed surfaces of consecutive replicas taken from an individual apex allow general directions of SAM surface bulging accompanying primordium formation to be recognized. Precise alignment of consecutive reconstructions shows that the direction of initial bulging during the leaf or bract formation is nearly parallel to the shoot axis (upward bulging), while in the case of flower it is perpendicular to the axis (lateral bulging). In future, such 3D reconstructions can be used to assess

  17. Seasonal Shoot and Needle Growth of Loblolly Pine Responds to Thinning, Fertilization, and Crown Position

    Treesearch

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Suresh Guddanti; Shufang Yu; James P. Barnett

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of thinning, fertilization and crown position on seasonal growth of current-year shoots and foliage were studied in a 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in the sixth post-treatment year (1994). Length of new flushes, and their needle length, leaf area, and oven-dry weight were measured in the upper and lower crown...

  18. Shoot growth and heterophylly in ginko biloba

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1970-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba resembles other woody plants with long and short shoots in having variable leaves, and this variability in shape and other characteristics is closely related to the specialization of the shoots. The unlobed or bilobed early leaves of short shoots are preformed in the winter bud, and their nearly synchronous expansion in the spring is not accompanied by...

  19. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Fraxinus nigra

    Treesearch

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an endangered hardwood tree species under threat of extirpation by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an aggressive exotic phloemfeeding beetle. We have developed an efficient regeneration system through adventitious shoot organogenesis in F. nigra using in vitro-derived leaf explants. Two types of leaf...

  20. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  1. Proteomic analysis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) with purple young shoots during leaf development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Chen, Zhidan; Lee, Jinwook; Li, Xinghui; Sun, Weijiang

    2017-01-01

    Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis) plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL) and mature green leaves (MGL) included: 1) the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2) the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonol synthase (FLS) likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3) higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4) the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS) proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration. PMID:28520776

  2. Leaf growth dynamics in four plant species of the Patagonian Monte, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campanella, M Victoria; Bertiller, Mónica B

    2013-07-01

    Studying plant responses to environmental variables is an elemental key to understand the functioning of arid ecosystems. We selected four dominant species of the two main life forms. The species selected were two evergreen shrubs: Larrea divaricata and Chuquiraga avellanedae and two perennial grasses: Nassella tenuis and Pappostipa speciosa. We registered leaf/shoot growth, leaf production and environmental variables (precipitation, air temperature, and volumetric soil water content at two depths) during summer-autumn and winter-spring periods. Multiple regressions were used to test the predictive power of the environmental variables. During the summer-autumn period, the strongest predictors of leaf/shoot growth and leaf production were the soil water content of the upper layer and air temperature while during the winter-spring period, the strongest predictor was air temperature. In conclusion, we found that the leaf/shoot growth and leaf production were associated with current environmental conditions, specially to soil water content and air temperature.

  3. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    PubMed

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  4. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  5. Peach Water Relations, Gas Exchange, Growth and Shoot Mortality under Water Deficit in Semi-Arid Weather Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves – may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality. PMID:25830350

  6. A Journey Through a Leaf: Phenomics Analysis of Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaeren, Hannes; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, leaves contribute to the largest part of the aboveground biomass. In these organs, light is captured and converted into chemical energy, which plants use to grow and complete their life cycle. Leaves emerge as a small pool of cells at the vegetative shoot apical meristem and develop into planar, complex organs through different interconnected cellular events. Over the last decade, numerous phenotyping techniques have been developed to visualize and quantify leaf size and growth, leading to the identification of numerous genes that contribute to the final size of leaves. In this review, we will start at the Arabidopsis rosette level and gradually zoom in from a macroscopic view on leaf growth to a microscopic and molecular view. Along this journey, we describe different techniques that have been key to identify important events during leaf development and discuss approaches that will further help unraveling the complex cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie leaf growth. PMID:26217168

  7. Hormonal changes in relation to biomass partitioning and shoot growth impairment in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Albacete, Alfonso; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Martínez, Vicente; Lutts, Stanley; Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Following exposure to salinity, the root/shoot ratio is increased (an important adaptive response) due to the rapid inhibition of shoot growth (which limits plant productivity) while root growth is maintained. Both processes may be regulated by changes in plant hormone concentrations. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated hydroponically for 3 weeks under high salinity (100 mM NaCl) and five major plant hormones (abscisic acid, ABA; the cytokinins zeatin, Z, and zeatin-riboside, ZR; the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, IAA; and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC) were determined weekly in roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Salinity reduced shoot biomass by 50-60% and photosynthetic area by 20-25% both by decreasing leaf expansion and delaying leaf appearance, while root growth was less affected, thus increasing the root/shoot ratio. ABA and ACC concentrations strongly increased in roots, xylem sap, and leaves after 1 d (ABA) and 15 d (ACC) of salinization. By contrast, cytokinins and IAA were differentially affected in roots and shoots. Salinity dramatically decreased the Z+ZR content of the plant, and induced the conversion of ZR into Z, especially in the roots, which accounted for the relative increase of cytokinins in the roots compared to the leaf. IAA concentration was also strongly decreased in the leaves while it accumulated in the roots. Decreased cytokinin content and its transport from the root to the shoot were probably induced by the basipetal transport of auxin from the shoot to the root. The auxin/cytokinin ratio in the leaves and roots may explain both the salinity-induced decrease in shoot vigour (leaf growth and leaf number) and the shift in biomass allocation to the roots, in agreement with changes in the activity of the sink-related enzyme cell wall invertase.

  8. Willow water uptake and shoot extension growth in response to nutrient and moisture on a clay landfill cap soil.

    PubMed

    Martin, Peter J; Stephens, William

    2008-09-01

    Extension growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) and changes in soil water were measured in lysimeters containing clay and sandy loam soils with different amendment and watering treatments. No water uptake was found below 0.3m in the nutritionally poor unamended clay; amendment with organic matter to 0.4m depth resulted in water extraction down to 0.5m depth whereas in the sandy loam, there was greater extraction from all depths down to 0.6m. With water stress, wilting of plants occurred when the volumetric soil water content at 0.1m was about 31% in the clay and 22% in the sandy loam. Compared with shoots on plants in the amended clay, those in the unamended treatment showed reduced extension growth, little increase in stem basal area (SBA) and a small shoot leaf area, resulting from a reduced number of leaves shoot(-1) and a small average area leaf(-1). Water stress also reduced shoot extension growth, SBA gain and the leaf area on extension growth. Shoot growth rates were significantly correlated with air temperature and base temperatures between 2.0 and 7.6 degrees C were indicated for the different treatments. These studies have helped to explain some of the large treatment effects described previously on biomass production and plant leaf area.

  9. Pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Col., Scolytidae), responses to commn green leaf volatiles

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that green leaf volatiles (GLVs) disrupt the response of overwintered pine shoot beetles, Tomicus piniperda (L.) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the attractive host volatile -pinene. A combination of four GLV alcohols, 1-hexanol (E)-2-hexen-l-ol (Z)-2-hexen-l-ol, and (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol...

  10. Height-related trends in leaf xylem anatomy and shoot hydraulic characteristics in a tall conifer: safety versus efficiency in water transport.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, D R; Meinzer, F C; Lachenbruch, B

    2008-01-01

    Hydraulic vulnerability of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) branchlets decreases with height, allowing shoots at greater height to maintain hydraulic conductance (K shoot) at more negative leaf water potentials (Psi l). To determine the basis for this trend shoot hydraulic and tracheid anatomical properties of foliage from the tops of Douglas-fir trees were analysed along a height gradient from 5 to 55 m. Values of Psi l at which K shoot was substantially reduced, declined with height by 0.012 Mpa m(-1). Maximum K shoot was reduced by 0.082 mmol m(-2) MPa(-1) s(-1) for every 1 m increase in height. Total tracheid lumen area per needle cross-section, hydraulic mean diameter of leaf tracheid lumens, total number of tracheids per needle cross-section and leaf tracheid length decreased with height by 18.4 microm(2) m(-1), 0.029 microm m(-1), 0.42 m(-1) and 5.3 microm m(-1), respectively. Tracheid thickness-to-span ratio (tw/b)2 increased with height by 1.04 x 10(-3) m(-1) and pit number per tracheid decreased with height by 0.07 m(-1). Leaf anatomical adjustments that enhanced the ability to cope with vertical gradients of increasing xylem tension were attained at the expense of reduced water transport capacity and efficiency, possibly contributing to height-related decline in growth of Douglas fir.

  11. Dependency of branch diameter growth in young Acer trees on light availability and shoot elongation.

    PubMed

    Sone, Kosei; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Many biomechanical and theoretical studies have been based on the pipe-model theory, according to which a tree is regarded as an assemblage of pipes, each having the same amount of leaf area or leaf mass. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the theory have not been extensively examined, particularly at the branch level. We analyzed how branches and trunks thickened in nine young Acer mono Maxim. var. marmoratum (Nichols) Hara f. dissectum (Wesmael) Rehder. and A. rufinerve (Siebold & Zucc.) trees. In particular, we examined the roles of light, allocation of photosynthates and shoot heterogeneity. The cross-sectional area (A) of a branch was proportional to cumulative leaf mass or leaf area of the branch, and cumulative cross-sectional area of the daughter branches (SigmaA) above a branching point was equal to the A of the mother branch. These results indicate the validity of the pipe-model theory. However, the theory was invalid for current-year growth of branch cross-sectional area (DeltaA). The DeltaA/SigmaDeltaA for a branching point was greatest (nearly equal to 1) at the crown surface, decreased with crown depth, and tended to increase again at the trunk base, and DeltaA strongly depended on light interception and the yearly increment of leaves on the branch. We examined factors that influenced DeltaA with multiple regression analysis. The ratio of DeltaA of a branch to branch leaf area depended on both relative irradiance and mean current-year shoot length of the branch, suggesting that diameter growth of a branch is determined by the balance between supply of photosynthates, which depends on light interception by the branch, and demand for photosynthates, which is created by the high cambial activity associated with vigorous shoot elongation.

  12. Effect of acid mist and air pollutants on yellow-poplar seedling height and leaf growth

    Treesearch

    Leon S. Dochinger; Keith F. Jensen; Keith F. Jensen

    1985-01-01

    One-year-old yellow-poplar seedlings were treated with acid mist at pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 either alone or in combination with 0.1 ppm 03, S02, and NO2 or NO2 plus S02. After 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, height, leaf area, and leaf and new shoot weight were determined and growth analysis variables calculated. Height, leaf area, and dry weight decreased with...

  13. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, L. J.; Franklin, K. A.; Homer, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Plants display a range of striking architectural adaptations when grown at elevated temperatures. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, these include elongation of petioles, and increased petiole and leaf angles from the soil surface. The potential physiological significance of these architectural changes remains speculative. We address this issue computationally by formulating a mathematical model and performing numerical simulations, testing the hypothesis that elongated and elevated plant configurations may reflect a leaf-cooling strategy. This sets in place a new basic model of plant water use and interaction with the surrounding air, which couples heat and mass transfer within a plant to water vapour diffusion in the air, using a transpiration term that depends on saturation, temperature and vapour concentration. A two-dimensional, multi-petiole shoot geometry is considered, with added leaf-blade shape detail. Our simulations show that increased petiole length and angle generally result in enhanced transpiration rates and reduced leaf temperatures in well-watered conditions. Furthermore, our computations also reveal plant configurations for which elongation may result in decreased transpiration rate owing to decreased leaf liquid saturation. We offer further qualitative and quantitative insights into the role of architectural parameters as key determinants of leaf-cooling capacity. PMID:23720538

  14. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Hormone Distribution and Transcriptome Profiles in Bamboo Shoots Provide Insights on Bamboo Stem Emergence and Growth.

    PubMed

    Gamuyao, Rico; Nagai, Keisuke; Ayano, Madoka; Mori, Yoshinao; Minami, Anzu; Kojima, Mikiko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Reuscher, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Growth and development are tightly co-ordinated events in the lifetime of living organisms. In temperate bamboo plants, spring is the season when environmental conditions are suitable for the emergence of new shoots. Previous studies demonstrated that bamboo plants undergo an energy-consuming 'fast stem growth' phase. However, the events during the initiation of stem elongation in bamboo are poorly understood. To understand the onset of bamboo stem growth, we performed hormone and transcriptome profiling of tissue regions in newly elongating shoots of the Moso bamboo Phyllostachys edulis. The growth hormones auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins accumulated in the shoot apex, while the stress hormones ABA, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are predominantly found in the lower part of the stem. The mature basal part of the stem showed enrichment of transcripts associated with cell wall metabolism and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites, such as lignin. In the young upper stem region, expression of cell formation- and DNA synthesis-related genes was enriched. Moreover, the apical region showed enhanced expression of genes involved in meristem maintenance, leaf differentiation and development, abaxial/adaxial polarity and flowering. Our findings integrate the spatial regulation of hormones and transcriptome programs during the initiation of bamboo stem growth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-10-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, alpha-tocopherol and F(v)/F(m) ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of alpha-tocopherol (up to 2.7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants.

  17. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Methods Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, α-tocopherol and Fv/Fm ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Key Results Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of α-tocopherol (up to 2·7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. Conclusions It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants. PMID:19633309

  18. Growth and carbon balance are differently regulated by tree and shoot fruiting contexts: an integrative study on apple genotypes with contrasted bearing patterns.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Benoît; Bluy, Sylvie; Ngao, Jérôme; Martinez, Sébastien; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Costes, Evelyne

    2018-01-09

    In plants, carbon source-sink relationships are assumed to affect their reproductive effort. In fruit trees, carbon source-sink relationships are likely to be involved in their fruiting behavior. In apple, a large variability in fruiting behaviors exists, from regular to biennial, which has been related to the within-tree synchronization vs desynchronization of floral induction in buds. In this study, we analyzed if carbon assimilation, availability and fluxes as well as shoot growth differ in apple genotypes with contrasted behaviors. Another aim was to determine the scale of plant organization at which growth and carbon balance are regulated. The study was carried out on 16 genotypes belonging to three classes: (i) biennial, (ii) regular with a high production of floral buds every year and (iii) regular, displaying desynchronized bud fates in each year. Three shoot categories, vegetative and reproductive shoots with or without fruits, were included. This study shows that shoot growth and carbon balance are differentially regulated by tree and shoot fruiting contexts. Shoot growth was determined by the shoot fruiting context, or by the type of shoot itself, since vegetative shoots were always longer than reproductive shoots whatever the tree crop load. Leaf photosynthesis depended on the tree crop load only, irrespective of the shoot category or the genotypic class. Starch content was also strongly affected by the tree crop load with some adjustments of the carbon balance among shoots since starch content was lower, at least at some dates, in shoots with fruits compared with the shoots without fruits within the same trees. Finally, the genotypic differences in terms of shoot carbon balance partly matched with genotypic bearing patterns. Nevertheless, carbon content in buds and the role of gibberellins produced by seeds as well as the distances at which they could affect floral induction should be further analyzed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford

  19. Effect of adenine sulphate interaction on growth and development of shoot regeneration and inhibition of shoot tip necrosis under in vitro condition in adult Syzygium cumini L.--a multipurpose tree.

    PubMed

    Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS + BA (10 μM) + GA3 (2.5 μM). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 μM). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate.

  20. Low light and low ammonium are key factors for guayule leaf tissue shoot organogenesis and transformation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Niu; Montanez, Belen; Creelman, Robert A; Cornish, Katrina

    2006-02-01

    A new method has been developed for guayule tissue culture and transformation. Guayule leaf explants have a poor survival rate when placed on normal MS medium and under normal culture room light conditions. Low light and low ammonium treatment greatly improved shoot organogenesis and transformation from leaf tissues. Using this method, a 35S promoter driven BAR gene and an ubiquitin-3 promoter driven GUS gene (with intron) have been successfully introduced into guayule. These transgenic guayule plants were resistant to the herbicide ammonium-glufosinate and were positive to GUS staining. Molecular analysis showed the expected band and signal in all GUS positive transformants. The transformation efficiency with glufosinate selection ranged from 3 to 6%. Transformation with a pBIN19-based plasmid containing a NPTII gene and then selection with kanamycin also works well using this method. The ratio of kanamycin-resistant calli to total starting explants reached 50% in some experiments.

  1. Nutrient and mineral composition during shoot growth in seven species of Phyllostachys and Pseudosasa bamboo consumed by giant panda.

    PubMed

    Christian, A L; Knott, K K; Vance, C K; Falcone, J F; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Willard, S; Kouba, A J

    2015-12-01

    During the annual period of bamboo shoot growth in spring, free-ranging giant pandas feed almost exclusively on the shoots while ignoring the leaves and full- height culm. Little is known about the nutritional changes that occur during bamboo shoot growth, if nutritional changes differ among species, or how these changes might influence forage selection. Our objective was to examine the nutrient and mineral composition during three phases of shoot growth (<60, 90-150 and >180 cm) for seven species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) aurea, P. aureosulcata, P. bissetii, P. glauca, P. nuda, P. rubromarginata, Pseudosasa japonica) fed to captive giant pandas at the Memphis Zoo. Total dietary fiber content of bamboo shoots increased (p < 0.0001) from an overall species average of 61% dry matter (DM) at < 60 cm to 75% DM at shoot heights > 180 cm, while crude protein, fat and ash exhibited significant declines (p < 0.05). Phyllostachys nuda had the overall greatest (p = 0.007) crude protein (21% DM) and fat (4% DM) content, and lowest overall total fibre (61% DM) content compared to the other species examined. In contrast, Pseudosasa japonica had the overall lowest crude protein and fat, and relatively higher fibre content (9%, 3% and 74% respectively). Concentrations of Zn and Fe were highest in shoots <60 cm (10-50 μg/g DM) and decreased (p < 0.05) during growth in all species examined. Concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mn, Na and K varied among species and were largely unaffected by growth stage. Due to their higher concentrations of nutrients and lower fibre content in comparison to culm and leaf, bamboo shoots should be a major component of captive giant panda diets when available. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Inhibition of tomato shoot growth by over-irrigation is linked to nitrogen deficiency and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Antje; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Although physiological effects of acute flooding have been well studied, chronic effects of suboptimal soil aeration caused by over-irrigation of containerized plants have not, despite its likely commercial significance. By automatically scheduling irrigation according to soil moisture thresholds, effects of over-irrigation on soil properties (oxygen concentration, temperature and moisture), leaf growth, gas exchange, phytohormone [abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene] relations and nutrient status of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Ailsa Craig) were studied. Over-irrigation slowly increased soil moisture and decreased soil oxygen concentration by 4%. Soil temperature was approximately 1°C lower in the over-irrigated substrate. Over-irrigating tomato plants for 2 weeks significantly reduced shoot height (by 25%) and fresh weight and total leaf area (by 60-70%) compared with well-drained plants. Over-irrigation did not alter stomatal conductance, leaf water potential or foliar ABA concentrations, suggesting that growth inhibition was not hydraulically regulated or dependent on stomatal closure or changes in ABA. However, over-irrigation significantly increased foliar ethylene emission. Ethylene seemed to inhibit growth, as the partially ethylene-insensitive genotype Never ripe (Nr) was much less sensitive to over-irrigation than the wild type. Over-irrigation induced significant foliar nitrogen deficiency and daily supplementation of small volumes of 10 mM Ca(NO3 )2 to over-irrigated soil restored foliar nitrogen concentrations, ethylene emission and shoot fresh weight of over-irrigated plants to control levels. Thus reduced nitrogen uptake plays an important role in inhibiting growth of over-irrigated plants, in part by stimulating foliar ethylene emission. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Effect of irrigation on needle morphology, shoot and stem growth in a drought-exposed Pinus sylvestris forest.

    PubMed

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Eilmann, Britta; Bleuler, Peter; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Landolt, Werner; Schleppi, Patrick; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    In Valais, Switzerland, Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) are declining, mainly following drought. To assess the impact of drought on tree growth and survival, an irrigation experiment was initiated in 2003 in a mature pine forest, approximately doubling the annual precipitation. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Seven irrigated and six control trees were felled in 2006, and needles, stem discs and branches were taken for growth analysis. Irrigation in 2004 and 2005, both with below-average precipitation, increased needle size, area and mass, stem growth and, with a 1-year delay, shoot length. This led to a relative decrease in tree crown transparency (-14%) and to an increase in stand LAI (+20%). Irrigation increased needle length by 70%, shoot length by 100% and ring width by 120%, regardless of crown transparency. Crown transparency correlated positively with mean needle size, shoot length and ring width and negatively with specific leaf area. Trees with high crown transparency (low growth, short needles) experienced similar increases in needle mass and growth with irrigation than trees with low transparency (high growth, long needles), indicating that seemingly declining trees were able to 'recover' when water supply became sufficient. A simple drought index before and during the irrigation explained most of the variation found in the parameters for both irrigated and control trees.

  4. The control of apical dominance: localization of the growth region of the Pharbitis nil shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The growing region of the upright Pharbitis nil shoot extends over a distance 13 cm basipetal to the shoot apex. When the shoot is inverted, ethylene production in this region is greatly enhanced whereas stem elongation is significantly inhibited. This growth region is ethylene-sensitive and the restriction of its growth by shoot inversion-induced ethylene may mediate the release of apical dominance.

  5. Importance of the method of leaf area measurement to the interpretation of gas exchange of complex shoots

    Treesearch

    W. K. Smith; A. W. Schoettle; M. Cui

    1991-01-01

    Net CO(2) uptake in full sunlight, total leaf area (TLA), projected leaf area of detached leaves (PLA), and the silhouette area of attached leaves in their natural orientation to the sun at midday on June 1 (SLA) were measured for sun shoots of six conifer species. Among species, TLA/SLA ranged between 5.2 and 10.0 (x bar = 7.3), TLA/PLA ranged between 2.5 and 2.9 (x...

  6. Continuous intensity map optimization (CIMO): A novel approach to leaf sequencing in step and shoot IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Daliang; Earl, Matthew A.; Luan, Shuang

    2006-04-15

    A new leaf-sequencing approach has been developed that is designed to reduce the number of required beam segments for step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This approach to leaf sequencing is called continuous-intensity-map-optimization (CIMO). Using a simulated annealing algorithm, CIMO seeks to minimize differences between the optimized and sequenced intensity maps. Two distinguishing features of the CIMO algorithm are (1) CIMO does not require that each optimized intensity map be clustered into discrete levels and (2) CIMO is not rule-based but rather simultaneously optimizes both the aperture shapes and weights. To test the CIMO algorithm, ten IMRT patient cases weremore » selected (four head-and-neck, two pancreas, two prostate, one brain, and one pelvis). For each case, the optimized intensity maps were extracted from the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. The CIMO algorithm was applied, and the optimized aperture shapes and weights were loaded back into Pinnacle. A final dose calculation was performed using Pinnacle's convolution/superposition based dose calculation. On average, the CIMO algorithm provided a 54% reduction in the number of beam segments as compared with Pinnacle's leaf sequencer. The plans sequenced using the CIMO algorithm also provided improved target dose uniformity and a reduced discrepancy between the optimized and sequenced intensity maps. For ten clinical intensity maps, comparisons were performed between the CIMO algorithm and the power-of-two reduction algorithm of Xia and Verhey [Med. Phys. 25(8), 1424-1434 (1998)]. When the constraints of a Varian Millennium multileaf collimator were applied, the CIMO algorithm resulted in a 26% reduction in the number of segments. For an Elekta multileaf collimator, the CIMO algorithm resulted in a 67% reduction in the number of segments. An average leaf sequencing time of less than one minute per beam was observed.« less

  7. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L).

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C; Liu, Zongrang; Scorza, Ralph

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with the apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KNOX1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a medium lacking cytokinin. Ectopic expression of KNOX genes retarded shoot growth by suppressing elongation of internodes in transgenic tobacco plants. Expression of each of the three KNOX1 genes induced malformation and extensive lobbing in tobacco leaves. In situ regeneration of adventitious shoots was observed from leaves and roots of transgenic tobacco plants expressing each of the three KNOX genes. In vitro culture of leaf explants and internode sections excised from in vitro grown MdKN1 expressing tobacco shoots regenerated adventitious shoots on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) basal medium in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Transgenic plum plants that expressed the MdKN2 or corn KNOX1 gene grew normally but MdKN1 caused a significant reduction in plant height, leaf shape and size and produced malformed curly leaves. A high frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration (96%) was observed in cultures of leaf explants excised from corn KNOX1-expressing transgenic plum shoots. In contrast to KNOX1-expressing tobacco, leaf and internode explants of corn KNOX1-expressing plum required synthetic cytokinin (thidiazuron) in the culture medium to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The induction of high-frequency regeneration of adventitious shoots in vitro from leaves and stem internodal sections of plum through the ectopic expression of a KNOX1 gene is the first such report for a woody perennial fruit trees.

  8. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  9. Modeling aspen and red pine shoot growth to daily weather variations.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1983-01-01

    Quantifies daily shoot growth of quaking aspen and red pine in response to daily variation in air temperature, soil moisture, solar radiation, evapotranspiration, and inherent seasonal plant growth rhythm. Discusses potential application of shoot growth equations to silvicultural problems related to microclimatic variation. Identifies limitations and areas for...

  10. Ontogenetic patterns of CO sub 2 exchange of Quercus rubra L. leaves during three flushes of shoot growth I. median flush leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Isebrands, J.G.; Dickson, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Oak (Quercus) seedlings exhibit a pattern of shoot growth known to place demands on carbohydrate and nutrient reserves. This study was designed to determine ontogenetic patterns in CO{sub 2} exchanges properties of red oak leaves, and to determine if individual leaf CO{sub 2} exchange rates (CER) increase in response to the assimilate demand placed on a seedling during flushing. Northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) seedlings were grown in environments favorable for multiple flushes of shoot growth. Measurements of CER on single, attached, median leaves from each flush were made over a range of photosynthetic photon flux densities on plantsmore » at nine stages of seedling development through three flushes of growth. Carbon dioxide exchange rate of red oak leaves increased during leaf development up to and beyond full leaf expansion before decreasing an unusual pattern of photosynthesis during leaf ontogeny. Furthermore, first- and second-flush leaf CER initially decreased and then increased in conjunction with the third flush of shoot growth. These patterns indicate that red oak leaves have a capacity for CER adjustment in response to increase sink demand.« less

  11. From shoot to leaf: step-wise shifts in meristem and KNOX1 activity correlate with the evolution of a unifoliate body plan in Gesneriaceae.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Kanae; Huang, Bing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Neng; Möller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM. To investigate the origin and evolution of the BM and one-leaf plants, the meristem activity and KNOX1 SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) expression in cotyledons and leaves were systematically studied by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization across the family Gesneriaceae, Jovellana in Calceolariaceae (sister family to Gesneriaceae), and Antirrhinum in Plantaginaceae, all families of order Lamiales (asterids), in comparison to Arabidopsis (Brassicales, rosids). In all examined Lamiales samples, unlike Arabidopsis, BM activity accompanied by STM expression was found in both cotyledons in early stages. Foliage leaves of Gesneriaceae and Jovellana also showed the correlation of BM and STM expression. An extension of BM activity was found following a phylogenetic trajectory towards one-leaf plants where it is active throughout the lifetime of the macrocotyledon. Our results suggest that KNOX1 involvement in early cotyledon expansion originated early on in the diversification of Lamiales and is proposed as the prerequisite for the evolution of vegetative diversity in Gesneriaceae. Step-wise morphological shifts, driven by transfers of meristematic activity, as evidenced by shifts in KNOX1 expression, may be one mechanism by which morphological diversity evolves in plants.

  12. Effects of Fertilization on Shoot Growth of Defoliated and Undefoliated Red Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Johnson Parker

    1978-01-01

    Fertilization of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings increased their terminal shoot growth. Dry, liquid, and liquid + dry fertilizer was applied to groups of undefoliated, once-defoliated, and twice-defoliated seedlings. Terminal shoot growth was measured after the first and second growing season and compared to that of a similar group of...

  13. The influence of treeshelters and irrigation on shoot and root growth of three California oak species

    Treesearch

    Douglas McCreary; Laurence R. Costello; Jerry Tecklin; Katherine Jones; David Labadie

    2002-01-01

    Treeshelters are individual seedling protectors that can accelerate height growth of native California oaks. There is concern, however, that this growth may occur at the expense of the roots, resulting in poor long-term field performance. This study could detect no differences between protected and unprotected seedlings in shoot weight, root weight or shoot/root ratios...

  14. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  15. Influence of four nematodes on root and shoot growth parameters in grape.

    PubMed

    Anwar, S A; Van Gundy, S D

    1989-04-01

    Two grape cultivars, susceptible French Colombard and tolerant Rubired, and four nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Xiphinema index, were used to quantify the equilibrium between root (R) and shoot (S) growth. Root and shoot growth of French Colombard was retarded by M. incognita, P. vulnus, and X. index but not by T. semipenetrans. Although the root growth of Rubired was limited by all the nematodes, the shoot growth was limited only by X. index. The R:S ratios of Rubired were higher than those of French Colombard. The reduced R:S ratios of Rubired were primarily an expression of reduction in root systems without an equal reduction in shoot growth, whereas in French Colombard the reduced R:S ratios were due to a reduction in both shoot growth and root growth and to a greater reduction in root growth than shoot growth. All nematodes reproduced equally well on both cultivars. Both foliage and root growth of French Colombard were significantly reduced by M. incognita and P. vulnus. Nematodes reduced the shoot length by reducing the internode length. Accumulative R:S ratios in inoculated plants were significantly smaller than those in controls in all nematode treatments but not at individual harvest dates. Bud break was delayed by X. index and was initiated earlier by P. vulnus and M. incognita. All buds in nematode treatments were less vigorous than in controls.

  16. Aberrant temporal growth pattern and morphology of root and shoot caused by a defective circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ruts, Tom; Matsubara, Shizue; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Walter, Achim

    2012-10-01

    Circadian clocks synchronized with the environment allow plants to anticipate recurring daily changes and give a fitness advantage. Here, we mapped the dynamic growth phenotype of leaves and roots in two lines of Arabidopsis thaliana with a disrupted circadian clock: the CCA1 over-expressing line (CCA1ox) and the prr9 prr7 prr5 (prr975) mutant. We demonstrate leaf growth defects due to a disrupted circadian clock over a 24 h time scale. Both lines showed enhanced leaf growth compared with the wild-type during the diurnal period, suggesting increased partitioning of photosynthates for leaf growth. Nocturnal leaf growth was reduced and growth inhibition occurred by dawn, which may be explained by ineffective starch degradation in the leaves of the mutants. However, this growth inhibition was not caused by starch exhaustion. Overall, these results are consistent with the notion that the defective clock affects carbon and energy allocation, thereby reducing growth capacity during the night. Furthermore, rosette morphology and size as well as root architecture were strikingly altered by the defective clock control. Separate analysis of the primary root and lateral roots revealed strong suppression of lateral root formation in both CCA1ox and prr975, accompanied by unusual changes in lateral root growth direction under light-dark cycles and increased lateral extension of the root system. We conclude that growth of the whole plant is severely affected by improper clock regulation in A. thaliana, resulting not only in altered timing and capacity for growth but also aberrant development of shoot and root architecture. © 2012 Forschungszentrum Jülich. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Effect of activated charcoal on callus growth and shoot organogenesis in tobacco. [Nicotiana tabacum

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.J.; Henke, R.R.; Mansur, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Incorporating activated charcoal (AC) in culture media has been shown to affect growth and development of various organisms. Since AC stimulates the development of tobacco haploid plantlets from cultured anthers, research was conducted to determine the effect of activated charcoal on pith-derived callus growth and shoot development in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38. Our results indicate that the hormones required for callus growth and shoot development in Wisconsin-38 tobacco are adsorbed by AC, thereby inhibiting callus growth and prohibiting shoot development. This effect was observed even when AC was removed from the medium by filtration prior to culturing the callus.

  18. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis)

    PubMed Central

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D.; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on ‘Nonpareil’ almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. Methods A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Key Results Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Conclusions Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate

  19. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  20. Rapid determination of leaf area and plant height by using light curtain arrays in four species with contrasting shoot architecture.

    PubMed

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Briese, Christoph; Max, Johannes Fj; Kleinen, Silke; Putz, Alexander; Fiorani, Fabio; Ulbrich, Andreas; Schurr, Ulrich

    2014-04-11

    Light curtain arrays (LC), a recently introduced phenotyping method, yield a binary data matrix from which a shoot silhouette is reconstructed. We addressed the accuracy and applicability of LC in assessing leaf area and maximum height (base to the highest leaf tip) in a phenotyping platform. LC were integrated to an automated routine for positioning, allowing in situ measurements. Two dicotyledonous (rapeseed, tomato) and two monocotyledonous (maize, barley) species with contrasting shoot architecture were investigated. To evaluate if averaging multiple view angles helps in resolving self-overlaps, we acquired a data set by rotating plants every 10° for 170°. To test how rapid these measurements can be without loss of information, we evaluated nine scanning speeds. Leaf area of overlapping plants was also estimated to assess the possibility to scale this method for plant stands. The relation between measured and calculated maximum height was linear and nearly the same for all species. Linear relations were also found between plant leaf area and calculated pixel area. However, the regression slope was different between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Increasing the scanning speed stepwise from 0.9 to 23.4 m s-1 did not affect the estimation of maximum height. Instead, the calculated pixel area was inversely proportional to scanning speed. The estimation of plant leaf area by means of calculated pixel area became more accurate by averaging consecutive silhouettes and/or increasing the angle between them. Simulations showed that decreasing plant distance gradually from 20 to 0 cm, led to underestimation of plant leaf area owing to overlaps. This underestimation was more important for large plants of dicotyledonous species and for small plants of monocotyledonous ones. LC offer an accurate estimation of plant leaf area and maximum height, while the number of consecutive silhouettes that needs to be averaged is species-dependent. A constant scanning

  1. Rapid determination of leaf area and plant height by using light curtain arrays in four species with contrasting shoot architecture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Light curtain arrays (LC), a recently introduced phenotyping method, yield a binary data matrix from which a shoot silhouette is reconstructed. We addressed the accuracy and applicability of LC in assessing leaf area and maximum height (base to the highest leaf tip) in a phenotyping platform. LC were integrated to an automated routine for positioning, allowing in situ measurements. Two dicotyledonous (rapeseed, tomato) and two monocotyledonous (maize, barley) species with contrasting shoot architecture were investigated. To evaluate if averaging multiple view angles helps in resolving self-overlaps, we acquired a data set by rotating plants every 10° for 170°. To test how rapid these measurements can be without loss of information, we evaluated nine scanning speeds. Leaf area of overlapping plants was also estimated to assess the possibility to scale this method for plant stands. Results The relation between measured and calculated maximum height was linear and nearly the same for all species. Linear relations were also found between plant leaf area and calculated pixel area. However, the regression slope was different between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. Increasing the scanning speed stepwise from 0.9 to 23.4 m s−1 did not affect the estimation of maximum height. Instead, the calculated pixel area was inversely proportional to scanning speed. The estimation of plant leaf area by means of calculated pixel area became more accurate by averaging consecutive silhouettes and/or increasing the angle between them. Simulations showed that decreasing plant distance gradually from 20 to 0 cm, led to underestimation of plant leaf area owing to overlaps. This underestimation was more important for large plants of dicotyledonous species and for small plants of monocotyledonous ones. Conclusions LC offer an accurate estimation of plant leaf area and maximum height, while the number of consecutive silhouettes that needs to be averaged is species

  2. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids

    PubMed Central

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  3. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework.

  4. Growth and branching habit of rooted cuttings collected from epicormic shoots of Betula pendula Roth.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A D; Sani, H

    1994-04-01

    Patterns of shoot growth and branching were studied over two growing seasons in rooted cuttings collected from both epicormic shoots and seedlings of Betula pendula Roth. Epicormic shoots were induced to sprout on stumps and small logs of 5-, 10- and 30-year-old trees. The use of epicormic shoots enhanced the rooting capacity of stem cuttings collected from these shoots but did not appear to reverse the process of maturation. In this study, maturation was based on characteristics typical of mature trees but not necessarily those of the mother plant, because it was not possible to root cuttings, for comparison, from 5-, 10- and 30-year-old ortets, other than from epicormic shoots. There was evidence of the persistence of mature characteristics through an increase in shoot plagiotropism with increasing ortet age. Rooted cuttings from both seedlings and epicormic shoots, however, assumed an increasingly orthotropic habit with a smaller shoot angle at the end of the first growing season than at the beginning and this continued into the second growing season. Other indications of maturation, such as delayed bud flushing and the incidence of flowering with increasing ortet age, were also evident in rooted cuttings from epicormic shoots. There was a clear difference in branching habit depending on cutting source. Rooted cuttings derived from epicormic shoots produced nearly twice as many lateral branches compared with rooted cuttings collected from seedlings, but this was not an effect of maturation. There was some evidence that rooted cuttings derived from seedlings grew taller than rooted cuttings from epicormic shoots.

  5. Induction of multiple shoots from leaf segments, in vitro-flowering and fruiting of a dwarf tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Rao, Kokkirala Venugopal; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Pavan, Umate; Sree, Telakalapalli Jaya; Rao, Alleni V; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2005-08-01

    Multiple shoots were induced from leaf explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar MicroTom, within 20-25d, on MS medium supplemented with 8.9 microM benzylaminopurine (BAP)+1.14 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). For rooting, elongated microshoots were excised and transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 4.9 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Well-developed roots and flower raceme were obtained on d 7 and 13, respectively, upon transfer of the microshoots onto rooting medium. The flowers self-fertilized in vitro and produced mature fruits in additional 15-17d of culture.

  6. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Episodic growth and relative shoot:root balance in loblolly pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    A.P. Drew; F. Thomas Ledig

    1980-01-01

    Leaf, root and stem systems of loblolly pine seedlings are characterized by a seasonal periodicity in growth, during which they alternate in spurts of activity. Despite this periodicity, the allometric coefficient describing the ratio of the relative growth rates of leaf to root remains constant for at least the first two years of development. In part, constancy...

  8. Targeted manipulation of leaf form via local growth repression.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Robert; Kasprzewska, Ania; Fleming, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    A classical view is that leaf shape is the result of local promotion of growth linked to cell proliferation. However, an alternative hypothesis is that leaf form is the result of local repression of growth in an otherwise growing system. Here we show that leaf form can indeed be manipulated in a directed fashion by local repression of growth. We show that targeting expression of an inhibitor of a cyclin-dependent kinase (KRP1) to the sinus area of developing leaves of Arabidopsis leads to local growth repression and the formation of organs with extreme lobing, including generation of leaflet-like organs. Directing KRP1 expression to other regions of the leaf using an miRNA target sequence tagging approach also leads to predictable novel leaf forms, and repression of growth in the leaf margin blocks the outgrowth of lobes, leading to a smoother perimeter. In addition, we show that decreased growth around the perimeter and across the leaf abaxial surface leads to a change in 3D form, as predicted by mechanical models of leaf growth. Our analysis provides experimental evidence that local repression of growth influences leaf shape, suggesting that it could be part of the mechanism of morphogenesis in plants in the context of an otherwise growing system. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Adaptive shoot and root responses collectively enhance growth at optimum temperature and limited phosphorus supply of three herbaceous legume species.

    PubMed

    Suriyagoda, Lalith D B; Ryan, Megan H; Renton, Michael; Lambers, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Studies on the effects of sub- and/or supraoptimal temperatures on growth and phosphorus (P) nutrition of perennial herbaceous species at growth-limiting P availability are few, and the impacts of temperature on rhizosphere carboxylate dynamics are not known for any species. The effect of three day/night temperature regimes (low, 20/13 °C; medium, 27/20 °C; and high, 32/25 °C) on growth and P nutrition of Cullen cinereum, Kennedia nigricans and Lotus australis was determined. The highest temperature was optimal for growth of C. cinereum, while the lowest temperature was optimal for K. nigricans and L. australis. At optimum temperatures, the relative growth rate (RGR), root length, root length per leaf area, total P content, P productivity and water-use efficiency were higher for all species, and rhizosphere carboxylate content was higher for K. nigricans and L. australis. Cullen cinereum, with a slower RGR, had long (higher root length per leaf area) and thin roots to enhance P uptake by exploring a greater volume of soil at its optimum temperature, while K. nigricans and L. australis, with faster RGRs, had only long roots (higher root length per leaf area) as a morphological adaptation, but had a higher content of carboxylates in their rhizospheres at the optimum temperature. Irrespective of the species, the amount of P taken up by a plant was mainly determined by root length, rather than by P uptake rate per unit root surface area. Phosphorus productivity was correlated with RGR and plant biomass. All three species exhibited adaptive shoot and root traits to enhance growth at their optimum temperatures at growth-limiting P supply. The species with a slower RGR (i.e. C. cinereum) showed only morphological root adaptations, while K. nigricans and L. australis, with faster RGRs, had both morphological and physiological (i.e. root carboxylate dynamics) root adaptations.

  10. Combining Enhanced Root and Shoot Growth Reveals Cross Talk between Pathways That Control Plant Organ Size in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vercruyssen, Liesbeth; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Werner, Tomáš; Schmülling, Thomas; Inzé, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Functionally distinct Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes that positively affect root or shoot growth when ectopically expressed were combined to explore the feasibility of enhanced biomass production. Enhanced root growth resulting from cytokinin deficiency was obtained by overexpressing CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 (CKX3) under the control of the root-specific PYK10 promoter. Plants harboring the PYK10-CKX3 construct were crossed with four different transgenic lines showing enhanced leaf growth. For all combinations, the phenotypic traits of the individual lines could be combined, resulting in an overall growth increase. Unexpectedly, three out of four combinations had more than additive effects. Both leaf and root growth were synergistically enhanced in plants ectopically expressing CKX3 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1, indicating cross talk between cytokinins and brassinosteroids. In agreement, treatment of PYK10-CKX3 plants with brassinolide resulted in a dramatic increase in lateral root growth that could not be observed in wild-type plants. Coexpression of CKX3 and the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 (GRF5) antagonized the effects of GRF5 overexpression, revealing an interplay between cytokinins and GRF5 during leaf cell proliferation. The combined overexpression of CKX3 and GIBBERELLIN 20-OXIDASE1 led to a synergistic increase in leaf growth, suggesting an antagonistic growth control by cytokinins and gibberellins. Only additive effects on root and shoot growth were visible in plants ectopically expressing both CKX3 and ARABIDOPSIS VACUOLAR PYROPHOSPHATASE1, hinting at an independent action mode. Our results show new interactions and contribute to the molecular and physiological understanding of biomass production at the whole plant level. PMID:21205622

  11. Coming of leaf age: control of growth by hydraulics and metabolics during leaf ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Pantin, Florent; Simonneau, Thierry; Muller, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Leaf growth is the central process facilitating energy capture and plant performance. This is also one of the most sensitive processes to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Because hydraulics and metabolics are two major determinants of expansive growth (volumetric increase) and structural growth (dry matter increase), we review the interaction nodes between water and carbon. We detail the crosstalks between water and carbon transports, including the dual role of stomata and aquaporins in regulating water and carbon fluxes, the coupling between phloem and xylem, the interactions between leaf water relations and photosynthetic capacity, the links between Lockhart's hydromechanical model and carbon metabolism, and the central regulatory role of abscisic acid. Then, we argue that during leaf ontogeny, these interactions change dramatically because of uncoupled modifications between several anatomical and physiological features of the leaf. We conclude that the control of leaf growth switches from a metabolic to a hydromechanical limitation during the course of leaf ontogeny. Finally, we illustrate how taking leaf ontogeny into account provides insights into the mechanisms underlying leaf growth responses to abiotic stresses that affect water and carbon relations, such as elevated CO2, low light, high temperature and drought. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Root-shoot growth responses during interspecific competition quantified using allometric modelling.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David; Davidson, Hazel; Trinder, Clare; Brooker, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Plant competition studies are restricted by the difficulty of quantifying root systems of competitors. Analyses are usually limited to above-ground traits. Here, a new approach to address this issue is reported. Root system weights of competing plants can be estimated from: shoot weights of competitors; combined root weights of competitors; and slopes (scaling exponents, α) and intercepts (allometric coefficients, β) of ln-regressions of root weight on shoot weight of isolated plants. If competition induces no change in root : shoot growth, α and β values of competing and isolated plants will be equal. Measured combined root weight of competitors will equal that estimated allometrically from measured shoot weights of each competing plant. Combined root weights can be partitioned directly among competitors. If, as will be more usual, competition changes relative root and shoot growth, the competitors' combined root weight will not equal that estimated allometrically and cannot be partitioned directly. However, if the isolated-plant α and β values are adjusted until the estimated combined root weight of competitors matches the measured combined root weight, the latter can be partitioned among competitors using their new α and β values. The approach is illustrated using two herbaceous species, Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata. Allometric modelling revealed a large and continuous increase in the root : shoot ratio by Dactylis, but not Plantago, during competition. This was associated with a superior whole-plant dry weight increase in Dactylis, which was ultimately 2·5-fold greater than that of Plantago. Whole-plant growth dominance of Dactylis over Plantago, as deduced from allometric modelling, occurred 14-24 d earlier than suggested by shoot data alone. Given reasonable assumptions, allometric modelling can analyse competitive interactions in any species mixture, and overcomes a long-standing problem in studies of competition.

