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Sample records for short lived isotopes

  1. Beta Decay Studies of Short Lived Barium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendall, Charles Skipwith

    The half-lives and relative intensities of several short lived neutron rich isotopes, with atomic numbers between 54 and 57, produced in the spontaneous fission of californium-252 were determined. This was accomplished from the study of the time variation of the K X-ray yields of these isotopes. A transport system which allowed us to study isotopes with half-lives less than 10 seconds was developed. Mass assignments were made by comparing the experimental values of the half-lives with known values. A beta K X-ray coincidence technique was used to obtain the barium beta spectrum in coincidence with lanthanum K X -rays. A Kurie plot was performed on the spectrum to determine the beta groups. The probable origin of each beta group was determined through a comparison of the relative intensities of the isotopes and beta groups. Four beta groups probably from the decay of Ba-145 were revealed. The end point energies of these beta groups are 3870 (+OR-) 432 keV, 2772 (+OR-) 112 keV, 1894 (+OR-) 58 keV, and 746 (+OR-) 38 keV. The three lowest energy groups have not been observed before.

  2. New Short-Lived Isotope 221U and the Mass Surface Near N =126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Cox, D. M.; Even, J.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hoffmann, J.; Hübner, A.; Jäger, E.; Jeppsson, J.; Kindler, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Minami, S.; Mistry, A. K.; Mrosek, Ch. M.; Pysmenetska, I.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schaffner, H.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Steiner, J.; De Heidenreich, T. Torres; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.; Yakusheva, V.

    2015-12-01

    Two short-lived isotopes 221U and 222U were produced as evaporation residues in the fusion reaction 50Ti + 176Yb at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. An α decay with an energy of Eα=9.31 (5 ) MeV and half-life T1 /2=4.7 (7 ) μ s was attributed to 222U. The new isotope 221U was identified in α -decay chains starting with Eα=9.71 (5 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.66 (14 ) μ s leading to known daughters. Synthesis and detection of these unstable heavy nuclei and their descendants were achieved thanks to a fast data readout system. The evolution of the N =126 shell closure and its influence on the stability of uranium isotopes are discussed within the framework of α -decay reduced width.

  3. Isotope shift calculations for D lines of stable and short-lived lithium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Geng-Hua; Zhao, Peng-Yi; Xu, Bing-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The isotope shifts (ISs) for the 2s2S1/2 to 2p2P J (J = 1/2, 3/2) transitions of the lithium nuclei including the stable and short-lived isotopes are calculated based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic configuration interaction approach. The results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results within a deviation less than 0.05%. The methods used here could be applied to the IS calculations for other heavier Li-like ions and few-electron systems. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304093), the Fund of the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZB0386), and the Fund of the 1315 Project of Chengdu University, China (Grant No. 2081915041).

  4. Positron excess in the center of the Milky Way from short-lived β+ emitting isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Observations of the INTEGRAL satellite revealed the presence of yet unexplained excess in the central region of the Galaxy at energies around 511 keV. These gamma rays are produced in the process of positron annihilation; the needed rate is around 1 042 s-1 . In this short paper it is shown that β+ -emitting isotopes that are formed in interactions of subrelativistic cosmic rays with light nuclei (CNONe) can account for a considerable fraction—up to several tens of percent—of e+ production rate in the central region.

  5. Human neutrophil kinetics: modeling of stable isotope labeling data supports short blood neutrophil half-lives

    PubMed Central

    Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Ahmed, Raya; Salam, Arafa; Block, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Macallan, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4 to 18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water, which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity, we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n = 4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n = 9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results, we developed a novel mechanistic model and applied it to previously published (n = 5) and newly generated data. We initially constrained the ratio of the blood neutrophil pool to the marrow precursor pool (ratio = 0.26; from published values). Analysis of heavy water data sets yielded turnover rates consistent with a short blood half-life, but parameters, particularly marrow transit time, were poorly defined. Analysis of glucose-labeling data yielded more precise estimates of half-life (0.79 ± 0.25 days; 19 hours) and marrow transit time (5.80 ± 0.42 days). Substitution of this marrow transit time in the heavy water analysis gave a better-defined blood half-life of 0.77 ± 0.14 days (18.5 hours), close to glucose-derived values. Allowing the ratio of blood neutrophils to mitotic neutrophil precursors (R) to vary yielded a best-fit value of 0.19. Reanalysis of the previously published model and data also revealed the origin of their long estimates for neutrophil half-life: an implicit assumption that R is very large, which is physiologically untenable. We conclude that stable isotope labeling in healthy humans is consistent with a blood neutrophil half-life of less than 1 day. PMID:27136946

  6. ON THE INJECTION OF SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDES FROM A SUPERNOVA INTO THE SOLAR NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE OXYGEN ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ming-Chang

    2014-02-01

    Injection of short-lived radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this ''late-injection'' scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the short-lived radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of {sup 41}Ca and {sup 60}Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.

  7. On the Injection of Short-lived Radionuclides from a Supernova into the Solar Nebula: Constraints from the Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang

    2014-02-01

    Injection of short-lived radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this "late-injection" scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the short-lived radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in 17O/16O and 18O/16O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of 41Ca and 60Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.

  8. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  9. Using natural distributions of short-lived radium isotopes to quantify groundwater discharge and recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krest, J.M.; Harvey, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Radium activity in pore water of wetland sediments often differs from the amount expected from local production, decay, and exchange with solid phases. This disequilibrium results from vertical transport of radium with groundwater that flows between the underlying aquifer and surface water. In situations where groundwater recharge or discharge is significant, the rate of vertical water flow through wetland sediment can be determined from the radium disequilibrium by a combined model of transport, production, decay, and exchange with solid phases. We have developed and tested this technique at three sites in the freshwater portion of the Everglades by quantifying vertical advective velocities in areas with persistent groundwater recharge or discharge and estimating a coefficient of dispersion at a site that is subject to reversals between recharge and discharge. Groundwater velocities (v) were determined to be between 0 and -0.5 cm d-1 for a recharge site and 1.5 ?? 0.4 cm d-1 for a discharge site near Levee 39 in the Everglades. Strong gradients in 223Ra and 224Ra usually occurred at the base of the peat layer, which avoided the problems of other tracers (e.g., chloride) for which greatest sensitivity occurs near the peat surface - a zone readily disturbed by processes unrelated to groundwater flow. This technique should be easily applicable to any wetland system with different production rates of these isotopes in distinct sedimentary layers or surface water. The approach is most straightforward in systems where constant pore-water ionic strength can be assumed, simplifying the modeling of radium exchange.

  10. A renewed search for short-lived 126Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Souders, Amanda K.; Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Marks, Naomi E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System, many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence, mostly in the form of short-lived radionuclides present in the early Solar System, are potentially consistent with this hypothesis, but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of 126Sn is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (126Sn→126Te, t1/2 = 235 ky), the discovery of extant 126Sn would provide unequivocal proof of supernova input to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of 126Sn by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus, here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te-an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system, when coupled to a MC-ICPMS, enables high-precision Te isotopic analyses on samples with <10 ng of Te. We used this technique to analyze Te from a unique set of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios, facilitating the search for the short-lived isotope 126Sn. This sample set shows no evidence of live 126Sn, implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However, based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te, as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their

  11. Cumulative fission yields of short-lived isotopes under natural-abundance-boron-carbide-moderated neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce; Wittman, Richard S.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2015-04-09

    The availability of gamma spectroscopy data on samples containing mixed fission products at short times after irradiation is limited. Due to this limitation, data interpretation methods for gamma spectra of mixed fission product samples, where the individual fission products have not been chemically isolated from interferences, are not well-developed. The limitation is particularly pronounced for fast pooled neutron spectra because of the lack of available fast reactors in the United States. Samples containing the actinide isotopes 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu individually were subjected to a 2$ pulse in the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. To achieve a fission-energy neutron spectrum, the spectrum was tailored using a natural abundance boron carbide capsule to absorb neutrons in the thermal and epithermal region of the spectrum. Our tailored neutron spectrum is unique to the WSU reactor facility, consisting of a soft fission spectrum that contains some measurable flux in the resonance region. This results in a neutron spectrum at greater than 0.1 keV with an average energy of 70 keV, similar to fast reactor spectra and approaching that of 235U fission. Unique fission product gamma spectra were collected from 4 minutes to 1 week after fission using single-crystal high purity germanium detectors. Cumulative fission product yields measured in the current work generally agree with published fast pooled fission product yield values from ENDF/B-VII, though a bias was noted for 239Pu. The present work contributes to the compilation of energy-resolved fission product yield nuclear data for nuclear forensic purposes.

  12. Precision Test of Many-Body QED in the Be+ 2p Fine Structure Doublet Using Short-Lived Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Geppert, Christopher; Krieger, Andreas; Pachucki, Krzysztof; Puchalski, Mariusz; Blaum, Klaus; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Kreim, Kim; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-07-17

    Absolute transition frequencies of the 2s 2S{1/2}→2p2P{1/2,3/2} transitions in Be^{+} were measured for the isotopes ^{7,9-12}Be. The fine structure splitting of the 2p state and its isotope dependence are extracted and compared to results of ab initio calculations using explicitly correlated basis functions, including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects at the order of mα(6) and mα(7) ⁢ln α. Accuracy has been improved in both the theory and experiment by 2 orders of magnitude, and good agreement is observed. This represents one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics for many-electron systems, being insensitive to nuclear uncertainties.

  13. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, short-lived isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and alpha counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms

  14. Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopes usingcrown ethers: A model system for the study of rutherfordium

    SciTech Connect

    Sudowe, Ralf; Calvert, Michael G.; Dullmann, Christoph E.; Farina, Lindsy M.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Gallaher, Sarah E.H.; Nelson, Sarah L.; Phillips, Diana C.; Schwantes,Jon M.; Wilson, Richard E.; Zielinski Peter M.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Nitsche Heino

    2005-07-06

    The extraction of zirconium and hafnium from hydrochloric acid media was studied using the crown ethers dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) and dicyclohexano-24-crown-8 (DC24C8) as extractants. The goal was to find an extraction system that exhibits a high selectivity between the members of group 4 of the periodic table and is suitable for the study of rutherfordium. It was found that Zr and Hf are both extracted using DB18C6, DC18C6 and DC24C8. The extraction yield increases with increasing acid concentration and increasing concentration of crown ether. The extracted species most likely consists of an ion-association complex formed between a Zr or Hf chloro complex and a hydronium crown ether complex. Conditions can be found for each extractant that provide for the separation of Zr from Hf. This selective separation between Zr and Hf makes the extraction with crown ethers from HCl well suited to study the extraction behavior of Rf and compare it to the behavior of Zr and Hf. These extraction systems can be used to determine whether the extraction behavior of Rf is similar to Zr, similar to Hf or follows the trend established by the lighter homologs. The extraction kinetics are fast enough for the study of the 78-s isotope {sup 261}Rf.

  15. Isotope shifts of the 6d{sup 2} D{sub 3/2}-7 p{sup 2} P{sub 1/2} transition in trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, G. S.; Versolato, O. O.; Berg, J. E. van den; Boell, O.; Dammalapati, U.; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Mueller, S.; Nunez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-08-15

    Laser spectroscopy of short-lived radium isotopes in a linear Paul trap has been performed. The isotope shifts of the 6d{sup 2} D{sub 3/2} -7 p{sup 2} P{sub 1/2} transition in {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +}, which are sensitive to the short-range part of the atomic wave functions, were measured. The results are essential experimental input for improving the precision of atomic structure calculations. This is indispensable for parity violation in Ra{sup +} aiming at the determination of the weak mixing angle.

  16. Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.

    1996-01-01

    Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was

  17. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  18. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  19. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  20. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  1. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  2. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.

    1998-01-05

    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  3. Relationships between the stable isotopic signatures of living and fossil foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Day, Shelley A.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Perez, M. Elena; Mahn, Chris; Gieskes, Joris

    2004-04-01

    Fossil foraminifera are critical to paleoceanographic reconstructions including estimates of past episodes of methane venting. These reconstructions rely on benthic foraminifera incorporating and retaining unaltered the ambient isotopic compositions of pore fluids and bottom waters. Comparisons are made here of isotopic compositions of abundant live and fossil foraminifera (Uvigerina peregrina, Epistominella pacifica, Bulimina mexicana, and Globobulimina pacifica) collected in Monterey Bay, CA from two cold seeps (Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs) and from sediments ˜5 m outside of the Clam Flats seep. Clam Flats has steep δ13CDIC gradients (to <-45‰), but DIC at Extrovert Cliffs is less enriched in 12C (to approximately -22‰). Oxygen isotope values of fossil foraminifera at Clam Flats are ˜1.5‰ enriched in 18O over the living foraminifera, as well as those of both live and fossil foraminifera at Extrovert Cliffs, suggesting they may have lived during the last glacial maximum. Statistical comparisons (Student's t and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) of δ13C and δ18O values indicate that live and fossil foraminifera come from different populations at both Clam Flats and Extrovert Cliffs. At Clam Flats, the difference appears to result from alteration enriching some fossil foraminifera in 12C over live foraminifera. At Extrovert Cliffs, the fossil foraminifera are enriched in 13C over the live foraminifera, suggesting they lived prior to the onset of venting and thus that venting began recently. The short time of venting at Extrovert Cliffs may be responsible for the less alteration there compared with Clam Flats. These results indicate that preservation of foraminifera is likely to be poor within long-lived cold seeps, but that foraminifera living in the surrounding sediment may incorporate and preserve broad basin-wide changes in isotopic compositions of the ambient water.

  4. Prospects for baryon instability search with long-lived isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Efremenko, Yu.; Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Parker, G.; Plasil, F.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we consider the possibility of observation of baryon instability processes occurring inside nuclei by searching for the remnants of such processes that could have been accumulated in nature as mm long-lived isotopes. As an example, we discuss here the possible detection of traces of {sup 97}Tc, {sup 98}Tc, and {sup 99}Tc in deep-mined nonradioactive tin ores.

  5. Overview of the methods for the measurement and interpretation of short-lived radioisotopes and their limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaleb, B.

    2009-01-01

    The daughter products of the uranium and thorium series consist of several radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from less than a second to 105 years. Combining their half-live with their geochemical behaviour some of these radioisotopes could be used as tracers and/or chronometers of sedimentary processes. For example, thorium isotopes, and to a lesser extent polonium isotopes are characterized by very low solubility and very high affinity for the surface of particles. Consequently, thorium isotopes can be used to document scavenging and adsorption processes. On the other hand, radium isotopes tend to remain in solution and can be used to document diffusion processes. In the following, we present the analytical methods for the measurement and analysis of the most common short-lived isotopes and throughout their utility in studying sedimentary processes will be illustrated by a few examples of applications. These examples will focus essentially on the applications of short lived thorium isotopes (notably 234Th) and the use of 210Pb as chronometer for recent sedimentary accumulation.

  6. Short-Lived Radionuclides in Meteorites: Constraints on Nebular Timescales for the Production of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Robert H., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Variations in the abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al (τ1/2 ≈ 0.74 Ma) and 53Mn (τ1/2 ≈ 3.7 Ma) in meteoritic solids may be used to infer relative formation intervals of these solids in the nebula at precisions of less than 1 Ma. In a strict chronometric interpretation of the isotopic variations, whereby criteria such as spatial and temporal isotopic homogeneity and closed system isotopic evolution are met, solid formation occurred in the nebula for at least several million years. This is longer than some theoretical and astronomical estimates for the duration of the active nebula. The evidence for live 41Ca (τ1/2 ≈ 0.10 Ma) in meteoritic inclusions further indicates that the onset of solid formation occurred quite early, perhaps within a few hundred thousand years after the onset of the collapse of the sun's parent molecular cloud. Failure of the chronometric interpretation may arise for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, the late, inhomogeneous injection of material from a nearby stellar source or the local production of short-lived radionuclides by an energetic particle irradiation, e. g., from T Tauri (X-wind) or galactic cosmic ray sources. Although some isotopic evidence exists that the criteria required for a strict chronometric interpretation are not met by each of the short-lived chronometers, there is no compelling reason to shorten the interval of solid formation in the nebula to less than 1 Ma.

  7. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  8. Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite

    PubMed

    Mora; Riciputi; Cole

    1999-12-17

    Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite.

  9. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  10. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; ...

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less

  11. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  12. A micropump driven by electrochemically produced short-lived bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Lemekhov, S. S.; Melenev, A. E.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new working principle for electrochemical micropump with the gas termination time as short as 100 microseconds is presented. It is based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity. A simple electrochemical micropump is designed to demonstrate this pumping principle. The device consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes, inlet and outlet diffusers, and channels for liquid. The chamber and the channels are filled with the electrolyte that plays a role of the pumped liquid. The pump was tested in different regimes. One of these regimes related to formation and termination of short-lived microbubbles is especially promising. Long time stability of the electrodes is demonstrated.

  13. Measures Urged to Cut Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    To produce significant near-term climate benefits, the Obama administration should take a series of actions under existing authorities to reduce greenhouse gases that have relatively short atmospheric lifetimes of weeks to a few decades, according to a 12 March study by the nonprofit Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). The report, "Domestic Policies to Reduce the Near-Term Risks of Climate Change," notes that recent estimates suggest that about 30-40% of warming experienced to date can be attributed to these short-lived pollutants, which include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  14. Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.