  13. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Methods: The capabilities of callus, shoot, and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mg/L. Results: Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34±19.55)% and (70.40±14.14)% efficacy, respectively. IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction. A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA, respectively. Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant, with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture. Conclusions: Callus, roots, and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs. PMID:23825148

  14. A Novel Method of Supplying Nutrients Permits Predictable Shoot Growth and Root : Shoot Ratios of Pre-transplant Bedding Plants

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Duncan J.; Mckee, John M. T.; Fuller, Deborah P.; Burns, Ian G.; Mulholland, Barry J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Growth of bedding plants, in small peat plugs, relies on nutrients in the irrigation solution. The object of the study was to find a way of modifying the nutrient supply so that good-quality seedlings can be grown rapidly and yet have the high root : shoot ratios essential for efficient transplanting. Methods A new procedure was devised in which the concentrations of nutrients in the irrigation solution were modified during growth according to changing plant demand, instead of maintaining the same concentrations throughout growth. The new procedure depends on published algorithms for the dependence of growth rate and optimal plant nutrient concentrations on shoot dry weight Ws (g m−2), and on measuring evapotranspiration rates and shoot dry weights at weekly intervals. Pansy, Viola tricola ‘Universal plus yellow’ and petunia, Petunia hybrida ‘Multiflora light salmon vein’ were grown in four independent experiments with the expected optimum nutrient concentration and fractions of the optimum. Root and shoot weights were measured during growth. Key Results For each level of nutrient supply Ws increased with time (t) in days, according to the equation ΔWs/Δt=K2Ws/(100+Ws) in which the growth rate coefficient (K2) remained approximately constant throughout growth. The value of K2 for the optimum treatment was defined by incoming radiation and temperature. The value of K2 for each sub-optimum treatment relative to that for the optimum treatment was logarithmically related to the sub-optimal nutrient supply. Provided the aerial environment was optimal, Rsb/Ro≈Wo/Wsb where R is the root : shoot ratio, W is the shoot dry weight, and sb and o indicate sub-optimum and optimum nutrient supplies, respectively. Sub-optimal nutrient concentrations also depressed shoot growth without appreciably affecting root growth when the aerial environment was non-limiting. Conclusion The new procedure can predict the effects of nutrient supply

  15. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) (a hard-to-root specie) leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non-saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation. PMID:26635821

  16. Evolutionary potential of root chemical defense: genetic correlations with shoot chemistry and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Parker, J D; Salminen, J-P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2012-08-01

    Root herbivores can affect plant fitness, and roots often contain the same secondary metabolites that act as defenses in shoots, but the ecology and evolution of root chemical defense have been little investigated. Here, we investigated genetic variance, heritability, and correlations among defensive phenolic compounds in shoot vs. root tissues of common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis. Across 20 genotypes, there were roughly similar concentrations of total phenolics in shoots vs. roots, but the allocation of particular phenolics to shoots vs. roots varied along a continuum of genotype growth rate. Slow-growing genotypes allocated 2-fold more of the potential pro-oxidant oenothein B to shoots than roots, whereas fast-growing genotypes had roughly equivalent above and belowground concentrations. Phenolic concentrations in both roots and shoots were strongly heritable, with mostly positive patterns of genetic covariation. Nonetheless, there was genotype-specific variation in the presence/absence of two major ellagitannins (oenothein A and its precursor oenothein B), indicating two different chemotypes based on alterations in this chemical pathway. Overall, the presence of strong genetic variation in root defenses suggests ample scope for the evolution of these compounds as defenses against root herbivores.

  17. Leaf expansion in Phaseolus: transient auxin-induced growth increase

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    Control of leaf expansion by auxin is not well understood. Evidence from short term exogenous applications and from treatment of excised tissues suggests auxin positively influences growth. Manipulations of endogenous leaf auxin content, however, suggests that, long-term, auxin suppresses leaf expansion. This study attempts to clarify the growth effects of auxin on unifoliate (primary) leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by reexamining the response to auxin treatment of both excised leaf strips and attached leaves. Leaf strips, incubated in culture conditions that promoted steady elongation for up to 48 h, treated with 10 μM NAA responded with an initial surge of elongation growth complete within 10 hours followed by insensitivity. A range of NAA concentrations from 0.1 μM to 300 μM induced increased strip elongation after 24 hours and 48 hours. Increased elongation and epinastic curvature of leaf strips was found specific to active auxins. Expanding attached unifoliates treated once with aqueous auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 1.0 mM showed both an initial surge in growth lasting 4–6 hours followed by growth inhibition sustained at least as long as 24 hours post treatment. Auxin-induced inhibition of leaf expansion was associated with smaller epidermal cell area. Together the results suggest increasing leaf auxin first increases growth then slows growth through inhibition of cell expansion. Excised leaf strips, retain only the initial increased growth response to auxin and not the subsequent growth inhibition, either as a consequence of wounding or of isolation from the plant. PMID:29200506

  18. NAC Transcription Factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH Regulates Flooding-Induced Leaf Movement in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Rauf, Mamoona; Arif, Muhammad; Fisahn, Joachim; Xue, Gang-Ping; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In rosette plants, root flooding (waterlogging) triggers rapid upward (hyponastic) leaf movement representing an important architectural stress response that critically determines plant performance in natural habitats. The directional growth is based on localized longitudinal cell expansion at the lower (abaxial) side of the leaf petiole and involves the volatile phytohormone ethylene (ET). We report the existence of a transcriptional core unit underlying directional petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, governed by the NAC transcription factor SPEEDY HYPONASTIC GROWTH (SHYG). Overexpression of SHYG in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances waterlogging-triggered hyponastic leaf movement and cell expansion in abaxial cells of the basal petiole region, while both responses are largely diminished in shyg knockout mutants. Expression of several EXPANSIN and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLYCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE genes encoding cell wall–loosening proteins was enhanced in SHYG overexpressors but lowered in shyg. We identified ACC OXIDASE5 (ACO5), encoding a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis, as a direct transcriptional output gene of SHYG and found a significantly reduced leaf movement in response to root flooding in aco5 T-DNA insertion mutants. Expression of SHYG in shoot tissue is triggered by root flooding and treatment with ET, constituting an intrinsic ET-SHYG-ACO5 activator loop for rapid petiole cell expansion upon waterlogging. PMID:24363315

  19. NAC transcription factor speedy hyponastic growth regulates flooding-induced leaf movement in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Mamoona; Arif, Muhammad; Fisahn, Joachim; Xue, Gang-Ping; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    In rosette plants, root flooding (waterlogging) triggers rapid upward (hyponastic) leaf movement representing an important architectural stress response that critically determines plant performance in natural habitats. The directional growth is based on localized longitudinal cell expansion at the lower (abaxial) side of the leaf petiole and involves the volatile phytohormone ethylene (ET). We report the existence of a transcriptional core unit underlying directional petiole growth in Arabidopsis thaliana, governed by the NAC transcription factor speedy hyponastic growth (SHYG). Overexpression of SHYG in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances waterlogging-triggered hyponastic leaf movement and cell expansion in abaxial cells of the basal petiole region, while both responses are largely diminished in shyg knockout mutants. Expression of several expansin and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase genes encoding cell wall-loosening proteins was enhanced in SHYG overexpressors but lowered in shyg. We identified ACC oxidase5 (ACO5), encoding a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis, as a direct transcriptional output gene of SHYG and found a significantly reduced leaf movement in response to root flooding in aco5 T-DNA insertion mutants. Expression of SHYG in shoot tissue is triggered by root flooding and treatment with ET, constituting an intrinsic ET-SHYG-ACO5 activator loop for rapid petiole cell expansion upon waterlogging.

  20. Shoot growth in aseptically cultivated daylily and haplopappus plantlets after a 5-day spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    Plantlets of daylily (Hemerocallis cv. Autumn Blaze) regenerated from cell suspensions, and 4 clonal populations of Haplopappus gracilis were aseptically cultivated aboard the Shuttle "Discovery" during a 5-day mission within NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) apparatus. Daylily was selected as a representative herbaceous perennial monocotyledon and the haplopappus clones represented an annual dicotyledon. The latter included 4 strains with different physiological and morphological characteristics: two aseptic seedling clones (each generated from a single seedling) and two tissue culture-derived lines. Mean daily growth rates for the primary shoots of all plantlets averaged 4.13 mm day-1 (SD = 2.20) for the flight experiment and 4.68 mm day-1 (SD = 2.59) for the ground control. Comparable growth rates calculated by summing both the primary and secondary shoots for all plantlets were 5.94 mm day-1 (SD = 2.89) for the flight experiment and 6.38 mm day-1 (SD = 3.71) for the control. Statistically significant differences existed between: (1) flight vs control primary shoot growth (the controls growing more than plantlets subjected to spaceflight conditions), (2) the different populations (the daylily gaining more shoot material than any of the haplopappus populations and the haplopappus seedling clones outperforming the tissue culture-derived haplopappus lines), and (3) the individual Plant Growth Chambers contained within the PGU. The data suggest that some spaceflight-associated factor(s) increased the tendency for primary shoot apices to degrade or senesce, resulting in the release of apical dominance and permitting the emergence of axillary branches, which subsequently partially compensated for the reduced primary axis growth. In addition to spaceflight-associated factors, the physiologically diverse nature of the experimental material as well as environmental heterogeneities within the culture apparatus contributed to the variation in growth results. The findings

  1. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Shoot-Root Interactions and Resource Partitioning in Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Feller, Chrystel; Favre, Patrick; Janka, Ales; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gabriel, Jean-Pierre; Reinhardt, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Plants are highly plastic in their potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. For example, they can selectively promote the relative growth of the root and the shoot in response to limiting supply of mineral nutrients and light, respectively, a phenomenon that is referred to as balanced growth or functional equilibrium. To gain insight into the regulatory network that controls this phenomenon, we took a systems biology approach that combines experimental work with mathematical modeling. We developed a mathematical model representing the activities of the root (nutrient and water uptake) and the shoot (photosynthesis), and their interactions through the exchange of the substrates sugar and phosphate (Pi). The model has been calibrated and validated with two independent experimental data sets obtained with Petunia hybrida. It involves a realistic environment with a day-and-night cycle, which necessitated the introduction of a transitory carbohydrate storage pool and an endogenous clock for coordination of metabolism with the environment. Our main goal was to grasp the dynamic adaptation of shoot:root ratio as a result of changes in light and Pi supply. The results of our study are in agreement with balanced growth hypothesis, suggesting that plants maintain a functional equilibrium between shoot and root activity based on differential growth of these two compartments. Furthermore, our results indicate that resource partitioning can be understood as the emergent property of many local physiological processes in the shoot and the root without explicit partitioning functions. Based on its encouraging predictive power, the model will be further developed as a tool to analyze resource partitioning in shoot and root crops.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Shoot-Root Interactions and Resource Partitioning in Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Chrystel; Favre, Patrick; Janka, Ales; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Gabriel, Jean-Pierre; Reinhardt, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Plants are highly plastic in their potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. For example, they can selectively promote the relative growth of the root and the shoot in response to limiting supply of mineral nutrients and light, respectively, a phenomenon that is referred to as balanced growth or functional equilibrium. To gain insight into the regulatory network that controls this phenomenon, we took a systems biology approach that combines experimental work with mathematical modeling. We developed a mathematical model representing the activities of the root (nutrient and water uptake) and the shoot (photosynthesis), and their interactions through the exchange of the substrates sugar and phosphate (Pi). The model has been calibrated and validated with two independent experimental data sets obtained with Petunia hybrida. It involves a realistic environment with a day-and-night cycle, which necessitated the introduction of a transitory carbohydrate storage pool and an endogenous clock for coordination of metabolism with the environment. Our main goal was to grasp the dynamic adaptation of shoot:root ratio as a result of changes in light and Pi supply. The results of our study are in agreement with balanced growth hypothesis, suggesting that plants maintain a functional equilibrium between shoot and root activity based on differential growth of these two compartments. Furthermore, our results indicate that resource partitioning can be understood as the emergent property of many local physiological processes in the shoot and the root without explicit partitioning functions. Based on its encouraging predictive power, the model will be further developed as a tool to analyze resource partitioning in shoot and root crops. PMID:26154262

  3. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    PubMed

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  4. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby

    PubMed Central

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10−4 M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10−5 M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  5. The distribution of dry matter growth between shoot and roots in loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; F. Herbert Bormann; Karl F. Wenger

    1970-01-01

    The allometric relationship, log (y) = a + k•log (x)-where x is one plant organ (e g., dry weight of roots) and y is another (e.g., dry weight of shoot)-was used to study the relative distribution of growth within loblolly pine seedlings. The relative...

  6. Mechanical perturbation-induced ethylene releases apical dominance in Pharbitis nil by restricting shoot growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical perturbation (MP, rubbing) or internodes of Pharbitis nil shoots initiates release of lateral buds (LB) from apical dominance within 48 h. Evidence is presented which suggests that MP promotion of LB outgrowth is mediated by ethylene-induced restriction of main shoot growth. Ethylene production in the internodes is stimulated by MP within 2 h. Effects of MP are mimicked by treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and are negated by the inhibitors of ethylene production or action, aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG) and AgNO3. The fact that effects of MP, ACC, and ethylene inhibitors are observed to occur on main shoot growth at least 24 h before they are observed to occur on LB growth suggests a possible cause and effect relationship. MP also causes an increase in internode diameter. MP stimulation of ethylene production appears to be mediated by ACC synthase. The results of this study and our previous studies suggest that apical dominance may be released by any mechanism which induces ethylene restriction of main shoot growth.

  7. Surviving floods: leaf gas films improve O₂ and CO₂ exchange, root aeration, and growth of completely submerged rice.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-04-01

    When completely submerged, the leaves of some species retain a surface gas film. Leaf gas films on submerged plants have recently been termed 'plant plastrons', analogous with the plastrons of aquatic insects. In aquatic insects, surface gas layers (i.e. plastrons) enlarge the gas-water interface to promote O₂ uptake when under water; however, the function of leaf gas films has rarely been considered. The present study demonstrates that gas films on leaves of completely submerged rice facilitate entry of O₂ from floodwaters when in darkness and CO₂ entry when in light. O₂ microprofiles showed that the improved gas exchange was not caused by differences in diffusive boundary layers adjacent to submerged leaves with or without gas films; instead, reduced resistance to gas exchange was probably due to the enlarged water-gas interface (cf. aquatic insects). When gas films were removed artificially, underwater net photosynthesis declined to only 20% of the rate with gas films present, such that, after 7 days of complete submergence, tissue sugar levels declined, and both shoot and root growth were reduced. Internal aeration of roots in anoxic medium, when shoots were in aerobic floodwater in darkness or when in light, was improved considerably when leaf gas films were present. Thus, leaf gas films contribute to the submergence tolerance of rice, in addition to those traits already recognized, such as the shoot-elongation response, aerenchyma and metabolic adjustments to O₂ deficiency and oxidative stress. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Cerium enhances germination and shoot growth, and alters mineral nutrient concentration in rice

    PubMed Central

    García-Morales, Soledad; Pérez-Sato, Juan Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) belongs to the rare earth elements (REEs), and although it is not essential for plants, it can stimulate growth and other physiological processes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Ce on seed germination, initial seedling growth, and vegetative growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Morelos A-98. During the germination process, the seeds were treated with Ce concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and 12 μM; after 5 d, germination percentage was recorded and after 10 d seedling growth was measured. For vegetative growth, a hydroponic system was established where 14-d-old plants without previous Ce treatment were transferred into nutrient solution. After two weeks of acclimatizing, 0, 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce were added to the nutrient solution for 28 d. Ce significantly increased germination and the initial growth variables of the seedlings. During vegetative growth, Ce increased plant height, number of tillers, root volume, and shoot fresh and dry biomass, without affecting root biomass weight. With low Ce concentrations (25 and 50 μM), the concentrations of chlorophylls and amino acids in the shoots were similar to those in the control, like amino acid concentration in the roots at a concentration of 25 μM Ce. Conversely, the concentration of total sugars increased in the shoot with the application of 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce, and in the roots with the application of 50 μM Ce. Also, Ce did not affect the concentration of macro or micronutrients in the shoots. However, in the roots, the high Ce concentration decreased the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn, while the Mg concentration increased. Our results indicate that Ce, at the right concentrations, can function as a biostimulant in rice germination and growth. PMID:29579100

  9. Root-zone temperatures affect phenology of bud break, flower cluster development, shoot extension growth and gas exchange of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica) apple trees.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are < or = 15 degrees C have delayed bud break and up to 20% fewer clusters than apple trees exposed to root zone temperatures of > or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.

  10. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  11. Effect of Xyloglucan Oligosaccharides on Growth, Viscoelastic Properties, and Long-Term Extension of Pea Shoots.

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Iturralde, A.; Lorences, E. P.

    1997-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of xyloglucan-derived oligosaccharides was investigated using a bioassay with entire pea (Pisum sativum L., var Alaska) shoots. After a 24-h incubation period at 25[deg]C, xyloglucan oligosaccharide (XGO) solutions with concentrations of 10-6 M notably increased the growth rate of pea shoots, whereas the same oligosaccharides at 10-7 M were less effective. To investigate the possible correlation between growth rate changes in the XGO-treated shoots and changes in the wall mechanical properties of their growing regions (third internodes), we used a short-term creep assay. The promotion of elongation by XGOs was reflected in an enhancement of the viscoelasticity of the growing regions of the shoots. To show whether this effect on wall viscoelastic properties was the cause or a consequence of their growth promotion, we tested the effect of XGOs on the long-term extension of isolated cell walls. We characterized an acid-induced extension in isolated cell walls from pea shoots that was not inhibited by preincubation in neutral buffers. Exogenously added XGOs did not alter the pattern of pea segment extension at any pH tested, indicating that XGOs have no direct effect on cell wall viscoelasticity. Finally, preincubation of pea segments in neutral buffers with XGOs enhanced their capacity to extend under acidic conditions. This finding suggests that XGOs at a neutral pH can act via transglycosylation, weakening the wall matrix and making the wall more responsive to other mechanisms of acid-induced extension as an expansin-mediated extension. PMID:12223593

  12. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Shane A.; Elphinstone, E. David; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6–6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3–6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g s) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16–24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g s: both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g s of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  13. Temporal changes in the abundance, leaf growth and photosynthesis of three co-occurring Philippine seagrasses.

    PubMed

    Agawin, N S.R.; Duarte, C M.; Fortes, M D.; Uri, J S.; Vermaat, J E.

    2001-06-01

    The analysis of the temporal changes in shoot density, areal leaf biomass, leaf growth and parameters of the photosynthesis-irradiance relationship of three tropical seagrass species (Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichii and Cymodocea rotundata), co-existing in a shallow subtidal meadow in Cape Bolinao, Philippines, shows that species-specific traits are significant sources of temporal variability, and indicates that these seagrass species respond differently to a common environmental forcing. Species-specific differences are much less important as source of variability of the temporal change in chlorophyll concentration of seagrass leaves. The results indicate that the temporal changes in photosynthetic performance of these seagrasses were driven by environmental forcing and their specific responses to it mostly, but the temporal change in their abundance and leaf growth was also controlled by other factors. The significant contribution of species-specific factors in the temporal changes of biomass, growth and photosynthetic performance of co-occurring seagrass species in Cape Bolinao should contribute to the maintenance of the multispecific, highly productive meadows characteristic of pristine coastal ecosystems in Southeast (SE) Asia.

  14. Long-shoot/short-shoot phenomenon in woody plants

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Sosebee

    2001-01-01

    Shoot growth in shrubs is often overlooked as an important component of phenological development in woody plants. However, shoot growth dictates the pattern of growth of deciduous trees or shrubs, especially following defoliation or canopy damage. In general, woody shoots are divided into short- and long-shoots. Short-shoots, sometimes called "spurs," are...

  15. Enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Trichoderma harzianum from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. Two isolates of T. harzianum were used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. Wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. T. harzianum T8 and T15 isolates increased wheat length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight according to untreated control. Turkish isolates T8 and T15 did not produce damage in seeds nor in plants.

  16. Physiological Disorders of Pear Shoot Cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physiological disorders are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation. Little is known of the causes of plant growth disorders which include callus formation, hyperhydricity, shoot tip necrosis, leaf lesions, epinasty, fasciation and hypertrophy. During our study of mineral nutritio...

  17. Systems analysis of shoot apical meristem growth and development: integrating hormonal and mechanical signaling.

    PubMed

    Murray, James A H; Jones, Angharad; Godin, Christophe; Traas, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. This review covers our current understanding of organ initiation by the SAM in Arabidopsis thaliana. Meristem function and maintenance involves two major hormones, cytokinins and auxins. Cytokinins appear to play a major role in meristem maintenance and in controlling meristematic properties, such as cell proliferation. Self-organizing transport processes, which are still only partially understood, lead to the patterned accumulation of auxin at particular positions, where organs will grow out. A major downstream target of auxin-mediated growth regulation is the cell wall, which is a determinant for both growth rates and growth distribution, but feedbacks with metabolism and the synthetic capacity of the cytoplasm are crucial as well. Recent work has also pointed at a potential role of mechanical signals in growth coordination, but the precise mechanisms at work remain to be elucidated.

  18. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 establishes the basal boundaries of shoot organs and controls stem growth.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Sablowski, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Apical meristems play a central role in plant development. Self-renewing cells in the central region of the shoot meristem replenish the cell population in the peripheral region, where organ primordia emerge in a predictable pattern, and in the underlying rib meristem, where new stem tissue is formed. While much is known about how organ primordia are initiated and their lateral boundaries established, development at the interface between the stem and the meristem or the lateral organs is poorly understood. Here, we show that the BELL-type ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1) is required for proper development of the boundary between the stem and both vegetative and reproductive organs and that this role partially overlaps with that of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes. During the vegetative phase, ATH1 also functions redundantly with light-activated genes to inhibit growth of the region below the shoot meristem. Consistent with a role in inhibiting stem growth, ATH1 is downregulated at the start of inflorescence development and ectopic ATH1 expression prevents growth of the inflorescence stem by reducing cell proliferation. Thus, ATH1 modulates growth at the interface between the stem, meristem, and organ primordia and contributes to the compressed vegetative habit of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. Contribution of leaf growth on the disappearance of fungicides used on tea under south Indian agroclimatic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Chinnachamy; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

    2009-01-01

    The sprayed chemicals on tea leaves disappear over a period of time by the influence of rainfall elution, evaporation, growth dilution, and photodegradation. Influence of plant growth on the four fungicides (hexaconazole, propiconazole, tridemorph, and c) was studied to know the constructive loss of fungicides. The study shows that residues of fungicides sprayed on tea shoots got diluted by the growing process. The expansion of a leaf took 8 to 11 d and more than 50% of the fungicide residues were cleaned out during this leaf expansion period. Under south Indian agroclimatic condition, the fungicides are sprayed at an interval of 10 d, so it is safe that the tea is harvested on the 10th day of the application of fungicides. PMID:19489107

  20. Contribution of leaf growth on the disappearance of fungicides used on tea under South Indian agroclimatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Chinnachamy; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

    2009-06-01

    The sprayed chemicals on tea leaves disappear over a period of time by the influence of rainfall elution, evaporation, growth dilution, and photodegradation. Influence of plant growth on the four fungicides (hexaconazole, propiconazole, tridemorph, and c) was studied to know the constructive loss of fungicides. The study shows that residues of fungicides sprayed on tea shoots got diluted by the growing process. The expansion of a leaf took 8 to 11 d and more than 50% of the fungicide residues were cleaned out during this leaf expansion period. Under south Indian agroclimatic condition, the fungicides are sprayed at an interval of 10 d, so it is safe that the tea is harvested on the 10th day of the application of fungicides.

  1. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  2. The role of resilience and gratitude in posttraumatic stress and growth following a campus shooting.

    PubMed

    Vieselmeyer, Julie; Holguin, Jeff; Mezulis, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of resilience and gratitude in the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the campus shooting at Seattle Pacific University. The prevalence of community traumatic events such as school shootings has increased dramatically in the last decade. However, a significant number of individuals report positive changes such as enhanced appreciation for life, suggesting that some people are able to convert adverse experiences into personal growth. The purpose of this study was to understand characteristics about trauma and protective characteristics that contribute to PTG. Participants were 359 students, faculty, and staff (75% female; mean age = 27.26, SD = 12.61) enrolled or employed the day the shooting took place. Approximately four months following the event respondents completed self-report questionnaires about trauma exposure (i.e., physical and emotional proximity), PTS symptoms, PTG, resilience, and gratitude. Results supported our moderated-mediation hypothesis (B = 3.97, t = 4.11, 95th confidence interval [2.08, 5.88], p < .01), suggesting that both resilience and gratitude can be conceptualized as protective mechanisms, with resilience operating to prevent adverse outcomes while gratitude may promote positive outcomes following trauma. Given the prevalence of lifetime trauma, findings indicate that mental health professionals should consider a multifaceted approach to buffer the effects of trauma by preventatively cultivating resilience and enhancing gratitude in posttrauma interventions as a means to decrease PTS and increase PTG. Additional research is needed to understand how individuals develop positive traits as both protective and coping mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen

    Treesearch

    Diane Wagner; Linda DeFoliart; Patricia Doak; Jenny Schneiderheinze

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of Phyllocnistis populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual apsen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was...

  4. The effect of lunisolar tidal acceleration on stem elongation growth, nutations and leaf movements in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.).

    PubMed

    Zajączkowska, U; Barlow, P W

    2017-07-01

    Orbital movement of the Moon generates a system of gravitational fields that periodically alter the gravitational force on Earth. This lunar tidal acceleration (Etide) is known to act as an external environmental factor affecting many growth and developmental phenomena in plants. Our study focused on the lunar tidal influence on stem elongation growth, nutations and leaf movements of peppermint. Plants were continuously recorded with time-lapse photography under constant illumination as well in constant illumination following 5 days of alternating dark-light cycles. Time courses of shoot movements were correlated with contemporaneous time courses of the Etide estimates. Optical microscopy and SEM were used in anatomical studies. All plant shoot movements were synchronised with changes in the lunisolar acceleration. Using a periodogram, wavelet analysis and local correlation index, a convergence was found between the rhythms of lunisolar acceleration and the rhythms of shoot growth. Also observed were cyclical changes in the direction of rotation of stem apices when gravitational dynamics were at their greatest. After contrasting dark-light cycle experiments, nutational rhythms converged to an identical phase relationship with the Etide and almost immediately their renewed movements commenced. Amplitudes of leaf movements decreased during leaf growth up to the stage when the leaf was fully developed; the periodicity of leaf movements correlated with the Etide rhythms. For the fist time, it was documented that lunisolar acceleration is an independent rhythmic environmental signal capable of influencing the dynamics of plant stem elongation. This phenomenon is synchronised with the known effects of Etide on nutations and leaf movements. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  6. Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

  7. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  8. Effect of water treatment sludge on growth and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, H.A.; Singer, L.M.

    The impact of a water treatment sludge on the fertility of a silt loam soil was assessed by monitoring the yield and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots in a greenhouse study. Application of sludge at rates from 2-10% (air dry weight basis) raised the soil pH from 5.3 to 8.0 which enhanced plant growth. A substantial reduction in metal (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) uptake was observed with sludge amendments, even at the highest rates. The alkaline nature of this sludge (pH=9.3, calcium carbonate equivalence=53%) suggest its potential use as a liming material for agricultural soils. Overly alkaline conditionsmore » should be avoided however, as high application rates combined with ammonia fertilization had an antagonistic effect on plant growth, possibly from P deficiency induced by struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}) formation.« less

  9. Expanding our understanding of leaf functional syndromes in savanna systems: the role of plant growth form.

    PubMed

    Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of leaf strategies has been a common theme in ecology, especially where multiple sources of environmental constraints (fire, seasonal drought, nutrient-poor soils) impose a strong selection pressure towards leaf functional diversity, leading to inevitable tradeoffs among leaf traits, and ultimately to niche segregation among coexisting species. As diversification on leaf functional strategies is dependent on integration at whole plant level, we hypothesized that regardless of phylogenetic relatedness, leaf trait functional syndromes in a multivariate space would be associated with the type of growth form. We measured traits related to leaf gas exchange, structure and nutrient status in 57 coexisting species encompassing all Angiosperms major clades, in a wide array of plant morphologies (trees, shrubs, sub-shrubs, herbs, grasses and palms) in a savanna of Central Brazil. Growth forms differed in mean values for the studied functional leaf traits. We extracted 4 groups of functional typologies: grasses (elevated leaf dark respiration, light-saturated photosynthesis on a leaf mass and area basis, lower values of leaf Ca and Mg), herbs (high values of SLA, leaf N and leaf Fe), palms (high values of stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration and leaf K) and woody eudicots (sub-shrubs, shrubs and trees; low SLA and high leaf Ca and Mg). Despite the large range of variation among species for each individual trait and the independent evolutionary trajectory of individual species, growth forms were strongly associated with particular leaf trait combinations, suggesting clear evolutionary constraints on leaf function for morphologically similar species in savanna ecosystems.

  10. Morphological and phenological shoot plasticity in a Mediterranean evergreen oak facing long-term increased drought.

    PubMed

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Rodríguez-Cortina, Raquel; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Mediterranean trees must adjust their canopy leaf area to the unpredictable timing and severity of summer drought. The impact of increased drought on the canopy dynamics of the evergreen Quercus ilex was studied by measuring shoot growth, leaf production, litterfall, leafing phenology and leaf demography in a mature forest stand submitted to partial throughfall exclusion for 7 years. The leaf area index rapidly declined in the throughfall-exclusion plot and was 19% lower than in the control plot after 7 years of treatment. Consequently, leaf litterfall was significantly lower in the dry treatment. Such a decline in leaf area occurred through a change in branch allometry with a decreased number of ramifications produced and a reduction of the leaf area supported per unit sapwood area of the shoot (LA/SA). The leafing phenology was slightly delayed and the median leaf life span was slightly longer in the dry treatment. The canopy dynamics in both treatments were driven by water availability with a 1-year lag: leaf shedding and production were reduced following dry years; in contrast, leaf turnover was increased following wet years. The drought-induced decrease in leaf area, resulting from both plasticity in shoot development and slower leaf turnover, appeared to be a hydraulic adjustment to limit canopy transpiration and maintain leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity under drier conditions.

  11. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth and leaf litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sangsub; Chae, Hee-Myung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Shim, Jae-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly reduced the nitrogen concentration in leaf litter while increasing lignin concentrations and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) and lignin/N ratios. The microbial biomass associated with decomposing Q. acutissima leaf litter was suppressed in CO2 enrichment chambers, while that of F. rhynchophylla was not. The leaf litter of Q. acutissima from the CO2-enriched chambers, in contrast with F. rhynchophylla, contained much lower nutrient concentrations than that of the litter in the ambient air chambers. Consequently, poorer litter quality suppressed decomposition. PMID:28182638

  12. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth and leaf litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sangsub; Chae, Hee-Myung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Shim, Jae-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly reduced the nitrogen concentration in leaf litter while increasing lignin concentrations and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) and lignin/N ratios. The microbial biomass associated with decomposing Q. acutissima leaf litter was suppressed in CO2 enrichment chambers, while that of F. rhynchophylla was not. The leaf litter of Q. acutissima from the CO2-enriched chambers, in contrast with F. rhynchophylla, contained much lower nutrient concentrations than that of the litter in the ambient air chambers. Consequently, poorer litter quality suppressed decomposition.

  13. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil.

    PubMed

    Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad; Farooq, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2015-03-01

    Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize ( Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil.

  14. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil

    PubMed Central

    Zafar-ul-Hye, Muhammad; Farooq, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize ( Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil. PMID:26221093

  15. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    PubMed

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  16. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Shoot Growth in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Using a Diallel Mating Design

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Sarah D.; Maurizio, Paul L.; Valdar, William; Yandell, Brian S.; Simon, Philipp W.

    2017-01-01

    Crop establishment in carrot (Daucus carota L.) is limited by slow seedling growth and delayed canopy closure, resulting in high management costs for weed control. Varieties with improved growth habit (i.e., larger canopy and increased shoot biomass) may help mitigate weed control, but the underlying genetics of these traits in carrot is unknown. This project used a diallel mating design coupled with recent Bayesian analytical methods to determine the genetic basis of carrot shoot growth. Six diverse carrot inbred lines with variable shoot size were crossed in WI in 2014. F1 hybrids, reciprocal crosses, and parental selfs were grown in a randomized complete block design with two blocks in WI (2015) and CA (2015, 2016). Measurements included canopy height, canopy width, shoot biomass, and root biomass. General and specific combining abilities were estimated using Griffing’s Model I, which is a common analysis for plant breeding experiments. In parallel, additive, inbred, cross-specific, and maternal effects were estimated from a Bayesian mixed model, which is robust to dealing with data imbalance and outliers. Both additive and nonadditive effects significantly influenced shoot traits, with nonadditive effects playing a larger role early in the growing season, when weed control is most critical. Results suggest the presence of heritable variation and thus potential for improvement of these phenotypes in carrot. In addition, results present evidence of heterosis for root biomass, which is a major component of carrot yield. PMID:29187419

  17. Leaf dynamics in growth and reproduction of Xanthium canadense as influenced by stand density

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Oikawa, Shimpei; Hirose, Tadaki

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf longevity is controlled by the light gradient in the canopy and also by the nitrogen (N) sink strength in the plant. Stand density may influence leaf dynamics through its effects on light gradient and on plant growth and reproduction. This study tests the hypothesis that the control by the light gradient is manifested more in the vegetative period, whereas the opposite is true when the plant becomes reproductive and develops a strong N sink. Methods Stands of Xanthium canadense were established at two densities. Emergence, growth and death of every leaf on the main stem and branches, and plant growth and N uptake were determined from germination to full senescence. Mean residence time and dry mass productivity were calculated per leaf number, leaf area, leaf mass and leaf N (collectively termed ‘leaf variables’) in order to analyse leaf dynamics and its effect on plant growth. Key Results Branching and reproductive activities were higher at low than at high density. Overall there was no significant difference in mean residence time of leaf variables between the two stands. However, early leaf cohorts on the main stem had a longer retention time at low density, whereas later cohorts had a longer retention time at high density. Branch leaves emerged earlier and tended to live longer at low than at high density. Leaf efficiencies, defined as carbon export per unit investment of leaf variables, were higher at low density in all leaf variables except for leaf number. Conclusions In the vegetative phase of plant growth, the light gradient strongly controls leaf longevity, whereas later the effects of branching and reproductive activities become stronger and over-rule the effect of light environment. As leaf N supports photosynthesis and also works as an N source for plant development, N use is pivotal in linking leaf dynamics with plant growth and reproduction. PMID:26248476

  18. Dissecting the effects of nitrate, sucrose and osmotic potential on Arabidopsis root and shoot system growth in laboratory assays

    PubMed Central

    Roycewicz, Peter; Malamy, Jocelyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the specific effects of water and nutrients on plant development is difficult because changes in a single component can often trigger multiple response pathways. Such confounding issues are prevalent in commonly used laboratory assays. For example, increasing the nitrate concentration in growth media alters both nitrate availability and osmotic potential. In addition, it was recently shown that a change in the osmotic potential of media alters the plant's ability to take up other nutrients such as sucrose. It can also be difficult to identify the initial target tissue of a particular environmental cue because there are correlated changes in development of many organs. These growth changes may be coordinately regulated, or changes in development of one organ may trigger changes in development of another organ as a secondary effect. All these complexities make analyses of plant responses to environmental factors difficult to interpret. Here, we review the literature on the effects of nitrate, sucrose and water availability on root system growth and discuss the mechanisms underlying these effects. We then present experiments that examine the impact of nitrate, sucrose and water on root and shoot system growth in culture using an approach that holds all variables constant except the one under analysis. We found that while all three factors also alter root system size, changes in sucrose and osmotic potential also altered shoot system size. In contrast, we found that, when osmotic effects are controlled, nitrate specifically inhibits root system growth while having no effect on shoot system growth. This effectively decreases the root : shoot ratio. Alterations in root : shoot ratio have been widely observed in response to nitrogen starvation, where root growth is selectively increased, but the present results suggest that alterations in this ratio can be triggered across a wide spectrum of nitrate concentrations. PMID:22527391

  19. Automated Leaf Tracking using Multi-view Image Sequences of Maize Plants for Leaf-growth Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Samal, A.; Stoerger, V.; Bashyam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of phenotypes with botanical importance by analyzing plant image sequences has the desirable advantages of non-destructive temporal phenotypic measurements of a large number of plants with little or no manual intervention in a relatively short period of time. The health of a plant is best interpreted by the emergence timing and temporal growth of individual leaves. For automated leaf growth monitoring, it is essential to track each leaf throughout the life cycle of the plant. Plants are constantly changing organisms with increasing complexity in architecture due to variations in self-occlusions and phyllotaxy, i.e., arrangements of leaves around the stem. The leaf cross-overs pose challenges to accurately track each leaf using single view image sequence. Thus, we introduce a novel automated leaf tracking algorithm using a graph theoretic approach by multi-view image sequence analysis based on the determination of leaf-tips and leaf-junctions in the 3D space. The basis of the leaf tracking algorithm is: the leaves emerge using bottom-up approach in the case of a maize plant, and the direction of leaf emergence strictly alternates in terms of direction. The algorithm involves labeling of the individual parts of a plant, i.e., leaves and stem, following graphical representation of the plant skeleton, i.e., one-pixel wide connected line obtained from the binary image. The length of the leaf is measured by the number of pixels in the leaf skeleton. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we publicly release University of Nebraska-Lincoln Component Plant Phenotyping dataset-2 (UNL-CPPD-2) consisting of images of the 20 maize plants captured by visible light camera of the Lemnatec Scanalyzer 3D high throughout plant phenotyping facility once daily for 60 days from 10 different views. The dataset is aimed to facilitate the development and evaluation of leaf tracking algorithms and their uniform comparisons.

  20. Apple dwarfing rootstocks and interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle: precocious transition to flowering affects the composition and vigour of annual shoots.

    PubMed

    Seleznyova, Alla N; Tustin, D Stuart; Thorp, T Grant

    2008-04-01

    Precocious flowering in apple trees is often associated with a smaller tree size. The hypothesis was tested that floral evocation in axillary buds, induced by dwarfing rootstocks, reduces the vigour of annual shoots developing from these buds compared with shoots developing from vegetative buds. The experimental system provided a wide range of possible tree vigour using 'Royal Gala' scions and M.9 (dwarfing) and MM.106 (non-dwarfing) as rootstocks and interstocks. Second-year annual shoots were divided into growth units corresponding to periods (flushes) of growth namely, vegetative spur, extension growth unit, uninterrupted growth unit, floral growth unit (bourse) and extended bourse. The differences between the floral and vegetative shoots were quantified by the constituent growth units produced. The dwarfing influence was expressed, firstly, in reduced proportions of shoots that contained at least one extension growth unit and secondly, in reduced proportions of bicyclic shoots (containing two extension growth units) and shoots with an uninterrupted growth unit. In treatments where floral shoots were present, they were markedly less vigorous than vegetative shoots with respect to both measures. In treatments with M.9 rootstock, vegetative and floral shoots produced on average 0.52 and 0.17 extension growth units, compared with 0.77 extension growth units per shoot in the MM.106 rootstock treatment. Remarkably, the number of nodes per extension growth unit was not affected by the rootstock/interstock treatments. These results showed that rootstocks/interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle, reducing the number of extension growth units, thus affecting the composition and vigour of annual shoots. This effect is particularly amplified by the transition to flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks. The division of annual shoot into growth units will also be useful for measuring and modelling effects of age on apple tree

  1. [Effect of soil preparation and fertilization on foliage and shoot growth of Ginkgo biloba and its medicine content].

    PubMed

    He, Binghui; Zhong, Zhangcheng

    2004-06-01

    The study showed that the efficiency of various treatments in improving the height growth of Ginkgo biloba was organic fertilizer plus intercropping > soil preparation by blasting plus intercropping > organic fertilizer > soil preparation by blasting > intercropping, and the height growth increased by 14.5%, 8.6%, 5.7%, 3.2% and 0, respectively. The efficiency of the treatments in improving new shoot growth was organic fertilizer plus intercropping > soil preparation by blasting plus intercropping > intercropping > organic fertilizer > soil preparation by blasting, and the new shoot growth increased by 58.1%, 36.6%, 33.1%, 30.2% and 14.0%, respectively. Soil preparation, organic fertilization and intercropping had no different effect on the number of long shoots, but their effect on the numbers of short shoots and leaves was significantly different. The most efficient treatment in improving the medicine content was organic fertilization plus intercropping. Compared with control, the content of quercetin and rutin in Ginkgo biloba leaves increased by 420% and 220%, respectively.

  2. A unifying modeling of plant shoot gravitropism with an explicit account of the effects of growth.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Renaud; Douady, Stéphane; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a major determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Recently a universal model of shoot gravitropism, the AC model, was presented, in which the dynamics of the tropic movement is only determined by the conflicting controls of (1) graviception that tends to curve the plants toward the vertical, and (2) proprioception that tends to keep the stem straight. This model was found to be valid for many species and over two orders of magnitude of organ size. However, the motor of the movement, the elongation, was purposely neglected in the AC model. If growth effects are to be taken into account, it is necessary to consider the material derivative, i.e., the rate of change of curvature bound to expanding and convected organ elements. Here we show that it is possible to rewrite the material equation of curvature in a compact simplified form that directly expresses the curvature variation as a function of the median elongation and of the distribution of the differential growth. By using this extended model, called the ACĖ model, growth is found to have two main destabilizing effects on the tropic movement: (1) passive orientation drift, which occurs when a curved element elongates without differential growth, and (2) fixed curvature, when an element leaves the elongation zone and is no longer able to actively change its curvature. By comparing the AC and ACĖ models to experiments, these two effects are found to be negligible. Our results show that the simplified AC mode can be used to analyze gravitropism and posture control in actively elongating plant organs without significant information loss.

  3. Height-related trends in leaf xylem anatomy and shoot hydraulic characteristics in a tall conifer: safety versus efficiency in water transport

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; F.C. Meinzer; B. Lachenbruch

    2008-01-01

    Growth and aboveground biomass accumulation follow a common pattern as tree size increases, with productivity peaking when leaf area reaches its maximum and then declining as tree age and size increase. Age- and size-related declines in forest productivity are major considerations in setting the rotational age of commercial forests, and relate to issues of carbon...

  4. Comparison of axillary bud growth and patatin accumulation in potato leaf cuttings as assays for tuber induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Hannapel, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-node leaf cuttings from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland, Superior, Norchip, and Kennebec, were used to assess tuber induction in plants grown under 12, 16, and 20 h daily irradiation (400 micromol s-1 m-2 PPF). Leaf cuttings were taken from plants at four, six and 15 weeks after planting and cultured for 14 d in sand trays in humid environments. Tuber induction was determined by visually rating the type of growth at the attached axillary bud, and by measuring the accumulation of the major tuber protein, patatin, in the base of the petioles. Axillary buds from leaf cuttings of plants grown under the 12 h photoperiod consistently formed round, sessile tubers at the axils for all four cultivars at all harvests. Buds from cuttings of plants grown under the 16 and 20 h photoperiods exhibited mixed tuber, stolon, and leafy shoot growth. Patatin accumulation was highest in petioles of cuttings taken from 12 h plants for all cultivars at all harvests, with levels in 16 and 20 h cuttings approx. one-half that of the 12 h cuttings. Trends, both in visual ratings of axillary buds and in petiole patatin accumulation, followed the harvest index (ratio of tuber to total plant dry matter), suggesting that either method is an acceptable assay for tuber induction in the potato.

  5. Differentially phased leaf growth and movements in Arabidopsis depend on coordinated circadian and light regulation.

    PubMed

    Dornbusch, Tino; Michaud, Olivier; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to vastly studied hypocotyl growth, little is known about diel regulation of leaf growth and its coordination with movements such as changes in leaf elevation angle (hyponasty). We developed a 3D live-leaf growth analysis system enabling simultaneous monitoring of growth and movements. Leaf growth is maximal several hours after dawn, requires light, and is regulated by daylength, suggesting coupling between growth and metabolism. We identify both blade and petiole positioning as important components of leaf movements in Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal a temporal delay between growth and movements. In hypocotyls, the combination of circadian expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5 and their light-regulated protein stability drives rhythmic hypocotyl elongation with peak growth at dawn. We find that PIF4 and PIF5 are not essential to sustain rhythmic leaf growth but influence their amplitude. Furthermore, EARLY FLOWERING3, a member of the evening complex (EC), is required to maintain the correct phase between growth and movement. Our study shows that the mechanisms underlying rhythmic hypocotyl and leaf growth differ. Moreover, we reveal the temporal relationship between leaf elongation and movements and demonstrate the importance of the EC for the coordination of these phenotypic traits. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Leaf and shoot water content and leaf dry matter content of Mediterranean woody species with different post-fire regenerative strategies.

    PubMed

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2007-03-01

    Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to determine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities.

  7. The role of gravity in apical dominance: effects of clinostating on shoot inversion-induced ethylene production, shoot elongation and lateral bud growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    Shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is inhibited by rotating the plant at 0.42 revolutions per minute in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of a horizontal clinostat. Clinostating prevented lateral bud outgrowth, apparently by negating the restriction of the shoot elongation via reduction of ethylene production in the inverted shoot. Radial stem expansion was also decreased. Data from experiments with intact tissue and isolated segments indicated that shoot-inversion stimulates ethylene production by increasing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. The results support the hypothesis that shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is due to gravity stress and is mediated by ethylene-induced retardation of the elongation of the inverted shoot.

  8. β-amylase-like proteins function as transcription factors in Arabidopsis, controlling shoot growth and development.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Heike; Soyk, Sebastian; Simková, Klára; Hostettler, Carmen; Marafino, John; Mainiero, Samantha; Vaughan, Cara K; Monroe, Jonathan D; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2011-04-01

    Plants contain β-amylase-like proteins (BAMs; enzymes usually associated with starch breakdown) present in the nucleus rather than targeted to the chloroplast. They possess BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-type DNA binding domains--also found in transcription factors mediating brassinosteroid (BR) responses. The two Arabidopsis thaliana BZR1-BAM proteins (BAM7 and BAM8) bind a cis-regulatory element that both contains a G box and resembles a BR-responsive element. In protoplast transactivation assays, these BZR1-BAMs activate gene expression. Structural modeling suggests that the BAM domain's glucan binding cleft is intact, but the recombinant proteins are at least 1000 times less active than chloroplastic β-amylases. Deregulation of BZR1-BAMs (the bam7bam8 double mutant and BAM8-overexpressing plants) causes altered leaf growth and development. Of the genes upregulated in plants overexpressing BAM8 and downregulated in bam7bam8 plants, many carry the cis-regulatory element in their promoters. Many genes that respond to BRs are inversely regulated by BZR1-BAMs. We propose a role for BZR1-BAMs in controlling plant growth and development through crosstalk with BR signaling. Furthermore, we speculate that BZR1-BAMs may transmit metabolic signals by binding a ligand in their BAM domain, although diurnal changes in the concentration of maltose, a candidate ligand produced by chloroplastic β-amylases, do not influence their transcription factor function.

  9. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  10. Annual and spatial variation in shoot demography associated with masting in Betula grossa: comparison between mature trees and saplings

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Masae Iwamoto; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro

    2009-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Shoot demography affects the growth of the tree crown and the number of leaves on a tree. Masting may cause inter-annual and spatial variation in shoot demography of mature trees, which may in turn affect the resource budget of the tree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of masting on the temporal and spatial variations in shoot demography of mature Betula grossa. Methods The shoot demography was analysed in the upper and lower parts of the tree crown in mature trees and saplings over 7 years. Mature trees and saplings were compared to differentiate the effect of masting from the effect of exogenous environment on shoot demography. The fate of different shoot types (reproductive, vegetative, short, long), shoot length and leaf area were investigated by monitoring and by retrospective survey using morphological markers on branches. The effects of year and branch position on demographic parameters were evaluated. Key Results Shoot increase rate, production of long shoots, bud mortality, length of long shoots and leaf area of a branch fluctuated periodically from year to year in mature trees over 7 years, in which two masting events occurred. Branches within a crown showed synchronized annual variation, and the extent of fluctuation was larger in the upper branches than the lower branches. Vegetative shoots varied in their bud differentiation each year and contributed to the dynamic shoot demography as much as did reproductive shoots, suggesting physiological integration in shoot demography through hormonal regulation and resource allocation. Conclusions Masting caused periodic annual variation in shoot demography of the mature trees and the effect was spatially variable within a tree crown. Since masting is a common phenomenon among tree species, annual variation in shoot demography and leaf area should be incorporated into resource allocation models of mature masting trees. PMID:19734164

  11. Dissecting a new connection between cytokinin and jasmonic acid in control of leaf growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant growth is mediated by two cellular processes: division and elongation. The maize leaf is an excellent model to study plant growth since these processes are spatially separated into discreet zones - a division zone (DZ), transition zone (TZ), and elongation zone (EZ) - at the base of the leaf. ...