    PubMed

    Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

    2003-01-01

    Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping.

  15. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

  16. SPATIAL Short Courses Build Expertise and Community in Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The SPATIAL short course at the University of Utah is designed for graduate students and professionals in the earth and environmental sciences from around the globe. An integral part of the broader, NSF-funded Inter-university Training for Continental-scale Ecology (ITCE) project, the course is an intensive two-week field, classroom and laboratory experience with internationally-known researchers as instructors. The course focuses on stable isotope geochemistry coupled with spatial analysis techniques. Participants do not typically know each other or this research community well upon entering. One of the stated goals of the overall project is to build a community of practice around these techniques. This design is common in many professional fields, but is not often applied at the graduate level nor formally assessed in the earth sciences. Paired pre- and post-tests were administered before the start and after the close of the short courses over 3 years. The survey is a set of instruments adapted from social-cognitive psychology measuring changes in identity and community with other items to measure content knowledge outcomes. We see a subtle, consistent convergence of identities between large-scale isotope geochemistry and participants' research areas. Results also show that the course generates an increase in understanding about stable isotopes' use and application. The data show the SPATIAL course is very effective at bringing students together socially with each other and with faculty to create an environment that fosters community and scientific cooperation. Semi-structured pre-and post- interviews were conducted to understand the program elements that generated gains in learning and community. Participants were selected based on initial responses on the pre-survey to capture the range of initial conditions for the group. Qualitative analysis shows that the major factors for participants were 1) ready access to researchers in an informal setting during the

  17. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

  18. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  19. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  20. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  1. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

  2. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  3. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  4. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  5. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  6. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D

    2005-10-24

    The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.

  7. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

  8. Shunt detection with the short-lived radioactive gases.

    PubMed

    Watson, D D

    1980-01-01

    Conventional radionuclide techniques are limited by their inability to deliver noninvasively a compact bolus of radionuclide indicator into the left heart. This can be accomplished by the inhalation of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide. The inhaled carbon dioxide passes freely across the alveolar membrane and enters the carbonate cycle, which, under the accelerating influence of carbonic anhydrase, transfers the oxygen-15 tracer onto water in the pulmonary venous blood. The result is an abrupt tracer delivery to the pulmonary venous system with subsequent tracer input to the left heart at a rate limited only by the pulmonary blood flow. These properties of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide have been used to develop a specialized indicator-dilution method for quantitation of left-to-right cardiac shunt flow. The results agree well with those obtained by oxymetry at cardiac catheterization. In clinical application, the ease and reliability of this technique are remarkable. Its use is presently limited to clinical facilities with the capability for on-line production of the short-lived gases. The techniques provide a good example of the utilization of biologically active radiopharmaceuticals and are a potentially useful source of information about the hemodynamic properties of the central circulatory system.

  9. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    PubMed

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  10. Efficiency of short-lived halogens at influencing climate through depletion of stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Rap, A.; Dhomse, S.; Feng, W.

    2015-03-01

    Halogens released from long-lived anthropogenic substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons, are the principal cause of recent depletion of stratospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas. Recent observations show that very short-lived substances, with lifetimes generally under six months, are also an important source of stratospheric halogens. Short-lived bromine substances are produced naturally by seaweed and phytoplankton, whereas short-lived chlorine substances are primarily anthropogenic. Here we used a chemical transport model to quantify the depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere from short-lived halogen substances, and a radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effects of that ozone depletion. According to our simulations, ozone loss from short-lived substances had a radiative effect nearly half that from long-lived halocarbons in 2011 and, since pre-industrial times, has contributed a total of about -0.02 W m-2 to global radiative forcing. We find natural short-lived bromine substances exert a 3.6 times larger ozone radiative effect than long-lived halocarbons, normalized by halogen content, and show atmospheric levels of dichloromethane, a short-lived chlorine substance not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, are rapidly increasing. We conclude that potential further significant increases in the atmospheric abundance of short-lived halogen substances, through changing natural processes or continued anthropogenic emissions, could be important for future climate.

  11. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  12. Solar neutrino production of long-lived isotopes and secular variations in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.; Cowan, G.A.

    1980-11-21

    Long-lived isotopes produced in the earth's crust by solar neutrinos may provide a method of probing secular variations in the rate of energy production in the sun's core. Only one isotope, calcium-41, appears to be suitable from the dual standpoints of reliable nuclear physics and manageable backgrounds. The proposed measurement also may be interesting in view of recent evidence for neutrino oscillations.

  13. Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-06-01

    We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

  14. Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

    1986-10-01

    This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived.

  15. Design Study for a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph for Very Short Lived Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin Woo; Park, Young-Ho; Im, Kang-Bin; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    The multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been designed for the high precision mass measurement system in RAON accelerator facility, which will be constructed in Korea. Mirror-electrode potentials were numerically optimized by Nelder-Mead algorithm. The temporal spread and the mass-resolving power were calculated for the 132Sn+ ions with an energy spread of 20 eV and an emittance of 3 π mm mrad; the mass resolving power over 105 was achieved. MR-TOF-MS will be used for the isobar separation and the mass measurement for very short-lived isotopes.

  16. Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the short lived agent 178Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.

    1988-06-01

    A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A short-lived generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.

  17. Fission Half Lives of Fermium Isotopes Within Skyrme Hartree-Fock Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A.; Staszczak, A.; Nazarewicz, W.

    Nuclear fission barriers, mass parameters and spontaneous fission half lives of fermium isotopes calculated in a framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the SkM* force are discussed. Zero-point energy corrections in the ground state are determined for each nucleus using the Gaussian overlap approximation of the generator coordinate method and in the cranking formalism. Results of spontaneous fission half lives are compared to experimental data.

  18. FISSION HALF LIVES OF FERMIUM ISOTOPES WITHIN SKYRME HARTREE-FOCK-BOGOLIUBOV THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, A.; Staszczak, Andrzej; Nazarewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fission barriers, mass parameters and spontaneous fission half lives of fermium isotopes calculated in a framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model with the SkM* force are discussed. Zero-point energy corrections in the ground state are determined for each nucleus using the Gaussian overlap approximation of the generator coordinate method and in the cranking formalism. Results of spontaneous fission half lives are compared to experimental data.