  12. Foliar Abscisic Acid-To-Ethylene Accumulation and Response Regulate Shoot Growth Sensitivity to Mild Drought in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Valluru, Ravi; Davies, William J.; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Dodd, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Although, plant hormones play an important role in adjusting growth in response to environmental perturbation, the relative contributions of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene remain elusive. Using six spring wheat genotypes differing for stress tolerance, we show that young seedlings of the drought-tolerant (DT) group maintained or increased shoot dry weight (SDW) while the drought-susceptible (DS) group decreased SDW in response to mild drought. Both the DT and DS groups increased endogenous ABA and ethylene concentrations under mild drought compared to control. The DT and DS groups exhibited different SDW response trends, whereby the DS group decreased while the DT group increased SDW, to increased concentrations of ABA and ethylene under mild drought, although both groups decreased ABA/ethylene ratio under mild drought albeit at different levels. We concluded that SDW of the DT and DS groups might be distinctly regulated by specific ABA:ethylene ratio. Further, a foliar-spray of low concentrations (0.1 μM) of ABA increased shoot relative growth rate (RGR) in the DS group while ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ethylene precursor) spray increased RGR in both groups compared to control. Furthermore, the DT group accumulated a significantly higher galactose while a significantly lower maltose in the shoot compared to the DS group. Taken all together, these results suggest an impact of ABA, ethylene, and ABA:ethylene ratio on SDW of wheat seedlings that may partly underlie a genotypic variability of different shoot growth sensitivities to drought among crop species under field conditions. We propose that phenotyping based on hormone accumulation, response and hormonal ratio would be a viable, rapid, and an early–stage selection tool aiding genotype selection for stress tolerance. PMID:27148292

  13. Changes in leaf water relations, gas exchange, growth and flowering quality in potted geranium plants irrigated with different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Alvarez, Sara; Navarro, Alejandra; Bañón, Sebastián

    2009-03-15

    Geranium plants are an important part of urban green areas but suffer from drought, especially when grown in containers with a limited volume of medium. In this experiment, we examined the response of potted geraniums to different irrigation levels. Geranium (Pelargoniumxhortorum L.) seedlings were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three irrigation treatments, whereby the plants were irrigated to container capacity (control), 60% of the control (moderate deficit irrigation, MDI), or 40% of the control (severe deficit irrigation, SDI). Deficit irrigation was maintained for 2 months, and then all the plants were exposed to a recovery period of 112 month. Exposure to drought induced a decrease in shoot dry weight and leaf area and an increase in the root/shoot ratio. Height and plant width were significantly inhibited by the SDI, while flower color parameters were not affected by deficit treatment. The number of wilting and yellow leaves increased, coinciding with the increase in the number of inflorescences and open flowers. Deficit irrigation led to a leaf water potential of about -0.8MPa at midday, which could have caused an important decrease in stomatal conductance, affecting the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fvm) values of 0.80 in all treatments throughout the experiment demonstrate the lack of drought-induced damage to PSII photochemistry. Pressure-volume analysis revealed low osmotic adjustment values of 0.2MPa in the SDI treatment, accompanied by increases in the bulk tissue elastic modulus (epsilon, wall rigidity) and resulting in turgor loss at lower leaf water potential values (-1.38MPa compared with -1.0MPa for the control). Leaf water potential values throughout the experiment below those for Psitlp were not found at any sampling time. By the end of the recovery period, the leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis had recovered. We infer from these results that moderate deficit irrigation in geranium

  14. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  15. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness. PMID:25914696

  16. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea)

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V.

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  17. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, Henry D.; Collins, Adam D.; Briggs, Samuel P.; ...

    2015-09-22

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure (‘drought’), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers (‘heat’), and a combination ofmore » both simultaneously (‘drought + heat’). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine ( Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper ( Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19–57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Furthermore, climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change.« less

  18. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    PubMed

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Henry D.; Collins, Adam D.; Briggs, Samuel P.

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure (‘drought’), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers (‘heat’), and a combination ofmore » both simultaneously (‘drought + heat’). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine ( Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper ( Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19–57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Furthermore, climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change.« less

  20. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth1[CC-BY

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. PMID:29284741

  1. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; ...

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  2. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinity: development and function of shoot hydraulic systems require saline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoa T.; Stanton, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Nele; Farquhar, Graham D.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Halophytic eudicots are characterized by enhanced growth under saline conditions. This study combines physiological and anatomical analyses to identify processes underlying growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinities ranging from fresh- to seawater conditions. Methods Following pre-exhaustion of cotyledonary reserves under optimal conditions (i.e. 50 % seawater), seedlings of A. marina were grown hydroponically in dilutions of seawater amended with nutrients. Whole-plant growth characteristics were analysed in relation to dry mass accumulation and its allocation to different plant parts. Gas exchange characteristics and stable carbon isotopic composition of leaves were measured to evaluate water use in relation to carbon gain. Stem and leaf hydraulic anatomy were measured in relation to plant water use and growth. Key Results Avicennia marina seedlings failed to grow in 0–5 % seawater, whereas maximal growth occurred in 50–75 % seawater. Relative growth rates were affected by changes in leaf area ratio (LAR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) along the salinity gradient, with NAR generally being more important. Gas exchange characteristics followed the same trends as plant growth, with assimilation rates and stomatal conductance being greatest in leaves grown in 50–75 % seawater. However, water use efficiency was maintained nearly constant across all salinities, consistent with carbon isotopic signatures. Anatomical studies revealed variation in rates of development and composition of hydraulic tissues that were consistent with salinity-dependent patterns in water use and growth, including a structural explanation for low stomatal conductance and growth under low salinity. Conclusions The results identified stem and leaf transport systems as central to understanding the integrated growth responses to variation in salinity from fresh- to seawater conditions. Avicennia marina was revealed as an obligate halophyte

  3. PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1)-like genes regulate shoot/root growth, starch accumulation, and wood formation in Populus.

    PubMed

    Zawaski, Christine; Ma, Cathleen; Strauss, Steven H; French, Darla; Meilan, Richard; Busov, Victor B

    2012-09-01

    This study describes functional characterization of two putative poplar PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1) orthologues. The expression and sequence analyses indicate that the two poplar genes diverged, at least partially, in function. PtPHOR1_1 is most highly expressed in roots and induced by short days, while PtPHOR1_2 is more uniformly expressed throughout plant tissues and is not responsive to short days. The two PHOR1 genes also had distinct effects on shoot and root growth when their expression was up- and downregulated transgenically. PtPHOR1_1 effects were restricted to roots while PtPHOR1_2 had similar effects on aerial and below-ground development. Nevertheless, both genes seemed to be upregulated in transgenic poplars that are gibberellin-deficient and gibberellin-insensitive, suggesting interplay with gibberellin signalling. PHOR1 suppression led to increased starch accumulation in both roots and stems. The effect of PHOR1 suppression on starch accumulation was coupled with growth-inhibiting effects in both roots and shoots, suggesting that PHOR1 is part of a mechanism that regulates the allocation of carbohydrate to growth or storage in poplar. PHOR1 downregulation led to significant reduction of xylem formation caused by smaller fibres and vessels suggesting that PHOR1 likely plays a role in the growth of xylem cells.

  4. PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1)-like Genes Regulate Shoot/root Growth, Starch Accumulation, and Wood Formation in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Busov, Victor B.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes functional characterization of two putative poplar PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1) orthologues. The expression and sequence analyses indicate that the two poplar genes diverged, at least partially, in function. PtPHOR1_1 is most highly expressed in roots and induced by short days, while PtPHOR1_2 is more uniformly expressed throughout plant tissues and is not responsive to short days. The two PHOR1 genes also had distinct effects on shoot and root growth when their expression was up- and downregulated transgenically. PtPHOR1_1 effects were restricted to roots while PtPHOR1_2 had similar effects on aerial and below-ground development. Nevertheless, both genes seemed to be upregulated in transgenic poplars that are gibberellin-deficient and gibberellin-insensitive, suggesting interplay with gibberellin signalling. PHOR1 suppression led to increased starch accumulation in both roots and stems. The effect of PHOR1 suppression on starch accumulation was coupled with growth-inhibiting effects in both roots and shoots, suggesting that PHOR1 is part of a mechanism that regulates the allocation of carbohydrate to growth or storage in poplar. PHOR1 downregulation led to significant reduction of xylem formation caused by smaller fibres and vessels suggesting that PHOR1 likely plays a role in the growth of xylem cells. PMID:22915748

  5. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  6. Hydraulic efficiency and coordination with xylem resistance to cavitation, leaf function, and growth performance among eight unrelated Populus deltoidesxPopulus nigra hybrids.

    PubMed

    Fichot, Régis; Chamaillard, Sylvain; Depardieu, Claire; Le Thiec, Didier; Cochard, Hervé; Barigah, Têtè S; Brignolas, Franck

    2011-03-01

    Tests were carried out to determine whether variations in the hydraulic architecture of eight Populus deltoides×Populus nigra genotypes could be related to variations in leaf function and growth performance. Measurements were performed in a coppice plantation on 1-year-old shoots under optimal irrigation. Hydraulic architecture was characterized through estimates of hydraulic efficiency (the ratio of conducting sapwood area to leaf area, A(X):A(L); leaf- and xylem-specific hydraulic conductance of defoliated shoots, k(SL) and k(SS), respectively; apparent whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, k(plant)) and xylem safety (water potential inducing 50% loss in hydraulic conductance). The eight genotypes spanned a significant range of k(SL) from 2.63  kg s(-1) m(-2) MPa(-1) to 4.18  kg s(-1) m(-2) MPa(-1), variations being mostly driven by k(SS) rather than A(X):A(L). There was a strong trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and xylem safety. Values of k(SL) correlated positively with k(plant), indicating that high-pressure flowmeter (HPFM) measurements of stem hydraulic efficiency accurately reflected whole-plant water transport efficiency of field-grown plants at maximum transpiration rate. No clear relationship could be found between hydraulic efficiency and either net CO(2) assimilation rates, water-use efficiency estimates (intrinsic water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination against (13)C), or stomatal characteristics (stomatal density and stomatal pore area index). Estimates of hydraulic efficiency were negatively associated with relative growth rate. This unusual pattern, combined with the trade-off observed between hydraulic efficiency and xylem safety, provides the rationale for the positive link already reported between relative growth rate and xylem safety among the same eight P. deltoides×P. nigra genotypes.

  7. Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-06-15

    The effects of shooting-derived lead (Pb) on the structure and functioning of a forest ecosystem, and the recovery of the ecosystem after range abandonment were studied at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range where shooting ceased 20 years earlier and an uncontaminated control site. Despite numerous lead-induced changes in the soil food web, soil processes were only weakly related to soil food web composition. However, decomposition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needle litter was retarded at the active shooting range, and microbial activity, microbial biomass and the rate of decomposition of Pb-contaminated grass litter decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tree (P. sylvestris) radial growth was suppressed at the active shooting range right after shooting activities started. In contrast, the growth of pines improved at the abandoned shooting range after the cessation of shooting, despite reduced nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the needles. Higher litter degradation rates and lower Pb concentrations in the topmost soil layer at the abandoned shooting range suggest gradual recovery after range abandonment. Our findings suggest that functions in lead-contaminated coniferous forest ecosystems depend on the successional stage of the forest as well as the time since the contamination source has been eliminated, which affects, e.g., the vertical distribution of the contaminant in the soil. However, despite multiple lead-induced changes throughout the ecosystem, the effects were rather weak, indicating high resistance of coniferous forest ecosystems to this type of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bud Composition, Branching Patterns and Leaf Phenology in Cerrado Woody Species

    PubMed Central

    DAMASCOS, M. A.; PRADO, C. H. B. A.; RONQUIM, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants have complex mechanisms of aerial biomass exposition, which depend on bud composition, the period of the year in which shoot extension occurs, branching pattern, foliage persistence, herbivory and environmental conditions. • Methods The influence of water availability and temperature on shoot growth, the bud composition, the leaf phenology, and the relationship between partial leaf fall and branching were evaluated over 3 years in Cerrado woody species Bauhinia rufa (BR), Leandra lacunosa (LL) and Miconia albicans (MA). • Key Results Deciduous BR preformed organs in buds and leaves flush synchronously at the transition from the dry to the wet season. The expansion time of leaves is <1 month. Main shoots (first-order axis, A1 shoots) extended over 30 d and they did not branch. BR budding and foliage unfolds were brought about independently of inter-annual rainfall variations. By contrast, in LL and MA evergreen species, the shoot extension rate and the neoformation of aerial organs depended on rainfall. Leaf emergence was continuous for 2–6 months and lamina expansion took place over 1–4 months. The leaf life span was 5–20 months and the main A1 shoot extension happened over 122–177 d. Both evergreen species allocated biomass to shoots, leaves or flowers continuously during the year, branching in the middle of the wet season to form second-order (A2 shoots) and third-order (A3 shoots) axis in LL and A2 shoots in MA. Partial shed of A1 shoot leaves would facilitate a higher branching intensity A2 shoot production in LL than in MA. MA presented a longer leaf life span, produced a lower percentage of A2 shoots but had a higher meristem persistence on A1 and A2 shoots than LL. • Conclusions It was possible to identify different patterns of aerial growth in Cerrado woody species defined by shoot-linked traits such as branching pattern, bud composition, meristem persistence and leaf phenology. These related traits must be

  9. Response to stem bending in forest shrubs: stem or shoot reorientation and shoot release.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B F

    1997-10-01

    Shrubs in the forest understory may be bent by their own weight or by overstory debris. To maintain height growth they must respond to bending by vertical growth of new shoots, reorientation of older axes, or by releasing preventitious buds to form epicormic shoots. I tested for these responses in Ilex verticillata L., Cornus amomum Mill., Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, Viburnum cassinoides L., Hamamelis virginiana L., and Kalmia latifolia L. For each species, I removed potentially supporting vegetation adjacent to 20 stems, left 10 stems untreated to test for bending by self weight, and bent the remaining 10 stems to 45 degrees to simulate effects of fallen debris. Stem angles and curvatures were measured from before leaf out until just before leaf fall to detect either sagging from self weight or upward bending from tension wood action. Control stems initially leaned out of vertical and five of six species sagged further into a cantilever form. Several control stems failed and bent to the ground. Stems of H. virginiana, I. verticillata, and C. amomum formed tension wood, but only the first two species bent upward. Viburnum cassinoides, G. baccata, and K. latifolia formed no tension wood and sagged further down after being bent. Epicormic shoots formed with varying frequencies in all species except K. latifolia. Epicormic shoots were the major response in C. amomum, V. cassinoides, and G. baccata. New terminal shoots on bent stems recovered toward vertical in I. verticillata and K. latifolia. Negative gravitropic response of shoots was the only recovery mechanism for K. latifolia.

  10. Deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two Viburnum species, with special reference to shoot growth and development inside the seed.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ching-Te; Chen, Shun-Ying; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2011-07-01

    In seeds with deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, warm and cold stratification are required to break dormancy of the radicle and shoot, respectively. Although the shoot remains inside the seed all winter, little is known about its growth and morphological development prior to emergence in spring. The aims of the present study were to determine the temperature requirements for radicle and shoot emergence in seeds of Viburnum betulifolium and V. parvifolium and to monitor growth of the epicotyl, plumule and cotyledons in root-emerged seeds. Fresh and pre-treated seeds of V. betulifolium and V. parvifolium were incubated under various temperature regimes and monitored for radicle and shoot emergence. Growth of the epicotyl and cotyledons at different stages was observed with dissecting and scanning electron microscopes. The optimum temperature for radicle emergence of seeds of both species, either kept continuously at a single regime or exposed to a sequence of regimes, was 20/10 °C. GA(3) had no effect on radicle emergence. Cold stratification (5 °C) was required for shoot emergence. The shoot apical meristem in fresh seeds did not form a bulge until the embryo had grown to the critical length for radicle emergence. After radicle emergence, the epicotyl--plumule and cotyledons grew slowly at 5 and 20/10 °C, and the first pair of true leaves was initiated. However, the shoot emerged only from seeds that received cold stratification. Seeds of V. betulifolium and V. parvifolium have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, C(1b)B (root)-C(3) (epicotyl). Warm stratification was required to break the first part of physiological dormancy (PD), thereby allowing embryo growth and subsequently radicle emergence. Although cold stratification was not required for differentiation of the epicotyl--plumule, it was required to break the second part of PD, thereby allowing the shoot to emerge in spring.

  11. Deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two Viburnum species, with special reference to shoot growth and development inside the seed

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Ching-Te; Chen, Shun-Ying; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims In seeds with deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, warm and cold stratification are required to break dormancy of the radicle and shoot, respectively. Although the shoot remains inside the seed all winter, little is known about its growth and morphological development prior to emergence in spring. The aims of the present study were to determine the temperature requirements for radicle and shoot emergence in seeds of Viburnum betulifolium and V. parvifolium and to monitor growth of the epicotyl, plumule and cotyledons in root-emerged seeds. Methods Fresh and pre-treated seeds of V. betulifolium and V. parvifolium were incubated under various temperature regimes and monitored for radicle and shoot emergence. Growth of the epicotyl and cotyledons at different stages was observed with dissecting and scanning electron microscopes. Key Results The optimum temperature for radicle emergence of seeds of both species, either kept continuously at a single regime or exposed to a sequence of regimes, was 20/10 °C. GA3 had no effect on radicle emergence. Cold stratification (5 °C) was required for shoot emergence. The shoot apical meristem in fresh seeds did not form a bulge until the embryo had grown to the critical length for radicle emergence. After radicle emergence, the epicotyl–plumule and cotyledons grew slowly at 5 and 20/10 °C, and the first pair of true leaves was initiated. However, the shoot emerged only from seeds that received cold stratification. Conclusions Seeds of V. betulifolium and V. parvifolium have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, C1bB (root)–C3 (epicotyl). Warm stratification was required to break the first part of physiological dormancy (PD), thereby allowing embryo growth and subsequently radicle emergence. Although cold stratification was not required for differentiation of the epicotyl–plumule, it was required to break the second part of PD, thereby allowing the shoot to emerge in spring

  12. UV-B Inhibits Leaf Growth through Changes in Growth Regulating Factors and Gibberellin Levels1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Julieta; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Prinsen, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation affects leaf growth in a wide range of species. In this work, we demonstrate that UV-B levels present in solar radiation inhibit maize (Zea mays) leaf growth without causing any other visible stress symptoms, including the accumulation of DNA damage. We conducted kinematic analyses of cell division and expansion to understand the impact of UV-B radiation on these cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in leaf growth in UV-B-irradiated leaves is a consequence of a reduction in cell production and a shortened growth zone (GZ). To determine the molecular pathways involved in UV-B inhibition of leaf growth, we performed RNA sequencing on isolated GZ tissues of control and UV-B-exposed plants. Our results show a link between the observed leaf growth inhibition and the expression of specific cell cycle and developmental genes, including growth-regulating factors (GRFs) and transcripts for proteins participating in different hormone pathways. Interestingly, the decrease in the GZ size correlates with a decrease in the concentration of GA19, the immediate precursor of the active gibberellin, GA1, by UV-B in this zone, which is regulated, at least in part, by the expression of GRF1 and possibly other transcription factors of the GRF family. PMID:28400494

  13. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. PMID:26450705

  15. A correlative microscopy approach relates microtubule behaviour, local organ geometry, and cell growth at the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem

    PubMed Central

    Burian, Agata; Uyttewaal, Magalie

    2013-01-01

    Cortical microtubules (CMTs) are often aligned in a particular direction in individual cells or even in groups of cells and play a central role in the definition of growth anisotropy. How the CMTs themselves are aligned is not well known, but two hypotheses have been proposed. According to the first hypothesis, CMTs align perpendicular to the maximal growth direction, and, according to the second, CMTs align parallel to the maximal stress direction. Since both hypotheses were formulated on the basis of mainly qualitative assessments, the link between CMT organization, organ geometry, and cell growth is revisited using a quantitative approach. For this purpose, CMT orientation, local curvature, and growth parameters for each cell were measured in the growing shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this approach, it has been shown that stable CMTs tend to be perpendicular to the direction of maximal growth in cells at the SAM periphery, but parallel in the cells at the boundary domain. When examining the local curvature of the SAM surface, no strict correlation between curvature and CMT arrangement was found, which implies that SAM geometry, and presumed geometry-derived stress distribution, is not sufficient to prescribe the CMT orientation. However, a better match between stress and CMTs was found when mechanical stress derived from differential growth was also considered. PMID:24153420

  16. A correlative microscopy approach relates microtubule behaviour, local organ geometry, and cell growth at the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Burian, Agata; Ludynia, Michal; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Traas, Jan; Boudaoud, Arezki; Hamant, Olivier; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2013-12-01

    Cortical microtubules (CMTs) are often aligned in a particular direction in individual cells or even in groups of cells and play a central role in the definition of growth anisotropy. How the CMTs themselves are aligned is not well known, but two hypotheses have been proposed. According to the first hypothesis, CMTs align perpendicular to the maximal growth direction, and, according to the second, CMTs align parallel to the maximal stress direction. Since both hypotheses were formulated on the basis of mainly qualitative assessments, the link between CMT organization, organ geometry, and cell growth is revisited using a quantitative approach. For this purpose, CMT orientation, local curvature, and growth parameters for each cell were measured in the growing shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana. Using this approach, it has been shown that stable CMTs tend to be perpendicular to the direction of maximal growth in cells at the SAM periphery, but parallel in the cells at the boundary domain. When examining the local curvature of the SAM surface, no strict correlation between curvature and CMT arrangement was found, which implies that SAM geometry, and presumed geometry-derived stress distribution, is not sufficient to prescribe the CMT orientation. However, a better match between stress and CMTs was found when mechanical stress derived from differential growth was also considered.

  17. In Vitro Conservation of Date Palm Shoot-Tip Explants and Callus Cultures Under Minimal Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    El-Dawayati, Maiada M

    2017-01-01

    Date palm fruit production has great economic significance for many countries. There is a fundamental necessity to conserve valuable date palm germplasm, but there are various problems with in vivo and ex situ conservation. In vitro storage has several advantages over conventional germplasm conservation methods. The in vitro technique offers a developed method of slow-growth storage, which is considered as an alternate solution for short- and medium-term storage of date palm germplasm under controlled conditions. Minimal growth conditions for germplasm conservation are generally achieved by reducing growth rate through modification of environmental growing conditions and culture, by using low temperatures, and the addition of growth retardants and osmotic agents. This chapter describes a protocol for short-term in vitro conservation of date palm shoot-tip and callus cultures under slow-growth storage conditions, using sucrose as an osmotic agent and abscisic acid (ABA) as a growth retardant at 15 °C for 12 months.

  18. Growth temperature modulates the spatial variability of leaf morphology and chemical elements within crowns of climatically divergent Acer rubrum genotypes.

    PubMed

    Shahba, Mohamed A; Bauerle, William L

    2009-07-01

    Our understanding of leaf acclimation in relation to temperature of fully grown or juvenile tree crowns is mainly based on research involving spatially uncontrolled growth temperature. In this study, we test the hypothesis that leaf morphology and chemical elements are modulated by within-crown growth temperature differences. We ask whether within-species variation can influence acclimation to elevated temperatures. Within-crown temperature dependence of leaf morphology, carbon and nitrogen was examined in two genotypes of Acer rubrum L. (red maple) from different latitudes, where the mean annual temperature varies between 7.2 and 19.4 degrees C. Crown sections were grown in temperature-controlled chambers at three daytime growth temperatures (25, 33 and 38 degrees C). Leaf growth and resource acquisition were measured at regular intervals over long-term (50 days) controlled daytime growth temperatures. We found significant intraspecific variation in temperature dependence of leaf carbon and nitrogen accumulation between genotypes. Additionally, there was evidence that leaf morphology depended on inherited adaptation. Leaf dry matter and nitrogen content decreased as growth temperature was elevated above 25 degrees C in the genotype native to the cooler climate, whereas they remained fairly constant in response to temperature in the genotype native to the warmer climate. Specific leaf area (SLA) was correlated positively to leaf nitrogen content in both genotypes. The SLA and the relative leaf dry matter content (LM), on the other hand, were correlated negatively to leaf thickness. However, intraspecific variation in SLA and LM versus leaf thickness was highly significant. Intraspecific differences in leaf temperature response between climatically divergent genotypes yielded important implications for convergent evolution of leaf adaptation. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies showed that leaf carbon allocation along a vertical temperature

  19. Brief Report: Examining children’s disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, CK Fred; Miller, Kimberly A.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676

  20. Differential growth of pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf epidermis as revealed by microbead labeling.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Joanna; Lipowczan, Marcin; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2018-02-01

    In numerous vascular plants, pavement cells of the leaf epidermis are shaped like a jigsaw-puzzle piece. Knowledge about the subcellular pattern of growth that accompanies morphogenesis of such a complex shape is crucial for studies of the role of the cytoskeleton, cell wall and phytohormones in plant cell development. Because the detailed growth pattern of the anticlinal and periclinal cell walls remains unknown, our aim was to measure pavement cell growth at a subcellular resolution. Using fluorescent microbeads applied to the surface of the adaxial leaf epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana as landmarks for growth computation, we directly assessed the growth rates for the outer periclinal and anticlinal cell walls at a subcellular scale. We observed complementary tendencies in the growth pattern of the outer periclinal and anticlinal cell walls. Central portions of periclinal walls were characterized by relatively slow growth, while growth of the other wall portions was heterogeneous. Local growth of the periclinal walls accompanying lobe development after initiation was relatively fast and anisotropic, with maximal extension usually in the direction along the lobe axis. This growth pattern of the periclinal walls was complemented by the extension of the anticlinal walls, which was faster on the lobe sides than at the tips. Growth of the anticlinal and outer periclinal walls of leaf pavement cells is heterogeneous. The growth of the lobes resembles cell elongation via diffuse growth rather than tip growth. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Growth maximization trumps maintenance of leaf conductance in the tallest angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Koch, George W; Sillett, Stephen C; Antoine, Marie E; Williams, Cameron B

    2015-02-01

    Structural and physiological changes that occur as trees grow taller are associated with increased hydraulic constraints on leaf gas exchange, yet it is unclear if leaf-level constraints influence whole-tree growth as trees approach their maximum size. We examined variation in leaf physiology, leaf area to sapwood area ratio (L/S), and annual aboveground growth across a range of tree heights in Eucalyptus regnans. Leaf photosynthetic capacity did not differ among upper crown leaves of individuals 61.1-92.4 m tall. Maximum daily and integrated diurnal stomatal conductance (g s) averaged 36 and 34% higher, respectively, in upper crown leaves of ~60-m-tall, 80-year-old trees than in ~90-m-tall, 300-year-old trees, with larger differences observed on days with a high vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Greater stomatal regulation in taller trees resulted in similar minimum daily leaf water potentials (Ψ L) in shorter and taller trees over a broad range of VPDs. The long-term stomatal limitation on photosynthesis, as inferred from leaf δ (13)C composition, was also greater in taller trees. The δ (13)C of wood indicated that the bulk of photosynthesis used to fuel wood production in the main trunk and branches occurred in the upper crown. L/S increased with tree height, especially after accounting for size-independent variation in crown structure across 27 trees up to 99.8 m tall. Despite greater stomatal limitation of leaf photosynthesis in taller trees, total L explained 95% of the variation in annual aboveground biomass growth among 15 trees measured for annual biomass growth increment in 2006. Our results support a theoretical model proposing that, in the face of increasing hydraulic constraints with height, whole-tree growth is maximized by a resource trade-off that increases L to maximize light capture rather than by reducing L/S to sustain g s.

  2. Control of growth of juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus globulus: effects of leaf age.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, J C; Davies, W J; Pereira, J S

    1991-12-01

    Biophysical variables influencing the expansion of plant cells (yield threshold, cell wall extensibility and turgor) were measured in individual Eucalyptus globulus leaves from the time of emergence until cessation of growth. Leaf water relations variables and growth rates were determined as relative humidity was changed on an hourly basis. Yield threshold and cell wall extensibility were estimated from plots of leaf growth rate versus turgor. Cell wall extensibility was also measured by the Instron technique, and yield threshold was determined experimentally both by stress relaxation in a psychrometer chamber and by incubation in a range of polyethylene glycol solutions. Once emerging leaves reached approximately 5 cm(2) in size, increases in leaf area were rapid throughout the expansive phase and varied little between light and dark periods. Both leaf growth rate and turgor were sensitive to changes in humidity, and in the longer term, both yield threshold and cell wall extensibility changed as the leaf aged. Rapidly expanding leaves had a very low yield threshold and high cell wall extensibility, whereas mature leaves had low cell wall extensibility. Yield threshold increased with leaf age.

  3. Elongation growth of the leaf sheath base of Avena sativa seedlings: regulation by hormones and sucrose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    The leaf sheath base of the seedling of Avena sativa was characterized for growth response to hormones and sucrose. Six day old plants, raised under a 10:14 hr light:dark cycle, were excised at the coleoptilar node and 1 cm above the node for treatment. The growth of the leaf sheath base was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA3) and this response was dose dependent. The lag to response initiation was approximately 4 hr. Growth with or without GA3 (10 micromoles) was transient, diminishing appreciably after 48 hr. The addition of 10 mM sucrose greatly prolonged growth; the effect of GA3 and sucrose was additive. Neither indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) nor the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA), alone or in combination, promoted the growth of leaf sheath bases. However, both significantly inhibited the action of GA3. The inhibitory effect of IAA was dose dependent and was not affected by the addition of BA or sucrose. These results indicate that the growth of leaf sheath bases of Avena sativa is promoted specifically by gibberellin, that this action depends on the availability of carbohydrates from outside of the leaf sheath base, and that the promotional effect of GA3 can be modified by either auxins or cytokinins.

  4. Inducible repression of multiple expansin genes leads to growth suppression during leaf development.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hoe-Han; Sloan, Jennifer; Dorca-Fornell, Carmen; Fleming, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins implicated in the control of plant growth via loosening of the extracellular matrix. They are encoded by a large gene family, and data linked to loss of single gene function to support a role of expansins in leaf growth remain limited. Here, we provide a quantitative growth analysis of transgenics containing an inducible artificial microRNA construct designed to down-regulate the expression of a number of expansin genes that an expression analysis indicated are expressed during the development of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf 6. The results support the hypothesis that expansins are required for leaf growth and show that decreased expansin gene expression leads to a more marked repression of growth during the later stage of leaf development. In addition, a histological analysis of leaves in which expansin gene expression was suppressed indicates that, despite smaller leaves, mean cell size was increased. These data provide functional evidence for a role of expansins in leaf growth, indicate the importance of tissue/organ developmental context for the outcome of altered expansin gene expression, and highlight the separation of the outcome of expansin gene expression at the cellular and organ levels.

  5. Effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Leaf Aqueous Extract on Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation and Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tung-Chou; Li, Yuan-Sheng; Rajamani, Karthyayani; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effect of the water extract of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (COK) leaves on hair growth by in vitro and in vivo assays. Using an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, it was found that the proliferation of rat vibrissae and human hair dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) was significantly enhanced by the COK leaf extract treatment. As determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of some hair growth–related factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and transforming growth factor-β2 were found to be higher in the cultured hDPCs exposed to COK leaf extract than those in the untreated control group. In the hair-depilated C57BL/6 mouse model, the stimulation of hair growth was demonstrated in the group of COK leaf extract treatment. Both photographical and histological observations revealed the promotion of the anagen phase in the hair growth cycle by the COK leaf extract in the C57BL/6 mice. Finally, the ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) showed that the COK extract contained mostly cinnamic aldehyde and a small amount of cinnamic acid. The results suggest that the COK leaf extract may find use for the treatment of hair loss. PMID:29637818

  6. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-03-01

    Hpa1 is a harpin protein produced by Xanthomonas oryzae, an important bacterial pathogen of rice, and has the growth-promoting activity in plants. To understand the molecular basis for the function of Hpa1, we generated an inactive variant protein, Hpa1 delta NT, by deleting the nitroxyl-terminal region of the Hpa1 sequence and compared Hpa1 delta NT with the full-length protein in terms of the effects on vegetative growth and related physiological responses in Arabidopsis. When Hpa1 was applied to plants, it acted to enhance the vegetative growth but did not affect the floral development. Enhanced plant growth was accompanied by induced expression of growth-promoting genes in plant leaves. The growth-promoting activity of Hpa1 was further correlated with a physiological consequence shown as promoted leaf photosynthesis as a result of facilitated CO2 conduction through leaf stomata and mesophyll cells. On the contrary, plant growth, growth-promoting gene expression, and the physiological consequence changed little in response to the Hpa1 delta NT treatment. These analyses suggest that Hpa1 requires the nitroxyl-terminus to facilitate CO2 transport inside leaf cells and promote leaf photosynthesis and vegetative growth of the plant.

  7. Localization of cells containing sedimented amyloplasts in the shoots of normal and lazy rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the localization of the cells containing sedimented amyloplasts (putative statocytes) and its relation to the graviresponding sites in the shoots of normal and lazy rice seedlings. All graviresponsive organs of the shoots of normal rice seedlings, the mesocotyl, the coleoptile and the leaf-sheath base, were found to possess the statocytes. This is the first indication that mesocotyl senses gravity by its own cells in inducing gravitropic bending in rice seedlings. In lazy-Kamenoo, although the shoots lost their gravitropic response with the advance of age, sedimentation of amyloplasts itself might not be attributable to the agravitropic growth of the shoots, because, including those of the leaf-sheath bases that had lost their response to gravity, sedimented amyloplasts appeared to be identical to those of normal Kamenoo and of younger seedlings of lazy-Kamenoo whose gravitropism is still apparent.

  8. Photosynthesis in developing leaf of juveniles and adults of three Mediterranean species with different growth forms.

    PubMed

    Chondrogiannis, Christos; Grammatikopoulos, George

    2016-12-01

    Leaf development is influenced by almost all the prevailing environmental conditions as well as from the conditions at the time of bud formation. Furthermore, the growth form of a plant determines the leaf longevity and subsequently the investment in biomass and the internal structure of the mesophyll. Therefore, photosynthetic traits of a growing leaf, though, partly predetermined, should also acclimate to temporal changes during developmental period. In addition, the age of the plant can affect photosynthesis of the growing leaf, yet, in the majority of studies, the age is associated to the size of the plant. To test if the reproductive status of the plant affects the time kinetics of the photosynthetic capacity of a growing leaf and the relative contribution of the plants' growth form to the whole procedure, field measurements were conducted in juveniles (prereproductive individuals) and adults (fully reproductive individuals) of an evergreen sclerophyllous shrub (Nerium oleander), a semi-deciduous dimorphic shrub (Phlomis fruticosa), and a winter deciduous tree with pre-leafing flowering (Cercis siliquastrum). PSII structural and functional integrity was progressively developed in all species, but already completed, only some days after leaf expansion in P. fruticosa. Developing leaf as well as fully developed leaf in adults of C. siliquastrum showed enhanced relative size of the pool of final PSI electron acceptors. Photosynthetic traits between juveniles and adults of P. fruticosa were similar, though the matured leaf of adults exhibited lower transpiration rates and improved water-use efficiency than that of juveniles. Adults of the evergreen shrub attained higher CO 2 assimilation rate than juveniles in matured leaf which can be attributed to higher electron flow devoted to carboxylation, and lower photorespiration rate. The reproductive phase of the plant seemed to be involved in modifications of the PSII and PSI functions of the deciduous tree, in

  9. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  10. On the evolution of developmental mechanisms: Divergent polarities in leaf growth as a case study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mainak Das; Nath, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Most model plants used to study leaf growth share a common developmental mechanism, namely basipetal growth polarity, wherein the distal end differentiates first with progressively more proliferative cells toward the base. Therefore, this base-to-tip growth pattern has served as a paradigm to explain leaf growth and also formed the basis for several computational models. However, our recent report in The Plant Cell on the investigation of leaf growth in 75 eudicot species covering a wide range of eudicot families showed that leaves grow with divergent polarities in the proximo-distal axis or without any obvious polarity. This divergence in growth polarity is linked to the expression divergence of a conserved microRNA-transcription factor module. This study raises several questions on the evolutionary origin of leaf growth pattern, such as 'when and why in evolution did the divergent growth polarities arise?' and 'what were the molecular changes that led to this divergence?'. Here, we discuss a few of these questions in some detail.

  11. Effects of incandescent radiation on photosynthesis, growth rate and yield of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of different ratios incandescent (ln) to fluorescent (Fl) radiation were tested on growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a controlled environment. After 4 days of treatment, dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) were greater for plants grown at 84 rather than 16% of total irradiance (82 W m-2) from ln lamps. Although leaf dry weight and area were 12-17% greater at 84% ln after the first 8 days of treatment, there were no differences in RGR or Pn between treatments during the last 4 days. If 84% ln was compared with 50% ln, all cumulative growth parameters, RGR, NAR and Pn were greater for 84% ln during the first 4 days of treatment. However, during the second 4 days, RGR was greater for the 50% ln treatment, resulting in no net difference in leaf dry weight or area between treatments. Shifting from 84 to 50% ln radiation between the first and second 4 days of treatment increased plant dry weight, leaf area, RGR and NAR relative to those under 84% ln for 8 days continuously.

  12. Effects of incandescent radiation on photosynthesis, growth rate and yield of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of different ratios of incandescent (ln) to fluorescent (Fl) radiation were tested on growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce in a controlled environment. After 4 days of treatment, dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) were greater for plants grown at 84 rather than 16 percent of total irradiance (82 W/sq m) from ln lamps. Although leaf dry weight and area were 12-17 percent greater at 84 percent ln after the first 8 days of treatment, there were no differences in RGR or Pn between treatments during the last 4 days. If 84 percent ln was compared with 50 percent ln, all cumulative growth parameters, RGR, NAR and Pn were greater for 84 percent ln during the first 4 days of treatment. However, during the second 4 days, RGR was greater for the 50 percent ln treatment, resulting in no net difference in leaf dry weight or area between treatments. Shifting from 84 to 50 percent ln radiation between the first and second 4 days of treatment increased plant dry weight, leaf area, RGR and NAR relative to those under 84 percent ln for 8 days continuously.

  13. A Rice PECTATE LYASE-LIKE Gene Is Required for Plant Growth and Leaf Senescence.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yujia; Yang, Yaolong; Ren, Deyong; Huang, Lichao; Dai, Liping; Wang, Yuqiong; Chen, Long; Tu, Zhengjun; Gao, Yihong; Li, Xueyong; Zhu, Li; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Guo, Longbiao; Kong, Zhaosheng; Lin, Yongjun; Qian, Qian; Zeng, Dali

    2017-06-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind plant growth and leaf senescence in monocot plants, we identified a mutant exhibiting dwarfism and an early-senescence leaf phenotype, termed dwarf and early-senescence leaf1 ( del1 ). Histological analysis showed that the abnormal growth was caused by a reduction in cell number. Further investigation revealed that the decline in cell number in del1 was affected by the cell cycle. Physiological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assays showed that leaf senescence was triggered by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The DEL1 gene was cloned using a map-based approach. It was shown to encode a pectate lyase (PEL) precursor that contains a PelC domain. DEL1 contains all the conserved residues of PEL and has strong similarity with plant PelC. DEL1 is expressed in all tissues but predominantly in elongating tissues. Functional analysis revealed that mutation of DEL1 decreased the total PEL enzymatic activity, increased the degree of methylesterified homogalacturonan, and altered the cell wall composition and structure. In addition, transcriptome assay revealed that a set of cell wall function- and senescence-related gene expression was altered in del1 plants. Our research indicates that DEL1 is involved in both the maintenance of normal cell division and the induction of leaf senescence. These findings reveal a new molecular mechanism for plant growth and leaf senescence mediated by PECTATE LYASE-LIKE genes. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Growth, shoot phenology and physiology of diverse seed sources of black spruce: II 23-year-old field trees

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Seiler; John E. Major

    1996-01-01

    Four sources of 23-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) from a provenance test at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute (46° N, 77°30¢ W) were assessed for height growth, shoot phenology and seasonal gas exchange. The provenances were designated 7000 (Yukon, 63°34¢ N, 135°55¢ W), 6979 (Alberta 52°22¢ N, 115°15¢ W), 6908 (Ontario, 48°59¢ N, 80°38¢ W)...

  15. Variations in leaf growth parameters within the tree structure of adult Coffea arabica in relation to seasonal growth, water availability and air carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Rakocevic, Miroslava; Matsunaga, Fabio Takeshi

    2018-04-05

    Dynamics in branch and leaf growth parameters, such as the phyllochron, duration of leaf expansion, leaf life span and bud mortality, determine tree architecture and canopy foliage distribution. We aimed to estimate leaf growth parameters in adult Arabica coffee plants based on leaf supporter axis order and position along the vertical profile, considering their modifications related to seasonal growth, air [CO2] and water availability. Growth and mortality of leaves and terminal buds of adult Arabica coffee trees were followed in two independent field experiments in two sub-tropical climate regions of Brazil, Londrina-PR (Cfa) and Jaguariúna-SP (Cwa). In the Cwa climate, coffee trees were grown under a FACE (free air CO2 enrichment) facility, where half of those had been irrigated. Plants were observed at a 15-30 d frequency for 1 year. Leaf growth parameters were estimated on five axes orders and expressed as functions of accumulated thermal time (°Cd per leaf). The phyllochron and duration of leaf expansion increased with axis order, from the seond to the fourth. The phyllochron and life span during the reduced vegetative seasonal growth were greater than during active growth. It took more thermal time for leaves from the first- to fourth-order axes to expand their blades under irrigation compared with rainfed conditions. The compensation effects of high [CO2] for low water availability were observed on leaf retention on the second and third axes orders, and duration of leaf expansion on the first- and fourth-order axes. The second-degree polynomials modelled leaf growth parameter distribution in the vertical tree profile, and linear regressions modelled the proportion of terminal bud mortality. Leaf growth parameters in coffee plants were determined by axis order. The duration of leaf expansion contributed to phyllochron determination. Leaf growth parameters varied according the position of the axis supporter along the vertical profile, suggesting an effect of

  16. Growth and yield characteristics of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under different photon fluxes from metal halide or incandescent + fluorescent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1988-01-01

    Growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under metal halide radiation was compared with that under In = Fl at the same photosynthetic photon flux (920 micromol/s/sq m) to evaluate the influence of lamp type on growth. No differences in leaf dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate or photosynthesis occurred after 8 days of exposure to these radiation treatments for 20 h/day.

  17. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  18. CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in C3 but not C4 plants and slows growth under nitrate in C3 plants.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arnold J; Asensio, Jose Salvador Rubaio; Randall, Lesley; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B; Carlisle, Eli A

    2012-02-01

    The CO2 concentration in Earth's atmosphere may double during this century. Plant responses to such an increase depend strongly on their nitrogen status, but the reasons have been uncertain. Here, we assessed shoot nitrate assimilation into amino acids via the shift in shoot CO2 and O2 fluxes when plants received nitrate instead of ammonium as a nitrogen source (deltaAQ). Shoot nitrate assimilation became negligible with increasing CO2 in a taxonomically diverse group of eight C3 plant species, was relatively insensitive to CO2 in three C4 species, and showed an intermediate sensitivity in two C3-C4 intermediate species. We then examined the influence of CO2 level and ammonium vs. nitrate nutrition on growth, assessed in terms of changes in fresh mass, of several C3 species and a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Elevated CO2 (720 micromol CO2/mol of all gases present) stimulated growth or had no effect in the five C3 species tested when they received ammonium as a nitrogen source but inhibited growth or had no effect if they received nitrate. Under nitrate, two C3 species grew faster at sub-ambient (approximately 310 micromol/mol) than elevated CO2. A CAM species grew faster at ambient than elevated or sub-ambient CO2 under either ammonium or nitrate nutrition. This study establishes that CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in a wide variety of C3 plants and that this phenomenon can have a profound effect on their growth. This indicates that shoot nitrate assimilation provides an important contribution to the nitrate assimilation of an entire C3 plant. Thus, rising CO2 and its effects on shoot nitrate assimilation may influence the distribution of C3 plant species.

  19. The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-09-01

    Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (ε(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ¹⁰⁰(π)) (and at zero turgor (Ψ⁰(π)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  20. Comparison of yellow poplar growth models on the basis of derived growth analysis variables

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen; Daniel A. Yaussy

    1986-01-01

    Quadratic and cubic polynomials, and Gompertz and Richards asymptotic models were fitted to yellow poplar growth data. These data included height, leaf area, leaf weight and new shoot height for 23 weeks. Seven growth analysis variables were estimated from each function. The Gompertz and Richards models fitted the data best and provided the most accurate derived...

  1. Diel time-courses of leaf growth in monocot and dicot species: endogenous rhythms and temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Parent, Boris; Mielewczik, Michael; Schurr, Ulrich; Tardieu, François; Walter, Achim

    2010-06-01

    Diel (24 h) leaf growth patterns were differently affected by temperature variations and the circadian clock in several plant species. In the monocotyledon Zea mays, leaf elongation rate closely followed changes in temperature. In the dicotyledons Nicotiana tabacum, Ricinus communis, and Flaveria bidentis, the effect of temperature regimes was less obvious and leaf growth exhibited a clear circadian oscillation. These differences were related neither to primary metabolism nor to altered carbohydrate availability for growth. The effect of endogenous rhythms on leaf growth was analysed under continuous light in Arabidopsis thaliana, Ricinus communis, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa. No rhythmic growth was observed under continuous light in the two monocotyledons, while growth rhythmicity persisted in the two dicotyledons. Based on model simulations it is concluded that diel leaf growth patterns in mono- and dicotyledons result from the additive effects of both circadian-clock-controlled processes and responses to environmental changes such as temperature and evaporative demand. Apparently very distinct diel leaf growth behaviour of monocotyledons and dicotyledons can thus be explained by the different degrees to which diel temperature variations affect leaf growth in the two groups of species which, in turn, depends on the extent of the leaf growth control by internal clocks.

  2. A study of the control problem of the shoot side environment delivery system of a closed crop growth research chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Blackwell, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The details of our initial study of the control problem of the crop shoot environment of a hypothetical closed crop growth research chamber (CGRC) are presented in this report. The configuration of the CGRC is hypothetical because neither a physical subject nor a design existed at the time the study began, a circumstance which is typical of large scale systems control studies. The basis of the control study is a mathematical model which was judged to adequately mimic the relevant dynamics of the system components considered necessary to provide acceptable realism in the representation. Control of pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the crop shoot environment, along with its oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water concentration is addressed. To account for mass exchange, the group of plants is represented in the model by a source of oxygen, a source of water vapor, and a sink for carbon dioxide. In terms of the thermal energy exchange, the group of plants is represented by a surface with an appropriate temperature. Most of the primitive equations about an experimental operating condition and a state variable representation which was extracted from the linearized equations are presented. Next, we present the results of a real Jordan decomposition and the repositioning of an undesirable eigenvalue via full state feedback. The state variable representation of the modeling system is of the nineteenth order and reflects the eleven control variables and eight system disturbances. Five real eigenvalues are very near zero, with one at zero, three having small magnitude positive values, and one having a small magnitude negative value. A Singular Value Decomposition analysis indicates that these non-zero eigenvalues are not results of numerical error.

  3. Tree leaf trade-offs are stronger for sub-canopy trees: leaf traits reveal little about growth rates in canopy trees.

    PubMed

    Wills, Jarrah; Herbohn, John; Hu, Jing; Sohel, Shawkat; Baynes, Jack; Firn, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    Can morphological plant functional traits predict demographic rates (e.g., growth) within plant communities as diverse as tropical forests? This is one of the most important next-step questions in trait-based ecology and particularly for global reforestation efforts. Due to the diversity of tropical tree species and their longevity, it is difficult to predict their performance prior to reforestation efforts. In this study, we investigate if simple leaf traits are predictors of the more complex ecological process of plant growth in regenerating selectively logged natural forest within the Wet Tropics (WTs) bioregion of Australia. This study used a rich historical data set to quantify tree growth within plots located at Danbulla National Park and State Forest on the Atherton Tableland. Leaf traits were collected from trees that have exhibited fast or slow growth over the last ~50 yr of measurement. Leaf traits were found to be poor predictors of tree growth for trees that have entered the canopy; however, for sub-canopy trees, leaf traits had a stronger association with growth rates. Leaf phosphorus concentrations were the strongest predictor of Periodic Annual Increment (PAI) for trees growing within the sub-canopy, with trees with higher leaf phosphorus levels showing a higher PAI. Sub-canopy tree leaves also exhibited stronger trade-offs between leaf traits and adhere to theoretical predictions more so than for canopy trees. We suggest that, in order for leaf traits to be more applicable to reforestation, size dependence of traits and growth relationships need to be more carefully considered, particularly when reforestation practitioners assign mean trait values to tropical tree species from multiple canopy strata. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. [Effects of water table manipulation on leaf photosynthesis, morphology and growth of Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrica in the reclaimed tidal wetland at Dongtan of Chongming Island, China].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qi-Cheng; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Hong; Ou, Qiang; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2014-02-01

    During the growing season of 2011, the leaf photosynthesis, morphological and growth traits of Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrica were investigated along a gradient of water table (low, medium and high) in the reclaimed tidal wetland at the Dongtan of Chongming Island in the Yangtze Estuary of China. A series of soil factors, i. e., soil temperature, moisture, salinity and inorganic nitrogen content, were also measured. During the peak growing season, leaf photosynthetic capacity of P. australis in the wetland with high water table was significantly lower than those in the wetland with low and medium water tables, and no difference was observed in leaf photosynthetic capacity of I. cylindrica at the three water tables. During the entire growing season, at the shoot level, the morphological and growth traits of P. australis got the optimum in the wetland with medium water table, but most of the morphological and growth traits of I. cylindrica had no significant differences at the three water tables. At the population level, the shoot density, leaf area index and aboveground biomass per unit area were the highest in the wetland with high water table for P. australis, but all of the three traits were the highest in the wetland with low water table for I. cylindrica. At the early growing season, the rhizome biomass of P. australis in the 0-20 cm soil layer had no difference at the three water tables, and the rhizome biomass of I. cylindrica in the 0-20 cm soil layer in the wetland with high water table was significantly lower than those in the wetland with low and medium water table. As a native hygrophyte before the reclamation, the variations of performances of P. australis at the three water tables were probably attributed to the differences in the soil factors as well as the intensity of competition from I. cylindrica. To appropriately manipulate water table in the reclaimed tidal wetland may restrict the growth and propagation of the mesophyte I

  5. An efficient in vitro shoot regeneration from leaf petiolar explants and ex vitro rooting of Bixa orellana L.- A dye yielding plant.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Namsa, Nima D; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-07-01

    Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) is a multipurpose tree grown for the production of commercially important dyes. In the present study, an efficient, reproducible protocol was developed for direct plant regeneration from in vitro derived petiole explants of Bixa orellana L. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 2-isopentenyl adenine (9.8 μM) and naphthalene acetic acid (10.7 μM) was found to be optimum for production of high frequency of shoot organogenesis. Subculturing of the shoots onto the fresh MS medium containing similar concentrations of 2-iP (9.8 μM) and NAA (10.7 μM) produced elongated shoots. Elongated shoots when placed onto MS medium supplemented with 1.7 μM indole-3-acetic acid and 14.7 μM 2-iP produced optimal rooting. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized and transplanted to the field successfully. Histological investigation revealed the origin of shoot primordia, from sub-epidermal cells of petiole explants. The regeneration protocol developed in this study can be useful for mass in vitro propagation and effective genetic transformation of commercially important edible dye yielding tree species.

  6. In vitro storage of cedar shoot cultures under minimal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2006-07-01

    We developed procedures for slow-growth storage of Cedrus atlantica and Cedrus libani microcuttings of juvenile and adult origin, noting factors favouring the extension of subculture intervals. Microcuttings could be stored effectively up to 6 months at 4 degrees C and reduced light intensity, provided that they were grown on a diluted modified MS medium. The addition of 6% mannitol to the storage media affected negatively survival and multiplication capacity of the cultures. The slow-growth storage conditions used in our experiments did not induce remarkable effects on both RAPD variability and average DNA methylation in the species.

  7. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Shoot regeneration and plantlet formation by cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and in oval-leaf bilberry on a zeatin-containing nutrient medium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A plant regeneration protocol was developed for Cascade huckleberry (Vaccinium deliciosum Piper), mountain huckleberry (V. membranaceum Douglas ex Hooker) and for oval-leaf bilberry (V. ovalifolium Smith) clones. The effects of zeatin concentrations (0, 4.6, 9.1 and 13.7 µM) and explant type (leaf a...

  9. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-10

    ISS006-E-44990 (10 March 2003) --- A close up view of a water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  10. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-09

    ISS006-E-44970 (9 March 2003) --- A close up view of a water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-10

    ISS006-E-44989 (10 March 2003) --- A close up view of a water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  12. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-09

    ISS006-E-44936 (9 March 2003) --- A close up view of a water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-10

    ISS006-E-44985 (10 March 2003) --- A close up view of a water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-09

    ISS006-E-44962 (9 March 2003) --- A close up view of a water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Effects of Artificial Defoliation on the Growth of Cottonwood: Simulation of Cottonwood Leaf Beetle Defoliation

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Tucker; T. Evan Nebeker; Michael D. Warriner; William D. Jones; T. Keith Beatty

    2004-01-01

    Populus are among the fastest growing commercial forest trees but are not without problems. Insects and diseases can take their toll. The cottonwood leaf beetle (Chrysomela scripta F.; CLB) is of concern. Although damage by the CLB can result in terminal dieback, reduction in growth, and potential mortality, the impact on ...

  16. Sugarcane Leaf Photosynthesis and Growth Characters during Development of Water-Deficit Stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yield and profitability of sugarcane grown on sand soils are much lower than on organic soils in Florida due to biotic and abiotic stresses. A greenhouse study was conducted using a sand soil to identify effects of water deficit stress (WS) during sugarcane early growth on leaf photosynthetic compon...

  17. The plant economics spectrum is structured by leaf habits and growth forms across subtropical species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Tao; Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong

    2017-02-01

    The plant economics spectrum that integrates the combination of leaf and wood syndromes provides a useful framework for the examination of species strategies at the whole-plant level. However, it remains unclear how species that differ in leaf habits and growth forms are integrated within the plant economics spectrum in subtropical forests. We measured five leaf and six wood traits across 58 subtropical plant species, which represented two leaf habits (evergreen vs deciduous) and two growth forms (tree vs shrub) in eastern China. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed separately to construct the leaf (LES), wood (WES) and whole-plant (WPES) economics spectra. Leaf and wood traits are highly intra- and intercorrelated, thus defining not only the LES and WES, but also a WPES. Multi-trait variations in PCAs revealed that the traits which were representative of the acquisitive strategy, i.e., cheap tissue investment and rapid returns on that investment, were clustered at one end, while traits that represented the conservative strategy, i.e., expensive tissue investment and slower returns, were clustered at other end in each of the axes of the leaf and wood syndromes (PC1-axis) and the plant height strategy (PC2-axis). The local WPES, LES and WES were tightly correlated with each other. Evergreens shaped the conservative side, while deciduous species structured the acquisitive side of the WPES and LES. With respect to plant height strategies, trees formulated the acquisitive side and shrub species made up the conservative side of the WPES, LES and WES. In conclusion, our results suggested that the LES and WES were coordinated to a WPES for subtropical species. The finding of this local spectrum of plant form and function would be beneficial for modeling nutrient fluxes and species compositions in the changing climate, but also for understanding species strategies in an evolutionary context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  18. Drought Induces Distinct Growth Response, Protection, and Recovery Mechanisms in the Maize Leaf Growth Zone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Fotschki, Bartosz; Casadevall, Romina; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Taleisnik, Edith; Guisez, Yves; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the most important crop yield-limiting factor, and detailed knowledge of its impact on plant growth regulation is crucial. The maize (Zea mays) leaf growth zone offers unique possibilities for studying the spatiotemporal regulation of developmental processes by transcriptional analyses and methods that require more material, such as metabolite and enzyme activity measurements. By means of a kinematic analysis, we show that drought inhibits maize leaf growth by inhibiting cell division in the meristem and cell expansion in the elongation zone. Through a microarray study, we observed the down-regulation of 32 of the 54 cell cycle genes, providing a basis for the inhibited cell division. We also found evidence for an up-regulation of the photosynthetic machinery and the antioxidant and redox systems. This was confirmed by increased chlorophyll content in mature cells and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolite levels across the growth zone, respectively. We demonstrate the functional significance of the identified transcriptional reprogramming by showing that increasing the antioxidant capacity in the proliferation zone, by overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) iron-superoxide dismutase gene, increases leaf growth rate by stimulating cell division. We also show that the increased photosynthetic capacity leads to enhanced photosynthesis upon rewatering, facilitating the often-observed growth compensation. PMID:26297138

  19. Delayed soil thawing affects root and shoot functioning and growth in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Repo, Tapani; Lehto, Tarja; Finér, Leena

    2008-10-01

    In boreal regions, soil can remain frozen after the start of the growing season. We compared relationships between root characteristics and water relations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings subjected to soil frost treatments before and during the first week of the growing period in a controlled environment experiment. Delayed soil thawing delayed the onset of sap flow or totally blocked it if soil thawing lagged the start of the growing period by 7 days. This effect was reflected in the electrical impedance of needles and trunks and in the relative electrolyte leakage of needles. Prolonged soil frost reduced or completely inhibited root growth. In unfrozen soil, limited trunk sap flow was observed despite unfavorable aboveground growing conditions (low temperature, low irradiance, short photoperiod). Following the earliest soil thaw, sap flow varied during the growing season, depending on light and temperature conditions, phenological stage of the plant and the amount of live needles in the canopy. The results suggest that delayed soil thawing can reduce tree growth, and if prolonged, it can be lethal.

  20. Flavonol Glycosides in Currant Leaves and Variation with Growth Season, Growth Location, and Leaf Position.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2015-10-28

    Flavonol glycosides (FG) were analyzed in the leaves of six currant cultivars (Ribes spp.) with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS/MS, and NMR. The average amounts of the 12 major, identified FG constituted 86-93% (9.6-14.1 mg/g DW) of the total of 27 FG found. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major aglycones with trace amounts of myricetin. Quercetin-3-O-(2,6-α-dirhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside), quercetin-3-O-(2-β-xylopyranosyl-6-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside), and kaempferol-3-O-(3,6-α-dirhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranoside) were identified for the first time in currant leaves and existed in a white currant cultivar 'White Dutch' only. Kaempferol-3-O-β-(6'-malonyl)glucopyranoside was also a new compound existing in abundance in five cultivars but not in the white one. The results show the primary importance of the genetic background of the cultivars. The content of malonylated FG of special importance in cardiovascular health decreased regularly during summer. Time of collection and leaf position were more prominent factors affecting the composition than were the year of harvest or the growth latitude. Randomly collected leaves differed in their FG profiles from those collected from the middle position of new branches.

  1. Antibiotic mixture effects on growth of the leaf-shredding stream detritivore Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Gessner, Mark O; Schulz, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals contribute greatly to human and animal health. Given their specific biological targets, pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk by affecting organisms and ecosystem processes, including leaf-litter decomposition. Although litter decomposition is a central process in forest streams, the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals remain poorly known. The present study assessed the impact of antibiotics as an important class of pharmaceuticals on the growth of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum over 24 days. Exposure scenarios involved an antibiotic mixture (i.e. sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H 2 O, roxithromycin, clarithromycin) at 0, 2 and 200 µg/L to assess impacts resulting from exposure to both water and food. The antibiotics had no effect on either leaf-associated fungal biomass or bacterial abundance. However, modification of leaf quality (e.g. through shifts in leaf-associated microbial communities) may have triggered faster growth of gammarids (assessed in terms of body mass gain) at the low antibiotic concentration relative to the control. At 200 µg/L, however, gammarid growth was not stimulated. This outcome might be due to a modified ability of the gut microflora to assimilate nutrients and carbon. Furthermore, the observed lack of increases in the diameter of the gammarids' peduncles, despite an increase in gammarid mass, suggests antibiotic-induced effects in the moulting cycle. Although the processes responsible for the observed effects have not yet been identified, these results suggest a potential role of food-quality, gammarid gut microflora and alteration in the moulting cycle in mediating impacts of antibiotics on these detritivores and the leaf decomposition process in streams.

  2. Divergence in Patterns of Leaf Growth Polarity Is Associated with the Expression Divergence of miR396

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lateral appendages often show allometric growth with a specific growth polarity along the proximo-distal axis. Studies on leaf growth in model plants have identified a basipetal growth direction with the highest growth rate at the proximal end and progressively lower rates toward the distal end. Although the molecular mechanisms governing such a growth pattern have been studied recently, variation in leaf growth polarity and, therefore, its evolutionary origin remain unknown. By surveying 75 eudicot species, here we report that leaf growth polarity is divergent. Leaf growth in the proximo-distal axis is polar, with more growth arising from either the proximal or the distal end; dispersed with no apparent polarity; or bidirectional, with more growth contributed by the central region and less growth at either end. We further demonstrate that the expression gradient of the miR396-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR module strongly correlates with the polarity of leaf growth. Altering the endogenous pattern of miR396 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leaves only partially modified the spatial pattern of cell expansion, suggesting that the diverse growth polarities might have evolved via concerted changes in multiple gene regulatory networks. PMID:26410303

  3. Divergence in Patterns of Leaf Growth Polarity Is Associated with the Expression Divergence of miR396.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Mainak; Nath, Utpal

    2015-10-01

    Lateral appendages often show allometric growth with a specific growth polarity along the proximo-distal axis. Studies on leaf growth in model plants have identified a basipetal growth direction with the highest growth rate at the proximal end and progressively lower rates toward the distal end. Although the molecular mechanisms governing such a growth pattern have been studied recently, variation in leaf growth polarity and, therefore, its evolutionary origin remain unknown. By surveying 75 eudicot species, here we report that leaf growth polarity is divergent. Leaf growth in the proximo-distal axis is polar, with more growth arising from either the proximal or the distal end; dispersed with no apparent polarity; or bidirectional, with more growth contributed by the central region and less growth at either end. We further demonstrate that the expression gradient of the miR396-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR module strongly correlates with the polarity of leaf growth. Altering the endogenous pattern of miR396 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leaves only partially modified the spatial pattern of cell expansion, suggesting that the diverse growth polarities might have evolved via concerted changes in multiple gene regulatory networks. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Root and Shoot Phenology May Respond Differently to Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radville, L.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Post, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is increasing temperatures and extending the growing season for many organisms. Shifts in phenology have been widely reported in response to global warming and have strong effects on ecosystem processes and greenhouse gas emissions. It is well understood that warming generally advances aboveground plant phenology, but the influence of temperature on root phenology is unclear. Most terrestrial biosphere models assume that root and shoot growth occur at the same time and are influenced by warming in the same way, but recent studies suggest that this may not be the case. Testing this assumption is particularly important in the Arctic where over 70% of plant biomass can be belowground and warming is happening faster than in other ecosystems. In 2013 and 2014 we examined the timing of root growth in the Arctic in plots that had been warmed or unwarmed for 10 years. We found that peak root growth occurred about one month before leaf growth, suggesting that spring root phenology is not controlled by carbon produced during spring photosynthesis. If root phenology is not controlled by photosynthate early in the season, earlier spring leaf growth may not cause earlier spring root growth. In support of this, we found that warming advanced spring leaf cover but did not significantly affect root phenology. Root growth was not significantly correlated with soil temperature and did not appear to be limited by near-freezing temperatures above the permafrost. These results suggest that although shoots are influenced by temperature, roots in this system may be more influenced by photosynthesis and carbon storage. Aboveground phenology, one of the most widely measured aspects of climate change, may not represent whole-plant phenology and may be a poor indicator of the timing of whole-plant carbon fluxes. Additionally, climate model assumptions that roots and shoots grow at the same time may need to be revised.

  5. [Effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-feng; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-bin; Xian, Jun-ren; Wang, Kai-yun

    2009-01-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC), the effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of Western Sichuan were studied. The results showed that comparing with the control, the mean air temperature at 1.2 m above the ground throughout S. eriostachya growth season in OTC increased by 2.9 degrees C, while the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm only increased by 0.4 degrees C. The temperature increase in OTC made S. eriostachya budding advanced and defoliation postponed obviously, and the leaf life-span longer. The leaf and branch growth rates as well as the specific leaf area in OTC increased obviously, whereas the leaf nitrogen concentration decreased significantly. In OTC, the stomata conductance, net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, and dark respiration rate of S. eriostachya all exhibited an increasing trend. It was suggested that S. eriostachya had stronger capability to adapt to warming, and, under the background of future global climate change, the elevation of S. eriostachya distribution in the timberline ecotone would be likely to ascend.

  6. The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Miyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed and structurally separate the adaxial and abaxial epidermis from each other. The adaxial and abaxial cells are determined by the adaxial and abaxial regulatory genes (including transcription factors and small RNAs), respectively. Among many lamina-growth regulators identified by recent genetic analyses, it has been revealed that the phytohormone, auxin, and the WOX family transcription factors act at the adaxial-abaxial boundary downstream of the adaxial-abaxial pattern. Furthermore, mutant analyses of the WOX genes shed light on the role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary in preventing the mixing of the adaxial and abaxial features during lamina growth. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the dual role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary. PMID:27137371

  7. The function of the RNA-binding protein TEL1 in moss reveals ancient regulatory mechanisms of shoot development.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Spinner, Lara; Mazubert, Christelle; Charlot, Florence; Paquet, Nicolas; Thareau, Vincent; Dron, Michel; Nogué, Fabien; Charon, Céline

    2012-03-01

    The shoot represents the basic body plan in land plants. It consists of a repeated structure composed of stems and leaves. Whereas vascular plants generate a shoot in their diploid phase, non-vascular plants such as mosses form a shoot (called the gametophore) in their haploid generation. The evolution of regulatory mechanisms or genetic networks used in the development of these two kinds of shoots is unclear. TERMINAL EAR1-like genes have been involved in diploid shoot development in vascular plants. Here, we show that disruption of PpTEL1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens, causes reduced protonema growth and gametophore initiation, as well as defects in gametophore development. Leafy shoots formed on ΔTEL1 mutants exhibit shorter stems with more leaves per shoot, suggesting an accelerated leaf initiation (shortened plastochron), a phenotype shared with the Poaceae vascular plants TE1 and PLA2/LHD2 mutants. Moreover, the positive correlation between plastochron length and leaf size observed in ΔTEL1 mutants suggests a conserved compensatory mechanism correlating leaf growth and leaf initiation rate that would minimize overall changes in plant biomass. The RNA-binding protein encoded by PpTEL1 contains two N-terminus RNA-recognition motifs, and a third C-terminus non-canonical RRM, specific to TEL proteins. Removal of the PpTEL1 C-terminus (including this third RRM) or only 16-18 amino acids within it seriously impairs PpTEL1 function, suggesting a critical role for this third RRM. These results show a conserved function of the RNA-binding PpTEL1 protein in the regulation of shoot development, from early ancestors to vascular plants, that depends on the third TEL-specific RRM.

  8. Circadian, Carbon, and Light Control of Expansion Growth and Leaf Movement1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Flis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We used Phytotyping4D to investigate the contribution of clock and light signaling to the diurnal regulation of rosette expansion growth and leaf movement in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Wild-type plants and clock mutants with a short (lhycca1) and long (prr7prr9) period were analyzed in a T24 cycle and in T-cycles that were closer to the mutants’ period. Wild types also were analyzed in various photoperiods and after transfer to free-running light or darkness. Rosette expansion and leaf movement exhibited a circadian oscillation, with superimposed transients after dawn and dusk. Diurnal responses were modified in clock mutants. lhycca1 exhibited an inhibition of growth at the end of night and growth rose earlier after dawn, whereas prr7prr9 showed decreased growth for the first part of the light period. Some features were partly rescued by a matching T-cycle, like the inhibition in lhycca1 at the end of the night, indicating that it is due to premature exhaustion of starch. Other features were not rescued, revealing that the clock also regulates expansion growth more directly. Expansion growth was faster at night than in the daytime, whereas published work has shown that the synthesis of cellular components is faster in the day than at nighttime. This temporal uncoupling became larger in short photoperiods and may reflect the differing dependence of expansion and biosynthesis on energy, carbon, and water. While it has been proposed that leaf expansion and movement are causally linked, we did not observe a consistent temporal relationship between expansion and leaf movement. PMID:28559360

  9. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, G; Sankaranarayanan, R; Jeeva, S; Rajarathinam, K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Methods Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 µM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%–80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05). Results An in vitro method was developed to induce high frequency shoots regeneration from stem, mature leaf and young leaf explants of S. dulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 µM KI and 4.44 µM BAP) 2.85 µM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 µM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Conclusions Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis. PMID:23569752

  10. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, G; Sankaranarayanan, R; Jeeva, S; Rajarathinam, K

    2011-06-01

    To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 µM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05). An in vitro method was developed to induce high frequency shoots regeneration from stem, mature leaf and young leaf explants of S. dulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 µM KI and 4.44 µM BAP) 2.85 µM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 µM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.

  11. β-Amylase–Like Proteins Function as Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis, Controlling Shoot Growth and Development[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Heike; Soyk, Sebastian; Šimková, Klára; Hostettler, Carmen; Marafino, John; Mainiero, Samantha; Vaughan, Cara K.; Monroe, Jonathan D.; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2011-01-01

    Plants contain β-amylase–like proteins (BAMs; enzymes usually associated with starch breakdown) present in the nucleus rather than targeted to the chloroplast. They possess BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-type DNA binding domains—also found in transcription factors mediating brassinosteroid (BR) responses. The two Arabidopsis thaliana BZR1-BAM proteins (BAM7 and BAM8) bind a cis-regulatory element that both contains a G box and resembles a BR-responsive element. In protoplast transactivation assays, these BZR1-BAMs activate gene expression. Structural modeling suggests that the BAM domain’s glucan binding cleft is intact, but the recombinant proteins are at least 1000 times less active than chloroplastic β-amylases. Deregulation of BZR1-BAMs (the bam7bam8 double mutant and BAM8-overexpressing plants) causes altered leaf growth and development. Of the genes upregulated in plants overexpressing BAM8 and downregulated in bam7bam8 plants, many carry the cis-regulatory element in their promoters. Many genes that respond to BRs are inversely regulated by BZR1-BAMs. We propose a role for BZR1-BAMs in controlling plant growth and development through crosstalk with BR signaling. Furthermore, we speculate that BZR1-BAMs may transmit metabolic signals by binding a ligand in their BAM domain, although diurnal changes in the concentration of maltose, a candidate ligand produced by chloroplastic β-amylases, do not influence their transcription factor function. PMID:21487098

  12. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  13. Effect of light regime and provenance on leaf characteristics, growth and flavonoid accumulation in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja coppices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Qian, Chenyun; Ding, Sihui; Shang, Xulan; Yang, Wanxia; Fang, Shengzuo

    2016-12-01

    As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. However, limited information is available on its genotype selection and cultivation for growth and phytochemicals. Responses of growth and secondary metabolites to light regimes and genotypes are useful information to determine suitable habitat conditions for the cultivation of medicinal plants. Both light regime and provenance significantly affected the leaf characteristics, leaf flavonoid contents, biomass production and flavonoid accumulation per plant. Leaf thickness, length of palisade cells and chlorophyll a/b decreased significantly under shading conditions, while leaf areas and total chlorophyll content increased obviously. In the full light condition, leaf flavonoid contents showed a bimodal temporal variation pattern with the maximum observed in August and the second peak in October, while shading treatment not only reduced the leaf content of flavonoids but also delayed the peak appearing of the flavonoid contents in the leaves of C. paliurus. Strong correlations were found between leaf thickness, palisade length, monthly light intensity and measured flavonoid contents in the leaves of C. paliurus. Muchuan provenance with full light achieved the highest leaf biomass and flavonoid accumulation per plant. Cyclocarya paliurus genotypes show diverse responses to different light regimes in leaf characteristics, biomass production and flavonoid accumulation, highlighting the opportunity for extensive selection in the leaf flavonoid production.

  14. Form-function analysis of the effect of canopy morphology on leaf self-shading in the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Susana; Pantoja-Reyes, Norma I

    2005-09-01

    The variation in seagrass morphology and the magnitude of leaf self-shading within the canopy of Thalassia testudinum, were compared among nine sites in a fringing reef lagoon. We found a significant variation in the growth-form of T. testudinum reflected in a 5.4-fold variation in the attenuation coefficient (K (d)) within the canopy. The largest morphological variation was observed in shoot density. Leaf biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and shoot density were positively associated with canopy-K (d) and with the percentage of surface irradiance received by the top of the seagrass canopy (% Es). These results provide an explanation for the consistent pattern of depth reduction in seagrass leaf biomass and shoot density reported in the literature. Shoot density and shoot size are two descriptors of the growth-form of T. testudinum related to its clonal life-form. Shoot size was not significantly correlated with canopy-K (d), nevertheless, it showed a significant effect on the slope of the relationship between shoot density and canopy-K (d). According to this model, shoot size also contributes to light attenuation within the seagrass canopy by increasing the effect of shoot density. This form-function analysis suggests that light may have a relevant role in the regulation of the optimal plant balance between horizontal (variation in shoot density) and vertical (variation in shoot size) growth of seagrasses. Other environmental factors and interactions also need to be examined to fully understand the mechanistic bases of the morphological responses of seagrasses to the environment.

  15. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  16. Canopy gradients in leaf functional traits for species that differ in growth strategies and shade tolerance.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Fogel, Marilyn L; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2017-10-01

    In temperate deciduous forests, vertical gradients in leaf mass per area (LMA) and area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea) are strongly controlled by gradients in light availability. While there is evidence that hydrostatic constraints on leaf development may diminish LMA and Narea responses to light, inherent differences among tree species may also influence leaf developmental and morphological response to light. We investigated vertical gradients in LMA, Narea and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C) for three temperate deciduous species (Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liriodendron tulipifera L.) that differed in growth strategy (e.g., indeterminate and determinate growth), shade tolerance and leaf area to sapwood ratio (Al:As). Leaves were sampled across a broad range of light conditions within three vertical layers of tree crowns to maximize variation in light availability at each height and to minimize collinearity between light and height. All species displayed similar responses to light with respect to Narea and δ13C, but not for LMA. Light was more important for gradients in LMA for the shade-tolerant (C. caroliniana) and -intolerant (L. tulipifera) species with indeterminate growth, and height (e.g., hydrostatic gradients) and light were equally important for the shade-tolerant (F. grandifolia) species with determinate growth. Fagus grandifolia had a higher morphological plasticity in response to light, which may offer a competitive advantage in occupying a broader range of light conditions throughout the canopy. Differences in responses to light and height for the taller tree species, L. tulipifera and F. grandifolia, may be attributed to differences in growth strategy or Al:As, which may alter morphological and functional responses to light availability. While height was important in F. grandifolia, height was no more robust in predicting LMA than light in any of the species, confirming the strong role of light availability in

  17. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  18. Bud development and shoot morphology in relation to crown location

    PubMed Central

    Kukk, Maarja; Sõber, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Plant architecture is shaped by endogenous growth processes interacting with the local environment. The current study investigated crown development in young black alder trees, assessing the effects of local light conditions and branch height on individual bud mass and contents. In addition, we examined the characteristics of parent shoots [the cross-sectional area (CSA) of stem and total leaf area, shoot length, the number of nodes, the number and total mass of buds per shoot] and leaf–stem as well as bud–stem allometry, as several recent studies link bud development to hydraulic architecture. We sampled shoots from top branches and two lower-crown locations: one subjected to deep shade and the other resembling the upper branches in light availability. Sampling was carried out three times between mid-July and late October, spanning from the early stages of bud growth to dormancy. Individual bud mass and shoot characteristics varied in response to light conditions, whereas leaf–stem allometry depended on branch height, most likely compensating for the increasing length of hydraulic pathways. Despite the differences in individual bud mass, the number of preformed leaves varied little across the crown, indicating that the plasticity in shoot characteristics was mainly achieved by neoformation. The relationship between total bud mass and stem CSA scaled similarly across crown locations. However, scaling slopes gradually decreased throughout the sampling period, driven by bud rather than by stem growth. This suggests that the allometry of total bud mass and CSA of stem is regulated locally, instead of resulting from crown-level processes. PMID:26187607

  19. miRNA and Degradome Sequencing Reveal miRNA and Their Target Genes That May Mediate Shoot Growth in Spur Type Mutant “Yanfu 6”

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunhui; Zhang, Dong; Zheng, Liwei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Baojuan; Luo, Wenwen; Li, Youmei; Li, Guangfang; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2017-01-01

    The spur-type growth habit in apple trees is characterized by short internodes, increased number of fruiting spurs, and compact growth that promotes flowering and facilitates management practices, such as pruning. The molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating spur-type growth have not been elucidated. In the present study, miRNAs and the expression of their potential target genes were evaluated in shoot tips of “Nagafu 2” (CF) and spur-type bud mutation “Yanfu 6” (YF). A total of 700 mature miRNAs were identified, including 202 known apple miRNAs and 498 potential novel miRNA candidates. A comparison of miRNA expression in CF and YF revealed 135 differentially expressed genes, most of which were downregulated in YF. YF also had lower levels of GA, ZR, IAA, and ABA hormones, relative to CF. Exogenous applications of GA promoted YF shoot growth. Based on the obtained results, a regulatory network involving plant hormones, miRNA, and their potential target genes is proposed for the molecular mechanism regulating the growth of YF. miRNA164, miRNA166, miRNA171, and their potential targets, and associated plant hormones, appear to regulate shoot apical meristem (SAM) growth. miRNA159, miRNA167, miRNA396, and their potential targets, and associated plant hormones appear to regulate cell division and internode length. This study provides a foundation for further studies designed to elucidate the mechanism underlying spur-type apple architecture. PMID:28424721

  20. The Interplay between Carbon Availability and Growth in Different Zones of the Growing Maize Leaf.

    PubMed

    Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Lohse, Marc A; Feil, Regina; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Lunn, John E; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Plants assimilate carbon in their photosynthetic tissues in the light. However, carbon is required during the night and in nonphotosynthetic organs. It is therefore essential that plants manage their carbon resources spatially and temporally and coordinate growth with carbon availability. In growing maize (Zea mays) leaf blades, a defined developmental gradient facilitates analyses in the cell division, elongation, and mature zones. We investigated the responses of the metabolome and transcriptome and polysome loading, as a qualitative proxy for protein synthesis, at dusk, dawn, and 6, 14, and 24 h into an extended night, and tracked whole-leaf elongation over this time course. Starch and sugars are depleted by dawn in the mature zone, but only after an extension of the night in the elongation and division zones. Sucrose (Suc) recovers partially between 14 and 24 h into the extended night in the growth zones, but not the mature zone. The global metabolome and transcriptome track these zone-specific changes in Suc. Leaf elongation and polysome loading in the growth zones also remain high at dawn, decrease between 6 and 14 h into the extended night, and then partially recover, indicating that growth processes are determined by local carbon status. The level of Suc-signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate, and the trehalose-6-phosphate:Suc ratio are much higher in growth than mature zones at dusk and dawn but fall in the extended night. Candidate genes were identified by searching for transcripts that show characteristic temporal response patterns or contrasting responses to carbon starvation in growth and mature zones. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth?

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Roberts, David W

    2006-02-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (L/S) should decline during height (H) growth to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent stomatal conductance (g(s)) from declining. We contend that L/S should increase with H based on a numerical simulation, a mathematical analysis and a conceptual argument: (1) numerical simulation--a tree growth model, DESPOT (Deducing Emergent Structure and Physiology Of Trees), in which carbon (C) allocation is regulated to maximize C gain, predicts L/S should increase during most of H growth; (2) mathematical analysis--the formal criterion for optimal C allocation, applied to a simplified analytical model of whole tree carbon-water balance, predicts L/S should increase with H if leaf-level gas exchange parameters including g(s) are conserved; and (3) conceptual argument--photosynthesis is limited by several substitutable resources (chiefly nitrogen (N), water and light) and H growth increases the C cost of water transport but not necessarily of N and light capture, so if the goal is to maximize C gain or growth, allocation should shift in favor of increasing photosynthetic capacity and irradiance, rather than sustaining g(s). Although many data are consistent with the prediction that L/S should decline with H, many others are not, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies.

  2. Variation of maximum tree height and annual shoot growth of Smith fir at various elevations in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Čufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range.

  3. Accumulation of Cd, Cu and Zn in shoots of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to 0.8 or 20 nM Cd during vegetative growth and the relation with xylem sap composition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, C; Soulier, A J; Masson, P; Bussière, S; Cornu, J Y

    2016-02-01

    This work focuses on the exposure of maize plants to nanomolar concentrations of Cd, which is relevant for agricultural soils cropped with food and feed plants. Maize plants were cultivated in nutrient solution at 0.8 or 20 nM Cd during the vegetative growth stages. No significant hormesis or toxic effects of Cd were observed on maize growth, but a decrease in the allocation of Cd to shoots between the 0.8 and 20 nM Cd exposures revealed that the plants already responded to these low concentrations of Cd according to a shoot Cd excluder strategy. The Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoots decreased with time as the result of an early decrease in the root/shoot ratio and of a decrease in the coefficient of allocation to aboveground for Zn and Cd at 20 nM. As a consequence, shoots of young plants were richer in micronutrients Cu and Zn but also in toxic Cd. The rate of delivery of Cd, Cu and Zn from xylem sap was successfully used to predict the time course of concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in the shoot. However, it overestimated the actual concentrations of Cd in the shoot, presumably because the reallocation of this trace element from shoots back to roots was not taken into account.

  4. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    Treesearch

    Diane L. Wagner; Linda DeFoliart; Patricia Doak; Jenny Schneiderheinze

    2008-01-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant...

  5. Tree growth rates in an Amazonian evergreen forest: seasonal patterns and correlations with leaf phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Silva Campos, K.; Prohaska, N.; Ferreira, M. L.; Nelson, B. W.; Saleska, S. R.; da Silva, R.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolism and phenology of tropical forests significantly influence global dynamics of climate, carbon and water. However, there is still lack of mechanistic understanding of the controls on tropical forest metabolism, particularly at individual tree level. In this study, we are interested in investigating (1) what is the seasonal pattern of woody growth for tropical trees and (2) what is the mechanistic controls onwoody growth at individual level?To explore the above questions,we use two data sources from an evergreen tropical forest KM67 site (near Santarem, Brazil). They are: (1) image time series from a tower mounted RGB imaging system, with images recordedin10 minutes interval since October 2013.Images near local noon homogeneous diffuse lighting were selectedfor leaf phenologymonitoring; (2) ground based bi-weekly biometry survey (via dendrometry band technique) for 25 trees from random sampling since September 2013. 12 among 25 trees are within the tower mounted camera image view. Our preliminary resultsdemonstrate that 20 trees among 25 trees surveyed significantly increase woody growth (or "green up") in dry season. Our results also find thatamong those 20 trees, 12 trees reaches the maximum woody increment rate in late dry season with a mean DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) around 30 cm,while 8 trees reaching the maximum in the middle of wet season, with a mean DBH around 90 cm. This study,though limited in the sample size, mightprovide another line of evidence that Amazon rainforests "green up" in dry season. As for mechanistic controls on tropical tree woody control, we hypothesize both climate and leaf phenology control individual woody growth. We would like to link both camera based leaf phenology and climate data in the next to explorethe reason as to the pattern found in this study that bigger trees might have different seasonal growth pattern as smaller trees.

  6. Plant allometry, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry, and interspecific trends in annual growth rates.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-02-01

    Life forms as diverse as unicellular algae, zooplankton, vascular plants, and mammals appear to obey quarter-power scaling rules. Among the most famous of these rules is Kleiber's (i.e. basal metabolic rates scale as the three-quarters power of body mass), which has a botanical analogue (i.e. annual plant growth rates scale as the three-quarters power of total body mass). Numerous theories have tried to explain why these rules exist, but each has been heavily criticized either on conceptual or empirical grounds. N,P-STOICHIOMETRY: Recent models predicting growth rates on the basis of how total cell, tissue, or organism nitrogen and phosphorus are allocated, respectively, to protein and rRNA contents may provide the answer, particularly in light of the observation that annual plant growth rates scale linearly with respect to standing leaf mass and that total leaf mass scales isometrically with respect to nitrogen but as the three-quarters power of leaf phosphorus. For example, when these relationships are juxtaposed with other allometric trends, a simple N,P-stoichiometric model successfully predicts the relative growth rates of 131 diverse C3 and C4 species. The melding of allometric and N,P-stoichiometric theoretical insights provides a robust modelling approach that conceptually links the subcellular 'machinery' of protein/ribosomal metabolism to observed growth rates of uni- and multicellular organisms. Because the operation of this 'machinery' is basic to the biology of all life forms, its allometry may provide a mechanistic explanation for the apparent ubiquity of quarter-power scaling rules.

  7. Partitioning of photosynthate within and distal to the growth zone of tall fescue leaf blades

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, G.; Nelson, C.J.

    The growth zone of developing tall fescue leaf blades, consisting of zones of cell division, cell elongation and cell maturation, are a strong sink for photosynthate. Distribution of {sup 14}C along the growth zone and partitioning between water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and WSC-free dry matter (SDM) were observed for up to 64 h after labelling the youngest fully expanded leaf or the exposed tip of the elongating leaf with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Deposition rates of {sup 14}C were estimated using the continuity equation. The cell elongation zone, especially the WSC fraction, was the strongest sink for {sup 14}C. In the proximalmore » end of the maturation zone, partitioning of {sup 14}C shifted from being allocated mainly to the WSC fraction after 2 h to an equal distribution between WSC and SDM at the distal end of the zone after 64 h. A significant proportion of {sup 14}C in the SDM fraction of the maturation zone could be attributed to redistribution from WSC.« less

  8. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  9. GDP-D-mannose epimerase regulates male gametophyte development, plant growth and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tiancong; Liu, Zhipeng; Fan, Meng; Chen, Yan; Tian, Haixia; Wu, Dewei; Gao, Hua; Ren, Chunmei; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2017-09-04

    Plant GDP-D-mannose epimerase (GME) converts GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, a precursor of both L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and cell wall polysaccharides. However, the genetic functions of GME in Arabidopsis are unclear. In this study, we found that mutations in Arabidopsis GME affect pollen germination, pollen tube elongation, and transmission and development of the male gametophyte through analysis of the heterozygous GME/gme plants and the homozygous gme plants. Arabidopsis gme mutants also exhibit severe growth defects and early leaf senescence. Surprisingly, the defects in male gametophyte in the gme plants are not restored by L-ascorbate, boric acid or GDP-L-galactose, though boric acid rescues the growth defects of the mutants, indicating that GME may regulate male gametophyte development independent of L-ascorbate and GDP-L-galactose. These results reveal key roles for Arabidopsis GME in reproductive development, vegetative growth and leaf senescence, and suggest that GME regulates plant growth and controls male gametophyte development in different manners.

  10. Effect of shading intensity on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots under direct covering cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomohito; Horie, Hideki; Matsunaga, Akiko; Hirono, Yuhei

    2018-05-02

    Use of covering cultivation to shade tea (Camellia sinensis L.) trees to produce high-quality, high-priced green tea has recently increased in Japan. Knowledge of shading effects on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots is important for product quality and productivity. We assessed these traits of tea shoots and their relationships under covering cultivation of various radiation intensities. Leaf thickness, LMA (leaf mass per area), and leaf density of new tea leaves were smaller under covering culture than under open-field culture. SPAD values and chlorophyll contents were larger under covering culture than under open culture. The derived exponential equation for estimating chlorophyll contents from SPAD values was improved by considering leaf thickness. Covering culture decreased EC (epicatechin) and EGC (epigallocatechin) contents, and increased theanine and caffeine contents. Principal component analysis on shoot and leaf traits indicated that LMA, and chlorophyll, EC, and EGC contents were strongly associated with shading effects. Morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots and leaves varied depending on radiation intensity, shoot growth, and cropping season. These findings are useful for covering cultivation with high quality and high productivity in tea gardens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  12. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  13. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field.

    PubMed

    Locke, Anna M; Sack, Lawren; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2013-09-01

    Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responses to climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) in Glycine max (soybean) to growth at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature compared with the responses of leaf gas exchange and leaf water status. Two controlled-environment growth chamber experiments were conducted with soybean to measure Kleaf, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (A) during growth at elevated [CO2] and temperature relative to ambient levels. These results were validated with field experiments on soybean grown under free-air elevated [CO2] (FACE) and canopy warming. In chamber studies, Kleaf did not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2], even though stomatal conductance decreased and photosynthesis increased. Growth at elevated temperature also did not affect Kleaf, although gs and A showed significant but inconsistent decreases. The lack of response of Kleaf to growth at increased [CO2] and temperature in chamber-grown plants was confirmed with field-grown soybean at a FACE facility. Leaf hydraulic and leaf gas exchange responses to these two climate change factors were not strongly linked in soybean, although gs responded to [CO2] and increased temperature as previously reported. This differential behaviour could lead to an imbalance between hydraulic supply and transpiration demand under extreme environmental conditions likely to become more common as global climate continues to change.

  14. Plant root and shoot dynamics during subsurface obstacle interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Nathaniel; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Benfey, Philip; Goldman, Daniel

    As roots grow, they must navigate complex underground environments to anchor and retrieve water and nutrients. From gravity sensing at the root tip to pressure sensing along the tip and elongation zone, the complex mechanosensory feedback system of the root allows it to bend towards greater depths and avoid obstacles of high impedance by asymmetrically suppressing cell elongation. Here we investigate the mechanical and physiological responses of roots to rigid obstacles. We grow Maize, Zea mays, plants in quasi-2D glass containers (22cm x 17cm x 1.4cm) filled with photoelastic gel and observe that, regardless of obstacle interaction, smaller roots branch off the primary root when the upward growing shoot (which contains the first leaf) reaches an average length of 40 mm, coinciding with when the first leaf emerges. However, prior to branching, contacts with obstacles result in reduced root growth rates. The growth rate of the root relative to the shoot is sensitive to the angle of the obstacle surface, whereby the relative root growth is greatest for horizontally oriented surfaces. We posit that root growth is prioritized when horizontal obstacles are encountered to ensure anchoring and access to nutrients during later stages of development. NSF Physics of Living Systems.