  19. Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator <span class="hlt">isotope</span> and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5733983','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5733983"><span>High-purity <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> production by <span class="hlt">short</span>-term HFIR (High-Flux <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Reactor) irradiations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Bigelow, J.E.; Wiggins, J.T.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Transuranium Processing Plant (TPP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, along with the High-Flux <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Reactor (HFIR) were built to produce the quantities of the transplutonium elements needed for the heavy-element research programs of the US Department of Energy (USDOE). This document consists of viewographs and tables.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L"><span>Sediment Dating With <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes In Monterey Canyon, California Imply Episodes Of Rapid Deposition And Erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenson, T. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Maier, K. L.; Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E.; Symons, W. O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Submarine canyons are a major conduit for terrestrial material to the deep sea. To better constrain the timing and rates in which sediment is transported down-canyon, we collected a series of sediment cores along the axis of Monterey Canyon, and quantified mass accumulation rates using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-<span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. A suite of sediment cores were carefully collected perpendicular to the canyon thalweg in water depths of approximately 300m, 500m, 800m, and 1500m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We choose cores that were between 60m and 75m above the canyon thalweg on canyon side bench features for correlation with moored instrument deployments. The sediment cores reveal a complex stratigraphy that includes copious bioturbation features, sand lenses, subtle erosional surfaces, subtle graded bedding, and abrupt changes sediment texture and color. Downcore excess 210Pb and 137Cs profiles imply episodic deposition and remobilization cycles on the canyon benches. Excess 210Pb activities in cores reach depths of up to 1m, implying very rapid sedimentation. Sedimentation rates vary with water depth, generally with the highest sedimentation rate in closest to land, but vary substantially on adjacent canyon benches. Preliminary results demonstrate that sediment movement within Monterey Canyon is both dynamic and episodic on human time-scales and can be reconstructed used <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-<span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93f4316A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93f4316A"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> isomers in 192Po and 194Po</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andel, B.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kalaninová, Z.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Sulignano, B.; Van Duppen, P.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Isomeric states in 194Po and 192Po were studied at the velocity filter SHIP. The <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were produced in the fusion-evaporation reactions 141Pr(56Fe, p 2 n )194Po and 144Sm(51V, p 2 n )192Po . Several new γ -ray transitions were attributed to the isomers and γ -γ coincidences for both isomers were studied for the first time. The 459-keV transition earlier, tentatively proposed as de-exciting the isomeric level in 194Po, was replaced by a new 248-keV transition, and the spin of this isomer was reassigned from (11-) to (10-). The de-excitation of the (11-) isomeric level in 192Po by the 154-keV transition was confirmed and a parallel de-excitation by a 733-keV (E 3 ) transition to (8+) level of the ground-state band was suggested. Moreover, side feeding to the (4+) level of the ground-state band was proposed. The paper also discusses strengths of transitions de-exciting 11- isomers in neighboring Po and Pb <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M"><span>Developments in precison mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> r-process nuclei with CARIBU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marley, S. T.; Aprahamian, A.; Mumpower, M.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S.; Surman, R.; Clark, J. A.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The confluence of new radioactive beam facilities and modern precision mass spectrometry techniques now make it possible to measure masses of many neutron-rich nuclei important to nuclear structure and astrophysics. A recent mass sensitivity study (S. Brett et al., Eur. Phys. J., A 48, 184 (2012)) identified the nuclear masses that are the most influential to the final rapid-neutron capture process abundance distributions under various astrophysical scenarios. This work motivated a campaign of precision mass measurements using the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) installed at the Californium Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. In order to measure the weakest and most <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t1/2 < 150 ms) of these influential nuclei, a series of upgrades to the CARIBU and CPT systems have been developed. The implementation of these upgrades, the r-process mass measurements, and the status of CARIBU facilty will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of NSERC, Canada, appl. # 216974, the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357, DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-98ER41086, & DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NSF Grants PHY08-22648 and PHY-106819.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199424"><span>Search for long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lachner, J.; Dillmann, I.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G.</p> <p>2008-12-15</p> <p>The discovery of naturally occurring long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomeric states (t{sub 1/2}>10{sup 8} yr) in the neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> {sup 211,213,217,218}Th[A. Marinov et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and provide upper limits for their abundances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p> plumes cannot explain the intraplate volcanism of the South Pacific region. We argue that the observed <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism has been produced by another type of hot spot-related volcanism, as opposed to the strong and continuous Hawaiian-type hot spots. Our results also indicate that other geological processes (plate tension, hotlines, faulting, wetspots, self-propagating volcanoes) may act in conjunction with hot spot volcanism in the South Pacific. In all these scenarios, intraplate volcanism has to be controlled by "broad-scale" events giving rise to multiple closely-spaced mantle plumelets, each with a distinct <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature, but only briefly active and stable over geological time. It seems most likely that these plumelets originate and dissipate at very shallow mantle depths, where they may shoot off as thin plumes from the top of a "superplume" that is present in the South Pacific mantle. The absence of clear age progressions in most seamount trails and periodic flare-ups of massive intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific (such as the one in the Cretaceous and one starting 30 Myr ago) show that regional extension (caused by changes in the global plate circuit and/or the rise-and-fall of an oscillating superplume) may be driving the waxing and waning of intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1224..295T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1224..295T"><span>Relatively Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Dubnium <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tereshatov, E. E.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Db <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO3 mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367180','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367180"><span>Relatively Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Dubnium <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> and Chemical Identification of Superheavy Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tereshatov, E. E.; Voronyuk, M. G.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.</p> <p>2010-04-30</p> <p>The present study has been performed within the framework of experiments aimed at the investigation of chemical properties of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Db <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in aqueous solutions. The isocratic anion exchange separations of group V elements in the solutions containing HF have been considered. Parameters of separation of dubnium homologues (Pa, Nb and Ta) in HF/HNO{sub 3} mixed solutions have been optimized. The procedure of separation of group V elements from multicomponent system has been suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AIPC..346..877K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AIPC..346..877K"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Concentration of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21156186','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21156186"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Korovin, Yu. A.; Konobeyev, A. Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P. E.</p> <p>1995-09-15</p> <p>Concentration of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclider transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494853','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494853"><span>Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hosts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruns, Emily; Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Recent theoretical work has shown that long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-<span class="hlt">lived</span> hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> organisms than in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the strength of selection for resistance increases with longevity. In a single locus model of innate resistance to a frequency-dependent, sterilizing disease, longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> hosts evolved resistance more rapidly than <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hosts. Moreover, resistance in long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> hosts could only be polymorphic for more costly and more extreme resistance levels than <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hosts. The increased rate of evolution occurred in spite of longer generation times because longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> hosts had both a longer period of exposure to disease as well as higher disease prevalence. Qualitatively similar results were found when the model was extended to mortality-inducing diseases, or to density-dependent transmission modes. Our study shows that the evolutionary dynamics of host resistance is determined by more than just levels of resistance and cost, but is highly sensitive to the life-history traits of the host.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M⊙. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition in the range Δ17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25396422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25396422"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Coral skeletal boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> do not record <span class="hlt">short</span>-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232377','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232377"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Coral skeletal boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> do not record <span class="hlt">short</span>-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1050947"><span>New Half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of r-process Zn and Ga <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> Measured with Electromagnetic Separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Madurga, M; Surman, Rebecca; Borzov, Ivan N; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Gross, Carl J; Miller, D; Stracener, Daniel W; Batchelder, Jon Charles; Brewer, N.T.; Cartegni, L.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Liu, S. H.; Ilyushkin, S.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.; Kuzniak, A.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Miernik, K.; Padgett, Stephen; Paulauskas, S.; Ramayya, A. V.; Winger, J. A.; Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena; Zganjar, E. F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The {beta} decays of neutron-rich nuclei near the doubly magic {sup 78}Ni were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility using an electromagnetic isobar separator. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of {sup 82}Zn (228 {+-} 10 ms), {sup 83}Zn (117 {+-} 20 ms), and {sup 85}Ga (93 {+-} 7 ms) were determined for the first time. These half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> were found to be very different from the predictions of the global model used in astrophysical simulations. A new calculation was developed using the density functional model, which properly reproduced the new experimental values. The robustness of the new model in the {sup 78}Ni region allowed us to extrapolate data for more neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The revised analysis of the rapid neutron capture process in low entropy environments with our new set of measured and calculated half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> shows a significant redistribution of predicted isobaric abundances strengthening the yield of A > 140 nuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides" with mean <span class="hlt">lives</span> of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028568"><span>Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Fission Product Gamma Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.</p> <p>2011-09-29</p> <p>A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at <span class="hlt">short</span> times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5549681','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5549681"><span>Measurement of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and helium production in fusion materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenwood, L.R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Results are summarized for measurements of the production rates for long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radioisotopes and helium in fusion reactor materials. Measurements have been performed at T(d,n) generators, near 14 MeV; at broad-spectrum Be(d,n) accelerator-based neutron fields; and in various fission reactors. These activation data are used to predict the production of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in fusion reactor materials for the simulation of fusion materials damage in fission reactor irradiations and as a stable product dosimeter. Nuclear data needs and future plans are discussed. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7710819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7710819"><span>Advanced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A new technique for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B21F..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B21F..01L"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Protein Stable <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Probing of Microbial Communities to Associate Functions with Taxa (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipton, M. S.; Slysz, G. W.; Steinke, L. A.; Ward, D. M.; Klatt, C. G.; Clauss, T. R.; Purvine, S. O.; Anderson, G. A.; Payne, S. H.; Bryant, D. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Determining which taxa in a community perform which functions is essential for understanding metabolite fluxes and metabolic interactions among community members. Specific taxa will alter their metabolism in order to acclimate to changing environmental factors such as light through the diel cycle, changing temperature and other factors. Monitoring which proteins are being expressed, and the quantitative protein expression patterns in the individual taxa as a response to external stimuli is key to understanding these mechanisms. Protein stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> probing (Pro-SIP) has strong potential for revealing key metabolizing taxa in complex microbial communities. In Pro-SIP studies, label incorporation is determined by the extent of the change in the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> profile of peptides when measured by mass spectrometry. While most Pro-SIP work to date has been performed under controlled laboratory conditions to allow extensive <span class="hlt">isotope</span> labeling of the target organism(s), these techniques have not been applied to <span class="hlt">short</span> term in situ studies due to the small degree of partial labeling of the proteins. We have applied Pro-SIP to study the assimilation of a labeled substrate into proteins to determine which taxa are responsible for sequestration of dissolved inorganic carbon in microbial mats associated with the alkaline siliceous hot springs of Yellowstone National Park. This community is fueled by sunlight as it transitions from dark to light; the aim was to understand the light-dependent pathway of inorganic carbon incorporation into different taxa during the early morning hours when the mat was in low light and anoxic. Each mat sample was incubated with 13C-bicarbonate for 3 h. Substrate assimilation was determined through standard proteomic techniques along with the use of SIPPER, a collection of algorithms that sensitively measure small changes in peptide <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> patterns, allowing the determination of which taxa assimilated the substrate during this period. For the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/639188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/639188"><span>Yields of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; England, T.R.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716"><span>Alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic events in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> mice testes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matzkin, María Eugenia; Miquet, Johanna Gabriela; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal Monique; Turyn, Daniel; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Bartke, Andrzej; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, although the expression of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged in testes of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> mice, the remainder of the parameters assessed showed a significant reduction. This study provides novel evidence that longevity confers anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities to the adult testis. Oppositely, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice suffer testicular inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes. PMID:26805572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/355038','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/355038"><span>Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> metabolic tracer studies of <span class="hlt">living</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luong, Elise</p> <p>1999-05-10</p> <p>This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> metabolic tracer studies in <span class="hlt">living</span> systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 ± 5% (n = 5). <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 ± 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and β-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of <sup>13</sup>C<sup>+</sup> with <sup>12</sup>C <sup>1</sup>H<sup>+</sup> comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or β-cyclodextrin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M.; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation. PMID:27627450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511476T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511476T"><span>A new methodology involving stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> tracer to compare <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long- term selenium mobility in soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tolu, Julie; Thiry, Yves; Potin-gautier, Martine; Le hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Selenium is an element of environmental concern given its dual beneficial and toxic character to animal and human health. Its radioactive <span class="hlt">isotope</span> 79Se, a fission product of 235U, is considered critical in safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories in case of leakage and hypothetical soil contamination. Therefore, Se species transformations and interactions with soil components have to be clearly understood to predict its dispersion in the biosphere (e.g., accumulation in soils, migration to waters, transfer to <span class="hlt">living</span> organisms). While natural Se interactions with soils run over centuries to millennia time scales, transformations and partitioning are generally studied with <span class="hlt">short</span>-term experiments (often inferior to 1 month) after Se addition. The influence of slower, long-term processes involved in Se speciation and mobility in soils is thus not properly accounted for. We tested if using ambient Se would be relevant for long-term risk assessment while added Se would be more representative of <span class="hlt">short</span>-term contamination impact. For that purpose, we developed a new methodology to trace the differential reactivity of ambient and spiked Se at trace level (µg kg-1) in soils. It combined the use of a stable <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> enriched tracer with our previous published analytical method based on specific extractions and HPLC-ICP-MS to determine trace Se species partition in different soil phases. Given that soil extracts contains very high concentrations of various elements interfering Se (e.g., Fe, Cl, Br), the ICP-MS parameters and mathematical corrections were optimized to cope with such interferences. Following optimization, three correct and accurate (<2%) <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios were obtained with 77Se, 78Se, 80Se and 82Se. The optimized method was then applied to an arable and a forest soil submitted to an aging process (drying/wetting cycles) during three months, to which 77Se(IV) was previously added. The results showed that ambient Se was at steady state in terms of water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95c2506V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95c2506V"><span>High-resolution laser spectroscopy of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voss, A.; Sonnenschein, V.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Kron, T.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Raeder, S.; Trautmann, N.; Wendt, K.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of plutonium were studied using two complementary techniques, high-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy (HR-RIS) and collinear laser spectroscopy (CLS). <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> shifts have been measured on the 5 f67 s27F0→5 f56 d27 s (J =1 ) and 5 f67 s27F1→5 f67 s 7 p (J =2 ) atomic transitions using the HR-RIS method and the hyperfine factors have been extracted for the odd mass nuclei Pu,241239. CLS was performed on the 5 f67 s 8F1 /2→J =1 /2 (27 523.61 cm-1) ionic transition with the hyperfine A factors measured for 239Pu. Changes in mean-squared charge radii have been extracted and show a good agreement with previous nonoptical methods, with an uncertainty improvement by approximately one order of magnitude. Plutonium represents the heaviest element studied to date using collinear laser spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15268473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15268473"><span>Intersections of potential energy surfaces of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S</p> <p>2004-02-15</p> <p>Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388556"><span>Laboratory breeding of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual killifish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Polačik, Matej; Blažek, Radim; Reichard, Martin</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Turquoise killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri, have an intrinsically <span class="hlt">short</span> life span, with a median life span of <6 months and a maximum (90%) life span of 9 months. This <span class="hlt">short</span> life span, which is unique among vertebrates, evolved naturally and has resulted in N. furzeri becoming a widely used laboratory model species in aging research and other disciplines. Here, we describe a protocol for the maintenance and breeding of the species under laboratory conditions. We provide details for egg incubation, hatching, everyday care of juvenile and adult fish, breeding and treatment of most common diseases. Emphasis is given to the fact that the requirements of N. furzeri substantially differ from those of other fish model taxa; N. furzeri <span class="hlt">live</span> brief <span class="hlt">lives</span> and in nature undergo nonaquatic embryo development, with consequences for their laboratory culture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711891O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711891O"><span>Have we underestimated the role of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chlorine compounds in ozone depletion?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oram, David; Laube, Johannes; Sturges, Bill; Gooch, Lauren; Leedham, Emma; Ashfold, Matthew; Pyle, John; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In recent years much attention has been focussed on the potential of bromine-containing VSLS (very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances) to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is primarily due to the large observed discrepancy between the measured inorganic bromine in the stratosphere and the amount of bromine available from known, longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> sources gases (halons and CH3Br). In contrast, the role of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chlorine compounds (VSLS-CL) has been considered trivial because they contribute only a few percent to the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, the majority of which is supplied by long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> compounds such as the CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. However recent evidence shows that one VSLS-Cl, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) has increased by 60% over the past decade (WMO, 2014) and has already begun to offset the long-term decline in stratospheric chlorine loading caused by the reduction in emissions of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. We will present new VSLS-Cl measurements from recent ground-based and aircraft campaigns in SE Asia where we have observed dramatic enhancements in a number of VSLS-Cl, including CH2Cl2. Furthermore we will demonstrate how pollution from China and the surrounding region can rapidly, and regularly, be transported across the South China Sea and subsequently uplifted to altitudes of 11-12 km, the region close to the lower TTL. This process occurs frequently during the winter monsoon season and could represent a fast and efficient mechanism for transporting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds, and other pollutants, to the lower stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850075"><span>CD28–B7 Interaction Modulates <span class="hlt">Short</span>- and Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Plasma Cell Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Njau, Modesta N.; Kim, Jin Hyang; Chappell, Craig P.; Ravindran, Rajesh; Thomas, Leela; Pulendran, Bali; Jacob, Joshy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The interaction of CD28, which is constitutively expressed on T cells, with B7.1/B7.2 expressed on APCs is critical for T cell activation. CD28 is also expressed on murine and human plasma cells but its function on these cells remains unclear. There are two types of plasma cells: <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ones that appear in the secondary lymphoid tissue <span class="hlt">shortly</span> after Ag exposure, and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells that mainly reside in the bone marrow. We demonstrate that CD28-deficient murine <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells produce significantly higher levels of Abs than do their wild-type counterparts. This was owing to both increased frequencies of plasma cells as well as increased Ab production per plasma cell. Plasma cells also express the ligand for CD28, B7.1, and B7.2. Surprisingly, deficiency of B7.1 and B7.2 in B cells also led to higher Ab levels, analogous to Cd28−/− plasma cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the CD28–B7 interaction operates as a key modulator of plasma cell function. PMID:22908331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5152799','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5152799"><span>Precision of Readout at the hunchback Gene: Analyzing <span class="hlt">Short</span> Transcription Time Traces in <span class="hlt">Living</span> Fly Embryos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tran, Huy; Ferraro, Teresa; Lucas, Tanguy; Guillou, Aurelien; Coppey, Mathieu; Dostatni, Nathalie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The simultaneous expression of the hunchback gene in the numerous nuclei of the developing fly embryo gives us a unique opportunity to study how transcription is regulated in <span class="hlt">living</span> organisms. A recently developed MS2-MCP technique for imaging nascent messenger RNA in <span class="hlt">living</span> Drosophila embryos allows us to quantify the dynamics of the developmental transcription process. The initial measurement of the morphogens by the hunchback promoter takes place during very <span class="hlt">short</span> cell cycles, not only giving each nucleus little time for a precise readout, but also resulting in <span class="hlt">short</span> time traces of transcription. Additionally, the relationship between the measured signal and the promoter state depends on the molecular design of the reporting probe. We develop an analysis approach based on tailor made autocorrelation functions that overcomes the <span class="hlt">short</span> trace problems and quantifies the dynamics of transcription initiation. Based on <span class="hlt">live</span> imaging data, we identify signatures of bursty transcription initiation from the hunchback promoter. We show that the precision of the expression of the hunchback gene to measure its position along the anterior-posterior axis is low both at the boundary and in the anterior even at cycle 13, suggesting additional post-transcriptional averaging mechanisms to provide the precision observed in fixed embryos. PMID:27942043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893"><span>Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in <span class="hlt">live</span>-timed counting of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, R</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Studies and calibrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, for example (15)O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DNP.DF010H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DNP.DF010H"><span>Half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of several states in <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced in the SF of ^252Cf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, J. K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Fong, D.; Beyer, C. J.; Gore, P. M.; Jones, E. F.; Teran, E.; Oberacker, V. E.; Umar, A. S.