  15. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  16. Leaf and Life History Traits Predict Plant Growth in a Green Roof Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime’s C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  17. A tillering inhibition gene influences root–shoot carbon partitioning and pattern of water use to improve wheat productivity in rainfed environments

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, P.W.; Kirkegaard, J.A.; Lilley, J.M.; Gregory, P.J.; Rebetzke, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic modification of shoot and root morphology has potential to improve water and nutrient uptake of wheat crops in rainfed environments. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) varying for a tillering inhibition (tin) gene and representing multiple genetic backgrounds were phenotyped in contrasting, controlled environments for shoot and root growth. Leaf area, shoot and root biomass were similar until tillering, whereupon reduced tillering in tin-containing NILs produced reductions of up to 60% in total leaf area and biomass, and increases in total root length of up to 120% and root biomass to 145%. Together, the root-to-shoot ratio increased two-fold with the tin gene. The influence of tin on shoot and root growth was greatest in the cv. Banks genetic background, particularly in the biculm-selected NIL, and was typically strongest in cooler environments. A separate de-tillering study confirmed greater root-to-shoot ratios with regular tiller removal in non-tin-containing genotypes. In validating these observations in a rainfed field study, the tin allele had a negligible effect on seedling growth but was associated with significantly (P<0.05) reduced tiller number (–37%), leaf area index (–26%), and spike number (–35%) to reduce plant biomass (–19%) at anthesis. Root biomass, root-to-shoot ratio at early stem elongation, and root depth at maturity were all increased in tin-containing NILs. Soil water use was slowed in tin-containing NILs, resulting in greater water availability, greater stomatal conductance, cooler canopy temperatures, and maintenance of green leaf area during grain-filling. Together these effects contributed to increases in harvest index and grain yield. In both the controlled and field environments, the tin gene was commonly associated with increased root length and biomass, but the significant influence of genetic background and environment suggests careful assessment of tin-containing progeny in selection for genotypic increases in root growth

  18. Systems-based analysis of Arabidopsis leaf growth reveals adaptation to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Baerenfaller, Katja; Massonnet, Catherine; Walsh, Sean; Baginsky, Sacha; Bühlmann, Peter; Hennig, Lars; Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Howell, Katharine A; Kahlau, Sabine; Radziejwoski, Amandine; Russenberger, Doris; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Small, Ian; Stekhoven, Daniel; Sulpice, Ronan; Svozil, Julia; Wuyts, Nathalie; Stitt, Mark; Hilson, Pierre; Granier, Christine; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Leaves have a central role in plant energy capture and carbon conversion and therefore must continuously adapt their development to prevailing environmental conditions. To reveal the dynamic systems behaviour of leaf development, we profiled Arabidopsis leaf number six in depth at four different growth stages, at both the end-of-day and end-of-night, in plants growing in two controlled experimental conditions: short-day conditions with optimal soil water content and constant reduced soil water conditions. We found that the lower soil water potential led to reduced, but prolonged, growth and an adaptation at the molecular level without a drought stress response. Clustering of the protein and transcript data using a decision tree revealed different patterns in abundance changes across the growth stages and between end-of-day and end-of-night that are linked to specific biological functions. Correlations between protein and transcript levels depend on the time-of-day and also on protein localisation and function. Surprisingly, only very few of >1700 quantified proteins showed diurnal abundance fluctuations, despite strong fluctuations at the transcript level. PMID:22929616

  19. Expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL, and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 Homologs in the Shoots of Podostemaceae: Implications for the Evolution of Novel Shoot Organogenesis[W

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Natsu; Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Podostemaceae (the river weeds) are ecologically and morphologically unusual angiosperms. The subfamily Tristichoideae has typical shoot apical meristems (SAMs) that produce leaves, but Podostemoideae is devoid of SAMs and new leaves arise below the base of older leaves. To reveal the genetic basis for the evolution of novel shoot organogenesis in Podostemaceae, we examined the expression patterns of key regulatory genes for shoot development (i.e., SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), WUSCHEL (WUS), and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1/ROUGH SHEATH2/PHANTASTICA (ARP) orthologs) in Tristichoideae and Podostemoideae. In the SAM-mediated shoots of Tristichoideae, like in model plants, STM and WUS orthologs were expressed in the SAM. In the SAM-less shoots of Podostemoideae, STM and WUS orthologs were expressed in the initiating leaf/bract primordium. In older leaf/bract primordia, WUS expression disappeared and STM expression became restricted to the basal part, whereas ARP was expressed in the distal part in a complementary pattern to STM expression. In the reproductive shoots of Podostemoideae with a normal mode of flower development, STM and WUS were expressed in the floral meristem, but not in the floral organs, similar to the pattern in model plants. These results suggest that the leaf/bract of Podostemoideae is initiated as a SAM and differentiates into a single apical leaf/bract, resulting in the evolution of novel shoot-leaf mixed organs in Podostemaceae. PMID:20647344

  20. Alteration in Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by Overexpression Of PINOID Kinase Causes Leaf Growth Defects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Kumud; Markakis, Marios N.; Zdanio, Malgorzata; Balcerowicz, Daria M.; Beeckman, Tom; De Veylder, Lieven; Prinsen, Els; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Vissenberg, Kris

    2017-01-01

    In plants many developmental processes are regulated by auxin and its directional transport. PINOID (PID) kinase helps to regulate this transport by influencing polar recruitment of PIN efflux proteins on the cellular membranes. We investigated how altered auxin levels affect leaf growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression levels were used to study the effect on auxin distribution and leaf development. Single knockouts showed small pleiotropic growth defects. Contrastingly, several leaf phenotypes related to changes in auxin concentrations and transcriptional activity were observed in PID overexpression (PIDOE) lines. Unlike in the knockout lines, the leaves of PIDOE lines showed an elevation in total indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Accordingly, enhanced DR5-visualized auxin responses were detected, especially along the leaf margins. Kinematic analysis revealed that ectopic expression of PID negatively affects cell proliferation and expansion rates, yielding reduced cell numbers and small-sized cells in the PIDOE leaves. We used PIDOE lines as a tool to study auxin dose effects on leaf development and demonstrate that auxin, above a certain threshold, has a negative affect on leaf growth. RNA sequencing further showed how subtle PIDOE-related changes in auxin levels lead to transcriptional reprogramming of cellular processes. PMID:28659952

  1. A Rice PECTATE LYASE-LIKE Gene Is Required for Plant Growth and Leaf Senescence1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yujia; Yang, Yaolong; Ren, Deyong; Dai, Liping; Wang, Yuqiong; Chen, Long; Tu, Zhengjun; Gao, Yihong; Zhu, Li; Hu, Jiang; Gao, Zhenyu; Guo, Longbiao; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind plant growth and leaf senescence in monocot plants, we identified a mutant exhibiting dwarfism and an early-senescence leaf phenotype, termed dwarf and early-senescence leaf1 (del1). Histological analysis showed that the abnormal growth was caused by a reduction in cell number. Further investigation revealed that the decline in cell number in del1 was affected by the cell cycle. Physiological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and TUNEL assays showed that leaf senescence was triggered by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The DEL1 gene was cloned using a map-based approach. It was shown to encode a pectate lyase (PEL) precursor that contains a PelC domain. DEL1 contains all the conserved residues of PEL and has strong similarity with plant PelC. DEL1 is expressed in all tissues but predominantly in elongating tissues. Functional analysis revealed that mutation of DEL1 decreased the total PEL enzymatic activity, increased the degree of methylesterified homogalacturonan, and altered the cell wall composition and structure. In addition, transcriptome assay revealed that a set of cell wall function- and senescence-related gene expression was altered in del1 plants. Our research indicates that DEL1 is involved in both the maintenance of normal cell division and the induction of leaf senescence. These findings reveal a new molecular mechanism for plant growth and leaf senescence mediated by PECTATE LYASE-LIKE genes. PMID:28455404

  2. Gibberellins and Gravitropism in Maize Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Stewart B.; Kaufman, Peter B.; Abe, Hiroshi; Pharis, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    [3H]Gibberellin A20 (GA20) of high specific radioactivity (49.9 gigabecquerel per millimole) was applied equilaterally in a ring of microdrops to the internodal pulvinus of shoots of 3-week-old gravistimulated and vertical normal maize (Zea mays L.), and to a pleiogravitropic (prostrate) maize mutant, lazy (la). All plants converted the [3H]GA20 to [3H]GA1− and [3H]GA29-like metabolites as well as to several metabolites with the partitioning and chromatographic behavior of glucosyl conjugates of [3H]GA1, [3H]GA29, and [3H]GA8. The tentative identification of these putative [3H]GA glucosyl conjugates was further supported by the release of the free [3H]GA moiety after cleavage with cellulase. Within 12 hours of the [3H]GA20 feed, there was a significantly higher proportion of total radioactivity in lower than in upper halves of internode and leaf sheath pulvini in gravistimulated normal maize. Further, there was a significantly higher proportion of putative free GA metabolites of [3H]GA20, especially [3H]GA1, in the lower halves of normal maize relative to upper halves. The differential localization of the metabolites between upper and lower halves was not apparent in the pleiogravitropic mutant, la. Endogenous GA-like substances were also examined in gravistimulated maize shoots. Forty-eight hours after gravistimulation of 3-week-old maize seedlings, endogenous free GA-like substances in upper and lower leaf sheath and internode pulvini halves were extracted, chromatographed, and bioassayed using the `Tanginbozu' dwarf rice microdrop assay. Lower halves contained consistently higher total levels of GA-like activity. The qualitative elution profile of GA-like substances differed consistently, upper halves containing principally a GA20-like substance and lower halves containing mainly GA1-like and GA19-like substances. Gibberellins A1 (10 nanograms per gram) and A20 (5 nanograms per gram) were identified from these lower leaf sheath pulvini by capillary gas

  3. Leaf traits in relation to crown development, light interception and growth of elite families of loblolly and slash pine.

    PubMed

    Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2008-05-01

    Crown architecture and size influence leaf area distribution within tree crowns and have large effects on the light environment in forest canopies. The use of selected genotypes in combination with silvicultural treatments that optimize site conditions in forest plantations provide both a challenge and an opportunity to study the biological and environmental determinants of forest growth. We investigated tree growth, crown development and leaf traits of two elite families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and one family of slash pine (P. elliottii Mill.) at canopy closure. Two contrasting silvicultural treatments -- repeated fertilization and control of competing vegetation (MI treatment), and a single fertilization and control of competing vegetation treatment (C treatment) -- were applied at two experimental sites in the West Gulf Coastal Plain in Texas and Louisiana. At a common tree size (diameter at breast height), loblolly pine trees had longer and wider crowns, and at the plot-level, intercepted a greater fraction of photosynthetic photon flux than slash pine trees. Leaf-level, light-saturated assimilation rates (A(max)) and both mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen (N) decreased, and specific leaf area (SLA) increased with increasing canopy depth. Leaf-trait gradients were steeper in crowns of loblolly pine trees than of slash pine trees for SLA and leaf N, but not for A(max). There were no species differences in A(max), except in mass-based photosynthesis in upper crowns, but the effect of silvicultural treatment on A(max) differed between sites. Across all crown positions, A(max) was correlated with leaf N, but the relationship differed between sites and treatments. Observed patterns of variation in leaf properties within crowns reflected acclimation to developing light gradients in stands with closing canopies. Tree growth was not directly related to A(max), but there was a strong correlation between tree growth and plot-level light interception in both

  4. Growth history and crown vine coverage are principal factors influencing growth and mortality rates of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis

    2009-01-01

    1. Current efforts to model population dynamics of high-value tropical timber species largely assume that individual growth history is unimportant to population dynamics, yet growth autocorrelation is known to adversely affect model predictions. In this study, we analyse a decade of annual census data from a natural population of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla...

  5. BIG LEAF is a regulator of organ size and adventitious root formation in poplar.

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Yordan S; Ma, Cathleen; Yordanova, Elena; Meilan, Richard; Strauss, Steven H; Busov, Victor B

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs. Consistently, BL downregulation reduced leaf size at the earliest stages of leaf development. Ectopic expression in mature leaves resulted in continued growth most probably via sustained cell proliferation and thus the increased leaf size. In contrast to the positive effect on leaf growth, ectopic BL expression in stems interfered with and significantly reduced stem thickening, suggesting that BL is a highly specific activator of growth. In addition, stem cuttings from BL overexpressing plants developed roots, whereas the wild type was difficult to root, demonstrating that BL is a positive regulator of adventitious rooting. Large transcriptomic changes in plants that overexpressed BL indicated that BL may have a broad integrative role, encompassing many genes linked to organ growth. We conclude that BL plays a fundamental role in control of leaf size and thus may be a useful tool for modifying plant biomass productivity and adventitious rooting.

  6. BIG LEAF is a regulator of organ size and adventitious root formation in poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Yordanov, Yordan S.; Ma, Cathleen; Yordanova, Elena

    Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs. Consistently, BL downregulation reduced leaf size at the earliest stagesmore » of leaf development. Ectopic expression in mature leaves resulted in continued growth most probably via sustained cell proliferation and thus the increased leaf size. In contrast to the positive effect on leaf growth, ectopic BL expression in stems interfered with and significantly reduced stem thickening, suggesting that BL is a highly specific activator of growth. Additionally, stem cuttings from BL overexpressing plants developed roots, whereas the wild type was difficult to root, demonstrating that BL is a positive regulator of adventitious rooting. Large transcriptomic changes in plants that overexpressed BL indicated that BL may have a broad integrative role, encompassing many genes linked to organ growth. Here, we conclude that BL plays a fundamental role in control of leaf size and thus may be a useful tool for modifying plant biomass productivity and adventitious rooting.« less

  7. BIG LEAF is a regulator of organ size and adventitious root formation in poplar

    PubMed Central

    Yordanov, Yordan S.; Ma, Cathleen; Yordanova, Elena; Meilan, Richard; Strauss, Steven H.; Busov, Victor B.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs. Consistently, BL downregulation reduced leaf size at the earliest stages of leaf development. Ectopic expression in mature leaves resulted in continued growth most probably via sustained cell proliferation and thus the increased leaf size. In contrast to the positive effect on leaf growth, ectopic BL expression in stems interfered with and significantly reduced stem thickening, suggesting that BL is a highly specific activator of growth. In addition, stem cuttings from BL overexpressing plants developed roots, whereas the wild type was difficult to root, demonstrating that BL is a positive regulator of adventitious rooting. Large transcriptomic changes in plants that overexpressed BL indicated that BL may have a broad integrative role, encompassing many genes linked to organ growth. We conclude that BL plays a fundamental role in control of leaf size and thus may be a useful tool for modifying plant biomass productivity and adventitious rooting. PMID:28686626

  8. BIG LEAF is a regulator of organ size and adventitious root formation in poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Yordanov, Yordan S.; Ma, Cathleen; Yordanova, Elena; ...

    2017-07-07

    Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs. Consistently, BL downregulation reduced leaf size at the earliest stagesmore » of leaf development. Ectopic expression in mature leaves resulted in continued growth most probably via sustained cell proliferation and thus the increased leaf size. In contrast to the positive effect on leaf growth, ectopic BL expression in stems interfered with and significantly reduced stem thickening, suggesting that BL is a highly specific activator of growth. Additionally, stem cuttings from BL overexpressing plants developed roots, whereas the wild type was difficult to root, demonstrating that BL is a positive regulator of adventitious rooting. Large transcriptomic changes in plants that overexpressed BL indicated that BL may have a broad integrative role, encompassing many genes linked to organ growth. Here, we conclude that BL plays a fundamental role in control of leaf size and thus may be a useful tool for modifying plant biomass productivity and adventitious rooting.« less

  9. Structural assessment of the impact of environmental constraints on Arabidopsis thaliana leaf growth: a 3D approach.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Nathalie; Massonnet, Catherine; Dauzat, Myriam; Granier, Christine

    2012-09-01

    Light and soil water content affect leaf surface area expansion through modifications in epidermal cell numbers and area, while effects on leaf thickness and mesophyll cell volumes are far less documented. Here, three-dimensional imaging was applied in a study of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf growth to determine leaf thickness and the cellular organization of mesophyll tissues under moderate soil water deficit and two cumulative light conditions. In contrast to surface area, thickness was highly conserved in response to water deficit under both low and high cumulative light regimes. Unlike epidermal and palisade mesophyll tissues, no reductions in cell number were observed in the spongy mesophyll; cells had rather changed in volume and shape. Furthermore, leaf features of a selection of genotypes affected in leaf functioning were analysed. The low-starch mutant pgm had very thick leaves because of unusually large palisade mesophyll cells, together with high levels of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. By means of an open stomata mutant and a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase overexpressor, it was shown that stomatal conductance does not necessarily have a major impact on leaf dimensions and cellular organization, pointing to additional mechanisms for the control of CO(2) diffusion under high and low stomatal conductance, respectively. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Acceleration of adventitious shoots by interaction between exogenous hormone and adenine sulphate in Althaea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Naz, Ruphi; Anis, M

    2012-11-01

    In the current study attempts were made to investigate the effects of three different phases of callus induction followed by adventitious regeneration from leaf segments (central and lateral vein). Callus induction was observed in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 15.0 μM 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Adventitious shoot buds formation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM 2,4-D and 20.0 μM AdS in liquid medium as it induced 19.2 ± 0.58 buds in central vein explants. Addition of different growth regulators (cytokinins-6-benzyladenine, kinetin and 2-isopentenyl adenine alone or in combination with auxins-indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid, improved the shoot regeneration efficiency, in which 5.0 μM 6-benzyl adenine along with 0.25 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid was shown to be the most effective medium for maximum shoot regeneration (81.3 %) with 24.6 number of shoots and 4.4 ± 0.08 cm shoot length per explant. Leaf culture of central veins led to better shoot formation capacity in comparison to lateral vein. Rooting was readily achieved on the differentiated shoots on 1/2 MS medium augmented with 20.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 80 % survival rate.

  11. Xylem traits, leaf longevity and growth phenology predict growth and mortality response to defoliation in northern temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jane R

    2017-09-01

    Defoliation outbreaks are biological disturbances that alter tree growth and mortality in temperate forests. Trees respond to defoliation in many ways; some recover rapidly, while others decline gradually or die. Functional traits such as xylem anatomy, growth phenology or non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage could explain these responses, but idiosyncratic measures used by defoliation studies have frustrated efforts to generalize among species. Here, I test for functional differences with published growth and mortality data from 37 studies, including 24 tree species and 11 defoliators from North America and Eurasia. I synthesized data into standardized variables suitable for numerical models and used linear mixed-effects models to test the hypotheses that responses to defoliation vary among species and functional groups. Standardized data show that defoliation responses vary in shape and degree. Growth decreased linearly or curvilinearly, least in ring-porous Quercus and deciduous conifers (by 10-40% per 100% defoliation), whereas growth of diffuse-porous hardwoods and evergreen conifers declined by 40-100%. Mortality increased exponentially with defoliation, most rapidly for evergreen conifers, then diffuse-porous, then ring-porous species and deciduous conifers (Larix). Goodness-of-fit for functional-group models was strong (R2c = 0.61-0.88), if lower than species-specific mixed-models (R2c = 0.77-0.93), providing useful alternatives when species data are lacking. These responses are consistent with functional differences in leaf longevity, wood growth phenology and NSC storage. When defoliator activity lags behind wood-growth, either because xylem-growth precedes budburst (Quercus) or defoliator activity peaks later (sawflies on Larix), impacts on annual wood-growth will always be lower. Wood-growth phenology of diffuse-porous species and evergreen conifers coincides with defoliation and responds more drastically, and lower axial NSC storage makes them

  12. Hormonal and gravitropic specificity in the regulation of growth and cell wall synthesis in pulvini and internodes from shoots of Avena sativa L. (oat).

    PubMed Central

    Montague, M J

    1995-01-01

    Segments can be cut from the peduncular-1 internode of oat (Avena sativa L.) shoots so as to contain the graviresponsive leaf-sheath pulvinus and gibberellin-sensitive internodal tissue. Incorporation of [14C]glucose was used to monitor cell wall synthesis in these two tissues as affected by gravistimulus, indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and fusicoccin (FC). Pulvinar cell wall synthesis was promoted by IAA and FC (both within about 1 h), as well as by gravistimulus (starting between 3 and 6 h), whereas GA3 had no effect on nongravistimulated pulvini. In contrast, GA3 and FC promoted internodal cell wall synthesis (initiated between 1 and 2 h), whereas IAA and gravistimulus caused a decrease in internodal uptake. FC preferentially promoted incorporation into the matrix component of the wall in both tissues. Gravistimulus failed to increase responsiveness of pulvinar tissue to IAA, whereas GA3 partially overcame gravistimulus-promoted incorporation into pulvinar cell wall, probably because of preferential movement of label into the rapidly elongating internode. The results demonstrate that these eight stimulus/tissue combinations can be examined easily in an isolated 10-mm stem segment, providing new opportunities for the comparative study of tissue- and stimulus-specific events in gene regulation and signal transduction in agronomically important cereals. PMID:11536686

  13. Changes in growth, leaf anatomy and pigment concentrations in pea under modulated UV-B field treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Day, T.A.; Howells, B.W.; Ruhland, C.T.

    1995-06-01

    In growth-chamber and greenhouse studies, garden pea is typically quite sensitive to enhanced UV-B radiation (280-320 nm). We assessed whether growth of pea was reduced under more ecologically relevant UV-B enhancements by employing modulated field lampbanks simulating 0, 16 or 24% ozone depletion. We also examined if these UV-B treatments altered leaf anatomy and concentrations of chlorophyll and UV-B-absorbing compounds, and whether this was dependent on leaf age. We used Pisum sativum mutant Argenteum which has an easily detachable epidermis that allowed us to compare concentrations in epidermal and mesophyll tissues. There were no significant UV-B effects on whole-plant growth.more » Of the 15 leaf-level parameters we examined, UV-B had a strong effect on only two parameters: the ratio of UV-B-absorbing compounds to chlorophyll (which increased with UV-B dose), and stomatal density of the adaxial surface (which decreased with UV-B dose). Chlorophyll concentrations tended to decrease, while the proportion of UV-B-absorbing compounds in the adaxial epidermis tended to increase with UV-B dose (p = 0.11 for both). In contrast to UV-B effects, we found strong leaf-age effects on nearly all parameters except the ratio of UV-B-absorbing compounds to chlorophyll, which remained relatively constant with leaf age.« less

  14. Artificial neural network-based model for the prediction of optimal growth and culture conditions for maximum biomass accumulation in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Archana; Prakash, Om; Mehrotra, Shakti; Khan, Feroz; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2017-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling approach is used to determine the synergistic effect of five major components of growth medium (Mg, Cu, Zn, nitrate and sucrose) on improved in vitro biomass yield in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica. The back propagation neural network (BPNN) was employed to predict optimal biomass accumulation in terms of growth index over a defined culture duration of 35 days. The four variable concentrations of five media components, i.e. MgSO 4 (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mM), ZnSO 4 (0, 15, 30, 60 μM), CuSO 4 (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 μM), NO 3 (20, 30, 40, 60 mM) and sucrose (1, 3, 5, 7 %, w/v) were taken as inputs for the ANN model. The designed model was evaluated by performing three different sets of validation experiments that indicated a greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset. The results of the modelling experiment suggested that 1.5 mM Mg, 30 μM Zn, 0.1 μM Cu, 40 mM NO 3 and 6 % (w/v) sucrose were the respective optimal concentrations of the tested medium components for achieving maximum growth index of 1654.46 with high centelloside yield (62.37 mg DW/culture) in the cultured multiple shoots. This study can facilitate the generation of higher biomass of uniform, clean, good quality C. asiatica herb that can efficiently be utilized by pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Interactions among cluster-root investment, leaf phosphorus concentration, and relative growth rate in two Lupinus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Veneklaas, Erik J; Pearse, Stuart J; Lambers, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Cluster-root (CR) formation is a desirable trait to improve phosphorus (P) acquisition as global P resources are dwindling. CRs in some lupine species are suppressed at higher P status. Whether increased growth rate enhances CR formation due to a "dilution" of leaf P concentration is unknown. We investigated interactive effects of leaf P status and relative growth rate (RGR) on CR formation in two Lupinus species, which differ in their CR biomass investment. Variation in RGR was imposed by varying day length. Lupinus albus and L. pilosus were grown hydroponically with KH2PO4 at a day length of 6, 10, or 14 h. We used a slightly higher P supply at longer day lengths to avoid a decline in leaf P concentration, which would induce CRs. Cluster-root percentage, leaf P concentrations, and RGR were determined at 22, 38, and 52 d after sowing. Lupinus species grown at similar root P availability, but with a faster growth rate, as dependent on day length, showed a greater CR percentage. Because our aim to achieve exactly the same leaf P concentrations at different day lengths was only partially achieved, we carried out a multiple regression analysis. This analysis showed the CR percentage was strongly and negatively correlated with plant P status and only marginally and positively correlated with RGR. The two Lupinus species invariably formed fewer cluster roots at higher leaf P status, irrespective of RGR. Differences in RGR or leaf P concentration cannot explain the species-specific variation in cluster-root investment. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Anna M.; Sack, Lawren; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Ort, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responses to climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) in Glycine max (soybean) to growth at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature compared with the responses of leaf gas exchange and leaf water status. Methods Two controlled-environment growth chamber experiments were conducted with soybean to measure Kleaf, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (A) during growth at elevated [CO2] and temperature relative to ambient levels. These results were validated with field experiments on soybean grown under free-air elevated [CO2] (FACE) and canopy warming. Key results In chamber studies, Kleaf did not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2], even though stomatal conductance decreased and photosynthesis increased. Growth at elevated temperature also did not affect Kleaf, although gs and A showed significant but inconsistent decreases. The lack of response of Kleaf to growth at increased [CO2] and temperature in chamber-grown plants was confirmed with field-grown soybean at a FACE facility. Conclusions Leaf hydraulic and leaf gas exchange responses to these two climate change factors were not strongly linked in soybean, although gs responded to [CO2] and increased temperature as previously reported. This differential behaviour could lead to an imbalance between hydraulic supply and transpiration demand under extreme environmental conditions likely to become more common as global climate continues to change. PMID:23864003

  17. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid concentrations in shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Shoot-forming tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38) callus tissues contain significantly lower concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid compared to non-shoot-forming callus tissues. This difference is evident 1 day after subculture to shoot-forming or non-shoot-forming medium, and is maintained through the first week of growth. The lack of auxin in shoot-forming medium is the probable cause for this difference in ACC concentrations.

  18. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedling survival and growth across a topographic gradient in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogana; Mark S. Ashtona; Galv& atilde; Jurandir oc

    2003-01-01

    Adult populations of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) occur in aggregations along seasonal streams in transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil. To test whether variable seedling survival and growth across topography may underlie this observed distribution pattern, we planted nursery-grown seedlings in the...

  20. Changes in growth, leaf abscission, and biomass associated with seasonal tropospheric ozone exposures of Populus tremuloides clones and seedlings

    Treesearch

    D.F. Karnosky; Z.E. Gagnon; R.E. Dickson; M.D. Coleman; E.H. Lee; J.G. Isebrands

    1996-01-01

    The effects of single-season tropospheric ozone (03) exposures on growth, leaf abscission, and biomass of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) rooted cuttings and seedlings were studied. Plants were grown in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in open-top chambers with 03 exposures that ranged from...

  1. Growing Different Lactuca Genotypes Aeroponically within a Tropical Greenhouse—Cool Rootzone Temperatures Decreased Rootzone Ethylene Concentrations and Increased Shoot Growth

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Tsui-Wei; He, Jie; Lee, Sing K.; Dodd, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa “Salinas”) were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24°C cool (C) or warm fluctuating 30–36°C ambient (A) rootzone temperature (RZT). Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5) or 10 min (A10, C10) in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since “Salinas” had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and “Salinas.” Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively—probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (in)sensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars that are better

  2. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  3. Shoot Morphogenesis Associated With Flowering in Populus deltoides (Salicaceae)

    Treesearch

    Cetin Yuceer; Samuel B. Land; Mark E. Kubiske; Richard L. Harkess

    2003-01-01

    Temporal and spatial formation and differentiation of axillary buds in developing shoots of mature eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) were investigated. Shoots sequentially initiate early vegetative, floral, and late vegetative buds. Associated with these buds is the formation of three distinct leaf types. In May of the first growing season, the...

  4. The use of stored carbon reserves in growth of temperate tree roots and leaf buds: Analyses using radiocarbon measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Riley, W.J.

    2009-02-01

    Characterizing the use of carbon (C) reserves in trees is important for understanding regional and global C cycles, stress responses, asynchrony between photosynthetic activity and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in studies of tree physiology and ecosystem C cycling. Using an inadvertent, whole-ecosystem radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) release in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we estimated that the mean age of stored C used to grow both leaf buds and new roots is 0.7 years and about 55% of new-root growth annually comes from stored C. Therefore, the calculated mean age of C used to grow new-root tissuemore » is {approx}0.4 years. In short, new roots contain a lot of stored C but it is young in age. Additionally, the type of structure used to model stored C input is important. Model structures that did not include storage, or that assumed stored and new C mixed well (within root or shoot tissues) before being used for root growth, did not fit the data nearly as well as when a distinct storage pool was used. Consistent with these whole-ecosystem labeling results, the mean age of C in new-root tissues determined using 'bomb-{sup 14}C' in three additional forest sites in North America and Europe (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 1-2 years. The effect of stored reserves on estimated ages of fine roots is unlikely to be large in most natural abundance isotope studies. However, models of root C dynamics should take stored reserves into account, particularly for pulse-labeling studies and fast-cycling roots (<1 years).« less

  5. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  6. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  7. Protein Degradation Rate in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Growth and Development[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Clark J.; Castleden, Ian

    2017-01-01

    We applied 15N labeling approaches to leaves of the Arabidopsis thaliana rosette to characterize their protein degradation rate and understand its determinants. The progressive labeling of new peptides with 15N and measuring the decrease in the abundance of >60,000 existing peptides over time allowed us to define the degradation rate of 1228 proteins in vivo. We show that Arabidopsis protein half-lives vary from several hours to several months based on the exponential constant of the decay rate for each protein. This rate was calculated from the relative isotope abundance of each peptide and the fold change in protein abundance during growth. Protein complex membership and specific protein domains were found to be strong predictors of degradation rate, while N-end amino acid, hydrophobicity, or aggregation propensity of proteins were not. We discovered rapidly degrading subunits in a variety of protein complexes in plastids and identified the set of plant proteins whose degradation rate changed in different leaves of the rosette and correlated with leaf growth rate. From this information, we have calculated the protein turnover energy costs in different leaves and their key determinants within the proteome. PMID:28138016

  8. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    PubMed

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  9. Growth promotion in plants by rice necrosis mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K

    1982-08-01

    Ludwigia perennis L. infected with rice necrosis mosaic virus (RNMV) showed an increase in both shoot growth and leaf size, along with characteristic chlorotic lesions on leaves. The promotion of growth over the controls extended over a considerable period of time (70 d). Inoculation with RNMV resulted in increased plant height, leaf size, stem diameter, and number and size of fiber bundles in Corchorus olitorius L., C. capsularis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and H. cannabinus L.

  10. Gravimorphism in rice and barley: promotion of leaf elongation by vertical inversion in agravitropically growing plants.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1998-12-01

    We have compared shoot responses of agravitropic rice and barley plants to vertical inversion with those of normal ones. When rice plants were vertically inverted, the main stems of a japonica type of rice, cv. Kamenoo, showed negative gravitropism at nodes 2-15 of both elongated and non-elongated internodes. However, shoots of lazy line of rice, lazy-Kamenoo, bent gravitropically at nodes 11-15 only elongated internodes but not at nodes 2-10 of non-elongated ones. Thus, shoots of Kamenoo responded gravitropically at all stages of growth, whereas shoots of lazy-Kamenoo did not show gravitropic response before heading. In Kamenoo plants, lengths of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade were shortened by vertical inversion, but those of the vertically inverted plants of lazy-Kamenoo were significantly longer than the plants in an upright position. When agravitropic and normal plants of barley were vertically inverted, the same results as in rice were obtained; elongation of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade was inhibited in normal barley plants, Chikurin-Ibaragi No. 1, but significantly stimulated in agravitropic plants of serpentina barley. These results suggest that vertical inversion of rice and barley plants enhances the elongation growth of leaves in the absence of tropistic response.

  11. Usual and unusual development of the dicot leaf: involvement of transcription factors and hormones.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, Marco; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    Morphological diversity exhibited by higher plants is essentially related to the tremendous variation of leaf shape. With few exceptions, leaf primordia are initiated postembryonically at the flanks of a group of undifferentiated and proliferative cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in characteristic position for the species and in a regular phyllotactic sequence. Auxin is critical for this process, because genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling are required for leaf initiation. Down-regulation of transcription factors (TFs) and cytokinins are also involved in the light-dependent leaf initiation pathway. Furthermore, mechanical stresses in SAM determine the direction of cell division and profoundly influence leaf initiation suggesting a link between physical forces, gene regulatory networks and biochemical gradients. After the leaf is initiated, its further growth depends on cell division and cell expansion. Temporal and spatial regulation of these processes determines the size and the shape of the leaf, as well as the internal structure. A complex array of intrinsic signals, including phytohormones and TFs control the appropriate cell proliferation and differentiation to elaborate the final shape and complexity of the leaf. Here, we highlight the main determinants involved in leaf initiation, epidermal patterning, and elaboration of lamina shape to generate small marginal serrations, more deep lobes or a dissected compound leaf. We also outline recent advances in our knowledge of regulatory networks involved with the unusual pattern of leaf development in epiphyllous plants as well as leaf morphology aberrations, such as galls after pathogenic attacks of pests.

  12. Seasonal growth dynamics of the seagrass Zostera caulescens on the eastern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2014-12-01

    Zostera caulescens is an endemic seagrass species in Northeastern Asia. Estimated distributional area of this species is approximately 1-5 km2 on the coasts of Korea. Because Z. caulescens has a very limited distribution, the growth dynamics of Z. caulescens is little known in the coastal waters of Korea. In the present study, we investigated the growth dynamics of Z. caulescens in relation to coincident measurements of environmental factors, such as underwater irradiance, water temperature, and nutrient availability. The study was conducted on a monotypic meadow of Z. caulescens in Uljin on the eastern coast of Korea from September 2011 to September 2012. Shoot density and biomass of Z. caulescens showed distinct seasonal variations, and exhibited strong correlations with water temperature suggesting that the seasonal growth of this species was regulated by water temperature. Shoot density and biomass rapidly decreased during the high water temperature period in summer, and thus Z. caulescens is considered a cold water adapted species like other temperate seagrass species on coasts of Korea. Biomass of photosynthetic leaf tissues on reproductive shoots was approximately 4 times higher than that on vegetative shoots. The height of reproductive shoots ranged from 1.2 m in February 2012 to 3.2 m in August 2012, whereas the height of vegetative shoots was usually less than 1.0 m. Leaf tissues on reproductive shoots probably received much more light for photosynthesis than those on vegetative shoots. Thus, reproductive shoots may play an important role in total production of Z. caulescens.

  13. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Roberta; Arena, Carmen; De Micco, Veronica; Giordano, Maria; Aronne, Giovanna; De Pascale, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. 'Pr91m10' in closed nutrient film technique (NFT). Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control) plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm 2 ), thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm), and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%), compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP) was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO 2 m -2 s -1 at the beginning of flowering). These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control); conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area) and seed yield (+36.9%) compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  14. Changes in Leaf Anatomical Traits Enhanced Photosynthetic Activity of Soybean Grown in Hydroponics with Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Roberta; Arena, Carmen; De Micco, Veronica; Giordano, Maria; Aronne, Giovanna; De Pascale, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated the effects of a PGPMs mix, containing bacteria, yeasts, mycorrhiza and trichoderma beneficial species on leaf anatomy, photosynthetic activity and plant growth of soybean cv. ‘Pr91m10’ in closed nutrient film technique (NFT). Plants were grown in a growth chamber under semi-aseptic conditions and inoculated at seed, seedling and plant stages, and compared to non-inoculated (control) plants. Light and epi-fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that leaves of inoculated plants had higher density of smaller stomata (297 vs. 247 n/mm2), thicker palisade parenchyma (95.0 vs. 85.8 μm), and larger intercellular spaces in the mesophyll (57.5% vs. 52.2%), compared to non-inoculated plants. The modifications in leaf functional anatomical traits affected gas exchanges; in fact starting from the reproductive phase, the rate of leaf net photosynthesis (NP) was higher in inoculated compared to control plants (8.69 vs. 6.13 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at the beginning of flowering). These data are consistent with the better maximal PSII photochemical efficiency observed in inoculated plants (0.807 vs. 0.784 in control); conversely no difference in leaf chlorophyll content was found. The PGPM-induced changes in leaf structure and photosynthesis lead to an improvement of plant growth (+29.9% in plant leaf area) and seed yield (+36.9%) compared to control. Our results confirm that PGPMs may confer benefits in

  15. Effects of growth temperature and winter duration on leaf phenology of a spring ephemeral (Gagea lutea) and a summergreen forb (Maianthemum dilatatum).

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2008-09-01

    Effects of growth temperature and winter duration on leaf longevity were compared between a spring ephemeral, Gagea lutea, and a forest summergreen forb, Maianthemum dilatatum. The plants were grown at day/night temperatures of 25/20 degrees C and 15/10 degrees C after a chilling treatment for variable periods at 2 degrees C. The temperature regime of 25/20 degrees C was much higher than the mean air temperatures for both species in their native habitats. Warm temperature of 25/20 degrees C and/or long chilling treatment shortened leaf longevity in G. lutea, but not in M. dilatatum. The response of G. lutea was consistent with that reported for other spring ephemerals. Air temperature increases as the vegetative season progresses. The decrease in leaf longevity in G. lutea under warm temperature condition ensures leaf senescence in summer, an unfavorable season for its growth. This also implies that early leaf senescence could occur in years with early summers. Warm spring temperatures have been shown to accelerate the leafing-out of forest trees. The decrease in leaf longevity due to warm temperature helps synchronize the period of leaf senescence roughly with the time of the forest canopy leaf-out. Prolonged winter due to late snowmelt has been shown to shorten the vegetative period for spring ephemerals. The decrease in leaf longevity due to long chilling treatment would correspond with this shortened vegetative period.

  16. An efficient, widely applicable cryopreservation of Lilium shoot tips by droplet vitrification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a straightforward and widely applicable cryopreservation method for Lilium shoot tips. This method uses adventitious shoots that were induced from leaf segments cultured for 4 weeks on a shoot regeneration medium containing 1 mg L-1 a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 mg L-1 thidiazuron...

  17. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth Promoting Rhizospheric and Endophytic Bacteria from Curcuma longa L. as Biocontrol Agents against Rhizome Rot and Leaf Blight Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vinayarani, G; Prakash, H S

    2018-06-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria were isolated from different varieties of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) from South India. Totally 50 strains representing, 30 PGPR and 20 endophytic bacteria were identified based on biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric, by dual culture and liquid culture assays. Results revealed that only five isolates of PGPR and four endophytic bacteria showed more than 70% suppression of test pathogens in both assays. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed significant ultrastructural changes of the hyphae like shriveling, breakage and desication of the pathogens by PGPR B. cereus (RBac-DOB-S24) and endophyte P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19). Selected isolates showed multiple Plant growth promoting traits. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of B. cereus (RBacDOB-S24) showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence (PDI) of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 16.4% and 15.5% respectively. Similarly, P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19) recorded PDI of rhizome rot (17.5%) and leaf blight (17.7%). The treatment of these promising isolates exhibited significant increase in plant height and fresh rhizome yield/plant in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. Thereby, these isolates can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.

  19. Cerium Improves Growth of Maize Seedlings via Alleviating Morphological Structure and Oxidative Damages of Leaf under Different Stresses.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fashui; Qu, Chunxiang; Wang, Ling

    2017-10-18

    It had been indicated that cerium (Ce) could promote maize growth involving photosynthetic improvement under potassium (K) deficiency, salt stress, and combined stress of K + deficiency and salt stress. However, whether the improved growth is related to leaf morphological structure, oxidative stress in maize leaves is not well understood. The present study showed that K + deficiency, salt stress, and their combined stress inhibited growth of maize seedlings, affecting the formation of appendages of leaf epidermal cells, and stomatal opening, which may be due to increases in H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde levels, and reductions in Ca 2+ content, ratios of glutathione/oxidized glutathione, ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbic acid peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in leaves under different stresses. The adverse effects caused by combined stress were higher than those of single stress. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that adding Ce 3+ could significantly promote seedling growth, and alleviate morphological and structural damage of leaf, decrease oxidative stress and increase antioxidative capacity in maize leaves caused by different stresses.

  20. Effect of progressive drought stress on growth, leaf gas exchange, and antioxidant production in two maize cultivars.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Khan, Imran; Wang, Longchang

    2016-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the major environmental factors responsible for reduction in crop productivity. In the present study, responses of two maize cultivars (Rung Nong 35 and Dong Dan 80) were examined to explicate the growth, yield, leaf gas exchange, leaf water contents, osmolyte accumulation, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity under progressive drought stress. Maize cultivars were subjected to varying field capacities (FC) viz., well-watered (80 % FC) and drought-stressed (35 % FC) at 45 days after sowing. The effects of drought stress were analyzed at 5, 10, 15, 20, ad 25 days after drought stress (DAS) imposition. Under prolonged drought stress, Rung Nong 35 exhibited higher reduction in growth and yield as compared to Dong Dan 80. Maize cultivar Dong Dan 80 showed higher leaf relative water content (RWC), free proline, and total carbohydrate accumulation than Run Nong 35. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion were increased with prolongation of drought stress, with higher rates in cultivar Run Nong 35 than cultivar Dong Dan 80. Higher production of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) resulted in improved growth and yield in Dong Dan 80. Overall, the cultivar Dong Dan 80 was better able to resist the detrimental effects of progressive drought stress as indicated by better growth and yield due to higher antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation, better accumulation of osmolytes, and maintenance of tissue water contents.

  1. Bayesian estimation and use of high-throughput remote sensing indices for quantitative genetic analyses of leaf growth.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert L; Leong, Wen Fung; An, Nan; Brock, Marcus T; Rubin, Matthew J; Welch, Stephen; Weinig, Cynthia

    2018-02-01

    We develop Bayesian function-valued trait models that mathematically isolate genetic mechanisms underlying leaf growth trajectories by factoring out genotype-specific differences in photosynthesis. Remote sensing data can be used instead of leaf-level physiological measurements. Characterizing the genetic basis of traits that vary during ontogeny and affect plant performance is a major goal in evolutionary biology and agronomy. Describing genetic programs that specifically regulate morphological traits can be complicated by genotypic differences in physiological traits. We describe the growth trajectories of leaves using novel Bayesian function-valued trait (FVT) modeling approaches in Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines raised in heterogeneous field settings. While frequentist approaches estimate parameter values by treating each experimental replicate discretely, Bayesian models can utilize information in the global dataset, potentially leading to more robust trait estimation. We illustrate this principle by estimating growth asymptotes in the face of missing data and comparing heritabilities of growth trajectory parameters estimated by Bayesian and frequentist approaches. Using pseudo-Bayes factors, we compare the performance of an initial Bayesian logistic growth model and a model that incorporates carbon assimilation (A max ) as a cofactor, thus statistically accounting for genotypic differences in carbon resources. We further evaluate two remotely sensed spectroradiometric indices, photochemical reflectance (pri2) and MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (mtci) as covariates in lieu of A max , because these two indices were genetically correlated with A max across years and treatments yet allow much higher throughput compared to direct leaf-level gas-exchange measurements. For leaf lengths in uncrowded settings, including A max improves model fit over the initial model. The mtci and pri2 indices also outperform direct A max measurements. Of particular

  2. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Treesearch

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  3. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  4. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide, low temperature, and ultraviolet-B radiation on cotton seedling root and shoot morphology and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, David; Wijewardana, Chathurika; Gao, Wei; Reddy, K. Raja

    2016-12-01

    Interactive effects of multiple environmental stresses are predicted to have a negative effect on cotton growth and development and these effects will be exacerbated in the future climate. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that cotton cultivars differ in their responses to multiple environmental factors of (CO2) [400 and 750 µmol·mol-1 (+(CO2)], temperature [28/20 and 20/12°C (-T)], and UV-B radiation [0 and 10 kJ·m-2·d-1 (+ UV-B)]. A genetic and molecular standard (TM-1) and three modern cotton cultivars (DP1522B2XF, PHY496W3R, and ST4747GLB2) were grown in eight sunlit, controlled environment chambers with control treatment 400 µmol·mol-1 [CO2], 28/21°C temperature, and 0 kJ UV-B. The results showed significant differences among the cultivars for most of the shoot and root parameters. Plants grown under low temperature alone or as a combination with + UV-B treatment caused more detrimental effects on root and shoot vigor. Although the elevated CO2 treatments weakened the damaging effects of higher UV-B levels on cotton growth on all cultivars, increased CO2 could not mask the negative effects of low temperature. When comparing all cultivars, genetic standard TM-1 produced the smallest values for the majority of traits under CO2, UV-B, and low temperature either alone or in combination with other treatments. Based on principal component analysis, the four cultivars were classified as tolerant (DP1522B2XF), intermediate (PHY496W3R and ST4747GLB2) and sensitive (TM-1) to multiple environmental stresses.Low temperature was identified as the most damaging treatment to cotton early seedling vigor while elevated CO2 caused the least. Existing variability of cotton cultivars in response to multiple environmental stresses could allow for selection of cultivars with the best coping ability and higher lint yield for future climate change environments.

  5. A new virus in Luteoviridae is associated with raspberry leaf curl disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the etiology of Raspberry Leaf Curl Disease (RLCD), which causes leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf chlorosis, shoot dwarfing, shoot proliferation in raspberries and can kill plants within three years, a next generation sequences approach was applied. Two red raspberry plants collected...

  6. Comparative analysis of peroxidase profiles in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.): evaluation of leaf growth related isozymes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Wang, Chenchen; Huang, Jiabao; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui; Wang, Haiou

    2013-01-15

    Plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) with different isoforms catalyze various reactions in plant growth and development. However, it is difficult to elucidate the function of each isozyme in one plant. Here, we compared profiles of entire isozyme in young seedling and mature leaves of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) on zymogram and ion exchange chromatography in order to investigate leaf growth related peroxidase isozymes. The results showed that four isozymes were constitutively expressed in kale leaves, whereas other two isozymes were induced in the mature leaves. The Mono Q ion exchange chromatography separated the six isozymes into two major groups due to the difference in their isoelectric points. The results suggested that although there were several isozymes in the leaves of Chinese kale, one isozyme functioned mainly through the leaf development. Two anionic isozymes with molecular weights lower than 32 kDa were considered mature related. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiphase light and temperature cycles affect PHYTOCHROME B-controlled ethylene sensitivity and biosynthesis, limiting leaf movement and growth of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bours, Ralph; van Zanten, Martijn; Pierik, Ronald; Bouwmeester, Harro; van der Krol, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    In the natural environment, days are generally warmer than the night, resulting in a positive day/night temperature difference (+DIF). Plants have adapted to these conditions, and when exposed to antiphase light and temperature cycles (cold photoperiod/warm night [-DIF]), most species exhibit reduced elongation growth. To study the physiological mechanism of how light and temperature cycles affect plant growth, we used infrared imaging to dissect growth dynamics under +DIF and -DIF in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that -DIF altered leaf growth patterns, decreasing the amplitude and delaying the phase of leaf movement. Ethylene application restored leaf growth in -DIF conditions, and constitutive ethylene signaling mutants maintain robust leaf movement amplitudes under -DIF, indicating that ethylene signaling becomes limiting under these conditions. In response to -DIF, the phase of ethylene emission advanced 2 h, but total ethylene emission was not reduced. However, expression analysis on members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase ethylene biosynthesis gene family showed that ACS2 activity is specifically suppressed in the petiole region under -DIF conditions. Indeed, petioles of plants under -DIF had reduced ACC content, and application of ACC to the petiole restored leaf growth patterns. Moreover, acs2 mutants displayed reduced leaf movement under +DIF, similar to wild-type plants under -DIF. In addition, we demonstrate that the photoreceptor PHYTOCHROME B restricts ethylene biosynthesis and constrains the -DIF-induced phase shift in rhythmic growth. Our findings provide a mechanistic insight into how fluctuating temperature cycles regulate plant growth.

  8. Developmental Morphology of the Shoot in Weddellina squamulosa and Implications for Shoot Evolution in the Podostemaceae

    PubMed Central

    Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In angiosperms, the shoot apical meristem produces a shoot system composed of stems, leaves and axillary buds. Podostemoideae, one of three subfamilies of the river-weed family Podostemaceae, have a unique ‘shoot’ that lacks a shoot apical meristem and is composed only of leaves. Tristichoideae have been interpreted to have a shoot apical meristem, although its branching pattern is uncertain. The shoot developmental pattern in Weddellinoideae has not been investigated with a focus on the meristem. Weddellinoideae are in a phylogenetically key position to reveal the process of shoot evolution in Podostemaceae. Methods The shoot development of Weddellina squamulosa, the sole species of Weddellinoideae, was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and semi-thin serial sections. Key Results The shoot of W. squamulosa has a tunica–corpus-organized apical meristem. It is determinate and successively initiates a new branch extra-axillarily at the base of an immediately older branch, resulting in a sympodial, approximately plane branching pattern. Large scaly leaves initiate acropetally on the flanks of the apical meristem, as is usual in angiosperms, whereas small scaly leaves scattered on the stem initiate basipetally in association with the elongation of internodes. Conclusions Weddellinoideae, like Tristichoideae, have a shoot apical meristem, leading to the hypothesis that the meristem was lost in Podostemoideae. The patterns of leaf formation in Podostemoideae and shoot branching in Weddellinoideae are similar in that these organs arise at the bases of older organs. This similarity leads to another hypothesis that the ‘branch’ in Weddellinoideae (and possibly Tristichoideae) and the ‘leaf’ in Podostemoideae are comparable, and that the shoot apical meristem disappeared in the early evolution of Podostemaceae. PMID:17468112

  9. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  10. Factors modulating cottongrass seedling growth stimulation to enhanced nitrogen and carbon dioxide: compensatory tradeoffs in leaf dynamics and allocation to meet potassium-limited growth.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Andy; Buttler, Alexandre; Grosvernier, Philippe; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Nilsson, Mats B; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2013-02-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a characteristic species of northern peatlands and a keystone plant for cutover bog restoration. Understanding the factors affecting E. vaginatum seedling establishment (i.e. growth dynamics and allocation) under global change has practical implications for the management of abandoned mined bogs and restoration of their C-sequestration function. We studied the responses of leaf dynamics, above- and belowground biomass production of establishing seedlings to elevated CO(2) and N. We hypothesised that nutrient factors such as limitation shifts or dilutions would modulate growth stimulation. Elevated CO(2) did not affect biomass, but increased the number of young leaves in spring (+400 %), and the plant vitality (i.e. number of green leaves/total number of leaves) (+3 %), both of which were negatively correlated to [K(+)] in surface porewater, suggesting a K-limited production of young leaves. Nutrient ratios in green leaves indicated either N and K co-limitation or K limitation. N addition enhanced the number of tillers (+38 %), green leaves (+18 %), aboveground and belowground biomass (+99, +61 %), leaf mass-to-length ratio (+28 %), and reduced the leaf turnover (-32 %). N addition enhanced N availability and decreased [K(+)] in spring surface porewater. Increased tiller and leaf production in July were associated with a doubling in [K(+)] in surface porewater suggesting that under enhanced N production is K driven. Both experiments illustrate the importance of tradeoffs in E. vaginatum growth between: (1) producing tillers and generating new leaves, (2) maintaining adult leaves and initiating new ones, and (3) investing in basal parts (corms) for storage or in root growth for greater K uptake. The K concentration in surface porewater is thus the single most important factor controlling the growth of E. vaginatum seedlings in the regeneration of selected cutover bogs.

  11. The Interplay between Carbon Availability and Growth in Different Zones of the Growing Maize Leaf1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Arrivault, Stéphanie; Lohse, Marc A.; Feil, Regina; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plants assimilate carbon in their photosynthetic tissues in the light. However, carbon is required during the night and in nonphotosynthetic organs. It is therefore essential that plants manage their carbon resources spatially and temporally and coordinate growth with carbon availability. In growing maize (Zea mays) leaf blades, a defined developmental gradient facilitates analyses in the cell division, elongation, and mature zones. We investigated the responses of the metabolome and transcriptome and polysome loading, as a qualitative proxy for protein synthesis, at dusk, dawn, and 6, 14, and 24 h into an extended night, and tracked whole-leaf elongation over this time course. Starch and sugars are depleted by dawn in the mature zone, but only after an extension of the night in the elongation and division zones. Sucrose (Suc) recovers partially between 14 and 24 h into the extended night in the growth zones, but not the mature zone. The global metabolome and transcriptome track these zone-specific changes in Suc. Leaf elongation and polysome loading in the growth zones also remain high at dawn, decrease between 6 and 14 h into the extended night, and then partially recover, indicating that growth processes are determined by local carbon status. The level of Suc-signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate, and the trehalose-6-phosphate:Suc ratio are much higher in growth than mature zones at dusk and dawn but fall in the extended night. Candidate genes were identified by searching for transcripts that show characteristic temporal response patterns or contrasting responses to carbon starvation in growth and mature zones. PMID:27582314

  12. Tree differences in primary and secondary growth drive convergent scaling in leaf area to sapwood area across Europe.

    PubMed

    Petit, Giai; von Arx, Georg; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Prendin, Angela Luisa; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Caldeira, Maria C; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Crivellaro, Alan; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Gričar, Jožica; Grönholm, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Lavrič, Martina; Lintunen, Anna; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Peters, Richard L; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Senfeldr, Martin; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Van Camp, Janne; Sterck, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Trees scale leaf (A L ) and xylem (A X ) areas to couple leaf transpiration and carbon gain with xylem water transport. Some species are known to acclimate in A L  : A X balance in response to climate conditions, but whether trees of different species acclimate in A L  : A X in similar ways over their entire (continental) distributions is unknown. We analyzed the species and climate effects on the scaling of A L vs A X in branches of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) and broadleaved (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) sampled across a continental wide transect in Europe. Along the branch axis, A L and A X change in equal proportion (isometric scaling: b ˜ 1) as for trees. Branches of similar length converged in the scaling of A L vs A X with an exponent of b = 0.58 across European climates irrespective of species. Branches of slow-growing trees from Northern and Southern regions preferentially allocated into new leaf rather than xylem area, with older xylem rings contributing to maintaining total xylem conductivity. In conclusion, trees in contrasting climates adjust their functional balance between water transport and leaf transpiration by maintaining biomass allocation to leaves, and adjusting their growth rate and xylem production to maintain xylem conductance. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)

    PubMed Central

    Willaume, Magali; Pagès, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability. PMID:21239407

  14. Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and growth in Douglas-fir trees experiencing chronic, fungal-mediated reduction in functional leaf area.

    PubMed

    Saffell, Brandy J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; Shaw, David C; Voelker, Steven L; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Falk, Kristen

    2014-03-01

    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) could play an important role in tree survival in the face of a changing climate and associated stress-related mortality. We explored the effects of the stomata-blocking and defoliating fungal disease called Swiss needle cast on Douglas-fir carbohydrate reserves and growth to evaluate the extent to which NSCs can be mobilized under natural conditions of low water stress and restricted carbon supply in relation to potential demands for growth. We analyzed the concentrations of starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose in foliage, twig wood and trunk sapwood of 15 co-occurring Douglas-fir trees expressing a gradient of Swiss needle cast symptom severity quantified as previous-year functional foliage mass. Growth (mean basal area increment, BAI) decreased by ∼80% and trunk NSC concentration decreased by 60% with decreasing functional foliage mass. The ratio of relative changes in NSC concentration and BAI, an index of the relative priority of storage versus growth, more than doubled with increasing disease severity. In contrast, twig and foliage NSC concentrations remained nearly constant with decreasing functional foliage mass. These results suggest that under disease-induced reductions in carbon supply, Douglas-fir trees retain NSCs (either actively or due to sequestration) at the expense of trunk radial growth. The crown retains the highest concentrations of NSC, presumably to maintain foliage growth and shoot extension in the spring, partially compensating for rapid foliage loss in the summer and fall.

  15. VirtualLeaf: an open-source framework for cell-based modeling of plant tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Merks, Roeland M H; Guravage, Michael; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2011-02-01

    Plant organs, including leaves and roots, develop by means of a multilevel cross talk between gene regulation, patterned cell division and cell expansion, and tissue mechanics. The multilevel regulatory mechanisms complicate classic molecular genetics or functional genomics approaches to biological development, because these methodologies implicitly assume a direct relation between genes and traits at the level of the whole plant or organ. Instead, understanding gene function requires insight into the roles of gene products in regulatory networks, the conditions of gene expression, etc. This interplay is impossible to understand intuitively. Mathematical and computer modeling allows researchers to design new hypotheses and produce experimentally testable insights. However, the required mathematics and programming experience makes modeling poorly accessible to experimental biologists. Problem-solving environments provide biologically intuitive in silico objects ("cells", "regulation networks") required for setting up a simulation and present those to the user in terms of familiar, biological terminology. Here, we introduce the cell-based computer modeling framework VirtualLeaf for plant tissue morphogenesis. The current version defines a set of biologically intuitive C++ objects, including cells, cell walls, and diffusing and reacting chemicals, that provide useful abstractions for building biological simulations of developmental processes. We present a step-by-step introduction to building models with VirtualLeaf, providing basic example models of leaf venation and meristem development. VirtualLeaf-based models provide a means for plant researchers to analyze the function of developmental genes in the context of the biophysics of growth and patterning. VirtualLeaf is an ongoing open-source software project (http://virtualleaf.googlecode.com) that runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux.

  16. Leaf-GP: an open and automated software application for measuring growth phenotypes for arabidopsis and wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Applegate, Christopher; Alonso, Albor Dobon; Reynolds, Daniel; Orford, Simon; Mackiewicz, Michal; Griffiths, Simon; Penfield, Steven; Pullen, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Plants demonstrate dynamic growth phenotypes that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Phenotypic analysis of growth features over time is a key approach to understand how plants interact with environmental change as well as respond to different treatments. Although the importance of measuring dynamic growth traits is widely recognised, available open software tools are limited in terms of batch image processing, multiple traits analyses, software usability and cross-referencing results between experiments, making automated phenotypic analysis problematic. Here, we present Leaf-GP (Growth Phenotypes), an easy-to-use and open software application that can be executed on different computing platforms. To facilitate diverse scientific communities, we provide three software versions, including a graphic user interface (GUI) for personal computer (PC) users, a command-line interface for high-performance computer (HPC) users, and a well-commented interactive Jupyter Notebook (also known as the iPython Notebook) for computational biologists and computer scientists. The software is capable of extracting multiple growth traits automatically from large image datasets. We have utilised it in Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) growth studies at the Norwich Research Park (NRP, UK). By quantifying a number of growth phenotypes over time, we have identified diverse plant growth patterns between different genotypes under several experimental conditions. As Leaf-GP has been evaluated with noisy image series acquired by different imaging devices (e.g. smartphones and digital cameras) and still produced reliable biological outputs, we therefore believe that our automated analysis workflow and customised computer vision based feature extraction software implementation can facilitate a broader plant research community for their growth and development studies. Furthermore, because we implemented Leaf-GP based on open Python-based computer vision, image

  17. Pattern and process of clonal growth in a common cattail (Typha latifolia L. ) population

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed analysis of individually identified Typha latifolia shoots quantified the births, deaths, life histories and productivities of the shoots. Three levels of plant structure were addressed: Inter-shoot relationships, individual shoot behavior and leaf dynamics. Shoots emerged in three major emergence pulses each year, and were grouped by these pulses into three major cohorts. The first cohort emerged in early spring, grew throughout the growing season, and died in late autumn. The second cohort emerged in midsummer; 70 to 80 percent of these shoots died in autumn, while the remainder resumed growth in the following spring. The third cohort emergedmore » in late summer and early autumn; 80 to 90 percent of all third cohort shoots resumed growth the following spring. An intrinsic or self-regulation of density through reallocation of assimilates between shoots and rhizomes adequately explained the density patterns. This regulation is based on the growth pattern and the differing roles of the cohorts: The first and third cohorts are predominately regenerative, while the second cohort is proliferative, and fills in shoot density if, in early spring, density is below a shoot saturation level that apparently effectively holds marsh space.« less

  18. Influence of growth regulators and explant type on in vitro shoot propagation and rooting of red sandal wood (Pterocarpus santalinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arockiasamy, S; Ignacimuthu, S; Melchias, G

    2000-12-01

    In vitro shoot regeneration in Pterocarpus santalinus L. was achieved when detached cotyledons from in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on MS medium containing NAA (0.1 mg/L), BA (1 mg/L) and kinetin (1 mg/L). The regenerated shoots rooted on 1/4 strength MS medium with IAA (1 mg/L) and the fully developed plantlets were successfully established in the soil.

  19. Ethylene Emission and Responsiveness to Applied Ethylene Vary among Poa Species That Inherently Differ in Leaf Elongation Rates1

    PubMed Central

    Fiorani, Fabio; Bögemann, Gerard M.; Visser, Eric J.W.; Lambers, Hans; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2002-01-01

    A plant's ability to produce and respond to ethylene is essential for its vegetative growth. We studied whole-shoot ethylene emission and leaf growth responses to applied ethylene in four Poa spp. that differ inherently in leaf elongation rate and whole-plant relative growth rate. Compared with the fast-growing Poa annua and Poa trivialis, the shoots of the slow-growing species Poa alpina and Poa compressa emitted daily 30% to 50% less ethylene, and their leaf elongation rate was more strongly inhibited when ethylene concentration was increased up to 1 μL L−1. To our surprise, however, low ethylene concentrations (0.02–0.03 μL L−1) promoted leaf growth in the two slow-growing species; at the same concentrations, leaf elongation rate of the two fast-growing species was only slightly inhibited. All responses were observed within 20 min after ethylene applications. Although ethylene generally inhibits growth, our results show that in some species, it may actually stimulate growth. Moreover, in the two slow-growing Poa spp., both growth stimulation and inhibition occurred in a narrow ethylene concentration range, and this effect was associated with a much lower ethylene emission. These findings suggest that the regulation of ethylene production rates and perception of the gas may be more crucial during leaf expansion of these species under non-stressful conditions and that endogenous ethylene concentrations are not large enough to saturate leaf growth responses. In the two fast-growing species, a comparatively higher ethylene endogenous concentration may conversely be present and sufficiently high to saturate leaf elongation responses, invariably leading to growth inhibition. PMID:12114591

  20. Outbreak of Drepanopeziza fungus in aspen forests and variation in stand susceptibility: leaf functional traits, compensatory growth and phenology.

    PubMed

    Call, Anson C; St Clair, Samuel B

    2017-09-01

    In the spring of 2015, a severe outbreak of the necrotrophic pathogen Drepanopeziza (also known as Marssonina) spread across large portions of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests in the western United States. Among adjacent stands, some were diseased and others were not. Drepanopeziza infection in diseased aspen stands stimulated compensatory growth of second-flush leaves at the top of the canopy. These patterns of infection provided an opportunity to characterize associations of pathogen infection and leaf functional traits. Eight pairs of adjacent healthy and diseased aspen stands were identified across a forest landscape in northern Utah. Average leaf surface area, specific leaf area (SLA), photosynthesis, starch concentration and defense chemistry expression (phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins) were measured on original, first-flush leaves in the lower portion of the tree canopy of healthy and diseased stands and compensatory, second-flush leaves produced in the canopy top of diseased stands. Only first-flush leaves of diseased stands showed high levels of Drepanopeziza infection. Leaf area of second-flush leaves of diseased stands was threefold larger than all other leaf types in healthy or diseased stands. Lower canopy leaves of healthy stands had the highest SLA. Photosynthesis was lowest in infected first-flush leaves, highest in second-flush leaves of diseased stands and intermediate in leaves of healthy stands. Foliar starch concentrations were lower in leaves of diseased stands than leaves from healthy stands. Condensed tannins were greater in second-flush leaves than first-flush leaves in both healthy and diseased stands. Phenolic glycoside concentrations were lowest in infected leaves of diseased stands. Diseased stands leafed out a week earlier in the spring than healthy stands, which may have exposed their emerging leaves to rainy conditions that promote Drepanopeziza infection. Compensatory leaf regrowth of diseased stands appears to

  1. Assessing soybean leaf area and leaf biomass by spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral radiances were correlated with soybean total leaf area index, green leaf area index, chlorotic leaf area index, green leaf biomass, chlorotic leaf biomass, and total biomass. The most significant correlations were found to exist between the IR/red radiance ratio data and green leaf area index and/or green leaf biomass (r squared equals 0.85 and 0.86, respectively). These findings demonstrate that remote sensing data can supply information basic to soybean canopy growth, development, and status by nondestructive determination of the green leaf area or green leaf biomass.

  2. In vitro propagation and production of cardiotonic glycosides in shoot cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. by elicitation and precursor feeding.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jitendra Gopichand; Ahire, Mahendra Laxman; Nitnaware, Kirti Manik; Panda, Sayantan; Bhatt, Vijay P; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Nikam, Tukaram Dayaram

    2013-03-01

    Digitalis purpurea L. (Scrophulariaceae; Foxglove) is a source of cardiotonic glycosides such as digitoxin and digoxin which are commercially applied in the treatment to strengthen cardiac diffusion and to regulate heart rhythm. This investigation deals with in vitro propagation and elicited production of cardiotonic glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures of D. purpurea L. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a primary source of explants. Multiple shoot formation was achieved for three explant types (nodal, internodal, and leaf) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with several treatments of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine-BA; kinetin-Kin; and thidiazuron-TDZ) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid-IAA; α-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid-2,4-D). Maximum multiple shoots (12.7 ± 0.6) were produced from nodal explants on MS + 7.5 μM BA. Shoots were rooted in vitro on MS containing 15 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized. To further maintain the multiple shoot induction, mother tissue was cut into four equal parts and repeatedly sub-cultured on fresh shoot induction liquid medium after each harvest. On adaptation of this strategy, an average of 18 shoots per explant could be produced. This strategy was applied for the production of biomass and glycosides digitoxin and digoxin in shoot cultures on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM BA and several treatments with plant growth regulators, incubation period, abiotic (salicylic acid, mannitol, sorbitol, PEG-6000, NaCl, and KCl), biotic (Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., chitin, and yeast extract) elicitors, and precursors (progesterone, cholesterol, and squalene). The treatment of KCl, mycelial mass of Helminthosporium sp., and progesterone were highly effective for the production of cardenolides. In the presence of progesterone (200 to 300 mg/l), digitoxin and digoxin accumulation was enhanced by 9.1- and 11.9-folds

  3. Expression patterns of STM-like KNOX and Histone H4 genes in shoot development of the dissected-leaved basal eudicot plants Chelidonium majus and Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae).

    PubMed

    Groot, Edwin P; Sinha, Neelima; Gleissberg, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    Knotted-like homeobox (KNOX) genes encode important regulators of shoot development in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis, class I KNOX genes are part of a regulatory system that contributes to indeterminacy of shoot development, delimitation of leaf primordia and internode development. In other species, class I KNOX genes have also been recruited in the control of marginal blastozone fractionation during dissected leaf development. Here we report the isolation of class I KNOX genes from two species of the basal eudicot family Papaveraceae, Chelidonium majus and Eschscholzia californica. Sequence comparisons and expression patterns indicate that these genes are orthologs of SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), a class I KNOX gene from Arabidopsis. Both genes are expressed in the center of vegetative and floral shoot apical meristems (SAM), but downregulated at leaf or floral organ initiating sites. While Eschscholzia californica STM (EcSTM) is again upregulated during acropetal pinna formation, in situ hybridization could not detect Chelidonium majus STM (CmSTM) transcripts at any stage of basipetal leaf development, indicating divergent evolution of STM gene function in leaves within Papaveraceae. Immunolocalization of KNOX proteins indicate that other gene family members may control leaf dissection in both species. The contrasting direction of pinna initiation in the two species was also investigated using Histone H4 expression. Leaves at early stages of development did not reveal notable differences in cell division activity of the elongating leaf axis, suggesting that differential meristematic growth may not play a role in determining the observed dissection patterns.

  4. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  5. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production

    PubMed Central

    Mossini, Simone A. G.; Arrotéia, Carla C.; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation. PMID:22069528

  6. Effect of neem leaf extract and neem oil on Penicillium growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Mossini, Simone A G; Arrotéia, Carla C; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachtaindica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation.

  7. Sphaeropsis Shoot Blight

    Treesearch

    Jill Pokorny

    1998-01-01

    Sphaeropsis shoot blight, formerly called Diplodia shoot blight, is worldwide in distribution and can infect many conifer hosts. Although many pine species are reported hosts, this disease causes severe damage only to trees that are predisposed by unfavorable environmental conditions. Non-native, exotic pine species growing outside their natural range are especially...

  8. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  9. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    PubMed

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  10. Balancing photosynthetic light-harvesting and light-utilization capacities in potato leaf tissue during acclimation to different growth temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Arora, R.; Palta, J. P.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature during growth and development on the relationship between light-harvesting capacity, indicated by chlorophyll concentration, and light-utilization potential, indicated by light- and bicarbonate-saturated photosynthetic oxygen evolution, in Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland. Clonal plantlets were transplanted and grown at 20 degrees C for 2 weeks before transfer to 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C for 6 weeks. After 4 weeks of the temperature treatments, leaf tissue fresh weights per area were one-third higher in plants grown at 12 degrees C vs those grown at 28 degrees C. Conversely, chlorophyll content per area in tissue grown at 12 degrees C was less than one-half of that of tissue grown at 28 degrees C at 4 weeks. Photosynthetic capacity measured at a common temperature of 20 degrees C and expressed on a chlorophyll basis was inversely proportional to growth temperature. Leaf tissue from plants grown at 12 degrees C for 4 weeks had photosynthetic rates that were 3-fold higher on a chlorophyll basis than comparable tissue from plants grown at 28 degrees C. These results suggest that the relationship between light-harvesting capacity and light-utilization potential varies 3-fold in response to the growth temperatures examined. The role of this response in avoidance of photoinhibition is discussed.

  11. The Liguleless narrow mutation affects proximal distal signaling and leaf growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    How cells acquire competence to differentiate according to position is an essential question in developmental biology. Maize leaves provide a unique opportunity to study positional information. In the developing leaf primordium, a line is drawn across a field of seemingly identical cells. Above the ...

  12. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities extracts of mangrove leaf against the growth of some pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Noorbakhsh, Hamid; Vasiee, Alireza; Alghooneh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effects of water, ethanol, methanol and glycerin at five levels (0, 31.25, 83.33, 125 and 250 ml) were investigated on the efficiency of mangrove leaf extraction using mixture optimal design. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The mangrove leaf extraction components were identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phytochemical analysis (alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides) were evaluated based on qualitative methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods. Maximum antimicrobial effect was observed in Enterococcus faecium and highest resistance against mangrove leaf extract in Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Increasing concentration of mangrove extracts had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) on inhibition zone diameter. The MICs of the mangrove leaf extraction varied from 4 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The optimum formulation was found to contain glycerin (0 ml), water (28.22 ml), methanol (59.83 ml) and ethanol (161.95 ml). The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was related to optimum extract of mangrove leaf and ethanolic extract respectively. The results of phytochemical screening of Avicennia marina leaves extract showed the existence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides. 2-Propenoic acid, 3-phenyl- was the major compound of Avicennia marina. The results of non-significant lack of fit tests, and F value (14.62) indicated that the model was sufficiently accurate. In addition, the coefficient of variations (16.8%) showed an acceptable reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vapour pressure deficit during growth has little impact on genotypic differences of transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant level: an example from Populus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Brendel, Oliver; Le Thiec, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Poplar genotypes differ in transpiration efficiency (TE) at leaf and whole-plant level under similar conditions. We tested whether atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) affected TE to the same extent across genotypes. Six Populus nigra genotypes were grown under two VPD. We recorded (1) (13)C content in soluble sugars; (2) (18)O enrichment in leaf water; (3) leaf-level gas exchange; and (4) whole-plant biomass accumulation and water use. Whole-plant and intrinsic leaf TE and (13)C content in soluble sugars differed significantly among genotypes. Stomatal conductance contributed more to these differences than net CO2 assimilation rate. VPD increased water use and reduced whole-plant TE. It increased intrinsic leaf-level TE due to a decline in stomatal conductance. It also promoted higher (18)O enrichment in leaf water. VPD had no genotype-specific effect. We detected a deviation in the relationship between (13)C in leaf sugars and (13)C predicted from gas exchange and the standard discrimination model. This may be partly due to genotypic differences in mesophyll conductance, and to its lack of sensitivity to VPD. Leaf-level (13)C discrimination was a powerful predictor of the genetic variability of whole-plant TE irrespective of VPD during growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identification and transcript profiles of citrus growth-regulating factor genes involved in the regulation of leaf and fruit development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ling-Xia; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yu-Hua; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2016-10-01

    Growth-regulating factor (GRF) is an important protein in GA-mediated response, with key roles in plant growth and development. However, it is not known whether or how the GRF proteins in citrus to regulate organ size. In this study, nine citrus GRF genes (CsGRF1-9) were validated from the 'Anliu' sweet orange (AL, Citrus sinensis cv. Anliu) by PCR amplification. They all contain two conserved motifs (QLQ and WRC) and have 3-4 exons. The transcript levels of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. Transcript analysis showed that (1) CsGRF 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 9 expressed predominantly in young leaf, CsGRF 3 and 4 expressed predominantly in fruit immature juice sacs and CsGRF 8 expressed predominantly in root; (2) all citrus GRF genes had significantly higher expression in young leaves than mature leaf; (3) in juice sacs, the transcript levels of CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 increased significantly while the transcript levels of CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 had no significant change from 80 DAF to 100 DAF. Besides, GA3 treatment did not affect the transcript levels of CsGRF5 and CsGRF6 but significantly increased the transcript levels of the other seven CsGRF genes in young leaves. These results suggested that all CsGRF genes involve in the leaf development, CsGRF1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 act developmentally whilst CsGRF2, 3, 7, and 9 play fundamental roles in fruit cell enlargement, which may be through GA pathway or GA-independent pathway.

  15. 3D sorghum reconstructions from depth images identify QTL regulating shoot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Mccormick, Ryan F.; Truong, Sandra K.; Mullet, John E.

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height,more » leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits.« less

  16. 3D sorghum reconstructions from depth images identify QTL regulating shoot architecture

    DOE PAGES

    Mccormick, Ryan F.; Truong, Sandra K.; Mullet, John E.

    2016-08-15

    Dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits is aided by frequent and nondestructive measurements. Advances in range imaging technologies enable the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) data from an imaged scene. A depth camera was used to acquire images of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop, at multiple developmental time points from a greenhouse-grown recombinant inbred line population. A semiautomated software pipeline was developed and used to generate segmented, 3D plant reconstructions from the images. Automated measurements made from 3D plant reconstructions identified quantitative trait loci for standard measures of shoot architecture, such as shoot height,more » leaf angle, and leaf length, and for novel composite traits, such as shoot compactness. The phenotypic variability associated with some of the quantitative trait loci displayed differences in temporal prevalence; for example, alleles closely linked with the sorghum Dwarf3 gene, an auxin transporter and pleiotropic regulator of both leaf inclination angle and shoot height, influence leaf angle prior to an effect on shoot height. Furthermore, variability in composite phenotypes that measure overall shoot architecture, such as shoot compactness, is regulated by loci underlying component phenotypes like leaf angle. As such, depth imaging is an economical and rapid method to acquire shoot architecture phenotypes in agriculturally important plants like sorghum to study the genetic basis of complex traits.« less

  17. Sea Buckthorn Leaf Extract Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth by Reducing Reactive Oxygen Species and Promoting Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Hwang, Eunmi; Yi, Sun Shin; Song, Ki Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Yun Joo; Jun, Hyun Sik

    2017-08-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L., also known as sea buckthorn (SBT), possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study examined whether SBT leaf extract could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of rat glioma C6 cells. The results revealed that the treatment with SBT leaf extract inhibited proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells in a dose-dependent manner. SBT-induced reduction of C6 glioma cell proliferation and viability was accompanied by a decrease in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for the proliferation of tumor cells. SBT treatment not only significantly upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) but also promoted its localization in the nucleus. Although increased expression and nuclear translocation of Bax were observed in SBT-treated C6 glioma cells, the induced nuclear morphological change was distinct from that of typical apoptotic cells in that most of SBT-treated cells were characterized by convoluted nuclei with cavitations and clumps of chromatin. All of these results suggest that SBT leaf extract could inhibit the rapid proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells, possibly by inducing the early events of apoptosis. Thus, SBT may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

  18. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. I. Family and site effects over three growing seasons

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John E Major

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families. During the first two years, trees were measured from a plantation on a dry site. In the third year, trees were sampled from the dry site and a wet site. Diurnal measurements of shoot water potential allowed in situ ...

  19. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. II. Temporal trends and response to varying soil water conditions

    Treesearch

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-volume curves and shoot water potentials were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, Canada. Trees were sampled from a dry site in 1992 and from the dry site and a wet site in 1993. Modulus of elasticity (e ), osmotic potential at...

  20. A Functional Characterisation of a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species: Growth and Nitrogen Acquisition Rates, Leaf Traits and Ecological Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Fort, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Charles, Raphaël; Flores, Olivier; Garnier, Eric; Justes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cover crops can produce ecosystem services during the fallow period, as reducing nitrate leaching and producing green manure. Crop growth rate (CGR) and crop nitrogen acquisition rate (CNR) can be used as two indicators of the ability of cover crops to produce these services in agrosystems. We used leaf functional traits to characterise the growth strategies of 36 cover crops as an approach to assess their ability to grow and acquire N rapidly. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area (LA) and we evaluated their relevance to characterise CGR and CNR. Cover crop species were positioned along the Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES), the SLA-LDMC plane, and the CSR triangle of plant strategies. LA was positively correlated with CGR and CNR, while LDMC was negatively correlated with CNR. All cover crops could be classified as resource-acquisitive species from their relative position on the LES and the SLA-LDMC plane. Most cover crops were located along the Competition/Ruderality axis in the CSR triangle. In particular, Brassicaceae species were classified as very competitive, which was consistent with their high CGR and CNR. Leaf functional traits, especially LA and LDMC, allowed to differentiate some cover crops strategies related to their ability to grow and acquire N. LDMC was lower and LNC was higher in cover crop than in wild species, pointing to an efficient acquisitive syndrome in the former, corresponding to the high resource availability found in agrosystems. Combining several leaf traits explained approximately half of the CGR and CNR variances, which might be considered insufficient to precisely characterise and rank cover crop species for agronomic purposes. We hypothesised that may be the consequence of domestication process, which has reduced the range of plant strategies and modified the leaf trait syndrome in cultivated species. PMID:25789485

  1. Spring leaf flush in aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones is altered by long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide and elevated ozone concentration.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Justin M; Karnosky, David F; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2010-04-01

    Early spring leaf out is important to the success of deciduous trees competing for light and space in dense forest plantation canopies. In this study, we investigated spring leaf flush and how long-term growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) and elevated ozone concentration ([O(3)]) altered leaf area index development in a closed Populus tremuloides (aspen) canopy. This work was done at the Aspen FACE experiment where aspen clones have been grown since 1997 in conditions simulating the [CO(2)] and [O(3)] predicted for approximately 2050. The responses of two clones were compared during the first month of spring leaf out when CO(2) fumigation had begun, but O(3) fumigation had not. Trees in elevated [CO(2)] plots showed a stimulation of leaf area index (36%), while trees in elevated [O(3)] plots had lower leaf area index (-20%). While individual leaf area was not significantly affected by elevated [CO(2)], the photosynthetic operating efficiency of aspen leaves was significantly improved (51%). There were no significant differences in the way that the two aspen clones responded to elevated [CO(2)]; however, the two clones responded differently to long-term growth at elevated [O(3)]. The O(3)-sensitive clone, 42E, had reduced individual leaf area when grown at elevated [O(3)] (-32%), while the tolerant clone, 216, had larger mature leaf area at elevated [O(3)] (46%). These results indicate a clear difference between the two clones in their long-term response to elevated [O(3)], which could affect competition between the clones, and result in altered genotypic composition in future atmospheric conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Short-term responses of leaf growth rate to water deficit scale up to whole-plant and crop levels: an integrated modelling approach in maize.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Hammer, Graeme L; McLean, Greg; Salah, Halim Ben Haj; Tardieu, François

    2008-03-01

    Physiological and genetic studies of leaf growth often focus on short-term responses, leaving a gap to whole-plant models that predict biomass accumulation, transpiration and yield at crop scale. To bridge this gap, we developed a model that combines an existing model of leaf 6 expansion in response to short-term environmental variations with a model coordinating the development of all leaves of a plant. The latter was based on: (1) rates of leaf initiation, appearance and end of elongation measured in field experiments; and (2) the hypothesis of an independence of the growth between leaves. The resulting whole-plant leaf model was integrated into the generic crop model APSIM which provided dynamic feedback of environmental conditions to the leaf model and allowed simulation of crop growth at canopy level. The model was tested in 12 field situations with contrasting temperature, evaporative demand and soil water status. In observed and simulated data, high evaporative demand reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level, and short water deficits affected only leaves developing during the stress, either visible or still hidden in the whorl. The model adequately simulated whole-plant profiles of leaf area with a single set of parameters that applied to the same hybrid in all experiments. It was also suitable to predict biomass accumulation and yield of a similar hybrid grown in different conditions. This model extends to field conditions existing knowledge of the environmental controls of leaf elongation, and can be used to simulate how their genetic controls flow through to yield.

  3. Violence and school shootings.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  4. Inhibition of a ubiquitously expressed pectin methyl esterase in Solanum tuberosum L. affects plant growth, leaf growth polarity, and ion partitioning.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J; Willmitzer, L; Bücking, H; Fisahn, J

    2004-05-01

    Two pectin methyl esterases (PMEs; EC 3.1.1.11) from Solanum tuberosum were isolated and their expression characterised. One partial clone ( pest1) was expressed in leaves and fruit tissue, while pest2 was a functional full-length clone and was expressed ubiquitously, with a preference for aerial organs. Potato plants were transformed with a chimeric antisense construct that was designed to simultaneously inhibit pest1 and pest2 transcript accumulation; however, reduction of mRNA levels was confined to pest2. The decrease in pest2 transcript was accompanied by up to 50% inhibition of total PME activity, which was probably due to the reduction of only one PME isoform. PME inhibition affected plant development as reflected by smaller stem elongation rates of selected transformants when compared with control plants, leading to a reduction in height throughout the entire course of development. Expansion rates of young developing leaves were measured simultaneously by two displacement transducers in the direction of the leaf tip (proximal-distal axis) and in the perpendicular direction (medial-lateral axis). Significant differences in leaf growth patterns were detected between wild-type and transgenic plants. We suggest that these visual phenotypes could be correlated with modifications of ion accumulation and partitioning within the transgenic plants. The ion-binding capacities of cell walls from PME-inhibited plants were specifically modified as they preferentially bound more sodium, but less potassium and calcium. X-ray microanalysis also indicated an increase in the concentration of several ions within the leaf apoplast of transgenic plants. Moreover, quantification of the total content of major cations revealed differences specific for a given element between the leaves of PME-inhibited and wild-type plants. Reduced growth rates might also be due to effects of PME inhibition on pectin metabolism, predominantly illustrated by an accumulation of galacturonic acid

  5. Leaf and wood carbon isotope ratios, specific leaf areas and wood growth of Eucalyptus species across a rainfall gradient in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Turner, Neil C; Nicolle, Dean; Schumacher, Jens

    2006-04-01

    Leaves and samples of recent wood of Eucalyptus species were collected along a rainfall gradient parallel to the coast of Western Australia between Perth in the north and Walpole in the south and along a southwest to northeast transect from Walpole in southwestern Australia, to near Mount Olga in central Australia. The collection included 65 species of Eucalyptus sampled at 73 sites and many of the species were collected at several sites along the rainfall gradient. Specific leaf area (SLA) and isotopic ratio of 13C to 12C (delta 13C) of leaves that grew in 2002, and tree ring growth and delta 13C of individual cell layers of the wood were measured. Rainfall data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for 29 locations that represented one or a few closely located collection sites. Site-averaged data and species-specific values of delta 13C decreased with decreasing annual rainfall between 1200 and 300 mm at a rate of 1.63 per thousand per 1000 mm decrease in rainfall. Responses became variable in the low rainfall region (< 300 mm), with some species showing decreasing delta 13C with rainfall, whereas delta 13C increased or remained constant in other species. The range of delta 13C values in the low rainfall region was as large as the range observed at sites receiving > 300 mm of annual rainfall. Specific leaf area varied between 2 and 6 m2 kg(-1) and tended to increase with decreasing annual rainfall in some species, but not all, whereas delta 13C decreased with SLA. The relationship between delta 13C and SLA was highly species and soil-type specific. Leaf-area-based nitrogen (N) content varied between 2 and almost 6 g m(-2) and decreased with rainfall. Thus, thicker leaves were associated with higher N content and this compensated for the effect of drought on delta 13C. Nitrogen content was also related to soil type and species identity. Based on a linear mixed model, statistical analysis of the whole data set showed that 27% of the variation in

  6. Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

  7. Trade-offs between seed and leaf size (seed-phytomer-leaf theory): functional glue linking regenerative with life history strategies … and taxonomy with ecology?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, John G; Santini, Bianca A; Montserrat Marti, Gabriel; Royo Pla, Ferran; Jones, Glynis; Bogaard, Amy; Charles, Mike; Font, Xavier; Ater, Mohammed; Taleb, Abdelkader; Poschlod, Peter; Hmimsa, Younes; Palmer, Carol; Wilson, Peter J; Band, Stuart R; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Green, Laura; Nitsch, Erika; Stroud, Elizabeth; Romo-Díez, Angel; de Torres Espuny, Lluis; Warham, Gemma

    2017-11-10

    While the 'worldwide leaf economics spectrum' (Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, et al. 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature : 821-827) defines mineral nutrient relationships in plants, no unifying functional consensus links size attributes. Here, the focus is upon leaf size, a much-studied plant trait that scales positively with habitat quality and components of plant size. The objective is to show that this wide range of relationships is explicable in terms of a seed-phytomer-leaf (SPL) theoretical model defining leaf size in terms of trade-offs involving the size, growth rate and number of the building blocks (phytomers) of which the young shoot is constructed. Functional data for 2400+ species and English and Spanish vegetation surveys were used to explore interrelationships between leaf area, leaf width, canopy height, seed mass and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Leaf area was a consistent function of canopy height, LDMC and seed mass. Additionally, size traits are partially uncoupled. First, broad laminas help confer competitive exclusion while morphologically large leaves can, through dissection, be functionally small. Secondly, leaf size scales positively with plant size but many of the largest-leaved species are of medium height with basally supported leaves. Thirdly, photosynthetic stems may represent a functionally viable alternative to 'small seeds + large leaves' in disturbed, fertile habitats and 'large seeds + small leaves' in infertile ones. Although key elements defining the juvenile growth phase remain unmeasured, our results broadly support SPL theory in that phytometer and leaf size are a product of the size of the initial shoot meristem (≅ seed mass) and the duration and quality of juvenile growth. These allometrically constrained traits combine to confer ecological specialization on individual species. Equally, they appear conservatively expressed within major taxa. Thus, 'evolutionary canalization' sensu Stebbins (Stebbins GL

  8. Independent effects of leaf growth and light on the development of the plastid and its DNA content in Zea species.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Oldenburg, Delene J; Bendich, Arnold J

    2011-05-01

    In maize (Zea mays L.), chloroplast development progresses from the basal meristem to the mature leaf tip, and light is required for maturation to photosynthetic competence. During chloroplast greening, it was found that chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is extensively degraded, falling to undetectable levels in many individual chloroplasts for three maize cultivars, as well as Zea mexicana (the ancestor of cultivated maize) and the perennial species Zea diploperennis. In dark-grown maize seedlings, the proplastid-to-etioplast transition is characterized by plastid enlargement, cpDNA replication, and the retention of high levels of cpDNA. When dark-grown seedlings are transferred to white light, the DNA content per plastid increases slightly during the first 4 h of illumination and then declines rapidly to a minimum at 24 h during the etioplast-to-chloroplast transition. Plastid autofluorescence (from chlorophyll) continues to increase as cpDNA declines, whereas plastid size remains constant. It is concluded that the increase in cpDNA that accompanies plastid enlargement is a consequence of cell and leaf growth, rather than illumination, whereas light stimulates photosynthetic capacity and cpDNA instability. When cpDNA from total tissue was monitored by blot hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR, no decline following transfer from dark to light was observed. The lack of agreement between DNA per plastid and cpDNA per cell may be attributed to nupts (nuclear sequences of plastid origin).

  9. Investigation of active biomolecules involved in the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles by Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xinde; Sun, Daohua; Zhang, Genlei; He, Ning; Liu, Hongyu; Huang, Jiale; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Li, Qingbiao

    2013-06-01

    The effects of different biomolecules in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract on the morphology of obtained gold nanoparticles were investigated in this study. The results indicated that reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols consisting of about 79.8 % dry weight of the leaf extract were mainly involved in providing the dual function of reduction and the size/shape control during the biosynthesis. The gold nanoparticles present included 64 ± 10 nm nanospheres, 131 ± 18 nm nanoflowers, and 347 ± 136 nm (edge length) nanoplates and they were synthesized using the main content of reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols, respectively, after they were desorbed by the AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column. Particularly, flower-like and triangular/hexagonal gold nanoparticles with a yield more than 80 % were obtained. Possible shape-directed agents for the nucleation and growth were characterized by FTIR, it can be seen that ketones were bound on the surface of the spherical and flower-like GNPs, while both the ketones and carbonyls bound on the Au {111} plane this may have favored the formation of the twin defects, which are very essential for nanoplates' formation.

  10. Growth promoting potential of fresh and stored Moringa oleifera leaf extracts in improving seedling vigor, growth and productivity of wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahbaz; Basra, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Afzal, Irfan; Nawaz, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur

    2017-12-01

    Wheat is staple food of region, as it contributes 60% of daily caloric intake, but its delayed sowing reduces yield due to short life span. Moringa leaf extract (MLE) is considered to improve growth and development of field crops. Study comprised of two experiments. First experiment, freshly extracted MLE and in combination with growth-promoting substances were stored at two temperature regimes. Chemical analysis, after 1, 2, and 3 months' storage period, showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid concentrations decreased with increasing storage period. Fresh extracts improved speed and spread of emergence and seedling vigor. Effectiveness of MLE in terms of phenolics and ascorbate concentrations was highest up to 1 month which decreased with prolonged storage. Growth enhancing potential of MLE also reduced with increasing storage duration. Under field conditions, the bio-efficacy of these fresh and stored MLE was compared when applied as foliar spray at tillering and booting stages of wheat. Foliar applied fresh MLE was the most effective in improving growth parameters. Fresh MLE enhanced biochemical and yield attributes in late sown wheat. This growth-promoting potential of MLE decreased with storage time. Application of fresh MLE helped to achieve higher economic yield.

  11. Comparison of fluorescent and high-pressure sodium lamps on growth of leaf lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, H. V.; Prince, R. P.; Koontz, R. F.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Radiation from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps provided more than a 50% increased yield (fresh and dry weight of tops) of loose-leaf lettuce cultivars Grand Rapids Forcing and RubyConn, compared to that obtained by radiation from cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lamps at equal photosynthetic photon flux; yet, input wattage was approximately 36% less. It was postulated that the considerable output of 700 to 850 nm radiation from the HPS lamp was a significant factor of the increased yield. Under HPS lamps, the leaves of both cultivars were slightly less green with very little red pigmentation ('RubyConn') and slightly elongated, compared to CWF, but plant productivity per unit electrical energy input was vastly superior with HPS.

  12. Growth characteristics of mangrove seedling in silvofishery pond – the allometric relationship of height, diameter and leaf abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Hastuti, Endah; Budi Hastuti, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic environment condition of the silvofishery pond should provide an effect on the growth of mangrove seedling. This research aimed to observe the morphometric growth rate of mangrove seedling of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata planted in the silvofishery pond and to analyze the morphometric growth relationship of height, diameter and leaf number development of mangrove seedling. The research was conducted through field experiment involving mangrove species of A. marina and R. mucronata for 18 months during March 2015 to September 2016, both single structured and mixed structure. The observation was conducted every 13 weeks including seedling height, diameter and number of leaves. Data analysis was conducted by regression to provide the statistical relation between the growth of diameter – height, diameter – number of leaves and height – number of leaves. The result showed that the growth rate of A. marina in single structured pond was ranged from 0.38 – 3.00 cm.wk-1, 0.0015 – 0.0969 cm.wk‑1 and 0.1 – 13.7 leaves.wk‑1 respectively for height, diameter and number of leaves, while in mixed structure was 0.23 – 1.69 cm.wk‑1, 0.0169 – 0.0731 cm.wk‑1 and 0.5 – 14.0 leaves.wk-. The growth of R. mucronata respectively in single and mixed structure were 0.08 – 2.00 cm.wk‑1 and 0.15 – 2.62 cm.wk‑1, 0.0031 – 0.1369 cm.wk‑1 and 0.0008 – 0.0831 cm.wk‑1 and 0.0 – 1.9 leaves.wk‑1 and 0.0 – 1.6 leaves.wk-1respectively for height, diameter and number of leaves. Data analysis showed that the growth of seedling height of Avicennia in the mixed structure was significantly affected by its diameter growth and the number of leaves of Avicennia in single structured was significantly affected by its diameter. While the height, diameter and number of leaves of R. mucronata both in mixed and single structured silvofishery ponds were independent to each other. This research concluded that mangrove seedling growth is varied among

  13. Use of Stored Carbon Reserves in Growth of Temperate Tree Roots and Leaf Buds: Analyses Using Radiocarbon Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; Riley, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the use of C reserves in trees is important for understanding stress responses, impacts of asynchrony between photosynthesis and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in plant dynamic studies. Using an inadvertent, whole ecosystem radiocarbon (14C) exposure in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we calculated that the mean age of stored C used to grow leaf buds and new fine root tissue is 0.5-1.0 y. The mean age of stored C used to grow new roots was about 0.7 y across a range of realistic values of 14C inputs to the system. The amount of stored Cmore » used on an annual basis to grow fine roots was between 15 and 55% of total root growth, with the range defined by the assumed 14C input profile. We estimate the annually-averaged mean age of C in new root tissues is 1-5 months. Therefore, accounting for storage C use in isotope root models may be unnecessary in all but the fastest cycling root populations (i.e., mean age <1 y). Consistent with the whole ecosystem labeling results, we found, using "bomb-14C," that the mean C age of new root tissues in three additional forest sites (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 2 years. We conclude that in many ecosystem types, growth from stored C is insufficient to impact bomb-14C based estimates of long root lifetimes.« less

  14. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  15. Effects of shading on growth and development of northern red oak, black oak, black cherry, and red maple seedlings. I. height, diameter, and root/shoot ratio

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1985-01-01

    Optimum light levels for shelterwood cutting to develop the large advance regeneration that require were investigated using eight shade-cloth treatments. Seedlings of northern red oak, black oak, black cherry and red maple were grow under these light treatments for 2 years. Height and diameter were measured annually, and samples were harvested for dry weight and leaf...