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.; Wu, S. C.; Lee, I. Y.; Fallon, P.; Stoyer, M. A.; Asztalos, S. J.; Ginter, T. N.; Cole, J. D.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Donangelo, R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> (T_1/2) of 15 states in <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced in the SF of ^252Cf have been determined using a new technique. The ^252Cf source was placed inside the Gammasphere, and triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and quadrupole deformations of ^104Zr, ^152Ce, and ^158Sm are determined for the first time. Except for ^102Sr, ^104Zr(β_2=0.45(4)) and ^158Sm(β_2=0.46(5)) are the most deformed among medium and heavy nuclei. Large deformation could have its origin in the high spin down-sloping orbitals near Z=38,40,62 and N=40,64,96. These large prolate deformations at ^104Zr and ^158Sm are confirmed by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations carried out in the present work. Further, an excited rotational band including seven new γ transitions in ^97Sr was also identified. The band head energy of the 829.8 keV state in ^97Sr has an half-life of 265(27) nsec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9499E..08E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9499E..08E"><span>Classification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>"Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26539812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26539812"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dendooven, P; Buitenhuis, H J T; Diblen, F; Heeres, P N; Biegun, A K; Fiedler, F; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; Brandenburg, S</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides (half-life shorter than that of (10)C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> nuclides are: (12)N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of (11)C), (29)P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of (30)P) and (38m)K (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of (38g)K). No <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, (12)N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, (12)N dominates over (15)O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of (12)N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, (12)N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of (12)N PET imaging is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.8923D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PMB....60.8923D"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813609F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813609F"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> and long term chemical and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variations of Lake Trasimeno (Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frondini, Francesco; Dragoni, Walter; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Cardellini, Carlo; Donnini, Marco; Morgantini, Nicola</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Lake Trasimeno, located in Umbria (central Italy), is a shallow lake of a remarkable naturalistic interest and a significant resource for the economy of the region (Ludovisi and Gaino, 2010; Dragoni, 2004). The Lake Trasimeno has an average area of about 124 km2 with a maximum depth of approximately 5.5 m, has no natural outlet and the volume of water stored is strictly linked to rainfall. In order to limit water level variations in 1898 an efficient outlet was built. At present the water exits from the Lake only when the level reaches a fixed threshold above the outlet channel, so during periods with low precipitation the evaporation becomes the most relevant output from the lake. For instance, between 1989 and 2013 the outlet did not work, and the maximum depth of the lake was reduced to little more than three meters. In the framework of climate change, it is important to understand the changes that could affect Lake Trasimeno in the near future. To this aim it is necessary to individuate the long term trends of the hydrologic, chemical and physical characteristics of the Trasimeno water and distinguish them from the <span class="hlt">short</span> term variations. At the present it is available a long record of hydrologic data allowing reliable studies on quantitative variations at Lake Trasimeno (Dragoni et al., 2015; Dragoni et al., 2012; Ludovisi and Gaino, 2010), but the definition of the chemical and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> trends of lake water it is still a problematic task. On the basis of new chemical and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data, collected from 2006 to 2015, it is possible to observe (i) <span class="hlt">short</span> term and/or very <span class="hlt">short</span> (seasonal) variations in temperature, salinity and saturation state with respect to carbonate minerals and a long term trends in <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of water and total load of mobile species (Cl, Na). The <span class="hlt">short</span> term variations readily respond to the precipitation regime and are strongly related to lake level; the long term trend is probably related to the progressive increase of near</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span>182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341"><span>182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M"><span>Dealing with uncertainty: Response-resilient climate change mitigation polices for long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millar, R.; Boneham, J.; Hepburn, C.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climate change solutions are subject to many inherent uncertainties. One of the most important is the uncertainty over the magnitude of the physical response of the climate system to external forcing. The risk of extremely large responses to forcing, so called "fat-tail" outcomes, cannot be ruled out from the latest science and offer profound challenges when creating policies that aim to meet a specific target of global temperature change. This study offers examples of how mitigation policies can be made resilient to this uncertainty in the physical climate response via indexing policies against an attributable anthropogenic warming index (the magnitude of the observed global mean warming that is can be traced to human activities), the AWI, instead of against time directly. We show that indexing policy measures that influence the total stock of carbon in the atmosphere (such as the fraction of extracted carbon sequestered) against the AWI can largely eliminate the risk of missing the specified warming goal due to unexpectedly large climate responses as well as the risk of costly over-mitigation if the physical response turned out to be lower than expected. We offer further examples of how this methodology can be expanded to include <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants as well as long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> carbon dioxide. Indexing policies against the AWI can have important consequences for the actions of governments acting to design national climate mitigation policies as well as private sector investors looking to incentivise the transition to a climate-stable economy. We conclude with some thoughts on how these indexes can help focus attention on the long-term perspective that is consistent with the conclusions of the latest climate science on what is required to ultimately stabilise the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5565(03)00102-5','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5565(03)00102-5"><span>Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing <span class="hlt">short</span> and long <span class="hlt">lived</span> species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long <span class="hlt">lived</span> and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> birds.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378157"><span>Inter-laboratory comparisons of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klemola, S K</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> shorter than 1h. The total number of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28299778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28299778"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neon damsel Pomacentrus coelestis: implications for population dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kingsford, M J; O'Callaghan, M D; Liggins, L; Gerlach, G</p> <p>2017-03-16</p> <p>Daily increments of Pomacentrus coelestis, an abundant and well-studied fish, were validated for the life of the fish and depending on the location, age-maxima were estimated to be 127-160 days on reefs separated by tens to hundreds of kilometres on the Great Barrier Reef. This contrasts with congeners and other damselfishes that <span class="hlt">live</span> for 5 years or more. Otoliths of P. coelestis were thinner and had different patterns of banding when compared with relatively long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> congeners. It is suggested that banding patterns in P. coelestis may be related to patterns of maturation and spawning. The consequences of a <span class="hlt">short</span> life would have a great influence on the population dynamics of this widespread species. Further, the demographics and habitat preferences of this species suggest rapid colonization and establishment of breeding populations that would quickly change the relative abundance of sympatric fishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712647"><span>An analysis of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> outbreak of dengue fever in Mauritius.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramchurn, S K; Moheeput, K; Goorah, S S</p> <p>2009-08-27</p> <p>During the month of June 2009, Mauritius experienced a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> outbreak of dengue fever localised in its capital city Port Louis. Aedes albopictus, a secondary vector of dengue viruses, was the probable vector. We introduce a method which combines Google Earth images, stochastic cellular automata and scale free network ideas to map this outbreak. The method could complement other techniques to forecast the evolution of potential localised mosquito-borne viral outbreaks in Mauritius and in at-risk locations elsewhere for public health planning purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/843133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/843133"><span>Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364195"><span>ASTROPHYSICAL SHRAPNEL: DISCRIMINATING AMONG NEAR-EARTH STELLAR EXPLOSION SOURCES OF <span class="hlt">LIVE</span> RADIOACTIVE <span class="hlt">ISOTOPES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fry, Brian J.; Fields, Brian D.; Ellis, John R.</p> <p>2015-02-10</p> <p>We consider the production and deposition on Earth of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> in the range 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} yr that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGB) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include {sup 244}Pu and {sup 53}Mn. We discuss interpretations of the {sup 60}Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ∼2.2 Myr ago, showing that (1) the {sup 60}Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (2) the {sup 60}Fe signals highly constrain SAGB interpretations but do not completely them rule out, (3) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (4) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radioisotope deposition over time, and we use the Sedov blast wave solution to illustrate possible time-resolved profiles. Measuring such profiles would independently probe the blast properties including distance, and would provide additional constraints for the nature of the explosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15988516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15988516"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> orogenic cycles and the eclogitization of cold crust by spasmodic hot fluids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camacho, Alfredo; Lee, James K W; Hensen, Bastiaan J; Braun, Jean</p> <p>2005-06-30</p> <p>Collision tectonics and the associated transformation of continental crust to high-pressure rocks (eclogites) are generally well-understood processes, but important contradictions remain between tectonothermal models and petrological-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data obtained from such rocks. Here we use 40Ar-39Ar data coupled with a thermal model to constrain the time-integrated duration of an orogenic cycle (the burial and exhumation of a particular segment of the crust) to be less than 13 Myr. We also determine the total duration of associated metamorphic events to be approximately 20 kyr, and of individual heat pulses experienced by the rocks to be as <span class="hlt">short</span> as 10 years. Such <span class="hlt">short</span> timescales are indicative of rapid tectonic processes associated with catastrophic deformation events (earthquakes). Such events triggered transient heat advection by hot fluid along deformation (shear) zones, which cut relatively cool and dry subducted crust. In contrast to current thermal models that assume thermal equilibrium and invoke high ambient temperatures in the thickened crust, our non-steady-state cold-crust model satisfactorily explains several otherwise contradictory geological observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11295506"><span>The paradox of great longevity in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tree species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larson, D W</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Thuja occidentalis is a tree species that was once thought to be relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (80 years). Up until 10 years ago maximum ages were considered to be near 400 years, but such trees were thought to be rare. Research along the cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment has altered this view. Exceptionally slow-growing trees of this species have been found with ring counts to 1653 years and estimated ages to 1890 years. Senescence is slow or absent. Injury and death is due to rockfall and sporadic severe drought that kills small sectors of the trees by exposing and killing the roots. Experiments in which colored dyes are infused into roots show that each tree is composed of hydraulically independent units that allow mortality in one part of the 'individual' with little negative effect on the remaining parts of the tree. The trees are small, so environmental loadings of ice, snow, and wind are low. Slow growth of the trees results in a much greater mechanical strength in the wood. Together these properties increase the ability of the cedars to persist on cliffs for long periods of time. The paradox of great longevity in this '<span class="hlt">short-lived</span>' tree species is explained by slow growth that minimizes maintenance and repair costs while maximizing durability and strength, combined with an internal architecture that creates functionally independent units within each tree.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934720','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934720"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.</p> <p>2007-09-24</p> <p>Several <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015"><span>Efficient genome engineering approaches for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A central challenge in experimental aging research is the lack of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate models for genetic studies. Here we present a comprehensive protocol for efficient genome engineering in the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), which is the shortest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> vertebrate in captivity with a median life span of 4-6 months. By taking advantage of the clustered regularly interspaced <span class="hlt">short</span> palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system and the turquoise killifish genome, this platform enables the generation of knockout alleles via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and knock-in alleles via homology-directed repair (HDR). We include guidelines for guide RNA (gRNA) target design, embryo injection and hatching, germ-line transmission and for minimizing off-target effects. We also provide strategies for Tol2-based transgenesis and large-scale husbandry conditions that are critical for success. Because of the fast life cycle of the turquoise killifish, stable lines can be generated as rapidly as 2-3 months, which is much faster than other fish models. This protocol provides powerful genetic tools for studying vertebrate aging and aging-related diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784360"><span>{beta}-Decay Half-<span class="hlt">Lives</span> of New Neutron-Rich <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> of Elements from Pm to Tb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Ichikawa; M. Asai; K. Tsukada; A. Osa; M. Sakama; Y. Kojima; M. Shibata; I. Nishinaka; Y. Nagame; Y. Oura; K. Kawade</p> <p>1999-12-31</p> <p>Eight new neutron-rich lanthanide <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced in the proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U have been identified using the JAERI on-line <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. For six of these, each half-life was determined: {sup 159}Pm (2 {+-} 1 s), {sup 161}Sm (4.8 {+-} 0.8 s), {sup 165}Gd (10.3 {+-} 1.6 s), {sup 166}Tb (21 {+-} 6 s), {sup 167}Tb (19.4 {+-} 2.7 s) and {sup 168}Tb (8.2 {+-} 1.3 s). The observed half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> were compared with theoretical calculations. The recent calculation by the gross theory with the new one-particle strength function shows quite good agreement with the experimental half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21207498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21207498"><span>{beta}-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of new neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of elements from Pm to Tb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ichikawa, S.; Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Osa, A.; Sakama, M.; Oura, Y.; Kojima, Y.; Shibata, M.; Kawade, K.</p> <p>1999-11-16</p> <p>Eight new neutron-rich lanthanide <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced in the proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U have been identified using the JAERI on-line <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. For six of these, each half-life was determined: {sup 159}Pm (2{+-}1 s), {sup 161}Sm (4.8{+-}0.8 s), {sup 165}Gd (10.3{+-}1.6 s), {sup 166}Tb (21{+-}6 s), {sup 167}Tb (19.4{+-}2.7 s) and {sup 168}Tb (8.2{+-}1.3 s). The observed half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> were compared with theoretical calculations. The recent calculation by the gross theory with the new one-particle strength function shows quite good agreement with the experimental half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both <span class="hlt">short</span> and long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T.; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both <span class="hlt">short</span> and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S"><span>The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva</p> <p></p> <p>The formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up <span class="hlt">shortly</span> before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The δ 18O and δ 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...831..141F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...831..141F"><span>Radio Constraints on Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Magnetar Remnants in <span class="hlt">Short</span> Gamma-Ray Bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fong, W.; Metzger, B. D.; Berger, E.; Özel, F.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The merger of a neutron star (NS) binary may result in the formation of a rapidly spinning magnetar. The magnetar can potentially survive for seconds or longer as a supramassive NS before collapsing to a black hole if, indeed, it collapses at all. During this process, a fraction of the magnetar’s rotational energy of ˜1053 erg is transferred via magnetic spin-down to the surrounding ejecta. The resulting interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding circumburst medium powers a year-long or greater synchrotron radio transient. We present a search for radio emission with the Very Large Array following nine <span class="hlt">short</span>-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at rest-frame times of ≈1.3-7.6 yr after the bursts, focusing on those events that exhibit early-time excess X-ray emission that may signify the presence of magnetars. We place upper limits of ≲18-32 μJy on the 6.0 GHz radio emission, corresponding to spectral luminosities of ≲(0.05-8.3) × 1039 erg s-1. Comparing these limits to the predicted radio emission from a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> remnant and incorporating measurements of the circumburst densities from broadband modeling of <span class="hlt">short</span> GRB afterglows, we rule out a stable magnetar with an energy of 1053 erg for half of the events in our sample. A supramassive remnant that injects a lower rotational energy of 1052 erg is ruled out for a single event, GRB 050724A. This study represents the deepest and most extensive search for long-term radio emission following <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs to date, and thus the most stringent limits placed on the physical properties of magnetars associated with <span class="hlt">short</span> GRBs from radio observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11B2316G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T11B2316G"><span>Trace element and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> geochemistry of Franciscan graywackes with implications for <span class="hlt">short</span> time of recycling of detritus and interaction of continental sediments with metabasites during subduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.; Wakabayashi, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> Franciscan <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions resembling older Great Valley Group rocks. Although there is much scatter in the collective dataset, these results suggest that the burial-exhumation cycles that recycled Franciscan clastic material were <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span>. A comparison of the trace element and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios of the Franciscan graywackes with those of Franciscan metabasites reaffirms the conclusion in several of our recent studies that the metabasites were not chemically modified by interaction with fluids derived from continental sediments during subduction and exhumation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23047053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23047053"><span>Are baseline and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term corticosterone stress responses in free-<span class="hlt">living</span> amphibians repeatable?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Amphibians respond to environmental stressors by secreting corticosterone, a stress hormone which promotes physiological and behavioral responses. Capture handling can be used to stimulate physiological stress response in amphibians. The use of single blood sampling and presentation of mean data often limits the quantification of within and between individual variation in baseline and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term corticosterone stress responses in amphibians. It is important for studies of amphibian physiological ecology to determine whether baseline and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term corticosterone stress responses are consistent or not. We quantified repeatability (r), a statistical measure of consistency, in baseline and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term corticosterone stress responses to a standard capture and handling stress protocol in free-<span class="hlt">living</span> adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina). Corticosterone metabolite concentrations were measured entirely non-invasively in male toad urine samples via an enzyme-immunoassay. During the first sampling occasion, urine samples were collected manually from individual male toads (n=20) immediately upon field capture. Toads were handled for 5min then transferred to plastic bags (constituting a mild stressor), and urine samples were collected hourly over 8h in the field. The toads were resampled for baseline (0h) urine corticosterone with hourly urine sampling over 8h (for quantification of the stress induced corticosterone) at 14 day intervals on three consecutive occasions. Within and between sample variations in urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations were also quantified. All toads expressed a corticosterone stress response over 8h to our standard capture and handling stress protocol. Variations both within and between toads was higher for corrected integrated corticosterone concentrations than corticosterone concentrations at baseline, 3 or 6h. Baseline urinary corticosterone metabolite concentration of the male toads was highly repeatable (r=0.877) together with high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12779561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12779561"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> two-soliton bound states in weakly perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Shigenari, Takeshi</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Resonant soliton collisions in the weakly discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation are studied numerically. The fractal nature of the soliton scattering, described in our previous works, is investigated in detail. We demonstrate that the fractal scattering pattern is related to the existence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> two-soliton bound states. The bound state can be regarded as a two-soliton quasiparticle of a new type, different from the breather. We establish that the probability P of a bound state with the lifetime L follows the law P approximately L(-3). In the frame of a simple two-particle model, we derive the nonlinear map, which generates the fractal pattern similar to that observed in the numerical study of soliton collisions. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770150','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770150"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. PMID:26839399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21056740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21056740"><span>New Developments for Isochronous Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, S. A.; Boutin, D.; Chen, L.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winckler, N.; Sun, B.; Beckert, K.; Beller, P.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Montes, F.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C.</p> <p>2007-02-26</p> <p>The combination of the in-flight separator FRS and the storage-ring ESR at GSI offers unique possibilities for high accuracy mass and lifetime measurements of bare and few-electron fragments. Operating the ESR in the isochronous mode allows for measurements of revolution frequencies of stored ions without cooling. Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) can be applied to fragments with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> as <span class="hlt">short</span> as several tens of microseconds. Newly developed magnetic rigidity tagging increases the resolving power of IMS to about 500000. IMS can be used to measure masses of nuclei with rates even lower than one ion per day, a property also needed for the purpose of the ILIMA project at the future facility FAIR.