  16. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  17. Growth response by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) advance seedling regeneration to overhead canopy release in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogana; R. Matthew Landisc; Mark S. Ashtona; Jurandir Galva˜od

    2005-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a valuable neotropical timber species whose seedling survival and growth dynamics in natural forests are poorly understood. To document regeneration dynamics of mahogany in seasonal transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil, we followed naturally established seedlings in the forest understory...

  18. Planting Depth of Hybrid Poplar Cuttings Influences Number of Shoots

    Treesearch

    Edward Hansen; David Tolsted; Matthew Tower

    1991-01-01

    Reports that planting unrooted hybrid poplar cuttings flush with the soil surface resulted in significantly fewer multiple-stem shoots compared to letting the cutting protrude 2.5 or 5.0 cm above the soil surface. There were no significant effects on shoot height growth or cutting mortality.

  19. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  20. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  1. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

  2. Bio-controlling Effect of Leaf Extract of Tagetes patula L. (Marigold) on Growth Parameters and Diseases of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Nahak, Gayatri; Kanta Sahu, Rajani

    2017-01-01

    The genus Tagetes (Asteraceae) is native to Americas but some of its members (in particular T. erecta and T. patula) commonly known as marigolds were naturalized in the old world (India, North Africa and Europe) as early as in 16th century. The flowers of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) are widely used in folk medicine, in particular for treating inflammation-related disorders. This study investigated the potential use of marigold (Tagetes patula L.) flower aqueous flower extract by spaying method on tomato plants on a weekly basis and the data of growth, yield and disease of tomato pants were observed from 10th day onwards under field condition. The marigold flower extract showed significant increase in shoot height, number of branches, number of leaves, number of buds, number of flowers and number of fruits of tomato plant, while significant reduction in various diseases of tomato plants over control at probability level ***p<0.001. The percentage of reduction of disease was calculated after the spray of marigold flower aqueous extract on plants. The marigold flower extract was found effectively in controlling canker (62.82%), early blight (61.53%), wilt (18.42%), fruit spot (27.41%), blossom end rot (50.43%) and sun scald (26.44%) in comparison to controls under field condition. The findings are in line with the bio-controlling properties of marigold preparations as bio-pesticide confirmed in growth and yield of tomato plants. Thus, marigold can contribute in reducing use of chemical pesticides and act as a good alternative to synthetic pesticides.

  3. SlLAX1 is Required for Normal Leaf Development Mediated by Balanced Adaxial and Abaxial Pavement Cell Growth in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Pulungan, Sri Imriani; Yano, Ryoichi; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ichino, Takuji; Kojima, Mikiko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Leaves are the major plant organs with a primary function for photosynthesis. Auxin controls various aspects of plant growth and development, including leaf initiation, expansion and differentiation. Unique and intriguing auxin features include its polar transport, which is mainly controlled by the AUX1/LAX and PIN gene families as influx and efflux carriers, respectively. The role of AUX1/LAX genes in root development is well documented, but the role of these genes in leaf morphogenesis remains unclear. Moreover, most studies have been conducted in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, while studies in tomato are still scarce. In this study, we isolated six lines of the allelic curly leaf phenotype 'curl' mutants from a γ-ray and EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenized population. Using a map-based cloning strategy combined with exome sequencing, we observed that a mutation occurred in the SlLAX1 gene (Solyc09g014380), which is homologous to an Arabidopsis auxin influx carrier gene, AUX1 (AtAUX1). Characterization of six alleles of single curl mutants revealed the pivotal role of SlLAX1 in controlling tomato leaf flatness by balancing adaxial and abaxial pavement cell growth, which has not been reported in tomato. Using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genome) technology, we isolated an additional mutant allele of the SlLAX1 gene and this mutant showed a curled leaf phenotype similar to other curl mutants, suggesting that Solyc09g014380 is responsible for the curl phenotype. These results showed that SlLAX1 is required for normal leaf development mediated by balanced adaxial and abaxial pavement cell growth in tomato.

  4. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS modulates the regulation by gibberellins of epidermal differentiation and shoot maturation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yinbo; Kumimoto, Rod; Liu, Chang; Ratcliffe, Oliver; Yu, Hao; Broun, Pierre

    2006-06-01

    As a plant shoot matures, it transitions through a series of growth phases in which successive aerial organs undergo distinct developmental changes. This process of phase change is known to be influenced by gibberellins (GAs). We report the identification of a putative transcription factor, GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS), which regulates aspects of shoot maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. GIS loss-of-function mutations affect the epidermal differentiation of inflorescence organs, causing a premature decrease in trichome production on successive leaves, stem internodes, and branches. Overexpression has the opposite effect on trichome initiation and causes other heterochronic phenotypes, affecting flowering and juvenile-adult leaf transition and inducing the formation of rosette leaves on inflorescence stems. Genetic and gene expression analyses suggest that GIS acts in a GA-responsive pathway upstream of the trichome initiation regulator GLABROUS1 (GL1) and downstream of the GA signaling repressor SPINDLY (SPY). GIS mediates the induction of GL1 expression by GA in inflorescence organs and is antagonized in its action by the DELLA repressor GAI. The implication of GIS in the broader regulation of phase change is further suggested by the delay in flowering caused by GIS loss of function in the spy background. The discovery of GIS reveals a novel mechanism in the control of shoot maturation, through which GAs regulate cellular differentiation in plants.

  5. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  6. Millet's Shooting Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  7. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  8. After the Shooting Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Brooke B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the efforts of five pupil service personnel in a small, midwestern school system in responding to student, teacher, and parent needs after a 14-year-old boy wounded two teachers and a student and killed the principal in a shooting spree. Suggests that schools develop tactical plans for responding to catastrophic situations. (Author)

  9. Leaf Responses to Mild Drought Stress in Natural Variants of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Clauw, Pieter; Coppens, Frederik; De Beuf, Kristof; Dhondt, Stijn; Van Daele, Twiggy; Maleux, Katrien; Storme, Veronique; Clement, Lieven; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Although the response of plants exposed to severe drought stress has been studied extensively, little is known about how plants adapt their growth under mild drought stress conditions. Here, we analyzed the leaf and rosette growth response of six Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions originating from different geographic regions when exposed to mild drought stress. The automated phenotyping platform WIWAM was used to impose stress early during leaf development, when the third leaf emerges from the shoot apical meristem. Analysis of growth-related phenotypes showed differences in leaf development between the accessions. In all six accessions, mild drought stress reduced both leaf pavement cell area and number without affecting the stomatal index. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis (using RNA sequencing) of early developing leaf tissue identified 354 genes differentially expressed under mild drought stress in the six accessions. Our results indicate the existence of a robust response over different genetic backgrounds to mild drought stress in developing leaves. The processes involved in the overall mild drought stress response comprised abscisic acid signaling, proline metabolism, and cell wall adjustments. In addition to these known severe drought-related responses, 87 genes were found to be specific for the response of young developing leaves to mild drought stress. PMID:25604532

  10. Loose Plant Architecture1, an INDETERMINATE DOMAIN Protein Involved in Shoot Gravitropism, Regulates Plant Architecture in Rice1[W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinru; Tang, Ding; Li, Ming; Wang, Kejian; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2013-01-01

    Tiller angle and leaf angle are two important components of rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture that play a crucial role in determining grain yield. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) gene in rice, the functional ortholog of the AtIDD15/SHOOT GRAVITROPISM5 (SGR5) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). LPA1 regulates tiller angle and leaf angle by controlling the adaxial growth of tiller node and lamina joint. LPA1 was also found to affect shoot gravitropism. Expression pattern analysis suggested that LPA1 influences plant architecture by affecting the gravitropism of leaf sheath pulvinus and lamina joint. However, LPA1 only influences gravity perception or signal transduction in coleoptile gravitropism by regulating the sedimentation rate of amyloplasts, distinct from the actions of LAZY1. LPA1 encodes a plant-specific INDETERMINATE DOMAIN protein and defines a novel subfamily of 28 INDETERMINATE DOMAIN proteins with several unique conserved features. LPA1 is localized in the nucleus and functions as an active transcriptional repressor, an activity mainly conferred by a conserved ethylene response factor-associated amphiphilic repression-like motif. Further analysis suggests that LPA1 participates in a complicated transcriptional and protein interaction network and has evolved novel functions distinct from SGR5. This study not only facilitates the understanding of gravitropism mechanisms but also generates a useful genetic material for rice breeding. PMID:23124325

  11. Loose Plant Architecture1, an INDETERMINATE DOMAIN protein involved in shoot gravitropism, regulates plant architecture in rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinru; Tang, Ding; Li, Ming; Wang, Kejian; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2013-01-01

    Tiller angle and leaf angle are two important components of rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture that play a crucial role in determining grain yield. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) gene in rice, the functional ortholog of the AtIDD15/SHOOT GRAVITROPISM5 (SGR5) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). LPA1 regulates tiller angle and leaf angle by controlling the adaxial growth of tiller node and lamina joint. LPA1 was also found to affect shoot gravitropism. Expression pattern analysis suggested that LPA1 influences plant architecture by affecting the gravitropism of leaf sheath pulvinus and lamina joint. However, LPA1 only influences gravity perception or signal transduction in coleoptile gravitropism by regulating the sedimentation rate of amyloplasts, distinct from the actions of LAZY1. LPA1 encodes a plant-specific INDETERMINATE DOMAIN protein and defines a novel subfamily of 28 INDETERMINATE DOMAIN proteins with several unique conserved features. LPA1 is localized in the nucleus and functions as an active transcriptional repressor, an activity mainly conferred by a conserved ethylene response factor-associated amphiphilic repression-like motif. Further analysis suggests that LPA1 participates in a complicated transcriptional and protein interaction network and has evolved novel functions distinct from SGR5. This study not only facilitates the understanding of gravitropism mechanisms but also generates a useful genetic material for rice breeding.

  12. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-10

    ISS006-E-44995 (10 March 2003) --- A close up view of water droplets on leaves on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-08

    ISS006-E-44929 (9 March 2003) --- A close up view of water droplets on leaves on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Water droplet on a leaf on the Russian BIO-5 Rastenya-2 Plant Growth Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-10

    ISS006-E-44980 (10 March 2003) --- A close up view of water droplets on leaves on the Russian BIO-5 Rasteniya-2/Lada-2 (Plants-2) plant growth experiment, which is located in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. The relative importance of exogenous and substrate-derived nitrogen for microbial growth during leaf decomposition

    Treesearch

    B.M. Cheever; J. R. Webster; E. E. Bilger; S. A. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrophic microbes colonizing detritus obtain nitrogen (N) for growth by assimilating N from their substrate or immobilizing exogenous inorganic N. Microbial use of these two pools has different implications for N cycling and organic matter decomposition in the face of the global increase in biologically available N. We used sugar maple leaves labeled with

  16. Leafing-out date not indicative of growth rate in hybrid poplars

    Treesearch

    Harold F. Ford; Edward I. Sucoff

    1961-01-01

    In breeding trees for rapid growth, testing the progeny usually requires many years. To shorten the testing period, geneticists have tried to find characteristics in juvenile trees that would indicate mature-tree performance. With hybrid poplars (Populus spp.), work at the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has shown that the thickness of bark on...

  17. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  18. Variation in light-intercepting area and photosynthetic rate of sun and shade shoots of two Picea species in relation to the angle of incoming light.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Hamada, Yoko; Utsugi, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effects of sun- and shade-shoot architecture on the photosynthetic rates of two Picea species by applying light from various angles in the laboratory. Compared with sun shoots, shade shoots were characterized by lower mass allocation per light-intercepting area, less leaf mass per shoot mass, less mutual shading among leaves and more efficient allocation of chlorophyll to photosynthesis. The shoot silhouette to total leaf area ratio (STAR(ϕ)) decreased with increasing shoot inclination angle (ϕ, the shoot axis angle relative to the projection plane) and was consistently higher for the shade shoots. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the shade shoots resulted in maximum rates of net photosynthesis at ϕ = 0° (P(max,0)) similar to that of the sun shoots when expressed on a leaf mass, total leaf area and chlorophyll basis. When the angle of incoming light was varied, P(max,ϕ) per total leaf area (P(max,ϕ )/A(T)) of the shade shoots increased linearly with increasing STAR(ϕ), while P(max,ϕ) per shoot silhouette area did not change. In contrast, the response of the sun shoots was non-linear, and an optimum angle of incoming light was determined. Our results suggest that shade-shoot morphology is adaptive for utilizing diffuse light incoming from various angles, while sun-shoot morphology is adaptive for avoiding the negative effects of strong direct radiation and for enhancing light diffusion into the canopy. We propose that the angle of incoming light should be taken into account when estimating photosynthetic rates of sun shoots of conifer trees in the field.

  19. Effects of Changing Stomatal Width in A Red Pine Forest on Soil Water Content, Leaf Water Potential, Bole Diameter, and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.; Waggoner, Paul E.

    1968-01-01

    Spraying a 16 meter tall stand of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) with 10−3 m phenylmercuric acetate in early June and again in mid-July resulted in the water use between June 1 and October 25 being reduced by almost 10%. It was demonstrated that this was caused by an increase in the leaf resistance with partial stomatal closure, which reduced absolute water potential in the needles by 1 to 3 bars in the middle of the day. Smaller demands were made upon the reserves of water in the bole of the tree as shown by the smaller bole contraction in the treated trees. Although needle length and dry weight were unaffected by the spray, radial growth was reduced by approximately 32%. The dependence of leaf resistance on light intensity is shown, and its independence from leaf water potential discussed. PMID:16656870

  20. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  1. OsHKT1;4-mediated Na(+) transport in stems contributes to Na(+) exclusion from leaf blades of rice at the reproductive growth stage upon salt stress.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Yamaji, Naoki; Costa, Alex; Okuma, Eiji; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Kashiwagi, Tatsuhiko; Katsuhara, Maki; Wang, Cun; Tanoi, Keitaro; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Schroeder, Julian I; Ma, Jian Feng; Horie, Tomoaki

    2016-01-19

    Na(+) exclusion from leaf blades is one of the key mechanisms for glycophytes to cope with salinity stress. Certain class I transporters of the high-affinity K(+) transporter (HKT) family have been demonstrated to mediate leaf blade-Na(+) exclusion upon salinity stress via Na(+)-selective transport. Multiple HKT1 transporters are known to function in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the ion transport function of OsHKT1;4 and its contribution to the Na(+) exclusion mechanism in rice remain to be elucidated. Here, we report results of the functional characterization of the OsHKT1;4 transporter in rice. OsHKT1;4 mediated robust Na(+) transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that OsHKT1;4 shows strong Na(+) selectivity among cations tested, including Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+), and NH4 (+), in oocytes. A chimeric protein, EGFP-OsHKT1;4, was found to be functional in oocytes and targeted to the plasma membrane of rice protoplasts. The level of OsHKT1;4 transcripts was prominent in leaf sheaths throughout the growth stages. Unexpectedly however, we demonstrate here accumulation of OsHKT1;4 transcripts in the stem including internode II and peduncle in the reproductive growth stage. Moreover, phenotypic analysis of OsHKT1;4 RNAi plants in the vegetative growth stage revealed no profound influence on the growth and ion accumulation in comparison with WT plants upon salinity stress. However, imposition of salinity stress on the RNAi plants in the reproductive growth stage caused significant Na(+) overaccumulation in aerial organs, in particular, leaf blades and sheaths. In addition, (22)Na(+) tracer experiments using peduncles of RNAi and WT plants suggested xylem Na(+) unloading by OsHKT1;4. Taken together, our results indicate a newly recognized function of OsHKT1;4 in Na(+) exclusion in stems together with leaf sheaths, thus excluding Na(+) from leaf blades of a japonica rice cultivar in the

  2. The origin and early evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C Jill; Morris, Jennifer L

    2018-02-05

    The morphology of plant fossils from the Rhynie chert has generated longstanding questions about vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution, for instance, which morphologies were ancestral within land plants, when did vascular plants first arise and did leaves have multiple evolutionary origins? Recent advances combining insights from molecular phylogeny, palaeobotany and evo-devo research address these questions and suggest the sequence of morphological innovation during vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution. The evidence pinpoints testable developmental and genetic hypotheses relating to the origin of branching and indeterminate shoot architectures prior to the evolution of leaves, and demonstrates underestimation of polyphyly in the evolution of leaves from branching forms in 'telome theory' hypotheses of leaf evolution. This review discusses fossil, developmental and genetic evidence relating to the evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves in a phylogenetic framework.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. The origin and early evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of plant fossils from the Rhynie chert has generated longstanding questions about vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution, for instance, which morphologies were ancestral within land plants, when did vascular plants first arise and did leaves have multiple evolutionary origins? Recent advances combining insights from molecular phylogeny, palaeobotany and evo–devo research address these questions and suggest the sequence of morphological innovation during vascular plant shoot and leaf evolution. The evidence pinpoints testable developmental and genetic hypotheses relating to the origin of branching and indeterminate shoot architectures prior to the evolution of leaves, and demonstrates underestimation of polyphyly in the evolution of leaves from branching forms in ‘telome theory’ hypotheses of leaf evolution. This review discusses fossil, developmental and genetic evidence relating to the evolution of vascular plant shoots and leaves in a phylogenetic framework. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited’. PMID:29254961

  4. A comparison of height growth and leaf parameters of hybrid poplar cuttings grown in ozone-fumigated atmospheres

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid poplar cuttings were fumigated with an ozone dosage of 15 ppm-hours. One treatment was a steady fumigation at 0.2 ppm while the second fumigation fluctuated between 0.1 and 0.3 ppm. No significant differences were found in cutting height, leaf area, leaf width, and leaf dry weight, but significant differences were found in chlorophyll content and carbohydrate...

  5. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  6. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  7. Common allometric response of open-grown leader shoots to tree height in co-occurring deciduous broadleaved trees

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Rie; Kubo, Takuya; Nabeshima, Eri; Kohyama, Takashi S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphology of crown shoots changes with tree height. The height of forest trees is usually correlated with the light environment and this makes it difficult to separate the effects of tree size and of light conditions on the morphological plasticity of crown shoots. This paper addresses the tree-height dependence of shoot traits under full-light conditions where a tree crown is not shaded by other crowns. Methods Focus is given to relationships between tree height and top-shoot traits, which include the shoot's leaf-blades and non-leafy mass, its total leaf-blade area and the length and basal diameter of the shoot's stem. We examine the allometric characteristics of open-grown current-year leader shoots at the tops of forest tree crowns up to 24 m high and quantify their responses to tree height in 13 co-occurring deciduous hardwood species in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan. Key Results Dry mass allocated to leaf blades in a leader shoot increased with tree height in all 13 species. Specific leaf area decreased with tree height. Stem basal area was almost proportional to total leaf area in a leader shoot, where the proportionality constant did not depend on tree height, irrespective of species. Stem length for a given stem diameter decreased with tree height. Conclusions In the 13 species observed, height-dependent changes in allometry of leader shoots were convergent. This finding suggests that there is a common functional constraint in tree-height development. Under full-light conditions, leader shoots of tall trees naturally experience more severe water stress than those of short trees. We hypothesize that the height dependence of shoot allometry detected reflects an integrated response to height-associated water stress, which contributes to successful crown expansion and height gain. PMID:21914698

  8. Ship and Shoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  9. Drought responses of conifers in ecotone forests of northern Arizona: tree ring growth and leaf delta13C.

    PubMed

    Adams, Henry D; Kolb, Thomas E

    2004-07-01

    We sought to understand differences in tree response to meteorological drought among species and soil types at two ecotone forests in northern Arizona, the pinyon-juniper woodland/ponderosa pine ecotone, and the higher elevation, wetter, ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone. We used two approaches that provide different information about drought response: the ratio of standardized radial growth in wet years to dry years (W:D) for the period between years 1950 and 2000 as a measure of growth response to drought, and delta13C in leaves formed in non-drought (2001) and drought (2002) years as a measure of change in water use efficiency (WUE) in response to drought. W:D and leaf delta13C response to drought for Pinus edulis and P. ponderosa did not differ for trees growing on coarse-texture soils derived from cinders compared with finer textured soils derived from flow basalts or sedimentary rocks. P. ponderosa growing near its low elevation range limit at the pinyon-juniper woodland/ponderosa pine ecotone had a greater growth response to drought (higher W:D) and a larger increase in WUE in response to drought than co-occurring P. edulis growing near its high elevation range limit. P. flexilis and Pseudotsuga menziesii growing near their low elevation range limit at the ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone had a larger growth response to drought than co-occurring P. ponderosa growing near its high elevation range limit. Increases in WUE in response to drought were similar for all species at the ponderosa pine/mixed conifer ecotone. Low elevation populations of P. ponderosa had greater growth response to drought than high-elevation populations, whereas populations had a similar increase in WUE in response to drought. Our findings of different responses to drought among co-occurring tree species and between low- and high-elevation populations are interpreted in the context of drought impacts on montane coniferous forests of the southwestern USA.

  10. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    PubMed

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  11. Growth habit and leaf economics determine gas exchange responses to high elevation in an evergreen tree, a deciduous shrub and a herbaceous annual

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zuomin; Haworth, Matthew; Feng, Qiuhong; Cheng, Ruimei; Centritto, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at high elevations necessitates physiological and morphological plasticity to enable photosynthesis (A) under conditions of reduced temperature, increased radiation and the lower partial pressure of atmospheric gases, in particular carbon dioxide (pCO2). Previous studies have observed a wide range of responses to elevation in plant species depending on their adaptation to temperature, elevational range and growth habit. Here, we investigated the effect of an increase in elevation from 2500 to 3500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on three montane species with contrasting growth habits and leaf economic strategies. While all of the species showed identical increases in foliar δ13C, dark respiration and nitrogen concentration with elevation, contrasting leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic responses were observed between species with different leaf economic strategies. The deciduous shrub Salix atopantha and annual herb Rumex dentatus exhibited increased stomatal (Gs) and mesophyll (Gm) conductance and enhanced photosynthetic capacity at the higher elevation. However, evergreen Quercus spinosa displayed reduced conductance to CO2 that coincided with lower levels of photosynthetic carbon fixation at 3500 m a.s.l. The lower Gs and Gm values of evergreen species at higher elevations currently constrains their rates of A. Future rises in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) will likely predominantly affect evergreen species with lower specific leaf areas (SLAs) and levels of Gm rather than deciduous species with higher SLA and Gm values. We argue that climate change may affect plant species that compose high-elevation ecosystems differently depending on phenotypic plasticity and adaptive traits affecting leaf economics, as rising [CO2] is likely to benefit evergreen species with thick sclerophyllous leaves. PMID:26433706

  12. Jasmonate Controls Leaf Growth by Repressing Cell Proliferation and the Onset of Endoreduplication while Maintaining a Potential Stand-By Mode1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Noir, Sandra; Bömer, Moritz; Takahashi, Naoki; Ishida, Takashi; Tsui, Tjir-Li; Balbi, Virginia; Shanahan, Hugh; Sugimoto, Keiko; Devoto, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Phytohormones regulate plant growth from cell division to organ development. Jasmonates (JAs) are signaling molecules that have been implicated in stress-induced responses. However, they have also been shown to inhibit plant growth, but the mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on leaf growth regulation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants altered in JA synthesis and perception, allene oxide synthase and coi1-16B (for coronatine insensitive1), respectively. We show that MeJA inhibits leaf growth through the JA receptor COI1 by reducing both cell number and size. Further investigations using flow cytometry analyses allowed us to evaluate ploidy levels and to monitor cell cycle progression in leaves and cotyledons of Arabidopsis and/or Nicotiana benthamiana at different stages of development. Additionally, a novel global transcription profiling analysis involving continuous treatment with MeJA was carried out to identify the molecular players whose expression is regulated during leaf development by this hormone and COI1. The results of these studies revealed that MeJA delays the switch from the mitotic cell cycle to the endoreduplication cycle, which accompanies cell expansion, in a COI1-dependent manner and inhibits the mitotic cycle itself, arresting cells in G1 phase prior to the S-phase transition. Significantly, we show that MeJA activates critical regulators of endoreduplication and affects the expression of key determinants of DNA replication. Our discoveries also suggest that MeJA may contribute to the maintenance of a cellular “stand-by mode” by keeping the expression of ribosomal genes at an elevated level. Finally, we propose a novel model for MeJA-regulated COI1-dependent leaf growth inhibition. PMID:23439917

  13. CuO Nanoparticles Inhibited Root Growth from Brassica nigra Seedlings but Induced Root from Stem and Leaf Explants.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Hira; Ali, Attarad; Zia, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interests associated with nanoparticles (NPs) are budding due to their toxicity to living species. The lethal effect of NPs depends on their nature, size, shape, and concentration. Present investigation reports that CuO NPs badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth parameters. However, variation in antioxidative activities and nonenzymatic oxidants is observed in plantlets. Culturing the leaf and stem explants on MS medium in presence of low concentration of CuO NPs (1-20 mg l -1 ) produces white thin roots with thick root hairs. These roots also show an increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (up to 80 % at 10 mg l -1 ), total antioxidant, and reducing power potential (maximum in presence of 10 mg l -1 CuO NPs in the media). Nonenzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics and flavonoids, are observed elevated but NPs concentration dependent. We can conclude that CuO NPs can induce rooting from plant explants cultured on appropriate medium. These roots can be explored for the production of active chemical constituents.

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter.

    PubMed

    Singh, M K; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, B; Kumar, Sh; Joshi, S K; Kumar, S; Sathapathy, S

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (P<0.05). The results also showed that the supplementation of NLP significantly increased feed intake (P≤0.05) which might be due to the hypoglycaemic activity of Neem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability.

  15. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. PMID:24887000

  16. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Treesearch

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  17. Non-structural carbon dynamics and allocation relate to growth rate and leaf habit in California oaks.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, Susan; Czimczik, Claudia I; Sierra, Carlos A; Muhr, Jan; Xu, Xiaomei

    2015-11-01

    Trees contain non-structural carbon (NSC), but it is unclear for how long these reserves are stored and to what degree they are used to support plant activity. We used radiocarbon ((14)C) to show that the carbon (C) in stemwood NSC can achieve ages of several decades in California oaks. We separated NSC into two fractions: soluble (∼50% sugars) and insoluble (mostly starch) NSC. Soluble NSC contained more C than insoluble NSC, but we found no consistent trend in the amount of either pool with depth in the stem. There was no systematic difference in C age between the two fractions, although ages increased with stem depth. The C in both NSC fractions was consistently younger than the structural C from which they were extracted. Together, these results indicate considerable inward mixing of NSC within the stem and rapid exchange between soluble and insoluble pools, compared with the timescale of inward mixing. We observed similar patterns in sympatric evergreen and deciduous oaks and the largest differences among tree stems with different growth rates. The (14)C signature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from tree stems was higher than expected from very recent photoassimilates, indicating that the mean age of C in respiration substrates included a contribution from C fixed years previously. A simple model that tracks NSC produced each year, followed by loss (through conversion to CO2) in subsequent years, matches our observations of inward mixing of NSC in the stem and higher (14)C signature of stem CO2 efflux. Together, these data support the idea of continuous accumulation of NSC in stemwood and that 'vigor' (growth rate) and leaf habit (deciduous vs evergreen) control NSC pool size and allocation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  19. Forever Young: The Role of Ubiquitin Receptor DA1 and E3 Ligase BIG BROTHER in Controlling Leaf Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Vanhaeren, Hannes; Nam, Youn-Jeong; De Milde, Liesbeth; Chae, Eunyoung; Storme, Veronique; Weigel, Detlef; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The final size of plant organs is determined by a combination of cell proliferation and cell expansion. Leaves account for a large part of above-ground biomass and provide energy to complete the plant's life cycle. Although the final size of leaves is remarkably constant under fixed environmental conditions, several genes have been described to enhance leaf growth when their expression is modulated. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), mutations in DA1 and BB increase leaf size, an effect that is synergistically enhanced in the double mutant. Here, we show that overexpression of a dominant-negative version of DA1 enhances leaf size in a broad range of natural accessions of this species, indicating a highly conserved role of this protein in controlling organ size. We also found that during early stages of development, leaves of da1-1 and bb/eod1-2 mutants were already larger than the isogenic Col-0 wild type, but this phenotype was triggered by different cellular mechanisms. Later during development, da1-1 and bb/eod1-2 leaves showed a prolonged longevity, which was enhanced in the double mutant. Conversely, ectopic expression of DA1 or BB restricted growth and promoted leaf senescence. In concert, shortly upon induction of DA1 and BB expression, several marker genes for the transition from proliferation to expansion were highly up-regulated. Additionally, multiple genes involved in maintaining the mitotic cell cycle were rapidly down-regulated and senescence genes were strongly up-regulated, particularly upon BB induction. With these results, we demonstrate that DA1 and BB restrict leaf size and promote senescence through converging and different mechanisms. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Reducing cell wall feruloylation by expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in Festuca arundinacea modifies plant growth, leaf morphology and the turnover of cell wall arabinoxylans

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Prashanti R.; Buanafina, M. Fernanda; Shearer, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    A feature of cell wall arabinoxylan in grasses is the presence of ferulic acid which upon oxidative coupling by the action of peroxidases forms diferuloyl bridges between formerly separated arabinoxylans. Ferulate cross-linking is suspected of playing various roles in different plant processes. Here we investigate the role of cell wall feruloyaltion in two major processes, that of leaf growth and the turnover of cell wall arabinoxylans on leaf senescence in tall fescue using plants in which the level of cell wall ferulates has been reduced by targeted expression of the Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase A (FAEA) to the apoplast or Golgi. Analysis of FAE expressing plants showed that all the lines had shorter and narrower leaves compared to control, which may be a consequence of the overall growth rate being lower and occurring earlier in FAE expressing leaves than in controls. Furthermore, the final length of epidermal cells was shorter than controls, indicating that their expansion was curtailed earlier than in control leaves. This may be due to the observations that the deposition of both ether and ester linked monomeric hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulate dimerization stopped earlier in FAE expressing leaves but at a lower level than controls, and hydroxycinnamic acid deposition started to slow down when peroxidase levels increased. It would appear therefore that one of the possible mechanisms for controlling overall leaf morphology such as leaf length and width in grasses, where leaf morphology is highly variable between species, may be the timing of hydroxycinnamic acid deposition in the expanding cell walls as they emerge from cell division into the elongation zone, controlled partially by the onset of peroxidase activity in this region. PMID:28934356

  1. Forever Young: The Role of Ubiquitin Receptor DA1 and E3 Ligase BIG BROTHER in Controlling Leaf Growth and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaeren, Hannes; De Milde, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    The final size of plant organs is determined by a combination of cell proliferation and cell expansion. Leaves account for a large part of above-ground biomass and provide energy to complete the plant’s life cycle. Although the final size of leaves is remarkably constant under fixed environmental conditions, several genes have been described to enhance leaf growth when their expression is modulated. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), mutations in DA1 and BB increase leaf size, an effect that is synergistically enhanced in the double mutant. Here, we show that overexpression of a dominant-negative version of DA1 enhances leaf size in a broad range of natural accessions of this species, indicating a highly conserved role of this protein in controlling organ size. We also found that during early stages of development, leaves of da1-1 and bb/eod1-2 mutants were already larger than the isogenic Col-0 wild type, but this phenotype was triggered by different cellular mechanisms. Later during development, da1-1 and bb/eod1-2 leaves showed a prolonged longevity, which was enhanced in the double mutant. Conversely, ectopic expression of DA1 or BB restricted growth and promoted leaf senescence. In concert, shortly upon induction of DA1 and BB expression, several marker genes for the transition from proliferation to expansion were highly up-regulated. Additionally, multiple genes involved in maintaining the mitotic cell cycle were rapidly down-regulated and senescence genes were strongly up-regulated, particularly upon BB induction. With these results, we demonstrate that DA1 and BB restrict leaf size and promote senescence through converging and different mechanisms. PMID:28003326

  2. Leaf turnover and growth responses of shade-grown saplings of four Shorea rain forest species to a sudden increase in light.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Michiru; Ishida, Atsushi; Tange, Takeshi; Yagi, Hisayoshi

    2006-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sapling growth following a sudden increase in solar irradiance is related to recovery from photoinhibition and the balance between rate of production of new leaves and rate of abscision of old leaves. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative growth rate (RGR) of stem basal area were measured following the sudden exposure of shade-grown (7% of full sunlight) saplings of four Shorea species to full sunlight. Sudden exposure to full sunlight resulted in an immediate and substantial reduction in dark-adapted quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), followed by a gradual recovery in all species. Near light-saturated net assimilation rate (A max) and area-based leaf chlorophyll concentration ([Chl area]) also declined immediately after exposure. Eleven days after exposure, A max had recovered to pre-exposure values in all species, whereas [Chl area] had not recovered. Across species, RGR of stem basal area increased with increasing RGR of the number of leaves following exposure to full sunlight. The interspecific variations in RGR of stem basal area suggest that new leaf production is crucial for determining the potential growth of saplings following gap formation.

  3. Effects of competition from young northern hardwoods on red pine seedling growth, nutrient use efficiency, and leaf morphology

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; Alan S. White

    1993-01-01

    The effects of competition from three northern hardwood tree species on red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings were examined on two clear-cut sites in western Maine. We examined how planted red pine seedlings altered their nutrient use efficiency and shoot morphology under changing environmental conditions and how these changes related to their...

  4. Duration of shoot elongation in Scots pine varies within the crown and between years.

    PubMed

    Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Nikinmaa, Eero; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2013-10-01

    Shoot elongation in boreal and temperate trees typically follows a sigmoid pattern where the onset and cessation of growth are related to accumulated effective temperature (thermal time). Previous studies on leader shoots suggest that while the maximum daily growth rate depends on the availability of resources to the shoot, the duration of the growth period may be an adaptation to long-term temperature conditions. However, other results indicate that the growth period may be longer in faster growing lateral shoots with higher availability of resources. This study investigates the interactions between the rate of elongation and the duration of the growth period in units of thermal time in lateral shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Length development of 202 lateral shoots were measured approximately three times per week during seven growing seasons in 2-5 trees per year in a mature stand and in three trees during one growing season in a sapling stand. A dynamic shoot growth model was adapted for the analysis to determine (1) the maximum growth rate and (2) the thermal time reached at growth completion. The relationship between those two parameters and its variation between trees and years was analysed using linear mixed models. The shoots with higher maximum growth rate within a crown continued to grow for a longer period in any one year. Higher July-August temperature of the previous summer implied a higher requirement of thermal time for growth completion. The results provide evidence that the requirement of thermal time for completion of lateral shoot extension in Scots pine may interact with resource availability to the shoot both from year to year and among shoots in a crown each year. If growing season temperatures rise in the future, this will affect not only the rate of shoot growth but its duration also.

  5. Simultaneous effects of leaf irradiance and soil moisture on growth and root system architecture of novel wheat genotypes: implications for phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Kerstin A.; Bonnett, David; Furbank, Robert; Walter, Achim; Schurr, Ulrich; Watt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Plants in the field are exposed to varying light and moisture. Agronomic improvement requires knowledge of whole-plant phenotypes expressed in response to simultaneous variation in these essential resources. Most phenotypes, however, have been described from experiments where resources are varied singularly. To test the importance of varying shoot and root resources for phenotyping studies, sister pre-breeding lines of wheat were phenotyped in response to independent or simultaneous exposure to two light levels and soil moisture profiles. The distribution and architecture of the root systems depended strongly on the moisture of the deeper soil layer. For one genotype, roots, specifically lateral roots, were stimulated to grow into moist soil when the upper zone was well-watered and were inhibited by drier deep zones. In contrast, the other genotype showed much less plasticity and responsiveness to upper moist soil, but maintained deeper penetration of roots into the dry layer. The sum of shoot and root responses was greater when treated simultaneously to low light and low soil water, compared to each treatment alone, suggesting the value of whole plant phenotyping in response to multiple conditions for agronomic improvement. The results suggest that canopy management for increased irradiation of leaves would encourage root growth into deeper drier soil, and that genetic variation within closely related breeding lines may exist to favour surface root growth in response to irrigation or in-season rainfall. PMID:26089535

  6. Simultaneous effects of leaf irradiance and soil moisture on growth and root system architecture of novel wheat genotypes: implications for phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Kerstin A; Bonnett, David; Furbank, Robert; Walter, Achim; Schurr, Ulrich; Watt, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Plants in the field are exposed to varying light and moisture. Agronomic improvement requires knowledge of whole-plant phenotypes expressed in response to simultaneous variation in these essential resources. Most phenotypes, however, have been described from experiments where resources are varied singularly. To test the importance of varying shoot and root resources for phenotyping studies, sister pre-breeding lines of wheat were phenotyped in response to independent or simultaneous exposure to two light levels and soil moisture profiles. The distribution and architecture of the root systems depended strongly on the moisture of the deeper soil layer. For one genotype, roots, specifically lateral roots, were stimulated to grow into moist soil when the upper zone was well-watered and were inhibited by drier deep zones. In contrast, the other genotype showed much less plasticity and responsiveness to upper moist soil, but maintained deeper penetration of roots into the dry layer. The sum of shoot and root responses was greater when treated simultaneously to low light and low soil water, compared to each treatment alone, suggesting the value of whole plant phenotyping in response to multiple conditions for agronomic improvement. The results suggest that canopy management for increased irradiation of leaves would encourage root growth into deeper drier soil, and that genetic variation within closely related breeding lines may exist to favour surface root growth in response to irrigation or in-season rainfall. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Shoot growth orientation in trees is influenced by gravitropic control via a signaling pathway that includes TAC1 and LAZY1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the molecular basis behind tree architecture could have significant impacts in tree crop agriculture and forestry. The ability to manipulate tree branch growth and patterning could lead to significant productivity improvements through reduced pesticide use, reduced labor for harvestin...

  8. Growth, shoot phenology and physiology of diverse seed sources of black spruce: I Seedling responses to varied atmospheric CO2 concentrations and photoperiods

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Seiler

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine: (1) if diverse provenances of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) respond similarly in growth, phenology and physiology to an approximately 300 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2...

  9. A monoclonal antibody against neem leaf glycoprotein recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and restricts CEA expressing tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Das, Arnab; Barik, Subhasis; Banerjee, Saptak; Bose, Anamika; Sarkar, Koustav; Biswas, Jaydip; Baral, Rathindranath; Pal, Smarajit

    2014-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the promising tumor antigens mainly associated with carcinoma of the colon, lung, breast, etc. and received wide attention for cancer immunotherapy. Neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP), an effective immunomodulator, is able to generate humoral and cellular immune responses in murine tumor models. We have generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against NLGP by fusing NLGP-immunized mice splenocytes with nonsecretory myeloma cells. A highly anti-NLGP mAb secreting clone (1C8; IgG2a in nature) has been identified and propagated in culture. 1C8 recognizes human CEA as good as NLGP by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation. 1C8 detects CEA on colon cancer tissues by immunochistochemistry. By flow cytometry, 1C8 specifically reacts with CEA(+) human (Colo-205, HCT-116, and HT-29) and mouse (CT-26) colon cancer cells, but it showed minimum reactivity with CEA(-) human (MCF7, SiHa, and SCC084) and mouse (B16MelF10) cancer cells. This anti-NLGP 1C8 mAb revealed significant antitumor activity and better survivability in vivo in animals bearing mouse (CT-26 in BALB/c) and human (Colo-205 in athymic nude) CEA(+) cancer cells. 1C8 has no direct influence on proliferation and migration of CEA(+) cells, however, NK cell-dependent strong antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity reaction toward CEA(+) cells and normalization of angiogenesis are chiefly associated with tumor growth restriction. Obtained results provided a new immunotherapeutic approach for the effective management of CEA(+) tumors.

  10. Probing the Reproducibility of Leaf Growth and Molecular Phenotypes: A Comparison of Three Arabidopsis Accessions Cultivated in Ten Laboratories1[W

    PubMed Central

    Massonnet, Catherine; Vile, Denis; Fabre, Juliette; Hannah, Matthew A.; Caldana, Camila; Lisec, Jan; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Messerli, Gaëlle; Gronlund, Jesper T.; Perkovic, Josip; Wigmore, Emma; May, Sean; Bevan, Michael W.; Meyer, Christian; Rubio-Díaz, Silvia; Weigel, Detlef; Micol, José Luis; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Fiorani, Fabio; Walsh, Sean; Rinn, Bernd; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hilson, Pierre; Hennig, Lars; Willmitzer, Lothar; Granier, Christine

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of the life sciences is to understand how molecular processes control phenotypes. Because understanding biological systems relies on the work of multiple laboratories, biologists implicitly assume that organisms with the same genotype will display similar phenotypes when grown in comparable conditions. We investigated to what extent this holds true for leaf growth variables and metabolite and transcriptome profiles of three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes grown in 10 laboratories using a standardized and detailed protocol. A core group of four laboratories generated similar leaf growth phenotypes, demonstrating that standardization is possible. But some laboratories presented significant differences in some leaf growth variables, sometimes changing the genotype ranking. Metabolite profiles derived from the same leaf displayed a strong genotype × environment (laboratory) component. Genotypes could be separated on the basis of their metabolic signature, but only when the analysis was limited to samples derived from one laboratory. Transcriptome data revealed considerable plant-to-plant variation, but the standardization ensured that interlaboratory variation was not considerably larger than intralaboratory variation. The different impacts of the standardization on phenotypes and molecular profiles could result from differences of temporal scale between processes involved at these organizational levels. Our findings underscore the challenge of describing, monitoring, and precisely controlling environmental conditions but also demonstrate that dedicated efforts can result in reproducible data across multiple laboratories. Finally, our comparative analysis revealed that small variations in growing conditions (light quality principally) and handling of plants can account for significant differences in phenotypes and molecular profiles obtained in independent laboratories. PMID:20200072

  11. The increase of current atmospheric CO2 and temperature can benefit leaf gas exchanges, carbohydrate content and growth in C4 grass invaders of the Cerrado biome.

    PubMed

    Faria, A P de; Marabesi, M A; Gaspar, M; França, M G C

    2018-06-01

    Leaf gas exchanges, carbohydrate metabolism and growth of three Brazilian Cerrado invasive African grasses were evaluated after growing for 75 days under doubled CO 2 concentration and temperature elevated by 3 °C. Results showed that although the species presented photosynthetic C4 metabolism, they all had some kind of positive response to increased CO 2 . Urochloa brizantha and Megathyrsus maximus showed increased height for all induced environmental conditions. Urochloa decumbens showed only improvement in water use efficiency (WUE), while U. brizantha showed increased CO 2 assimilation and M. maximus presented higher biomass accumulation under doubled CO 2 concentration. The most significant improvement of increased CO 2 in all three species appears to be the increase in WUE. This improvement probably explains the positive increase of photosynthesis and biomass accumulation presented by U. brizantha and M. maximus, respectively. The increase in temperature affected leaf carbohydrate content of M. maximus by reducing sucrose, glucose and fructose content. These reductions were not related to thermal stress since photosynthesis and growth were not harmed. Cellulose content was not affected in any of the three species, just the lignin content in U. decumbens and M. maximus. All treatments promoted lignin content reduction in U. brizantha, suggesting a delay in leaf maturation of this species. Together, the results indicate that climate change may differentially promote changes in leaf gas exchanges, carbohydrate content and growth in C4 plant species studied and all of them could benefit in some way from these changes, constituting a threat to the native Cerrado biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis by culturing shoot tips of flower stalk buds.

    PubMed

    Tokuhara, K; Mii, M

    1993-11-01

    Green Protocorm-like Bodies (PLB) with high multiplication capacity were induced from shoot tips of flower stalk buds having 1 or 2 leaf primordia using New Dogashima Medium (NDM) containing 0.1 mg l(-1) α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg 1(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). These PLB were subcultured on the same medium. More than 10,000 PLBs were obtained from a few buds on a single flower stalk within one year. After transfer onto NDM containing no plant growth regulator (PGR), the PLB developed into plantlets. The micropropagation method formulated in this study was applicable to 12 different genotypes. These results suggest that the methodology could be used on a commercial scale for vegetative propagation of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis.

  13. Novel components of leaf bacterial communities of field-grown tomato plants and their potential for plant growth promotion and biocontrol of tomato diseases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize potentially endophytic culturable bacteria from leaves of cultivated tomato and analyze their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae. Bacteria were obtained from inner tissues of surface-disinfected tomato leaves of field-grown plants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified bacterial isolates related to Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (isolates BT3 and MT8), Exiguobacterium spp. (isolate GT4), Staphylococcus xylosus (isolate BT5), Pantoea eucalypti (isolate NT6), Bacillus methylotrophicus (isolate MT3), Pseudomonas veronii (isolates BT4 and NT2), Pseudomonas rhodesiae (isolate BT2) and Pseudomonas cichorii (isolate NT3). After seed inoculation, BT2, BT4, MT3, MT8, NT2 and NT6 were re-isolated from leaf extracts. NT2, BT2, MT3 and NT6 inhibited growth of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in vitro, produced antimicrobial compounds and reduced leaf damage caused by B. cinerea. Some of these isolates also promoted growth of tomato plants, produced siderophores, the auxin indole-3-acetic and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Thus, bacterial communities of leaves from field-grown tomato plants were found to harbor potentially endophytic culturable beneficial bacteria capable of antagonizing pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth, which could be used as biological control agents and biofertilizers/biostimulators for promotion of tomato plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  15. Elimination of two viruses which interact synergistically from sweetpotato by shoot tip culture and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q C; Valkonen, J P T

    2008-12-01

    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyviridae) interact synergistically and cause severe diseases in co-infected sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). Sweetpotato is propagated vegetatively and virus-free planting materials are pivotal for sustainable production. Using cryotherapy, SPCSV and SPCSV were eliminated from all treated single-virus-infected and co-infected shoot tips irrespective of size (0.5-1.5mm including 2-4 leaf primordia). While shoot tip culture also eliminated SPCSV, elimination of SPFMV failed in 90-93% of the largest shoot tips (1.5mm) using this technique. Virus distribution to different leaf primordia and tissues within leaf primordia in the shoot apex and petioles was not altered by co-infection of the viruses in the fully virus-susceptible sweetpotato genotype used. SPFMV was immunolocalized to all types of tissues and up to the fourth-youngest leaf primordium. In contrast, SPCSV was detected only in the phloem and up to the fifth leaf primordium. Because only cells in the apical dome of the meristem and the two first leaf primordia survived cryotherapy, all data taken together could explain the results of virus elimination. The simple and efficient cryotherapy protocol developed for virus elimination can also be used for preparation of sweetpotato materials for long-term preservation.

  16. Effects of road dust on the growth characteristics of Sophora japonica L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bao, Le; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Lin, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Road dust is one of the most common pollutants and causes a series of negative effects on plant physiology. Dust's impacts on plants can be regarded as a combination of load, composition and grain size impacts on plants; however, there is a lack of integrated dust effect studies involving these three aspects. In our study, Sophora japonica seedlings were artificially dusted with road dust collected from the road surface of Beijing so that we could study the impacts of this dust on nitrogen/carbon allocation, biomass allocation and photosynthetic pigments from the three aspects of composition, load and grain size. The results showed that the growth characteristics of S. japonica seedlings were mostly influenced by dust composition and load. Leaf N, root-shoot ratio and chlorophyll a/b were significantly affected by dust composition and load; leaf C/N, shoot biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid were significantly affected by dust load; stem N and stem C/N were significantly affected by dust composition; while the dust grain size alone did not affect any of the growth characteristics. Road dust did influence the growth characteristics more extensively than loam. Therefore, a higher dust load could increase the differences between road dust and loam treatments. The elements in dust are well correlated to the shoot N, shoot C/N, and root-shoot ratio of S. japonica seedlings. This knowledge could benefit the management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The effect of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on shoot growth of the invasive plant Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the effect of feeding by the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi, 1920) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the growth of the plant Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) was evaluated under field conditions in its native range. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of R. donacis, a c...

  18. Study of the Light Received Characteristics of a Plant-Shoot-Light-Condensing System with Simple Leaves or Lobed Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    Plant shoot configurations evolve so that maximum sunlight may be obtained. The objective of this study is to develop a compact light-condensing system mimicking a plant shoot configuration that is applicable to a light source from a large area. In this paper, the relationship between the position of a light source (the sun) and the rate at which light is absorbed by each leaf was investigated in detail for plant shoot models of a dogwood (simple leaf) and a ginkgo tree (lobed leaf). The rate of light quantum received in each leaf model is reported to an analysis program that uses cross entropy (CE). The analyses showed that the peak amount of light received in the plant-shoot-light-condensing system was during February (vernal equinox) and October (autumnal equinox). Similarly, the rate of light quantum received in each leaf was measured with the CE. The results found that the plant-shoot-light-condensing system that maximizes the amount of light received has differences in the light received in each leaf. Furthermore, the light-condensing characteristics of the ginkgo biloba model are better than the dogwood model. The light-condensing characteristics of a leaf are influenced by the size, a lobe, shape, and the length of the branch.

  19. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) shoot cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Bates, Rick; Carlson, John

    2015-01-01

    The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2) evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3) assess the effects of adding a pH stabilizer, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) that is commonly used in Douglas-fir micropropagation medium. Vegetative buds were collected in the spring before breaking dormancy from juvenile and mature donor trees for conducting these evaluations. Medium, with or without MES, was pre-adjusted to five pH levels before adding MES, agar and autoclaving. Medium pH changes and explant growth parameters were measured at eight different incubation times. Overall, MES provided a more stable medium pH, relative to starting pH values, under both light and dark storage conditions as well as with presence of explants. A general trend of decreasing medium pH over time was found comparing explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Explant height and weight growth increased over time, but differ among explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Our findings suggest that a 21-day subculture practice may best sustain medium freshness, medium pH level and desirable explant growth. PMID:26535110

  20. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  1. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  2. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  3. Arabidopsis REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 controls a leaf axil stem cell niche and modulates vegetative development.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas; Abbott, Jessica; Moritz, Thomas; Doerner, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Shoot branching is a major determinant of variation in plant stature. Branches, which form secondary growth axes, originate from stem cells activated in leaf axils. The initial steps by which axillary meristems (AMs) are specified and their stem cells organized are still poorly understood. We identified gain- and loss-of-function alleles at the Arabidopsis thaliana REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1) locus. RAX1 is encoded by the Myb-like transcription factor MYB37 and is an Arabidopsis homolog of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Blind gene. RAX1 is transiently expressed in a small central domain within the boundary zone separating shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia early in leaf primordium development. RAX1 genetically interacts with CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes and is required for the expression of CUC2 in the RAX1 expression domain, suggesting that RAX1 acts through CUC2. We propose that RAX1 functions to positionally specify a stem cell niche for AM formation. RAX1 also affects the timing of developmental phase transitions by negatively regulating gibberellic acid levels in the shoot apex. RAX1 thus defines a novel activity that links the specification of AM formation with the modulation of the rate of progression through developmental phases.

  4. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  5. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Species Dependency Governs Better Plant Physiological Characteristics and Leaf Quality of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-Mei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Bei; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Gui-Xi; Zhu, Li-Quan; He, Xin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the synergic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and its host mulberry (Morus alba L.), an important perennial multipurpose plant, has theoretical and practical significance in mulberry plantation, silkworm cultivation, and relevant textile industry. In a greenhouse study, we compared functional distinctions of three genetically different AMF species (Acaulospora scrobiculata, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices) on physiological and growth characteristics as well as leaf quality of 6-month-old mulberry seedlings. Results showed that mulberry was AMF-species dependent, and AMF colonization significantly increased shoot height and taproot length, stem base and taproot diameter, leaf and fibrous root numbers, and shoot and root biomass production. Meanwhile, leaf chlorophyll a or b and carotenoid concentrations, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were generally significantly greater, while intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly lower in AMF-inoculated seedlings than in non-AMF-inoculated counterparts. These trends were also generally true for leaf moisture, total nitrogen, all essential amino acids, histidine, proline, soluble protein, sugar, and fatty acid as they were significantly increased under mycorrhization. Among these three tested AMFs, significantly greater effects of AMF on above-mentioned mulberry physiological and growth characteristics ranked as F. mosseae > A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices, whilst on mulberry leaf quality (e.g., nutraceutical values) for better silkworm growth as F. mosseae ≈A. scrobiculata > R. intraradices. In conclusion, our results showed that greater mulberry biomass production, and nutritional quality varied with AMF species or was AMF-species dependent. Such improvements were mainly attributed to AMF-induced positive alterations of mulberry leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and N

  6. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulation of carbon allocation and organ growth variability in apple tree by connecting architectural and source–sink models

    PubMed Central

    Pallas, Benoît; Da Silva, David; Valsesia, Pierre; Yang, Weiwei; Guillaume, Olivier; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Vercambre, Gilles; Génard, Michel; Costes, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Plant growth depends on carbon availability and allocation among organs. QualiTree has been designed to simulate carbon allocation and partitioning in the peach tree (Prunus persica), whereas MappleT is dedicated to the simulation of apple tree (Malus × domestica) architecture. The objective of this study was to couple both models and adapt QualiTree to apple trees to simulate organ growth traits and their within-tree variability. Methods MappleT was used to generate architectures corresponding to the ‘Fuji’ cultivar, accounting for the variability within and among individuals. These architectures were input into QualiTree to simulate shoot and fruit growth during a growth cycle. We modified QualiTree to account for the observed shoot polymorphism in apple trees, i.e. different classes (long, medium and short) that were characterized by different growth function parameters. Model outputs were compared with observed 3D tree geometries, considering shoot and final fruit size and growth dynamics. Key Results The modelling approach connecting MappleT and QualiTree was appropriate to the simulation of growth and architectural characteristics at the tree scale (plant leaf area, shoot number and types, fruit weight at harvest). At the shoot scale, mean fruit weight and its variability within trees was accurately simulated, whereas the model tended to overestimate individual shoot leaf area and underestimate its variability for each shoot type. Varying the parameter related to the intensity of carbon exchange between shoots revealed that behaviour intermediate between shoot autonomy and a common assimilate pool was required to properly simulate within-tree fruit growth variability. Moreover, the model correctly dealt with the crop load effect on organ growth. Conclusions This study provides understanding of the integration of shoot ontogenetic properties, carbon supply and transport between entities for simulating organ growth in trees. Further

  8. Convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics of understory Abies amabilis and Tsuga Heterophylla in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA

    Treesearch

    Hiroaki Ishii; Ken-Ichi Yoshimura; Akira Mori

    2009-01-01

    The branching pattern of A. amabilis was regular (normal shoot-length distribution, less variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio), whereas that of T. heterophylla was more plastic (positively skewed shoot-length distribution, more variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio). The two species had similar shoot...

  9. Tree-ring δ13C and δ18O, leaf δ13C and wood and leaf N status demonstrate tree growth strategies and predict susceptibility to disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Billings, S.A.; Boone, A.S.; Stephen, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how tree growth strategies may influence tree susceptibility to disturbance is an important goal, especially given projected increases in diverse ecological disturbances this century. We use growth responses of tree rings to climate, relationships between tree-ring stable isotopic signatures of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O), wood nitrogen concentration [N], and contemporary leaf [N] and δ13C values to assess potential historic drivers of tree photosynthesis in dying and apparently healthy co-occurring northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) during a region-wide oak decline event in Arkansas, USA. Bole growth of both healthy and dying trees responded negatively to drought severity (Palmer Drought Severity Index) and temperature; healthy trees exhibited a positive, but small, response to growing season precipitation. Contrary to expectations, tree-ring δ13C did not increase with drought severity. A significantly positive relationship between tree-ring δ13C and δ18O was evident in dying trees (P < 0.05) but not in healthy trees. Healthy trees’ wood exhibited lower [N] than that of dying trees throughout most of their lives (P < 0.05), and we observed a significant, positive relationship (P < 0.05) in healthy trees between contemporary leaf δ13C and leaf N (by mass), but not in dying trees. Our work provides evidence that for plants in which strong relationships between δ13C and δ18O are not evident, δ13C may be governed by plant N status. The data further imply that historic photosynthesis in healthy trees was linked to N status and, perhaps, C sink strength to a greater extent than in dying trees, in which tree-ring stable isotopes suggest that historic photosynthesis was governed primarily by stomatal regulation. This, in turn, suggests that assessing the relative dominance of photosynthetic capacity vs stomatal regulation as drivers of trees’ C accrual may be a feasible means of predicting tree responses to some

  10. Growth form and seasonal variation in leaf gas exchange of Colophospermum mopane savanna trees in northwest Botswana.

    PubMed

    Veenendaal, Elmar M; Mantlana, Khanyisa B; Pammenter, Norman W; Weber, Piet; Huntsman-Mapila, Phillipa; Lloyd, Jon

    2008-03-01

    We investigated differences in physiological and morphological traits between the tall and short forms of mopane (Colophospermum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J. Léonard) trees growing near Maun, Botswana on a Kalahari sandveld overlying an impermeable calcrete duricrust. We sought to determine if differences between the two physiognomic types are attributable to the way they exploit available soil water. The tall form, which was located on deeper soil than the short form (5.5 versus 1.6 m), had a lower leaf:fine root biomass ratio (1:20 versus 1:6), but a similar leaf area index (0.9-1.0). Leaf nitrogen concentrations varied between 18 and 27 mg g(-1) and were about 20% higher in the tall form than in the short form. Maximum net assimilation rates (A sat) occurred during the rainy seasons (March-April 2000 and January-February 2001) and were similar in the tall and short forms (15-22 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) before declining to less than 10 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at the end of the rainy season in late April. As the dry season progressed, A sat, soil water content, predawn leaf water potential (Psi pd) and leaf nitrogen concentration declined rapidly. Before leaf abscission, Psi pd was more negative in the short form (-3.4 MPa) than in the tall form (-2.7 MPa) despite the greater availability of soil water beneath the short form trees. This difference appeared attributable to differences in root depth and density between the physiognomic types. Stomatal regulation of water use and carbon assimilation differed between years, with the tall form having a consistently more conservative water-use strategy as the dry season progressed than the short form.

  11. Shoot development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is affected by the modular branching pattern of the stem and intra- and inter-shoot trophic competition.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Eric; Pellegrino, Anne; Tardieu, Francois; Lecoeur, Jeremie

    2004-03-01

    Shoot architecture variability in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was analysed using a generic modelling approach based on thermal time developed for annual herbaceous species. The analysis of shoot architecture was based on various levels of shoot organization, including pre-existing and newly formed parts of the stem, and on the modular structure of the stem, which consists of a repeated succession of three phytomers (P0-P1-P2). Four experiments were carried out using the cultivar 'Grenache N': two on potted vines (one of which was carried out in a glasshouse) and two on mature vines in a vineyard. These experiments resulted in a broad diversity of environmental conditions, but none of the plants experienced soil water deficit. Development of the main axis was highly dependent on air temperature, being linearly related to thermal time for all stages of leaf development from budbreak to veraison. The stable progression of developmental stages along the main stem resulted in a thermal-time based programme of leaf development. Leaf expansion rate varied with trophic competition (shoot and cluster loads) and environmental conditions (solar radiation, VPD), accounting for differences in final leaf area. Branching pattern was highly variable. Classification of the branches according to ternary modular structure increased the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of branch development. The rate and duration of leaf production were higher for branches derived from P0 phytomers than for branches derived from P1 or P2 phytomers. Rates of leaf production, expressed as a -function of thermal time, were not stable and depended on trophic competition and environmental conditions such as solar radiation or VPD. The application to grapevine of a generic model developed in annual plants made it possible to identify constants in main stem development and to determine the hierarchical structure of branches with respect to the modular structure of the stem in response to intra- and inter-shoot

  12. Selecting and optimizing eco-physiological parameters of Biome-BGC to reproduce observed woody and leaf biomass growth of Eucommia ulmoides plantation in China using Dakota optimizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, T.; Machimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the simulation using an ecosystem process model, the adjustment of parameters is indispensable for improving the accuracy of prediction. This procedure, however, requires much time and effort for approaching the simulation results to the measurements on models consisting of various ecosystem processes. In this study, we tried to apply a general purpose optimization tool in the parameter optimization of an ecosystem model, and examined its validity by comparing the simulated and measured biomass growth of a woody plantation. A biometric survey of tree biomass growth was performed in 2009 in an 11-year old Eucommia ulmoides plantation in Henan Province, China. Climate of the site was dry temperate. Leaf, above- and below-ground woody biomass were measured from three cut trees and converted into carbon mass per area by measured carbon contents and stem density. Yearly woody biomass growth of the plantation was calculated according to allometric relationships determined by tree ring analysis of seven cut trees. We used Biome-BGC (Thornton, 2002) to reproduce biomass growth of the plantation. Air temperature and humidity from 1981 to 2010 was used as input climate condition. The plant functional type was deciduous broadleaf, and non-optimizing parameters were left default. 11-year long normal simulations were performed following a spin-up run. In order to select optimizing parameters, we analyzed the sensitivity of leaf, above- and below-ground woody biomass to eco-physiological parameters. Following the selection, optimization of parameters was performed by using the Dakota optimizer. Dakota is an optimizer developed by Sandia National Laboratories for providing a systematic and rapid means to obtain optimal designs using simulation based models. As the object function, we calculated the sum of relative errors between simulated and measured leaf, above- and below-ground woody carbon at each of eleven years. In an alternative run, errors at the last year (at the

  13. Plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins drive shoot development in a moss.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom A; Liu, Maureen M; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Bierfreund, Nicole M; Braun, Marion; Coudert, Yoan; Dennis, Ross J; O'Connor, Devin; Wang, Xiao Y; White, Chris D; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf; Harrison, C Jill

    2014-12-01

    Plant body plans arise by the activity of meristematic growing tips during development and radiated independently in the gametophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) stages of the life cycle during evolution. Although auxin and its intercellular transport by PIN family efflux carriers are primary regulators of sporophytic shoot development in flowering plants, the extent of conservation in PIN function within the land plants and the mechanisms regulating bryophyte gametophytic shoot development are largely unknown. We have found that treating gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens with exogenous auxins and auxin transport inhibitors disrupts apical function and leaf development. Two plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins are expressed in leafy shoots, and pin mutants resemble plants treated with auxins or auxin transport inhibitors. PIN-mediated auxin transport regulates apical cell function, leaf initiation, leaf shape, and shoot tropisms in moss gametophytes. pin mutant sporophytes are sometimes branched, reproducing a phenotype only previously seen in the fossil record and in rare natural moss variants. Our results show that PIN-mediated auxin transport is an ancient, conserved regulator of shoot development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown onmore » shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.« less

  15. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  16. Overexpression of the TaSHN1 transcription factor in bread wheat leads to leaf surface modifications, improved drought tolerance and no yield penalty under controlled growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Bi, Huihui; Shi, Jianxin; Kovalchuk, Natalia; Luang, Sukanya; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Zhang, Dabing; Shavrukov, Yuri; Stepanenko, Anton; Tricker, Penny; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy; Borisjuk, Nikolai

    2018-05-14

    Transcription factors regulate multiple networks, mediating the responses of organisms to stresses, including drought. Here we investigated the role of the wheat transcription factor TaSHN1 in crop growth and drought tolerance. TaSHN1, isolated from bread wheat, was characterised for molecular interactions and functionality. The overexpression of TaSHN1 in wheat was followed by the evaluation of T 2 and T 3 transgenic lines for drought tolerance, growth and yield components. Leaf surface changes were analysed by light microscopy, SEM, TEM and GC-MS/GC-FID. TaSHN1 behaves as a transcriptional activator in a yeast transactivation assay and binds stress-related DNA cis-elements, determinants of which were revealed using 3D molecular modelling. The overexpression of TaSHN1 in transgenic wheat did not result in a yield penalty under the controlled plant growth conditions of a glasshouse. Transgenic lines had significantly lower stomatal density and leaf water loss, and exhibited improved recovery after severe drought, compared to control plants. The comparative analysis of cuticular waxes revealed an increased accumulation of alkanes in leaves of transgenic lines. Our data demonstrate that TaSHN1 may operate as a positive modulator of drought stress tolerance. Positive attributes could be mediated through an enhanced accumulation of alkanes and reduced stomatal density. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival, growth and reproduction by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in open clearing vs. forested conditions in Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze; Jurandir Galvao

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees are often retained in agricultural fields and pastures for seed and timber production after selective logging and forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon. At a forest management site in southeast Para´, we censused trees growing scattered across a large open clearing after forest removal and in heavily disturbed forest...

  18. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  19. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok Kumar; Munghate, Rajendra Sudhakar; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Polavarapu, Kavi Kishor B.; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A. soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1's and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. The genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca) effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilized in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca) effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to specific combining ability (σ2s), dominance variance (σ2d), and

  20. Relationship between leaf functional traits and productivity in Aquilaria crassna (Thymelaeaceae) plantations: a tool to aid in the early selection of high-yielding trees.

    PubMed

    López-Sampson, Arlene; Cernusak, Lucas A; Page, Tony

    2017-05-01

    Physiological traits are frequently used as indicators of tree productivity. Aquilaria species growing in a research planting were studied to investigate relationships between leaf-productivity traits and tree growth. Twenty-eight trees were selected to measure isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and monitor six leaf attributes. Trees were sampled randomly within each of four diametric classes (at 150 mm above ground level) ensuring the variability in growth of the whole population was represented. A model averaging technique based on the Akaike's information criterion was computed to identify whether leaf traits could assist in diameter prediction. Regression analysis was performed to test for relationships between carbon isotope values and diameter and leaf traits. Approximately one new leaf per week was produced by a shoot. The rate of leaf expansion was estimated as 1.45 mm day-1. The range of δ13C values in leaves of Aquilaria species was from -25.5‰ to -31‰, with an average of -28.4 ‰ (±1.5‰ SD). A moderate negative correlation (R2 = 0.357) between diameter and δ13C in leaf dry matter indicated that individuals with high intercellular CO2 concentrations (low δ13C) and associated low water-use efficiency sustained rapid growth. Analysis of the 95% confidence of best-ranked regression models indicated that the predictors that could best explain growth in Aquilaria species were δ13C, δ15N, petiole length, number of new leaves produced per week and specific leaf area. The model constructed with these variables explained 55% (R2 = 0.55) of the variability in stem diameter. This demonstrates that leaf traits can assist in the early selection of high-productivity trees in Aquilaria species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  2. Stochastic modelling of tree architecture and biomass allocation: application to teak (Tectona grandis L. f.), a tree species with polycyclic growth and leaf neoformation.

    PubMed

    Tondjo, Kodjo; Brancheriau, Loïc; Sabatier, Sylvie; Kokutse, Adzo Dzifa; Kokou, Kouami; Jaeger, Marc; de Reffye, Philippe; Fourcaud, Thierry

    2018-06-08

    For a given genotype, the observed variability of tree forms results from the stochasticity of meristem functioning and from changing and heterogeneous environmental factors affecting biomass formation and allocation. In response to climate change, trees adapt their architecture by adjusting growth processes such as pre- and neoformation, as well as polycyclic growth. This is the case for the teak tree. The aim of this work was to adapt the plant model, GreenLab, in order to take into consideration both these processes using existing data on this tree species. This work adopted GreenLab formalism based on source-sink relationships at organ level that drive biomass production and partitioning within the whole plant over time. The stochastic aspect of phytomer production can be modelled by a Bernoulli process. The teak model was designed, parameterized and analysed using the architectural data from 2- to 5-year-old teak trees in open field stands. Growth and development parameters were identified, fitting the observed compound organic series with the theoretical series, using generalized least squares methods. Phytomer distributions of growth units and branching pattern varied depending on their axis category, i.e. their physiological age. These emerging properties were in accordance with the observed growth patterns and biomass allocation dynamics during a growing season marked by a short dry season. Annual growth patterns observed on teak, including shoot pre- and neoformation and polycyclism, were reproduced by the new version of the GreenLab model. However, further updating is discussed in order to ensure better consideration of radial variation in basic specific gravity of wood. Such upgrading of the model will enable teak ideotypes to be defined for improving wood production in terms of both volume and quality.

  3. Restricting the above ground sink corrects the root/shoot ratio and substantially boosts the yield potential per panicle in field-grown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nada, Reham M; Abogadallah, Gaber M

    2016-04-01

    Rice has shallow, weak roots, but it is unknown how much increase in yield potential could be achieved if the root/shoot ratio is corrected. Removing all tillers except the main one, in a japonica (Sakha 101) and an indica (IR64) rice cultivar, instantly increased the root/shoot ratio from 0.21 to 1.16 in Sakha 101 and from 0.16 to 1.46 in IR64. Over 30 days after detillering, the root/shoot ratios of the detillered plants decreased to 0.49 in Sakha 101 and 0.46 in IR64 but remained significantly higher than in the controls. The detillered plants showed two- or fourfold increase in the main tiller fresh weight, as a consequence of more positive midday leaf relative water content (RWC), and consistently higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, but not transpiration, compared with the controls. The enhanced photosynthesis in Sakha 101 after detillering resulted from both improved water status and higher Rubisco contents whereas in IR64, increasing the Rubisco content did not contribute to improving photosynthesis. Detillering did not increase the carbohydrate contents of leaves but prevented starch depletion at the end of grain filling. The leaf protein content during vegetative and reproductive stages, the grain filling rate, the number of filled grains per panicle were greatly improved, bringing about 38.3 and 35.9% increase in the harvested grain dry weight per panicle in Sakha 101 and IR64, respectively. We provide evidence that improving the root performance by increasing the root/shoot ratio would eliminate the current limitations to photosynthesis and growth in rice. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in explants of shoot cultures established from adult Eucalyptus globulus and E. saligna × E. maidenii trees.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, E; Ballester, A; Ibarra, M; Vieitez, A M

    2015-06-01

    A reproducible procedure for induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) from adult trees of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and the hybrid E. saligna Smith × E. maidenii has been developed for the first time. Somatic embryos were obtained from both shoot apex and leaf explants of all three genotypes evaluated, although embryogenic frequencies were significantly influenced by the species/genotype, auxin and explant type. Picloram was more efficient for somatic embryo induction than naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), with the highest frequency of induction being obtained in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 µM picloram and 40 mg l(-1) gum Arabic, in which 64% of the shoot apex explants and 68.8% of the leaf explants yielded somatic embryos. The embryogenic response of the hybrid was higher than that of the E. globulus, especially when NAA was used. The cultures initiated on picloram-containing medium consisted of nodular embryogenic structures surrounded by a mucilaginous coating layer that emerged from a watery callus developed from the initial explants. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were differentiated after subculture of these nodular embryogenic structures on a medium lacking plant growth regulators. Histological analysis confirmed the bipolar organization of the somatic embryos, with shoot and root meristems and closed procambial tissue that bifurcated into small cotyledons. The root pole was more differentiated than the shoot pole, which appeared to be formed by a few meristematic layers. Maintenance of the embryogenic lines by secondary SE was attained by subculturing individual cotyledonary embryos or small clusters of globular and torpedo embryos on medium with 16.11 µM NAA at 4- to 5-week intervals. Somatic embryos converted into plantlets after being transferred to liquid germination medium although plant regeneration remained poor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  5. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    PubMed

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  6. Allelochemical stress inhibits growth, leaf water relations, PSII photochemistry, non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, and heat energy dissipation in three C3 perennial species

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of two allelochemicals, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and cinnamic acid (CA), on different physiological and morphological characteristics of 1-month-old C3 plant species (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, and Rumex acetosa) was analysed. BOA inhibited the shoot length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa by 49%, 19%, and 19% of the control. The root length of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and R. acetosa growing in the presence of 1.5 mM BOA and CA was decreased compared with the control. Both allelochemicals (BOA, CA) inhibited leaf osmotic potential (LOP) in L. perenne and D. glomerata. In L. perenne, Fv/Fm decreased after treatment with BOA (1.5 mM) while CA (1.5 mM) also significantly reduced Fv/Fm in L. perenne. Both allelochemicals decreased ΦPSII in D. glomerata and L. perenne within 24 h of treatment, while in R. acetosa, ΦPSII levels decreased by 72 h following treatment with BOA and CA. There was a decrease in qP and NPQ on the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth days after treatment with BOA in D. glomerata, while both allelochemicals reduced the qP level in R. acetosa. There was a gradual decrease in the fraction of light absorbed by PSII allocated to PSII photochemistry (P) in R. acetosa treated with BOA and CA. The P values in D. glomerata were reduced by both allelochemicals and the portion of absorbed photon energy that was thermally dissipated (D) in D. glomerata and L. perenne was decreased by BOA and CA. Photon energy absorbed by PSII antennae and trapped by ‘closed’ PSII reaction centres (E) was decreased after CA exposure in D. glomerata. BOA and CA (1.5 mM concentration) decreased the leaf protein contents in all three perennial species. This study provides new understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action of BOA and CA in one perennial dicotyledon and two perennial grasses. The acquisition of such knowledge may ultimately provide a rational and scientific basis for the design of safe

  7. Variation in chilling tolerance for photosynthesis and leaf extension growth among genotypes related to the C-4 grass Miscanthus xgiganteus

    SciTech Connect

    Glowacka, K; Adhikari, S; Peng, JH

    The goal of this study was to identify cold-tolerant genotypes within two species of Miscanthus related to the exceptionally chilling-tolerant C-4 biomass crop accession: M. xgiganteus 'Illinois' (Mxg) as well as in other Mxg genotypes. The ratio of leaf elongation at 10 degrees C/5 degrees C to that at 25 degrees C/25 degrees C was used to identify initially the 13 most promising Miscanthus genotypes out of 51 studied. Net leaf CO2 uptake (A(sat)) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II (Phi(PSII)) were measured in warm conditions (25 degrees C/20 degrees C), and then during and following a chillingmore » treatment of 10 degrees C/5 degrees C for 11 d. Accessions of M. sacchariflorus (Msa) showed the smallest decline in leaf elongation on transfer to chilling conditions and did not differ significantly from Mxg, indicating greater chilling tolerance than diploid M. sinensis (Msi). Msa also showed the smallest reductions in A(sat) and Phi(PSII), and greater chilling-tolerant photosynthesis than Msi, and three other forms of Mxg, including new triploid accessions and a hexaploid Mxg 'Illinois'. Tetraploid Msa 'PF30153' collected in Gifu Prefecture in Honshu, Japan did not differ significantly from Mxg 'Illinois' in leaf elongation and photosynthesis at low temperature, but was significantly superior to all other forms of Mxg tested. The results suggested that the exceptional chilling tolerance of Mxg 'Illinois' cannot be explained simply by the hybrid vigour of this intraspecific allotriploid. Selection of chilling-tolerant accessions from both of Mxg's parental species, Msi and Msa, would be advisable for breeding new highly chilling-tolerant Mxg genotypes.« less

  8. Long-term growth of Ginkgo with CO(2) enrichment increases leaf ice nucleation temperatures and limits recovery of the photosynthetic system from freezing.

    PubMed

    Terry, A C; Quick, W P; Beerling, D J

    2000-09-01

    The importance of subzero temperature interactions with elevated CO(2) on plant carbon metabolism has received rather little attention, despite their likely role in influencing future vegetation productivity and dynamics. Here we focused on the critical issues of CO(2)-enrichment effects on leaf-freezing temperatures, subsequent membrane damage, and recovery of the photosynthetic system. We show that growth in elevated CO(2) (70 Pa) results in a substantial and significant (P<0.01) increase (up to 4 degrees C) in the ice nucleation temperature of leaves of Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), which was observed consistently throughout the 1999 growing season relative to their ambient CO(2) (35 Pa) counterparts. We suggest that increased sensitivity of leaves to ice damage after growth in elevated CO(2) provides an explanation for increased photoinhibition observed in the field early and late in the growing season when low nighttime temperatures are experienced. This new mechanism is proposed in addition to the earlier postulated explanation for this phenomenon involving a reduction in the rate of triose-P utilization owing to a decrease in the rate of carbohydrate export from the leaf.

  9. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Long-Term Growth of Ginkgo with CO2 Enrichment Increases Leaf Ice Nucleation Temperatures and Limits Recovery of the Photosynthetic System from Freezing1

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew C.; Quick, W. Paul; Beerling, David J.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of subzero temperature interactions with elevated CO2 on plant carbon metabolism has received rather little attention, despite their likely role in influencing future vegetation productivity and dynamics. Here we focused on the critical issues of CO2-enrichment effects on leaf-freezing temperatures, subsequent membrane damage, and recovery of the photosynthetic system. We show that growth in elevated CO2 (70 Pa) results in a substantial and significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 4°C) in the ice nucleation temperature of leaves of Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), which was observed consistently throughout the 1999 growing season relative to their ambient CO2 (35 Pa) counterparts. We suggest that increased sensitivity of leaves to ice damage after growth in elevated CO2 provides an explanation for increased photoinhibition observed in the field early and late in the growing season when low nighttime temperatures are experienced. This new mechanism is proposed in addition to the earlier postulated explanation for this phenomenon involving a reduction in the rate of triose-P utilization owing to a decrease in the rate of carbohydrate export from the leaf. PMID:10982433

  11. The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality.

  12. Developmental morphology of flattened shoots in Dalzellia ubonensis and Indodalzellia gracilis with implications for the evolution of diversified shoot morphologies in the subfamily Tristichoideae (Podostemaceae).

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Rieko; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2015-06-01

    Podostemaceae is a unique family of aquatic angiosperms that grow in swift-running water on rock surfaces in the tropics. Their plant bodies show a remarkable adaptation: the main plant body is mostly creeping or flattened, or in extreme cases foliose, functioning as an adhering and photosynthetic organ. In the subfamily Podostemoideae, the root is foliose, whereas in the subfamily Tristichoideae, the shoot is foliose. An evolutionary scenario for the foliose root has already been proposed, but that for the foliose shoot remains to be addressed. Shoots of Indodalzellia gracilis and Dalzellia ubonensis (subfamily Tristichoideae) were observed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Gene expression patterns of orthologs of marker genes for the shoot apical meristem, i.e., SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and WUSCHEL, in D. ubonensis were analyzed. When very young, the phyllotaxis is tristichous in both genera: a set of one dorsal and two marginal leaves forms. When the shoot branches, extra-axillary buds of two subsequent marginal leaves form as new (lateral) shoots, and the original shoot stops growing; this growth pattern is called sympodial branching. Due to zonal growth in the common zone just below the original and lateral shoot apices, flattened or foliose shoots result. The expression patterns of DuSTM and DuWUS in the shoot apices of Dalzellia were similar to those published for Terniopsis. The foliose shoots of Indodalzellia and Dalzellia evolved as a result of congenital fusion among several original and lateral branches, each of which grows separately in other Tristichoideae. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Improved rooting of western white pine shoots from tissue cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Amerson, H.V.; Mott, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Adventitious shoots of Pinus monticola obtained from embryonic tissue were exposed to 4 combinations of growth regulators (6-benzylaminopurine/NAA/IAA/IBA), either continuously for 6 weeks or by pulse treatment for 7 days, followed by 5 weeks culture without growth regulators. After 6 weeks of continuous exposure, rooting of shoots varied between 0 and 20%. Pulse treatment resulted in 40-64% rooting. In paired comparisons pulse treatments always provided better rooting percentages than did constant exposure treatments. Pulse treatments also produced longer (less than 2 mm) roots and more multiple roots.

  14. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira

  15. Root-shoot allometry of tropical forest trees determined in a large-scale aeroponic system.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Amram; Grünzweig, José M

    2013-07-01

    This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy-root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa. Growth and allometric parameters of 12-month-old saplings grown in a large-scale aeroponic system and in 50-L soil containers were compared. The main advantage of growing plants in aeroponics is that their root systems are fully accessible throughout the plant life, and can be fully recovered for harvesting. The expected differences in shoot and root size between the fast-growing C. pentandra and the slower-growing K. anthotheca were evident in both growth systems. Roots were recovered from the aeroponically grown saplings only, and their distribution among various diameter classes followed the patterns expected from the literature. Stem, branch and leaf allometric parameters were similar for saplings of each species grown in the two systems. The aeroponic tree growth system can be utilized for determining the basic allometric relationships between root and shoot components of these trees, and hence can be used to study carbon allocation and fluxes of whole above- and below-ground tree parts.

  16. Shoot Development and Extension of Quercus serrata Saplings in Response to Insect Damage and Nutrient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    MIZUMACHI, ERI; MORI, AKIRA; OSAWA, NAOYA; AKIYAMA, REIKO; TOKUCHI, NAOKO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plants have the ability to compensate for damage caused by herbivores. This is important to plant growth, because a plant cannot always avoid damage, even if it has developed defence mechanisms against herbivores. In previous work, we elucidated the herbivory-induced compensatory response of Quercus (at both the individual shoot and whole sapling levels) in both low- and high-nutrient conditions throughout one growing season. In this study, we determine how the compensatory growth of Quercus serrata saplings is achieved at different nutrient levels. • Methods Quercus serrata saplings were grown under controlled conditions. Length, number of leaves and percentage of leaf area lost on all extension units (EUs) were measured. • Key Results Both the probability of flushing and the length of subsequent EUs significantly increased with an increase in the length of the parent EU. The probability of flushing increased with an increase in leaf damage of the parent EU, but the length of subsequent EUs decreased. This indicates that EU growth is fundamentally regulated at the individual EU level. The probabilities of a second and third flush were significantly higher in plants in high-nutrient soil than those in low-nutrient soil. The subsequent EUs of damaged saplings were also significantly longer at high-nutrient conditions. • Conclusions An increase in the probability of flushes in response to herbivore damage is important for damaged saplings to produce new EUs; further, shortening the length of EUs helps to effectively reproduce foliage lost by herbivory. The probability of flushing also varied according to soil nutrient levels, suggesting that the compensatory growth of individual EUs in response to local damage levels is affected by the nutrients available to the whole sapling. PMID:16709576

  17. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yusuke; Umehara, Mikihisa

    2015-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence. PMID:27135345

  18. Clouds homogenize shoot temperatures, transpiration, and photosynthesis within crowns of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Moreno, J Melissa; Bayeur, Nicole M; Coley, Harold D; Hughes, Nicole M

    2017-03-01

    Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA. Ten saplings of the same age class were marked and revisited for all measurements. Sunny conditions corresponded with 5-10× greater sunlight incidence on south-facing outer shoots compared to south-facing inner and north-facing outer shoots, which were shaded and received only indirect (diffuse) sunlight. Differences in spatial distribution of irradiance were mirrored in differences in shoot temperatures, photosynthesis, and transpiration, which were all greater in south-facing outer shoots compared to more shaded crown locations. In contrast, overcast conditions corresponded with more homogeneous sunlight distribution between north and south-facing outer shoots, and similar shoot temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence (ΦPSII), photosynthesis, and transpiration; these effects were observed in south-facing inner shoots as well, but to a lesser extent. There was no significant difference in conductance between different crown locations on sunny or overcast days, indicating spatial differences in transpiration under sunny conditions were likely driven by leaf temperature differences. We conclude that clouds can affect spatial distribution of sunlight and associated physiological parameters not only within forest communities, but within individual crowns as well.

  19. Morphogenesis in leaf and single-cell cultures of mature Juniperus oxycedrus.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M P; Segura, J

    1996-08-01

    Single cells were mechanically isolated from leaf-derived callus of mature Juniperus oxycedrus L. These cells divided and gave rise to callus when plated on medium containing growth regulators. Best plating efficiency was obtained on a modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 0.6 micro M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 100 mg l(-1) casein hydrolyzate. Although single-cell-derived callus showed poor morphogenic potential, both adventitious shoots and embryogenic tissues differentiated from the callus. We also achieved induction of somatic embryogenesis in leaf explants of mature J. oxycedrus trees cultured in the presence of 6.0 or 10.0 micro M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or picloram. Frequency of embryogenic callus ranged from 6 to 18%; however, under the culture conditions tested, isolated embryos failed to develop into plants.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana alpha1,2-glucosyltransferase (ALG10) is required for efficient N-glycosylation and leaf growth

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Akhlaq; Pabst, Martin; Schoberer, Jennifer; Altmann, Friedrich; Glössl, Josef; Strasser, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Assembly of the dolichol-linked oligosaccharide precursor (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In contrast to yeast and mammals, little is known about the biosynthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides and the transfer to asparagine residues of nascent polypeptides in plants. To understand the biological function of these processes in plants we characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of yeast ALG10, the α1,2-glucosyltransferase that transfers the terminal glucose residue to the lipid-linked precursor. Expression of an Arabidopsis ALG10–GFP fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells revealed a reticular distribution pattern resembling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization. Analysis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides showed that Arabidopsis ALG10 can complement the yeast Δalg10 mutant strain. A homozygous Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (alg10-1) accumulated mainly lipid-linked Glc2Man9GlcNAc2 and displayed a severe protein underglycosylation defect. Phenotypic analysis of alg10-1 showed that mutant plants have altered leaf size when grown in soil. Moreover, the inactivation of ALG10 in Arabidopsis resulted in the activation of the unfolded protein response, increased salt sensitivity and suppression of the phenotype of α-glucosidase I-deficient plants. In summary, these data show that Arabidopsis ALG10 is an ER-resident α1,2-glucosyltransferase that is required for lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis and subsequently for normal leaf development and abiotic stress response. PMID:21707802

  1. Rapid shoot-to-root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Vandeleur, Rebecca K; Sullivan, Wendy; Athman, Asmini; Jordans, Charlotte; Gilliham, Matthew; Kaiser, Brent N; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how root hydraulic conductance (normalized to root dry weight, Lo ) is regulated by the shoot. Shoot topping (about 30% reduction in leaf area) reduced Lo of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) by 50 to 60%. More detailed investigations with soybean and grapevine showed that the reduction in Lo was not correlated with the reduction in leaf area, and shading or cutting single leaves had a similar effect. Percentage reduction in Lo was largest when initial Lo was high in soybean. Inhibition of Lo by weak acid (low pH) was smaller after shoot damage or leaf shading. The half time of reduction in Lo was approximately 5 min after total shoot decapitation. These characteristics indicate involvement of aquaporins. We excluded phloem-borne signals and auxin-mediated signals. Xylem-mediated hydraulic signals are possible since turgor rapidly decreased within root cortex cells after shoot topping. There was a significant reduction in the expression of several aquaporins in the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) family of both grapevine and soybean. In soybean, there was a five- to 10-fold reduction in GmPIP1;6 expression over 0.5-1 h which was sustained over the period of reduced Lo . © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gm1-MMP is involved in growth and development of leaf and seed, and enhances tolerance to high temperature and humidity stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sushuang; Liu, Yanmin; Jia, Yanhong; Wei, Jiaping; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhou, Yali; Zhu, Yajing; Gu, Weihong; Ma, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases. Gm1-MMP was found to play an important role in soybean tissue remodeling during leaf expansion. In this study, Gm1-MMP was isolated and characterized. Its encoding protein had a relatively low phylogenetic relationship with the MMPs in other plant species. Subcellular localization indicated that Gm1-MMP was a plasma membrane protein. Gm1-MMP showed higher expression levels in mature leaves, old leaves, pods, and mature seeds, as well as was involved in the development of soybean seed. Additionally, it was involved in response to high temperature and humidity (HTH) stress in R7 leaves and seeds in soybean. The analysis of promoter of Gm1-MMP suggested that the fragment from -399 to -299 was essential for its promoter activity in response to HTH stress. The overexpression of Gm1-MMP in Arabidopsis affected the growth and development of leaves, enhanced leaf and developing seed tolerance to HTH stress and improved seed vitality. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and ROS in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds were lower than those in wild type seeds under HTH stress. Gm1-MMP could interact with soybean metallothionein-II (GmMT-II), which was confirmed by analysis of yeast two-hybrid assay and BiFC assays. All the results indicated that Gm1-MMP plays an important role in the growth and development of leaves and seeds as well as in tolerance to HTH stress. It will be helpful for us understanding the functions of Gm1-MMP in plant growth and development, and in response to abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  5. Potato leaf explants as a spaceflight plant test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of explant tissues or organs may circumvent limitations facing whole-plant experimentation during spaceflight. In the case of potato, a crop currently being studied for application to bioregenerative life support systems, excised leaves and their subtended axillary buds can be used to test a variety of stem growth and development phases ranging from tubers through stolons (horizontal stems) to upright leafy shoots. The leaves can be fit well into small-volume test packages and sustained under relatively low irradiance levels using light-weight growing media. Tubers formed on potato leaf cuttings can yield up from 0.5 to 1.0 g fresh mass 10 days after excision and up to 2.0 g or more, 14 days from excision.

  6. Leaf proteomic analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) during plant development, from planting of stem cutting to storage root formation.

    PubMed

    Mitprasat, Mashamon; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiemsup, Surasak; Boonseng, Opas; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak

    2011-06-01

    Tuberization in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) occurs simultaneously with plant development, suggesting competition of photoassimilate partitioning between the shoot and the root organs. In potato, which is the most widely studied tuber crop, there is ample evidence suggesting that metabolism and regulatory processes in leaf may have an impact on tuber formation. To search for leaf proteins putatively involved in regulating tuber generation and/or development in cassava, comparative proteomic approaches have been applied to monitor differentially expressed leaf proteins during root transition from fibrous to tuberous. Stringent cross comparison and statistical analysis between two groups with different plant ages using Student's t test with 95% significance level revealed a number of protein spots whose abundance were significantly altered (P < 0.05) during week 4 to week 8 of growth. Of these, 39 spots were successfully identified by ion trap LC-MS/MS. The proteins span various functional categories from antioxidant and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, cyanogenesis, energy metabolism, miscellaneous and unknown proteins. Results suggested possible metabolic switches in the leaf that may trigger/regulate storage root initiation and growth. This study provides a basis for further functional characterization of differentially expressed leaf proteins, which can help understand how biochemical processes in cassava leaves may be involved in storage root development.

  7. [Effects of irrigation and planting patterns on photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaf and yield at late growth stages of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Bi, Jun; Xia, Guang-Li; Zhou, Xun-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hai

    2014-08-01

    High-yield winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was used to study effects of irrigation and planting patterns on water consumption characteristics and photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat in field from 2009 to 2011. Three different planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (W0, no irrigation; W1, irrigation at jointing stage; W2, irrigations at jointing and anthesis stages; W3, irrigation at jointing, anthesis and milking stages. Each irrigation rate was 60 mm) were designed in the experiment. Results showed that, with the increasing of irrigation amount, flag leaf area, net photosynthesis rate, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency at late growth stages of winter wheat increased. Compared with W0 treatment, the other irrigation treatments had higher grain yields, but lower water use efficiencies. Under the same irrigation condition, the flag leaf net photosynthesis, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency were much higher in furrow pattern. Grain yields of winter wheat under furrow pattern and W2 treatment were significantly higher than that of the other treatments. Taking grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages might be the optimal water-saving and planting mode for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  8. Molecular bases for phyllomorph development in a one-leaf plant, Monophyllaea glabra.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakazono, Mikio; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2017-02-01

    The aboveground part of one-leaf plants (Gesneriaceae) consists of a unique shoot-like unit called a phyllomorph, which is composed of a growing lamina and one petiolode (a stem- and petiole-like organ). The phyllomorph has three meristems: a basal meristem (BM; involved in lamina growth), a petiolode meristem (PM; required for midrib and petiolode growth), and a groove meristem (GM; contributes to inflorescence and new phyllomorph development). Although the GM has a tunica-corpus structure like a conventional shoot apical meristem (SAM), the vegetative GM of a one-leaf plant does not form any organ primordia and has been considered a defective or suppressed SAM. In this study, we evaluated the nature of the three meristems to reconsider their roles in phyllomorph development in the one-leaf species Monophyllaea glabra . Mitotic activities of meristem cells were monitored by incorporation of a thymidine analog (EdU) into DNA. Orthologs of SHOOTMERISTEMLESS ( STM ) and PHANTASTICA , ROUGH SHEATH2 , ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 ( PHAN / RS2 / AS1 ) were isolated from M . glabra , and their expression patterns were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in combination with a laser microdissection technique. Mitotic activities were detected in all three phyllomorph meristems. Strong expression of the STM and PHAN / RS2 / AS1 orthologs was detected in the vegetative GM and BM, respectively. The vegetative GM is an active meristem that expresses the STM ortholog. We postulate that the GM is required for growth of a phyllomorph by providing undifferentiated cells and/or growth regulators to the BM and/or PM. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Growth Kinetics, Carbohydrate, and Leaf Phosphate Content of Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) after Transfer to a High CO2 Atmosphere or to High Light and Ambient Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Francoise; André, Marcel; Betsche, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Intact air-grown (photosynthetic photon flux density, 400 microeinsteins per square meter per second) clover plants (Trifolium subterraneum L.) were transfered to high CO2 (4000 microl