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121....5F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JChPh.121....5F"><span>Jahn-Teller effect for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> states: Study of the complex potential energy surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feuerbacher, Sven; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The Jahn-Teller effect for bound electronic states has been investigated for many decades. In contrast, nothing is known regarding its occurrence for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> electronic states. Here we investigate the linear and the quadratic E⊗e Jahn-Teller effect for degenerate resonance states with special regard to the complex potential energy surfaces. We find many new phenomena for both the real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces including additional minima and intersections. Possible simplifications of the equations describing the adiabatic potential energy surfaces are discussed. We also briefly investigate other Jahn-Teller effects in linear approximation. The theoretical concepts are exemplified by calculating ab initio data for the degenerate Π*-type resonance states of the tris(boramethyl)amin anion along two different doubly degenerate vibrational modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4008713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4008713"><span>Prolonged Marital Stress is Associated with <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Responses to Positive Stimuli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lapate, Regina C.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Norris, Catherine J.; Bachhuber, David R.W.; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N=116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839399"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11D0068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11D0068L"><span>CARIBIC observations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43H3372H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A43H3372H"><span>Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Climate Pollution in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1016277P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1016277P"><span>Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and season variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from South and South-East Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the Western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with also non-negligible values extending into northern mid-latitudes particularly in the summer. These first estimates, which include some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODP values than previous studies, particularly over Southern Asia, suggesting that emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogen source gases in certain geographical regions could have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Cages Restrict Protein Diffusion in the Plasma Membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goiko, Maria; de Bruyn, John R.; Heit, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The plasma membrane is a heterogeneous environment characterized by anomalous diffusion and the presence of microdomains that are molecularly distinct from the bulk membrane. Using single particle tracking of the C-type lectin CD93, we have identified for the first time the transient trapping of transmembrane proteins in cage-like microdomains which restrict protein diffusion. These cages are stabilized by actin-dependent confinement regions, but are separate structures with sizes and lifespans uncorrelated to those of the underlying actin corral. These membrane cages require cholesterol for their strength and stability, with cholesterol depletion decreasing both. Despite this, cages are much larger in size and are longer <span class="hlt">lived</span> than lipid rafts, suggesting instead that cholesterol-dependent effects on membrane fluidity or molecular packing play a role in cage formation. This diffusional compartment in the plasma membrane has characteristics of both a diffusional barrier and a membrane microdomain, with a size and lifespan intermediate between <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> microdomains such as lipid rafts and long-lasting diffusional barriers created by the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27725698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578"><span>The long non-coding RNA Morrbid regulates Bim and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCright, Sam J.; Kumar, Dinesh B. Uthaya; Collet, Magalie A.; Mowel, Walter K.; Elliott, Ellen N.; Uyar, Asli; Makiya, Michelle A.; Dunagin, Margaret C.; Harman, Christian C.D.; Virtue, Anthony T.; Zhu, Stella; Bailis, Will; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Raj, Arjun; Wherry, E. John; Goff, Loyal A.; Klion, Amy D.; Rinn, John L.; Williams, Adam; Flavell, Richard A.; Henao-Mejia, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes collectively account for ~70% of human blood leukocytes and are among the shortest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> cells in the body1,2. Precise regulation of the lifespan of these myeloid cells is critical to maintain protective immune responses while minimizing the deleterious consequences of prolonged inflammation1,2. However, how the lifespan of these cells is strictly controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we identify a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we termed Morrbid, which tightly controls the survival of neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes in response to pro-survival cytokines. To control the lifespan of these cells, Morrbid regulates the transcription of its neighboring pro-apoptotic gene, Bcl2l11 (Bim), by promoting the enrichment of the PRC2 complex at the Bcl2l11 promoter to maintain this gene in a poised state. Notably, Morrbid regulates this process in cis, enabling allele-specific control of Bcl2l11 transcription. Thus, in these highly inflammatory cells, changes in Morrbid levels provide a locus-specific regulatory mechanism that allows for rapid control of apoptosis in response to extracellular pro-survival signals. As MORRBID is present in humans and dysregulated in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome, this lncRNA may represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders characterized by aberrant <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan. PMID:27525555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P"><span>First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy α-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834981','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834981"><span>Optimizing the Delivery of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Alpha Particle-Emitting <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> to Solid Tumors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adams, Gregory P.</p> <p>2004-11-24</p> <p>The underlying hypothesis of this project was that optimal alpha emitter-based radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) could be achieved by pairing the physical half-life of the radioisotope to the biological half-life of the targeting vehicle. The project had two specific aims. The first aim was to create and optimize the therapeutic efficacy of 211At-SAPS-C6.5 diabody conjugates. The second aim was to develop bispecific-targeting strategies that increase the specificity and efficacy of alpha-emitter-based RAIT. In the performance of the first aim, we created 211At-SAPS-C6.5 diabody conjugates that specifically targeted the HER2 tumor associated antigen. In evaluating these immunoconjugates we determined that they were capable of efficient tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy of established human tumor xenografts growing in immunodeficient mice. We also determined that therapeutic doses were associated with late renal toxicity, likely due to the role of the kidneys in the systemic elimination o f these agents. We are currently performing more studies focused on better understanding the observed toxicity. In the second aim, we successfully generated bispecific single-chain Fv (bs-scFv) molecules that co-targeted HER2 and HER3 or HER2 and HER4. The in vitro kinetics and in vivo tumor-targeting properties of these molecules were evaluated. These studies revealed that the bs-scFv molecules selectively localized in vitro on tumor cells that expressed both antigens and were capable of effective tumor localization in in vivo studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194275"><span>THE DEAD-<span class="hlt">LIVING</span>-MOTHER: MARIE BONAPARTE'S INTERPRETATION OF EDGAR ALLAN POE'S <span class="hlt">SHORT</span> STORIES.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Obaid, Francisco Pizarro</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's <span class="hlt">short</span> stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-<span class="hlt">living</span>-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable <span class="hlt">short</span> stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26236875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26236875"><span>Variation in the local population dynamics of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species <span class="hlt">living</span> in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5347275','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5347275"><span>Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Dogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dogs below the threshold for harm. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable. PMID:28321175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28321175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28321175"><span>Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Dogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cuttler, Jerry M; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Socol, Yehoshua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dogs below the threshold for harm. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) appears questionable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L"><span>Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gobies face demographic bottlenecks?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The majority of coral reef goby species are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, with some highly abundant species <span class="hlt">living</span> less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally <span class="hlt">short</span> life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with <span class="hlt">short</span> physiologic half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with <span class="hlt">short</span> physiologic half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5488140','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5488140"><span>Vertical distribution and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of <span class="hlt">living</span> planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fairbanks, R.G.; Wiebe, P.H.; Be, A.W.H.</p> <p>1980-01-04</p> <p>Thirteen species of planktonic foraminifera collected with vertically stratified zooplankton tows in the slope water, Gulf Stream cold core ring, and northern Sargasso Sea show significant differences in their vertical distributions in the upper 200 meters of these different hydrographic regimes. Gulf Stream cold core rings may be responsible for a southern displacement of the faunal boundary associated with the Gulf Stream when reconstructed from the deep-sea sediment record. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses of seven species reveal that nonspinose species (algal symbiont-barren) apparently calcify in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> equilibrium, whereas spinose species usually calcify out of oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> equilibrium by approximately -0.3 to -0.4 per mil in delta/sup 18/O values. The <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data indicate that foraminifera shells calcify in depth zones that are significantly narrower than the overall vertical distribution of a species would imply.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA609484','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA609484"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Beta-Battery Approaches for Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Sensors: Technology Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>charge storage from <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> was documented in 1913 (2). In the experiment, Moseley showed that in an evacuated chamber surrounding 20 mCi of radium ...he could develop 100s of kV of voltage potential due to the charge emitted (beta decay) from the radium . Charge collection using <span class="hlt">isotope</span> emission... Radium . Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 1913, 88, 471. 3. Summerer, L.; Stephenson, K. Nuclear Power Sources: A Key Enabling Technology for Planetary</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies found in meteorites. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280482','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280482"><span>Recent activities for β-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and β-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dillmann, Iris; Abriola, Daniel; Singh, Balraj</p> <p>2014-05-02</p> <p>Beta-delayed neutron (βn) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the 'rapid neutron-capture process' (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material β-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) 'Terra Incognita'. With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. A <span class="hlt">short</span> overview of one of the planned programs to measure βn-emitters at the limits of the presently know <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 β-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 β-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a 'Coordinated Research Project' on a 'Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data'. This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of β-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016386&hterms=very+short+time+series&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvery%2Bshort%2Btime%2Bseries','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016386&hterms=very+short+time+series&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dvery%2Bshort%2Btime%2Bseries"><span>AGB stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692"><span>Establishing equivalence for activity standards of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, M J; Baker, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K"><span>Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiser, Matthew R.</p> <p></p> <p>Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0202F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0202F"><span>Metrics for comparing climate impacts of <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Human activities emit a wide variety of gases and aerosols, with different characteristics that influence both air quality and climate. The emissions affect climate both directly and indirectly and operate on both <span class="hlt">short</span> and long timescales. Tools that allow these emissions to be placed on a common scale in terms of climate impact, i.e. metrics, have a number of applications (e.g. agreements and emission trading schemes, when considering potential trade-offs between changes in emissions). The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Global Warming Potential (GWP) over a 100 year time-horizon. The IPCC First Assessment Report states the GWP was presented to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. There have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed, but there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. Furthermore, the capability to compare components with very different lifetimes and temporal behaviour needs consideration. The temperature based metrics (e.g. the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP)) require a model for the temperature response, and additional uncertainty is thus introduced. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> forcers may also give more spatially heterogeneous responses, and the possibilities to capture these spatial variations by using other indicators than global mean RF or temperature change in metrics will be discussed. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) should, however, depend on the objectives of climate policy. Alternatives to the current 'multi-gas and single-basket' approach will also be explored and discussed (e.g. how a two-target approach may be implemented using a two-basket approach). One example is measures to reduce near-term rate of warming and long-term stabilization which can be implemented through two separate targets and two baskets with separate set of metrics for each</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H21I..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H21I..04P"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life cosmogenic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to quantify sediment mixing and transport in karst conduits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paylor, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) transport and flux in karst aquifers is poorly understood. Methods to quantify PIC flux are needed in order to account for total inorganic carbon removal (chemical plus mechanical) from karst settings. Quantifying PIC flux will allow more accurate calculations of landscape denudation and global carbon sink processes. The study concentrates on the critical processes of the suspended sediment component of mass flux - surface soil/stored sediment mixing, transport rates and distance, and sediment storage times. The primary objective of the study is to describe transport and mixing with the resolution of single storm-flow events. To quantify the transport processes, <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life cosmogenic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are utilized. The <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 7Be (t1/2 = 53d) and 210Pb (t1/2 = 22y) are the primary <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> measured, and other potential <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> such as 137Cs and 241Am are investigated. The study location is at Mammoth Cave National Park within the Logsdon River watershed. The Logsdon River conduit is continuously traversable underground for two kilometers. Background levels and input concentrations of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are determined from soil samples taken at random locations in the catchment area, and suspended sediment collected from the primary sinking stream during a storm event. Suspended sediment was also collected from the downstream end of the conduit during the storm event. After the storm flow receded, fine sediment samples were taken from the cave stream at regular intervals to determine transport distances and mixing ratios along the conduit. Samples were analyzed with a Canberra Industries gamma ray spectrometer, counted for 24 hours to increase detection of low radionuclide activities. The measured activity levels of radionuclides in the samples were adjusted for decay from time of sampling using standard decay curves. The results of the study show that surface sediment mixing, transport and storage in karst conduits is a dynamic but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R; Chipperfield, M P; Saiz-Lopez, A; Harrison, J J; von Glasow, R; Sommariva, R; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Montzka, S A; Feng, W; Dhomse, S; Harth, C; Mühle, J; Lunder, C; O'Doherty, S; Young, D; Reimann, S; Vollmer, M K; Krummel, P B; Bernath, P F</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2-the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K"><span>Large-Scale, <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Subduction of the Western Gneiss Region Ultrahigh-Pressure Terrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Corfu, F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway includes one of Earth's giant ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes. Understanding the subduction and exhumation of this >60,000 km2 area is relevant to a range of processes, including collisional orogenesis, reworking of the continents, and the global geochemical cycle. Important aspects that remain unanswered include the spatial and temporal style of subduction. Was the crust subducted as smaller slivers one at a time, or as one larger unit, all at the same time? The WGR exhibits consistent ages of ~415-400 Ma, 100+ km along strike, but no ages have been identified at an equivalent distance across strike. To address this issue we have determined the age of one of the easternmost eclogites identified in the WGR, a retrogressed eclogite from Lesja. Seven fractions of this sample were analyzed; six of them yield identical U/Pb ages, however, they are slightly discordant. The seventh fraction is anomalously young and interpreted to have suffered lead loss. A weighted-mean 206Pb/238U age of 408.0 ± 1.7 Ma is obtained from the six older fractions; an age that is within the range of U/Pb, Sm/Nd, and Lu/Hf ages from the western portion of the WGR. The similarity in ages from 100+ km north to south and 100+ km east to west indicate that large portions of the continental crust were subducted in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> event, if not en masse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish. PMID:26121607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21B0126W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21B0126W"><span>A Reevaluation of the Contribution of Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Bromocarbons to Stratospheric Bromine Loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wales, P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Mount, G. H.; Spinei, E.; Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Choi, S.; Joiner, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has provided global measurements of total column BrO over the past decade. Interpreting the distribution of total column BrO between the stratosphere and troposphere depends strongly on the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons to stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry). Salawitch et al. (2010) suggested 7 to 12 ppt of Bry must be supplied to the lower stratosphere from the decomposition of VSL bromocarbons to accurately represent the variation of total column OMI BrO with total column O3. Here we will re-evaluate this recommendation in light of ground-based total column BrO measurements obtained over Fairbanks, Alaska using a multifunction differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument during the spring of 2011. Additionally, we will assess how modifications to kinetics regulating the partitioning between BrO and BrONO2 proposed by Kreycy et al. (2013) affect the VSL Bry estimate as well as the modeled diurnal variation in BrO. ReferencesKreycy, S. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 6263-6274, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6263-2013. Salawitch, R.J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2010, 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Hyewook Genevieve; Christensen, Kate; Drolet, Aimee</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This research investigated the influence of trait indecisiveness on variety-seeking behavior. Study 1 revealed that chronic indecisiveness was associated with increased variety-seeking behavior. Study 2A showed that the incidence of not choosing to make a choice was much lower among chronically indecisive people when a variety-pack option was available, and Study 2B showed that chronically indecisive people chose the variety pack even if it included their least preferred option. Study 3 demonstrated that chronically indecisive people contended with the negative emotion they experienced during choice making by choosing a mix of options. Study 4 revealed that the emotional benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. Chronically indecisive people felt more satisfied and less anxious after choosing a mix of options. However, having chosen a mix, chronically indecisive people then faced more choices, specifically the choices of which specific option to consume on each specific occasion. In this way, variety seeking is a maladaptive long-term emotional coping strategy for the chronically indecisive. The results of this research have important theoretical implications for understanding the causes of variety-seeking behavior as well as practical implications for increasing (a) the incidence of choice making among chronically indecisive people and (b) satisfaction with the choices they do make. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers - The Connections Between Emissions, Forcing, and Mitigation Potential (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to the impact of ozone and aerosols on health and ecosystems. These climate forcing agents are linked both though common emissions sources and atmospheric chemical processes. The magnitude and regional distribution of these forcings have changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing. Overall, reductions in aerosol emissions lead to a net warming due to the net negative aerosol forcing, although some mitigation benefits may be possible in specific sub-sectors. While the emissions leading to enhanced tropospheric ozone levels are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, mitigation has proved to be difficult due to the ubiquity of major emission sources, particularly surface transportation vehicles. From a mitigation standpoint, therefore, tropospheric ozone might be considered as more of a long-term pollutant. This presentation will review these links using historical data and future projections and discuss the implications for mitigation. The implications of these links for atmospheric chemistry analysis, and the potential for using ACC-MIP results to improve integrated assessment modeling and analysis, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A"><span>New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Aixue; Xu, Yangyang; Tebaldi, Claudia; Washington, Warren M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Under present growth rates of greenhouse gas and black carbon aerosol emissions, global mean temperatures can warm by as much as 2°C from pre-industrial temperatures by about 2050. Mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), methane, tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon, has been shown to reduce the warming trend by about 50% (refs , ) by 2050. Here we focus on the potential impact of this SLCP mitigation on global sea-level rise (SLR). The temperature projections under various SLCP scenarios simulated by an energy-balance climate model are integrated with a semi-empirical SLR model, derived from past trends in temperatures and SLR, to simulate future trends in SLR. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model is also used to estimate SLR trends due to just the ocean thermal expansion. Our results show that SLCP mitigation can have significant effects on SLR. It can decrease the SLR rate by 24-50% and reduce the cumulative SLR by 22-42% by 2100. If the SLCP mitigation is delayed by 25 years, the warming from pre-industrial temperature exceeds 2°C by 2050 and the impact of mitigation actions on SLR is reduced by about a third.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q"><span>A new approach for fluid dynamics simulation: The <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Changjian; Li, Jiansong; Tian, Zongshun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There are many researches to simulate the fluid which adopt the traditional particle-based approach and the grid-based approach. However, it needs massive storage in the traditional particle-based approach and it is very complicated to design the grid-based approach with the Navier-Stokes Equations or the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) because of the difficulty of solving equations. This paper presents a new model called the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model. It updates the fluid properties (mass and momentum) recorded in the fixed Cartesian grids by computing the weighted sum of the water cuboid particles with a time step life. Thus it is a two-type-based approach essentially, which not only owns efficient computation and manageable memory like the grid-based approach, but also deals with the discontinuous water surface (wet/dry fronts, boundary conditions, etc.) with high accuracy as well as the particle-based approach. The proposed model has been found capable to simulate the fluid excellently for three laboratory experimental cases and for the field case study of the Malpasset dam-break event occurred in France in 1959. The obtained results show that the model is proved to be an alternative approach to simulate the fluid dynamics with a fair accuracy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6200055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6200055"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> generator for /sup 212/Pb and /sup 212/Bi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zucchini, G.L.; Friedman, A.M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A large potential exists for the use of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> alpha emitting <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for therapeutic purposes. Most prior research has been performed with <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> such as /sup 211/At which require a cyclotron for production. It obviously would be more convenient to use a long <span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> generator system. For this reason, we have undertaken a study of the properties of several such generators, one of which, /sup 228/Th, is described here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761908','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761908"><span>Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium’s longest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Christopher R.; Brant, Heather A.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, e.g., 244Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic 244Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> content and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios. Significant 244Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The 244Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10−15 g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the 244Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively. PMID:26898531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...621512A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...621512A"><span>Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium’s longest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Christopher R.; Brant, Heather A.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, e.g., 244Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic 244Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> content and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios. Significant 244Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The 244Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10‑15 g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the 244Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898531"><span>Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium's longest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Christopher R; Brant, Heather A; Nuessle, Patterson R; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R</p> <p>2016-02-22</p> <p>Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, e.g., (244)Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic (244)Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> content and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios. Significant (244)Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The (244)Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10(-15) g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the (244)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atoms&pg=3&id=EJ1032741','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Atoms&pg=3&id=EJ1032741"><span>A <span class="hlt">Short</span> History of the Discovery of <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> (and Some of Their Uses)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scott, Dave</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article looks at the events that led to the discovery of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the early part of the 20th century. It is difficult to claim that the discovery was a single event. A number of famous scientists worked independently to provide the evidence, and the understanding of the need to think differently about atoms gradually emerged. Four varied…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691"><span>Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2014-06-10</p> <p>A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes <span class="hlt">shortly</span> before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...321..452A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26A...321..452A"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclide production by non-exploding Wolf-Rayet stars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnould, M.; Paulus, G.; Meynet, G.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>This paper presents an extension and update of previous calculations of the production by non-exploding Wolf-Rayet stars of radionuclides that could be responsible for certain <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies discovered in meteoritic inclusions, or in meteoritic grains of probable circumstellar origin. Quantitative predictions of the time dependence of the radionuclide composition of the wind of Wolf-Rayet stars with initial masses in the wide 25<=M_i_<=120Msun_ range and for metallicities 0.001<=Z<=0.04 are obtained from a set of revised stellar evolution models. Special emphasis is put on the radionuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> between about 10^5^ and 10^8^yr that could be produced by neutron captures during central helium burning and ejected during the WC-WO evolutionary phases. We stress that the radionuclide yield predictions are much more secure for Wolf-Rayet stars than for any other potential source of these species that has been contemplated up to now. This relates directly to the simplicity of these stars compared to highly difficult to model objects like Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, novae or supernovae. Our abundance predictions are confronted with existing observational data, or are hoped to help unravelling cases of potential interest for further laboratory quest when observations are lacking. The case of ^26^Al, of special interest for γ-ray line astronomy as well as for cosmochemistry, is also briefly revisited. In contrast to the other considered radionuclides, ^26^Al is produced during hydrogen burning, and is ejected at the WN evolutionary phase of the Wolf-Rayet stars. Our computed yields are also used as the basis for a qualitative discussion of the astrophysical plausibility of the contamination of the protosolar nebula with the radionuclides loading the Wolf-Rayet winds. Our calculations indicate that ^26^Al, ^41^Ca and ^107^Pd can be produced at a level compatible with the observations from a large variety of Wolf-Rayet stars with different masses and initial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=295755&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90774855&CFTOKEN=79052552','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=295755&keyword=Bees&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90774855&CFTOKEN=79052552"><span>A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with <span class="hlt">short</span> physiologic half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> began relatively recently. These chemicals...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848"><span>Sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, D.A.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L"><span>Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969"><span>A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang; Chaussidon, Marc; Srinivasan, Gopalan; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2012-12-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGS22A..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGS22A..03L"><span>Increased Concentrations of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> U and Ra <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Low+AND+Impact+AND+Development%ef%bc%88&pg=3&id=EJ1072440','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Low+AND+Impact+AND+Development%ef%bc%88&pg=3&id=EJ1072440"><span>"<span class="hlt">Short</span> Courses Shouldn't Be <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span>!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of <span class="hlt">Short</span> English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short</span> in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of <span class="hlt">short</span> INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S"><span>Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T. K.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M. G.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased at twice the global rate, largely as a result of ice-albedo and temperature feedbacks. Although deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs; refs ,). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly than for mitigation of CO2 and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This Letter is one of the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCFs emissions, taking into account black carbon (BC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone (O3), and their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. This study extends the scope of previous works by including more detailed calculations of Arctic radiative forcing and quantifying the Arctic temperature response. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations owing to the large absolute amount of emissions. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible mitigation scenario for SLCFs, phased in from 2015 to 2030, could cut warming by 0.2 (+/-0.17) K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14..651L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14..651L"><span>Convective transport of very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons to the stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ∼8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, ∼150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (∼7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total ∼8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at ∼150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute ∼7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a ∼2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A"><span>Treatment of solid tumors by interstitial release of recoiling <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arazi, L.; Cooks, T.; Schmidt, M.; Keisari, Y.; Kelson, I.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A new method utilizing alpha particles to treat solid tumors is presented. Tumors are treated with interstitial radioactive sources which continually release <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitting atoms from their surface. The atoms disperse inside the tumor, delivering a high dose through their alpha decays. We implement this scheme using thin wire sources impregnated with 224Ra, which release by recoil 220Rn, 216Po and 212Pb atoms. This work aims to demonstrate the feasibility of our method by measuring the activity patterns of the released radionuclides in experimental tumors. Sources carrying 224Ra activities in the range 10-130 kBq were used in experiments on murine squamous cell carcinoma tumors. These included gamma spectroscopy of the dissected tumors and major organs, Fuji-plate autoradiography of histological tumor sections and tissue damage detection by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The measurements focused on 212Pb and 212Bi. The 220Rn/216Po distribution was treated theoretically using a simple diffusion model. A simplified scheme was used to convert measured 212Pb activities to absorbed dose estimates. Both physical and histological measurements confirmed the formation of a 5-7 mm diameter necrotic region receiving a therapeutic alpha-particle dose around the source. The necrotic regions shape closely corresponded to the measured activity patterns. 212Pb was found to leave the tumor through the blood at a rate which decreased with tumor mass. Our results suggest that the proposed method, termed DART (diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy), may potentially be useful for the treatment of human patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"><span>Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.; Samset, B. H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealised, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all three models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the northern hemisphere high latitudes, and a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation and run-off. Changes in precipitation and run-off patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ, consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker forcing signal, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are free-running means that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P"><span>Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005411','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005411"><span>Convective Transport of Very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691385','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691385"><span>Telomeres shorten more slowly in long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> birds and mammals than in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haussmann, Mark F; Winkler, David W; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Huntington, Charles E; Nisbet, Ian C T; Vleck, Carol M</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We know very little about physiological constraints on the evolution of life-history traits in general, and, in particular, about physiological and molecular adjustments that accompany the evolution of variation in lifespan. Identifying mechanisms that underlie adaptive variation in lifespan should provide insight into the evolution of trade-offs between lifespan and other life-history traits. Telomeres, the DNA caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, usually shorten as animals age, but whether telomere rate of change is associated with lifespan is unknown. We measured telomere length in erythrocytes from five bird species with markedly different lifespans. Species with shorter lifespans lost more telomeric repeats with age than species with longer lifespans. A similar correlation is seen in mammals. Furthermore, telomeres did not shorten with age in Leach's storm-petrels, an extremely long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> bird, but actually lengthened. This novel finding suggests that regulation of telomere length is associated not only with cellular replicative lifespan, but also with organismal lifespan, and that very long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> organisms have escaped entirely any telomeric constraint on cellular replicative lifespan. PMID:12965030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486572"><span>SU-C-204-07: The Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Positron Emitters in Proton Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buitenhuis, H J T; Dendooven, P; Biegun, A K; Goethem, M-J van; Graaf, E R van der; Brandenburg, S; Diblen, F</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: To investigate the production and effect of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters when using PET for in-vivo range verification during a proton therapy irradiation. Methods: The integrated production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters in the stopping of 55 MeV protons was measured in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium targets. The experimental production rates are used to calculate the production on PMMA and a representative set of 4 tissue materials. The number of decays integrated over an irradiation in these materials is calculated as function of the duration of the irradiation, considering irradiations with the same total number of protons. Results: The most copiously produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> nuclides are: 12-N (T1/2 = 11 ms) on carbon (9.5% of the 11-C production), 29-P (T1/2 = 4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of the 30-P production) and 38m-K (T1/2 = 0.92 s) on calcium (113% of the 38g-K production). No <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are produced on water. The most noticeable Result is that for an irradiation in (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12-N will dominate the PET image up to an irradiation duration of 70 s. On bone tissue, 15-O dominates over 12-N after 7–15 s (depending on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio). Conclusions: The presence of 12-N needs to be considered in PET imaging during proton beam irradiations as, depending on tissue composition and PET scanning protocol, it may noticeably deteriorate image quality due to the large positron range blurring. The results presented warrant investigations into the energy-dependent production of 12-N, 29-P and 38m-K and their effect on PET imaging during proton irradiations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs: methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for Northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term (20 year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046518&hterms=Radioactivity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRadioactivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046518&hterms=Radioactivity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRadioactivity"><span>Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> r-Process Radioactivities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16444688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16444688"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span>-term changes in carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of soluble carbohydrates and starch: from canopy leaves to the root system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Göttlicher, Sabine; Knohl, Alexander; Wanek, Wolfgang; Buchmann, Nina; Richter, Andreas</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Changes in the 13C discrimination of current leaf photosynthesis might have profound impacts on root respiratory substrates. Therefore, the aim of this study was (1) to refine a method for the isolation of root and leaf starch and soluble sugars (neutral fraction) for stable carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis and (2) to assess the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term temporal variability of the C <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition (delta13C) of starch and of the neutral fraction of beech roots and leaves at different canopy heights. An existing method for isolating starch for stable C <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis based on enzymatic hydrolysis was modified to account for the low starch content of the samples. This was achieved by removing the enzyme (alpha-amylase) by ultrafiltration after the hydrolysis, resulting in very low carbon blanks. The neutral fraction was separated from organic acids and cations by ion-exchange chromatography. An anion-exchange resin in the [HCO3]--form was chosen that ensured high precision of C blanks. Beech leaves at 5, 10 and 20 m above the forest floor as well as roots were sampled six times during a day/night cycle in July 2003. Delta13C values of bulk material, starch and the neutral fraction increased from the lower to the higher canopy with mean differences between 5 and 20 m of 3.8, 3.4 and 2.7 per thousand for the delta13C values of starch, neutral fraction and bulk foliage, respectively. The delta13C value of foliar starch increased from the morning to the afternoon and decreased during the night, but diurnal differences (up to 3.1 per thousand) were only statistically significant for leaves sampled at 5 and 10 m height. In roots, no diurnal variation in the delta13C of starch was observed during the <span class="hlt">short</span> time frame of one day and the delta13C of the neutral fraction did not differ between samples taken at 16:30 and 22:00. Calculated delta13C values of starch, which was mobilised during the night, were more positive than the total starch (all sampling times pooled) in leaves. Furthermore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541324"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ireland, T R</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> compositions are referred to as anomalous if the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> 26Al decay. However, despite the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions. SiC commonly has C and N <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S"><span>Global Modeling and Projection of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In predicting and mitigating future global warming, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A"><span>Regional emission metrics for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Bellouin, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry-climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs), which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature change potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation policy package is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q"><span>Multi-model evaluation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p> is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040967','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040967"><span>Use of Stable <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> to Follow Intracellular Water Dynamics in <span class="hlt">Living</span> Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.</p> <p>2012-01-28</p> <p>Despite the importance of water to cell structure and function, intracellular water dynamics are poorly understood. A new method based on <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio measurements has revealed that a substantial portion of the O and H atoms in the intracellular water of rapidly-dividing cultured cells is derived from metabolic activity, and not from environmental water. These findings have led to a dynamic model of intracellular water composition: (1) Intracellular water is composed of water that diffuses in from the extracellular environment and water that is created as a result of metabolic activity. (2) The relative amounts of environmental and metabolic water inside a cell are a function of the cell's metabolic activity. (3) The oxygen and hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios of cellular metabolites are a function of those of intracellular water, and therefore reflect the metabolic activity of the cell at the time of biosynthesis. Data from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as cultured mammalian cells are consistent with the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531244"><span>Protein Structure-Function Correlation in <span class="hlt">Living</span> Human Red Blood Cells Probed by <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Exchange-based Mass Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Narayanan, Sreekala; Mitra, Gopa; Muralidharan, Monita; Mathew, Boby; Mandal, Amit K</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of various biological events, it is important to study the structure-function correlation of proteins within cells. Structural probes used in spectroscopic tools to investigate protein conformation are similar across all proteins. Therefore, structural studies are restricted to purified proteins in vitro and these findings are extrapolated in cells to correlate their functions in vivo. However, due to cellular complexity, in vivo and in vitro environments are radically different. Here, we show a novel way to monitor the structural transition of human hemoglobin upon oxygen binding in <span class="hlt">living</span> red blood cells (RBCs), using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-based mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS). Exploiting permeability of D2O across cell membrane, the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> exchange of polypeptide backbone amide hydrogens of hemoglobin was carried out inside RBCs and monitored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). To explore the conformational transition associated with oxygenation of hemoglobin in vivo, the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> exchange kinetics was simplified using the method of initial rates. RBC might be considered as an in vivo system of pure hemoglobin. Thus, as a proof-of-concept, the observed results were correlated with structural transition of hemoglobin associated with its function established in vitro. This is the first report on structural changes of a protein upon ligand binding in its endogenous environment. The proposed method might be applicable to proteins in their native state, irrespective of location, concentration, and size. The present in-cell approach opens a new avenue to unravel a plethora of biological processes like ligand binding, folding, and post-translational modification of proteins in <span class="hlt">living</span> cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=547833','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=547833"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are ≈5 × 10-6. Different from other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > 1.6 × 10-4 at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189–L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475–1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051–1070]. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes. PMID:15671168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893340','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4893340"><span><span class="hlt">Living</span> to the range limit: consumer <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variation increases with environmental stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>O’Connor, Nessa E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values (δ13C and δ15N) were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM), appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit. PMID:27280067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4610303','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4610303"><span>Imaging Complex Protein Metabolism in <span class="hlt">Live</span> Organisms by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Labeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Protein metabolism, consisting of both synthesis and degradation, is highly complex, playing an indispensable regulatory role throughout physiological and pathological processes. Over recent decades, extensive efforts, using approaches such as autoradiography, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy, have been devoted to the study of protein metabolism. However, noninvasive and global visualization of protein metabolism has proven to be highly challenging, especially in <span class="hlt">live</span> systems. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic labeling of deuterated amino acids (D-AAs) was demonstrated for use in imaging newly synthesized proteins in cultured cell lines. Herein, we significantly generalize this notion to develop a comprehensive labeling and imaging platform for <span class="hlt">live</span> visualization of complex protein metabolism, including synthesis, degradation, and pulse–chase analysis of two temporally defined populations. First, the deuterium labeling efficiency was optimized, allowing time-lapse imaging of protein synthesis dynamics within individual <span class="hlt">live</span> cells with high spatial–temporal resolution. Second, by tracking the methyl group (CH3) distribution attributed to pre-existing proteins, this platform also enables us to map protein degradation inside <span class="hlt">live</span> cells. Third, using two subsets of structurally and spectroscopically distinct D-AAs, we achieved two-color pulse–chase imaging, as demonstrated by observing aggregate formation of mutant hungtingtin proteins. Finally, going beyond simple cell lines, we demonstrated the imaging ability of protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish, and mice in vivo. Hence, the presented labeling and imaging platform would be a valuable tool to study complex protein metabolism with high sensitivity, resolution, and biocompatibility for a broad spectrum of systems ranging from cells to model animals and possibly to humans. PMID:25560305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.8035D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.8035D"><span>Time-series of tritium, stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and chloride reveal <span class="hlt">short</span>-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A major limitation to the accurate assessment of streamwater transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Also, while catchment processes are highly non-stationary, the importance of temporal dynamics in older water TT has often been overlooked. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time-series of tritium, stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to assess the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationships between streamwater TT and groundwater residence time. Stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream (≈ 76-102 years), outlining the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters <span class="hlt">shortly</span> after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the usefulness of collecting tritium data in streamwater to document <span class="hlt">short</span>-term variations in the older</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20..257D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20..257D"><span>Time series of tritium, stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and chloride reveal <span class="hlt">short</span>-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A major limitation to the assessment of catchment transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Yet, accurately capturing the TT of the old water fraction is essential, as is the assessment of its temporal variations under non-stationary catchment dynamics. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time series of tritium, stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to determine the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationship between catchment TT and groundwater residence time. Stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits between measured and modelled tritium activities were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for groundwater in the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream ( ≈ 76-102 years), emphasising the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This counterintuitive result was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters <span class="hlt">shortly</span> after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17716901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17716901"><span>Determination of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Nb <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in nuclear power plant wastes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osváth, Szabolcs; Vajda, Nóra; Molnár, Zsuzsa</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>(94)Nb and (93m)Nb are long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclides, produced by thermal and fast neutrons from (93)Nb that is a major component of the Zr alloys used in nuclear reactors. A radiochemical method for the determination of these nuclides has been developed. The separation is based on the insolubility of Nb oxides and the retention of the fluoric complexes on anion exchange resin. The Nb sources are detected by gamma- and X-ray spectrometries. Activity concentrations determined in radioactive waste samples of a nuclear power plant are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M</p> <p>2017-01-24</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with <span class="hlt">short</span> lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"><span>Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or <span class="hlt">short</span> episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with <span class="hlt">short</span> (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or <span class="hlt">short</span> episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short</span> episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"><span>Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ881579.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ881579.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Live</span>, Online <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Courses: A Case Study of Innovative Teacher Professional Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marrero, Meghan E.; Woodruff, Karen A.; Schuster, Glen S.; Riccio, Jessica Fitzsimons</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Teachers are searching for new venues through which they may meet stringent professional development requirements. Under competitive funding from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Office of Education and the NASA Explorer Schools Project, U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc. created a series of <span class="hlt">live</span>, online, interactive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004TellB..56..160R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004TellB..56..160R"><span>Reconstruction of summer droughts using tree-ring cellulose <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>: a calibration study with <span class="hlt">living</span> oaks from Brittany (western France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raffalli-Delerce, G.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Dupouey, J. L.; Stievenard, M.; Breda, N.; Moisselin, J. M.</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to establish a calibration of the late wood cellulose carbon and oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> inter-annual variability measured on four <span class="hlt">living</span> oaks (1879 1998) in the Atlantic area (Rennes Forest, Brittany, western France) to meteorological (beginning in 1885) and hydrological (beginning in 1951) data. We find a better tree-to-tree consistency of the δ18O ratio, compared with that of the tree-to-tree variability of the ring width and the δ13C possibly affected by individual competition effects.On a century-long time scale, the δ13C ratio in the cellulose reflects the globally decreasing trend of δ13C in atmospheric CO2, which is mainly due to fossil fuel burning. In contrast with the ring width, which here shows a weak and complex dependence on meteorological parameters, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of the cellulose enables a reliable reconstruction (R2> 0.45), mainly due to the δ18O signal, of selected summer climatic parameters: relative humidity, soil moisture deficit and temperature. The reconstructed parameters capture both low-frequency variations and extreme dry years (summer droughts). While both summer temperature and annual mean precipitation have a long-term increasing trend, the reconstructed water stress indicators do not show a significant trend during the 20th century. On average one summer drought occurs every seven summers, but this frequency varies in parallel to decadal changes in mean summer temperature, with fewer droughts in the 1930s and 1960s 1970s and more droughts in the 1900s, 1940s and 1990s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6276013','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6276013"><span>Measurement of the body composition of <span class="hlt">living</span> gray seals by hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>The body composition of <span class="hlt">living</span> gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826..129Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826..129Y"><span>Bayes’ Theorem and Early Solar <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides: The Case for an Unexceptional Origin for the Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The presence of excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the early solar system evidenced in meteorites has been taken as testament to close encounters with exotic nucleosynthetic sources, including supernovae or AGB stars. An analysis of the likelihoods associated with different sources of these extinct nuclides in the early solar system indicates that, rather than being exotic, their abundances were typical of star-forming regions like those observed today in the Galaxy. The radiochemistry of the early solar system is therefore unexceptional, being the consequence of extensive averaging of solids from molecular clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10614551W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10614551W"><span>New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely <span class="hlt">short</span> atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> gases. Thus, for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052767"><span>Nuclear DNA fragmentation during cell death of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakaba, Satoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>One key event in the programmed cell death is nuclear DNA fragmentation. We investigated the timing of nuclear DNA fragmentation during the cell death of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ray tracheids in Pinus densiflora using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Fluorescence due to TUNEL was detected only in deformed nuclei that lacked obvious chromatin in ray tracheids that were adjacent to ray tracheids that no longer contained nuclei. Our observations revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred only at the final stage of cell death in ray tracheids in situ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191"><span>Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-<span class="hlt">living</span> parrots and <span class="hlt">short-living</span> fowl.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, indirectly, an animal's BMR, it is the susceptibility of those fatty acids to peroxidation which influence MLSP. Although there is a correlation between body size and MLSP, there is considerable MLSP variation independent of body size. For example, among bird families, Galliformes (fowl) are relatively <span class="hlt">short-living</span> and Psittaciformes (parrots) are unusually long-<span class="hlt">living</span>, with some parrot species reaching maximum lifespans of more than 100 years. We determined BMR and tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in seven tissues from three species of parrots with an average MLSP of 27 years and from two species of quails with an average MLSP of 5.5 years. We also characterised mitochondrial phospholipids in two of these tissues. Neither BMR nor membrane susceptibility to peroxidation corresponded with differences in MLSP among the birds we measured. We did find that (1) all birds had lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in mitochondrial membranes compared to those of the corresponding tissue, and that (2) irrespective of reliance on flight for locomotion, both pectoral and leg muscle had an almost identical membrane fatty acid composition in all birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943"><span>Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308143"><span>Bioanalytical and chemical sensors using <span class="hlt">living</span> taste, olfactory, and neural cells and tissues: a <span class="hlt">short</span> review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Chunsheng; Lillehoj, Peter B; Wang, Ping</p> <p>2015-11-07</p> <p>Biosensors utilizing <span class="hlt">living</span> tissues and cells have recently gained significant attention as functional devices for chemical sensing and biochemical analysis. These devices integrate biological components (i.e. single cells, cell networks, tissues) with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based sensors and transducers. Various types of cells and tissues derived from natural and bioengineered sources have been used as recognition and sensing elements, which are generally characterized by high sensitivity and specificity. This review summarizes the state of the art in tissue- and cell-based biosensing platforms with an emphasis on those using taste, olfactory, and neural cells and tissues. Many of these devices employ unique integration strategies and sensing schemes based on sensitive transducers including microelectrode arrays (MEAs), field effect transistors (FETs), and light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPSs). Several groups have coupled these hybrid biosensors with microfluidics which offers added benefits of small sample volumes and enhanced automation. While this technology is currently limited to lab settings due to the limited stability of <span class="hlt">living</span> biological components, further research to enhance their robustness will enable these devices to be employed in field and clinical settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003HMR....57...47M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003HMR....57...47M"><span>Recruitment in invertebrates with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae: the case of the bryozoan Disporella hispida (Fleming)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mariani, Simone</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Temporal and spatial recruitment patterns of the cyclostome bryozoan Disporella hispida were monitored using settlement plates arranged along three benthic communities of an artificial reef at Blanes (NE Spain, NW Mediterranean). At the study site, the species mainly inhabits semi-obscure caves. By studying recruitment over one year I first inferred the larval release period for D. hispida and described its temporal occurrence in the communities and stations studied. Secondly, I attempted to determine whether the predicted restricted dispersal may account for the species' distribution at the study site. To this purpose, I compared the distribution of early recruits (15 days old) with that of adults. I also investigated environmental factors which may affect the extent of larval dispersal, and described the effects of post-recruitment processes occurring over a 4-month period. The brooding period, inferred from the study of early recruitment, was linked to spring-increments and autumn-decrements of water temperatures. Early recruits were distributed non-randomly in the communities and stations studied, being most abundant in the habitats where adults <span class="hlt">live</span>. Strong hydrodynamic events seemed to modify this pattern, allowing recruitment out of the parental communities, and may hinder settlement. Post-recruitment mortality events were likely to prevent colonisation of habitats where the species do not <span class="hlt">live</span>. Overall, philopatry and low post-recruitment mortality in the parental communities appeared to be the main mechanisms determining the distribution of D. hispida at the study site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K"><span>Production cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Production cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag → 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515831"><span>Resistance to prooxidant agent paraquat in the <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> lines of the seed beetle (Acanthoscelides obtectus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lazarević, Jelica; Dorđević, Mirko; Stojković, Biljana; Tucić, Nikola</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In the present study we test whether variation in resistance to paraquat (PQ), a free radical generator, correlates with variation in longevity in two sets of seed beetles (Acanthoscelides obtectus) experimental lines that were selected either for early reproduction and <span class="hlt">short</span>-life or late reproduction and long-life. Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> late reproduction lines (L) showed increased resistance to PQ, while opposite was true for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> early reproduction line (E). Striking outcome of the selection for early and late reproduction in A. obtectus is asymmetry of responses to alternate mating schedules. The intensity of response depended on selection regime, sex and PQ dose. Evolution of longevity and PQ resistance was faster in L than E selection regime, and in females than males. To understand how age-specific mortality rates are affected by PQ we decomposed post-stress mortality data (using Gompertz mortality model) into initial mortality rate, which reflects basal vulnerability to stresses and age-specific mortality rate, which concerns the rate of increase in stress vulnerability, i.e. the rate of senescence. By estimating the parameters of the Gompertz mortality model we have shown that longevity reduction caused by PQ was the consequence of the increased baseline mortality rather than a speed up of the rate of ageing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/522218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/522218"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span>- and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide particle size measurements in a uranium mine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tu, Keng-Wu; Fisenne, I.M.; Hutter, A.R.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The radon-222 progeny and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide measurements were done in a wet underground uranium mine in Saskatchewan, Canada, on Nov. 8-12, 1995. Radon-222 in the mine varied from 2 kBq/m{sup 3} at 90 m below surface to 12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the mining areas, 240 m below surface. Radon-222 progeny activity and potential alpha energy concentration appear affected by the airborne particle number concentration and size distribution. Particle number was up to 200x10{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Only an accumulation mode (30-1000 nm) and some bimodal size distributions in this accumulation size range were significant. Diesel particles and combustion particles from burning propane caused a major modal diameter shift to a smaller size range (50-85 nm) compared with previous values (100-200 nm). The high particle number reduced the unattached progeny (0.5-2 nm) to >5%. The nuclei mode (2-30 nm) in this test was nonexistent, and the coarse mode (>1000 nm), except from the drilling areas and on the stopes, was mostly not measurable. Airborne particle total mass and long- <span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide alpha activity concentrations were very low (80- 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 4-5 mBq/m{sup 3}) owing to high ventilation rates. Mass-weighted size distributions were trimodal, with the major mode at the accumulation size region, which accounts for 45-50% of the mass. The coarse model contains the the least mass, about 20%. The size spectra from gross alpha activities were bimodal with major mode in the coarse region (>1000 nm) and a minor accumulation mode in the 50-900 nm size range. These size spectra were different from the {sup 222}Rn progeny that showed a single accumulation mode in the 50- 85 nm size region. The accumulation mode in the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclide size spectrum was not found in previous studies in other uranium mines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25795492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25795492"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> communication: Patterns of dairy consumption in free-<span class="hlt">living</span> children and adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Green, Benjamin P; Turner, Louise; Stevenson, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>According to national survey data, dairy food consumption has fallen in recent years and declines further with age, especially from childhood to adolescence. Dietary surveys typically rely on retrospective dietary assessment methods and use broad age groupings (4-10 yr; 11-18 yr), making it challenging to differentiate between middle-childhood and adolescence. Consequently, there is a need to assess dairy food consumption during middle-childhood and adolescence using more robust dietary assessment tools. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe and compare patterns of dairy consumption throughout middle-childhood and adolescence. Dairy food consumption was assessed during school term-time over 4 consecutive days, including 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days, in a sample of free-<span class="hlt">living</span> children (9-11 yr, n=40) and adolescents (15-18 yr, n=35). For children, free-<span class="hlt">living</span> dairy intake was evaluated through parental-weighed food records, and for adolescents, a combined weighed self-reported food record and 24-h dietary recall technique was utilized. Food records were explored to determine types, amounts, and frequency of dairy food consumption, and were analyzed for differences between middle-childhood and adolescence using a between group 2×2 (age×sex) ANOVA. Descriptive data suggested that milk was the most popular dairy product consumed by both children and adolescents. Statistical analysis revealed a main effect for sex on total milk consumption (mL) and number of daily milk portions consumed. No interaction or main effect was present for any other variable. The present study indicates that independent of age, boys consumed greater amounts of milk compared with girls. Contrary to existing literature, findings suggest no difference in milk-based dairy consumption between middle-childhood and adolescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T"><span>Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614162"><span>Nanostructured recombinant cytokines: A highly stable alternative to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> prophylactics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Torrealba, Débora; Parra, David; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Yero, Daniel; Gibert, Isidre; Villaverde, Antonio; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena; Roher, Nerea</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Cytokines have been widely used as adjuvants and therapeutic agents in treatments of human diseases. Despite their recognized potential as drugs, the medical use of cytokines has considerable drawbacks, mainly related to their low stability and <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life. Such intrinsic limitations imply the administration of high doses, often prompting toxicity, undesirable side effects and greater production costs. Here, we describe a new category of mechanically stable nanostructured cytokines (TNFα and CCL4/MIP-1β) that resist harsh physicochemical conditions in vitro (pH and temperature), while maintaining functionality. These bio-functional materials are produced in recombinant cell factories through cost-effective and fully scalable processes. Notably, we demonstrate their prophylactic potential in vivo showing they protect zebrafish from a lethal infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants cause a Long <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.242..183B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.242..183B"><span>Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, J. Sabine</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>For a few years now inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been increasingly used for precise and accurate determination of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclides at the trace and ultratrace level due to its excellent sensitivity, good precision and accuracy. At present, ICP-MS and also laser ablation ICP-MS are applied as powerful analytical techniques in different fields such as the characterization of nuclear materials, recycled and by-products (e.g., spent nuclear fuel or depleted uranium ammunitions), radioactive waste control, in environmental monitoring and in bioassay measurements, in health control, in geochemistry and geochronology. Especially double-focusing sector field ICP mass spectrometers with single ion detector or with multiple ion collector device have been used for the precise determination of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclides <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios at very low concentration levels. Progress has been achieved by the combination of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric techniques with effective separation and enrichment procedures in order to improve detection limits or by the introduction of the collision cell in ICP-MS for reducing disturbing interfering ions (e.g., of 129Xe+ for the determination of 129I). This review describes the state of the art and the progress of ICP-MS and laser ablation ICP-MS for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio measurements of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclides in different sample types, especially in the main application fields of characterization of nuclear and radioactive waste material, environmental research and health controls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799529"><span>Comparison of distribution and activity of nanoparticles with <span class="hlt">short</span> interfering DNA (Dbait) in various <span class="hlt">living</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berthault, N; Maury, B; Agrario, C; Herbette, A; Sun, J-S; Peyrieras, N; Dutreix, M</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Introducing small DNA molecules (Dbait) impairs the repair of damaged chromosomes and provides a new method for enhancing the efficiency of radiotherapy in radio-resistant tumors. The radiosensitizing activity is dependent upon the efficient delivery of Dbait molecules into the tumor cells. Different strategies have been compared, to improve this key step. We developed a pipeline of assays to select the most efficient nanoparticles and administration protocols before preclinical assays: (i) molecular analyses of complexes formed with Dbait molecules, (ii) cellular tests for Dbait uptake and activity, (iii) <span class="hlt">live</span> zebrafish embryo confocal microscopy monitoring for in vivo distribution and biological activity of the nanoparticles and (iv) tumor growth and survival measurement on mice with xenografted tumors. Two classes of nanoparticles were compared, polycationic polymers with linear or branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and covalently attached cholesterol (coDbait). The most efficient Dbait transfection was observed with linear PEI complexes, in vitro and in vivo. Doses of coDbait ten-fold higher than PEI/Dbait nanoparticles, and pretreatment with chloroquine, were required to obtain the same antitumoral effect on xenografted melanoma. However, with a 22-fold lower 'efficacy dose/toxicity dose' ratio as compared with Dbait/PEI, coDbait was selected for clinical trials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23861061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23861061"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Her proteins drive robust synchronized oscillations in the zebrafish segmentation clock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ay, Ahmet; Knierer, Stephan; Sperlea, Adriana; Holland, Jack; Özbudak, Ertuğrul M</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Oscillations are prevalent in natural systems. A gene expression oscillator, called the segmentation clock, controls segmentation of precursors of the vertebral column. Genes belonging to the Hes/her family encode the only conserved oscillating genes in all analyzed vertebrate species. Hes/Her proteins form dimers and negatively autoregulate their own transcription. Here, we developed a stochastic two-dimensional multicellular computational model to elucidate how the dynamics, i.e. period, amplitude and synchronization, of the segmentation clock are regulated. We performed parameter searches to demonstrate that autoregulatory negative-feedback loops of the redundant repressor Her dimers can generate synchronized gene expression oscillations in wild-type embryos and reproduce the dynamics of the segmentation oscillator in different mutant conditions. Our model also predicts that synchronized oscillations can be robustly generated as long as the half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of the repressor dimers are shorter than 6 minutes. We validated this prediction by measuring, for the first time, the half-life of Her7 protein as 3.5 minutes. These results demonstrate the importance of building biologically realistic stochastic models to test biological models more stringently and make predictions for future experimental studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F"><span>An examination of chemistry and transport processes in the tropical lower stratosphere using observations of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds obtained during STRAT and POLARIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flocke, F.; Herman, R. L.; Salawitch, R. J.; Atlas, E.; Webster, C. R.; Schauffler, S. M.; Lueb, R. A.; May, R. D.; Moyer, E. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Scott, D. C.; Blake, D. R.; Bui, T. P.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>A suite of compounds with a wide range of photochemical lifetimes (3 months to several decades) was measured in the tropical and midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) experiment (fall 1995 and winter, summer, and fall 1996) and the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) deployment in late summer 1997. These species include various chlorofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, and halons measured in whole air samples and CO measured in situ by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. Mixing ratio profiles of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> species in the tropical lower stratosphere are examined using a one-dimensional (1-D) photochemical model that includes entrainment from the extratropical stratosphere and is constrained by measured concentrations of OH. Profiles of tracers found using the 1-D model agree well with all the observed tropical profiles for an entrainment time scale of 8.5-4+6 months, independent of altitude between potential temperatures of 370 and 500 K. The tropical profile of CO is used to show that the annually averaged ascent rate profile, on the basis of a set of radiative heating calculations, is accurate to approximately ±44%, a smaller uncertainty than found by considering the uncertainties in the radiative model and its inputs. Tropical profiles of ethane and C2Cl4 reveal that the concentration of Cl is higher than expected on the basis of photochemical model simulations using standard gas phase kinetics and established relationships between total inorganic chlorine and CFC-11. Our observations suggest that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic chlorinated compounds and HCl carried across the tropical tropopause may provide an important source of inorganic chlorine to the tropical lower stratosphere that has been largely unappreciated in previous studies. The entrainment timescale found here is considerably less than the value found by a similar study that focused on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11862624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11862624"><span>BSE infection of the small <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> primate Microcebus murinus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bons, Noëlle; Lehmann, Sylvain; Nishida, Noriyuki; Mestre-Frances, Nadine; Dormont, Dominique; Belli, Patrick; Delacourte, Andre; Grassi, Jacques; Brown, Paul</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Eleven Microcebus murinus (lemur) primates were intracerebrally or orally infected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or macaque-adapted BSE (MBSE) brain homogenates. In many BSE and MBSE infected lemurs, but not in animals inoculated with normal bovine brain, persistent behavioral changes occurred as early as 3 months, and neurological signs as early as 13 months after infection. Immunohistochemical examination of animals sacrificed during the incubation period revealed an abnormal accumulation of 'prion' protein (PrP) in the intestinal wall, intestinal nervous plexus, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, and in the clinical stage, also in the brain. In MBSE-inoculated animals, proteinase K resistance of the PrP (PrPres) was confirmed by Western blot in the spleen and the brain. Obvious signs of neurodegeneration were observed in all infected animals characterized by hyperaggregated and paired-helical filaments-immunoreactive Tau proteins, beta 42-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis. Additionally, PrPres was present in the ganglion cells of the retina in diseased animals after either intracerebrally or oral infection by the BSE or MBSE agent. These results show that the microcebe is susceptible to the BSE infectious agent via intracerebral and oral routes with comparatively <span class="hlt">short</span> incubation periods compared to simians, and could be a useful animal model to study the pathophysiology of disease transmission in primates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31F..04O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31F..04O"><span>Balancing <span class="hlt">Short</span>- and Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Climate Pollutant Mitigation: Clearer Metrics are Critical</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ocko, I.; Hamburg, S.; Pacala, S. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We propose a new standard for reporting Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) that is central to climate policy debates and decision-making. GWPs are an essential element of policy analysis and policymaking, and are even built into legal structures that regulate "carbon dioxide equivalents." However, the current reporting convention is misleading because it hides the divergence between <span class="hlt">short</span> and long-term interests inside a single timescale. We propose using two timescales everywhere, as an inseparable pair. This makes explicit one of the principal issues in climate policy: the temporal tradeoffs of benefits among actions that reduce emissions of a suite of climate pollutants. Policymakers often treat GWPs as if they were a value-neutral technocratic measure, while in fact the choice of timescales, at the heart of the GWP, is central to the political battles over climate policy. At its most basic, cutting emissions of pollutants with different radiative properties and atmospheric lifetimes yields climate benefits that vary in the near- and long-term. Battles such as that between coal and natural gas rest on this distinction. The most common form of GWP is based on a 100 year time integral, but this timescale conceals near-term impacts. On the other hand, opting instead for a 20 year time integral ignores climate impacts after 20 years. A distinguished list of scientists and economists has attempted to come up with improved metrics that incorporate the range of timescales into a single value. Our proposal abandons this quest. There is no "right" answer to the underlying dispute, but there is a right answer for policy analysis: use two time constants together, similar to the way that systolic and diastolic blood pressures, latitude and longitude, and city and highway gas mileage are reported together. This strategy will provide much needed clarification to myriad climate change solution-related decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J"><span>Formation of the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclide 36Cl in the Protoplanetary Disk During Late-stage Irradiation of a Volatile-rich Reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36Cl-36S-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> abundance in wadalite (<15 μm), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR 36Cl (τ 1/2 ~ 3 × 105 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) × 10-5, is the highest 36Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26Al (26Al/27Al <= 3.9 × 10-6) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26Al and other SLRs (10Be, 53Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732"><span>FORMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B"><span>Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. II. Varied Shock Wave and Cloud Core Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of ~10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407846"><span>Folate bioavailability from foods rich in folates assessed in a <span class="hlt">short</span> term human study using stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mönch, Sabine; Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Ott, Undine; Frank, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Different sources of folate may have different bioavailability and hence may impact the standard definition of folate equivalents. In order to examine this, a <span class="hlt">short</span> term human study was undertaken to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from spinach, Camembert cheese and wheat germs compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. The study had a single-centre, randomised, four-treatment, four-period, four-sequence, cross-over design, i.e. the four (food) items to be tested (referred to as treatments) were administered in sequences according to the Latin square, so that each experimental treatment occurred only once within each sequence and once within each study period. Each of the 24 subjects received the four experimental items separated by a 14-day equilibrium phase and received a pteroylmonoglutamic acid supplement for 14 days before the first testing and between the testings for saturation of body pools. Folates in test foods, plasma and urine samples were determined by stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution assays, and in urine and plasma, the concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were evaluated. Standard non-compartmental methods were applied to determine the biokinetic parameters C(max), t(max) and AUC from baseline corrected 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentrations within the interval from 0 to 12 hours. The variability of AUC and C(max) was moderate for spinach and oral solution of pteroylmonoglutamic acid but high for Camembert cheese and very high for wheat germs. The median t(max) was lowest for spinach, though t(max) showed a high variability among all treatments. When comparing the ratio estimates of AUC and C(max) for the different test foods, highest bioavailability was found for spinach followed by that for wheat germs and Camembert cheese. The results underline the dependence of folate bioavailability on the type of food ingested. Therefore, the general assumption of 50% bioavailability as the rationale behind the definition of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1043807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1043807"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> fission product measurements from >0.1 MeV neutron-induced fission using boron carbide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Kephart, Jeremy D.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>A boron carbide shield was designed, custom fabricated, and used to create a fast fission energy neutron spectrum. The fissionable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 233, 235, 238U, 237Np, and 239Pu were separately placed inside of this shield and irradiated under pulsed conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor. A unique set of fission product gamma spectra were collected at <span class="hlt">short</span> times (4 minutes to 1 week) post-fission. Gamma spectra were collected on single-crystal high purity germanium detectors and on Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Direct Simultaneous Measurement (DSM) system composed of HPGe detectors connected in coincidence. This work defines the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, and demonstrates the validity of the measurements. It is important to fully document this information so the data can be used with high confidence for the advancement of nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma spectra collected in these and other experiments will be made publicly available at https://spcollab.pnl.gov/sites/gammadata or via the link at http://rdnsgroup.pnl.gov. A revised version of this publication will be posted with the data to make the experimental details available to those using the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I"><span>In situ lithium diffusion measurement in solid ionic conductors using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer beam of 8Li</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T. K.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Nakao, A.; Ueno, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We developed an in situ radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-emitting 8Li tracer. In the method, while implanting a pulsed 8Li beam into a solid material of interest, the α particles emitted into the implantation side of the sample surface were detected as a function of time. By changing the implantation depth and the detection angle against the sample surface according to lithium diffusivity (deep implantation and large angle with a large solid angle, or shallow implantation and small angle with a narrow solid angle), the method can be sensitive to a wide range of diffusion length ranging from micrometer scale to nanometer scale per second. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by measuring the lithium diffusion coefficients to the order of 10-12 cm2/s in lithium ionic conductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"><span>Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confa0019Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confa0019Z"><span>Precision Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclides at The Heavy-Ion Storage Ring in Lanzhou</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yuhu; Xu, Hushan; Litvinov, Yuri A.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent commissioning of the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou enabled us to conduct high-precision mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou (IMP). In the past few years, mass measurements were performed using the CSRe-based isochronous mass spectrometry employing the fragmentation of the energetic beams of 58Ni, 78Kr, 86Kr, and 112Sn projectiles. Masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides of on both sides of the stability valley were addressed. Relative mass precision of down to 10-6-10-7 is routinely achieved. The mass values were used as an input for dedicated nuclear structure and astrophysics studies, providing for instance new insights into the rp-process of nucleosynthesis in X-ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly review the so far conducted experiments and the main achieved results, as well as outline the plans for future experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897"><span>Structural determination of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited iron(II) complex by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gawelda, Wojciech; Pham, Van-Thai; Benfatto, Maurizio; Zaushitsyn, Yuri; Kaiser, Maik; Grolimund, Daniel; Johnson, Steven L; Abela, Rafael; Hauser, Andreas; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed</p> <p>2007-02-02</p> <p>Structural changes of the iron(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Fe(II)(bpy)(3)](2+)) complex induced by ultrashort pulse excitation and population of its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (< or =0.6 ns) quintet high spin state have been detected by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The structural relaxation from the high spin to the low spin state was followed over the entire lifetime of the excited state. A combined analysis of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy features delivers an Fe-N bond elongation of 0.2 A in the quintet state compared to the singlet ground state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129"><span>Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Particle Release Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rishel, Jeremy P.; Keillor, Martin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Baciak, James E.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Smart, John E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper utilizes standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing the both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to investigate several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be utilized by an On-Site Inspection team under the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995"><span>Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine. PMID:27169489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9232H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9232H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> halocarbons efficient at influencing climate through ozone loss in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Steven; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are a significant source of atmospheric bromine, chlorine and iodine. Due to relatively <span class="hlt">short</span> atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months), VSLS breakdown in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), where ozone perturbations drive a disproportionately large climate impact compared to other altitudes. Here we present chemical transport model simulations that quantify VSLS-driven ozone loss in the UTLS and infer the climate relevance of these ozone perturbations using a radiative transfer model. Our results indicate that through their impact on UTLS ozone, VSLS are efficient at influencing climate. We calculate a whole atmosphere global mean radiative effect (RE) of -0.20 (-0.16 to -0.23) Wm-2 from natural and anthropogenic VSLS-driven ozone loss, including a tropospheric contribution of -0.12 Wm-2. In the stratosphere, the RE due to ozone loss from natural bromine-containing VSLS (e.g. CHBr3, CH2Br2) is almost half of that from long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> anthropogenic compounds (e.g. CFCs) and normalized by equivalent chlorine is ~4 times larger. We show that the anthropogenic chlorine-containing VSLS, not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, also contribute to ozone loss in the UTLS and that the atmospheric concentration of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), the most abundant of these, is increasing rapidly. Finally, we present evidence that VSLS have made a small yet previously unrecognized contribution to the ozone-driven radiative forcing of climate since pre-industrial times of -0.02 (-0.01 to -0.03) Wm-2. Given the climate leverage that VSLS possess, future increases to their emissions, either through continued industrial or altered natural processes, may be important for future climate forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"><span>Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034603','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034603"><span>The effects of α-cellulose extraction and blue-stain fungus on retrospective studies of carbon and oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variation in <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead trees†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>English, N.B.; McDowell, N.G.; Allen, C.D.; Mora, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Tree-ring carbon and oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios from <span class="hlt">live</span> and recently dead trees may reveal important mechanisms of tree mortality. However, wood decay in dead trees may alter the δ13C and δ18O values of whole wood obscuring the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signal associated with factors leading up to and including physiological death. We examined whole sapwood and α-cellulose from <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead specimens of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), one-seed juniper (Juniperous monosperma), piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and white fir (Abies concolor), including those with fungal growth and beetle frass in the wood, to determine if α-cellulose extraction is necessary for the accurate interpretation of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions in the dead trees. We found that the offset between the δ13C or δ18O values of α-cellulose and whole wood was the same for both <span class="hlt">live</span> and dead trees across a large range of inter-annual and regional climate differences. The method of α-cellulose extraction, whether Leavitt-Danzer or Standard Brendel modified for small samples, imparts significant differences in the δ13C (up to 0.4‰) and δ18O (up to 1.2‰) of α-cellulose, as reported by other studies. There was no effect of beetle frass or blue-stain fungus (Ophiostoma) on the δ13C and δ18O of whole wood or α-cellulose. The relationships between whole wood and α-cellulose δ13C for ponderosa, piñon and juniper yielded slopes of ~1, while the relationship between δ18O of whole wood and α-cellulose was less clear. We conclude that there are few analytical or sampling obstacles to retrospective studies of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> patterns of tree mortality in forests of the western United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002"><span>Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent, Octodon degus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885"><span>Targeted alpha therapy using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D’huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Introduction: The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and <span class="hlt">short</span> range in tissue. Areas covered: We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. Expert opinion: We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies’ pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease. PMID:27145158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L"><span>Effects of East Asian <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20698788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20698788"><span>{beta}-decay half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of new neutron-rich rare-earth <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> {sup 159}Pm,{sup 162}Sm, and {sup 166}Gd</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ichikawa, S.; Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Nagame, Y.; Haba, H.; Shibata, M.; Sakama, M.; Kojima, Y.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The new neutron-rich rare-earth <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> {sup 159}Pm, {sup 162}Sm, and {sup 166}Gd produced in the proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U were identified using the JAERI on-line <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of {sup 159}Pm, {sup 162}Sm, and {sup 166}Gd were determined to be 1.5 {+-} 0.2, 2.4 {+-} 0.5, and 4.8 {+-} 1.0 s respectively. The partial decay scheme of {sup 166}Gd was constructed from {gamma}{gamma}-coincidence data. A more accurate half-life value of 25.6 {+-} 2.2 s was obtained for the previously identified <span class="hlt">isotope</span> {sup 166}Tb. The half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> measured in the present study are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions calculated by the second generation of the gross theory with the atomic masses evaluated by Audi and Wapstra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27130103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27130103"><span>Evaluation of on-line pyrolysis coupled to <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of position-specific (13)C <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of <span class="hlt">short</span> chain n-alkanes (C6-C12).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We measured (13)C intramolecular <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of commercially available <span class="hlt">short</span>-chain hydrocarbons (n-C6-n-C12) using (13)C-NMR. Results show that the main variation is between the terminal and the sub-terminal C-atom positions. Site-preference (difference in δ(13)C values between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions) among all the samples varies between -12.2‰ and +8.4‰. Comparison of these results with those obtained using on-line pyrolysis coupled with GC-C-IRMS show that the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons occurs with a good <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fidelity between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions of the starting material and the related pyrolysis products (methane and ethylene). On-line pyrolysis coupled with GC-C-IRMS can thus be used for tracing hydrocarbons biogeochemical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27613199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27613199"><span>Inconsistencies between (14)C and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides-based sediment accumulation rates: Effects of long-term remineralization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baskaran, M; Bianchi, T S; Filley, T R</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>(14)C is the most widely utilized geochronometer to investigate geological, geochemical and geophysical problems over the past 5 decades. Establishment of precise sedimentation rates is crucial for the reconstruction of paleo-climate, -ecological and - environmental studies when extrapolation of sedimentation rates is utilized for time scales beyond the dating range. However, agreement between <span class="hlt">short</span>-term and long-term sedimentation rates in anthropogenically unperturbed sediment cores has not been shown. Here we show that the AMS (14)C-based long-term mass accumulation rate (MAR) of an organic-rich (>70%) sediment core from Mud Lake, Florida to be ∼5 times lower than the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term MAR obtained using (239,240)Pu, (137)Cs and excess (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs). The measured sediment inventories of (210)Pbxs, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu are comparable to the atmospheric fallout for the sampling site, indicating very little accelerated sediment erosion over the past several decades. Presence of sharp fallout peaks of (239,240)Pu indicates very little sediment mixing. The penetration depths of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu were found to be much deeper than expected and this is attributed to their post-depositional mobility. MAR calculated using (14)C-ages in successive layers also indicated decreasing MARs with depth, and was reflective of progressive remineralization. Using first-order kinetics, the sediment remineralization rate was found to be 4.4 × 10(-4) y(-1) and propose that over the long-term, remineralization of organic-rich sediment affected the long-term MAR, but not the ratio of (14)C/(12)C. Thus, the MAR and linear sedimentation rate obtained using (14)C (and other <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-based methods) could be erroneous, although (14)C ages may not be affected by such remineralization. Long-term remineralization rates of organic matter has a direct bearing on the biogeochemical cycling of elements in aqueous systems and mass balance of elements needs to be taken into consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318557','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318557"><span>Qualitative study of the BREATHER trial (<span class="hlt">Short</span> Cycle antiretroviral therapy): is it acceptable to young people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bernays, Sarah; Paparini, Sara; Seeley, Janet; Namukwaya Kihika, Stella; Gibb, Diana; Rhodes, Tim</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objectives A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of <span class="hlt">Short</span> Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8–24) <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV with viral load <50 c/mL to examine adaptation, acceptability and experience of SCT to inform intervention development. Setting Paediatric HIV clinics in the UK (2), Ireland (1), the USA (1) and Uganda (1). Participants All BREATHER trial participants who were over the age of 10 and aware of their HIV diagnosis were invited to participate. 49 young people from both arms of the BREATHER trial (31 females and 18 males; 40% of the total trial population in the respective sites; age range 11–24) gave additional consent to participate in the qualitative study. Results Young people from both trial arms had initial concerns about the impact of SCT on their health and adherence, but these decreased over the early months in the trial. Young people randomised to SCT reported preference for SCT compared with CT pre-trial. Attitudes to SCT did not vary greatly by gender or country. Once <span class="hlt">short</span>-term adaptation challenges were overcome, SCT was positively described as reducing impact of side effects, easing the pressure to carry and remember medication and enabling more weekend social activities. Young people on both arms reported frequent medication side effects and occasional missed doses that they had rarely voiced to clinical staff. Participants liked SCT by trial end but were concerned that peers who had most problems adhering could find SCT disruptive and difficult to manage. Conclusions To realise the potential of SCT (and mitigate possible risks of longer interruptions), careful dissemination and communication post-trial is needed. SCT should be provided alongside a package of monitoring, support and education over 3 months to allow adaptation. Trial registration number</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2441845','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2441845"><span>Nutrient Intake From Habitual Oral Diet in Patients With Severe <span class="hlt">Short</span> Bowel Syndrome <span class="hlt">Living</span> in the Southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of <span class="hlt">short</span> bowel syndrome (SBS) patients <span class="hlt">living</span> in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who <span class="hlt">live</span> in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (≈ 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients <span class="hlt">living</span> in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H"><span>Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halogens and Climate Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Halogens released from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421"><span>SOLAR COSMIC-RAY INTERACTION WITH PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PRODUCTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES AND AMORPHIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-20</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatPh..11.1042H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatPh..11.1042H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> 244Pu points to compact binary mergers as sites for heavy r-process nucleosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi; Paul, Michael</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The origin of heavy elements produced through rapid neutron capture (`r-process’) by seed nuclei is one of the current nucleosynthesis mysteries. Core collapse supernovae (cc-SNe; ref. ) and compact binary mergers are considered as possible sites. The first produces small amounts of material at a high event rate whereas the latter produces large amounts in rare events. Radioactive elements with the right lifetime can break the degeneracy between high-rate/low-yield and low-rate/high-yield scenarios. Among radioactive elements, most interesting is 244Pu (half-life of 81 million years), for which both the current accumulation of <span class="hlt">live</span> 244Pu particles accreted via interstellar particles in the Earth’s deep-sea floor and the Early Solar System (ESS) abundances have been measured. Interestingly, the estimated 244Pu abundance in the current interstellar medium inferred from deep-sea measurements is significantly lower than that corresponding to the ESS measurements. Here we show that both the current and ESS abundances of 244Pu are naturally explained within the low-rate/high-yield scenario. The inferred event rate remarkably agrees with compact binary merger rates estimated from Galactic neutron star binaries and from <span class="hlt">short</span> gamma-ray bursts. Furthermore, the ejected mass of r-process elements per event agrees with both theoretical and observational macronova/kilonova estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D"><span>Identification of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Au(N3)42- dianion from its Coulomb explosion products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drenck, Kasper; Hvelplund, Preben; McKenzie, Christine J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In high-energy collisions between Au(N3)4- anions and sodium vapor, electron transfer occurred to produce Au(N3)42- dianions. These were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (sub microsecond) and Coulomb exploded into Au(N3)3- and N3- with a kinetic energy release of 2.6 +/- 0.5 eV. In the product ion spectra, peaks correspond to fragment ions formed from collisionally activated Au(N3)4- parent anions. Loss of one or more N3 or N2 produced AuNn- complexes (n = 1-4, 6, 9-10) whereas complexes with n = 5, 7, and 8 were not detected. These ions can be assigned to gold-nitride-azide complexes Au(N)x(N3)y- (x = 0-2 and y = 0-4). Cationic complexes were measured for n = 1-4 and 6. Sodium vapor collision experiments were also performed for Au(N3)2-, which is generated in situ by the spontaneous reduction of Au(N3)42- and concurrent azide dissociation. In this case there was no clear signature indicative of the formation of a dianion. The formation of dianions cannot be excluded, however, since such ions may decay by electron emission instead of dissociation into two singly charged fragment ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T"><span>Solar Cosmic-ray Interaction with Protoplanetary Disks: Production of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides and Amorphization of Crystalline Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213"><span>Role of Sec61p in the ER-associated degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, Daniel C.; Schekman, Randy</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are identified and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), a component of ER quality control. In ERAD, misfolded proteins are removed from the ER by retrotranslocation into the cytosol where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The identity of the specific protein components responsible for retrotranslocation remains controversial, with the potential candidates being Sec61p, Der1p, and Doa10. We show that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane ERAD substrate is exposed to the lumen of the ER during the degradation process. The addition of N-linked glycan to the N terminus of the substrate is prevented by mutation of a specific cysteine residue of Sec61p, as well as a specific cysteine residue of the substrate protein. We show that the substrate protein forms a disulfide-linked complex to Sec61p, suggesting that at least part of the retrotranslocation process involves Sec61p. PMID:18573918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.1673F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.1673F"><span>Impact of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5131W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5131W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto; Riahi, Keywan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO2 emissions, or staying within a CO2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO2 budget between 2011-2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO2 budget by targeting non-CO2 diminishes strongly along with CO2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C Arden; Thun, Michael J; Thurston, George</p> <p>2009-12-19</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352,000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F"><span>Estimating surface fluxes of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens from aircraft measurements over the tropical Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Butler, Robyn; Harris, Neil; Carpenter, Lucy; Andrews, Steve; Atlas, Elliot; Pan, Laura; Salawitch, Ross; Donets, Valeria; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We use an inverse model approach to quantitatively understand the ocean flux and atmospheric transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species (VSLS) measured during the coordinated NERC CAST and NCAR CONTRAST aircraft campaigns over the Western Pacific during January/February 2014. To achieve this we have developed a nested GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model simulation of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which has a spatial resolution of 0.25° (latitude) × 0.3125° (longitude) over the tropical Western Pacific region, and fed by boundary conditions from a coarser version of the model. We use archived 3-hourly 3-D fields of OH and j-values for CHBr3 photolysis, allowing us to linearly decompose these gases into tagged contributions from different geographical regions. Using these tagged tracers, we are able to use the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) approach to estimate the VSLS sources by fitting the model to observations. We find that the resulting VSLS fluxes are significantly different from some previous studies. To interpret the results, we describe several observation system simulation experiments to understand the sensitivity of these flux estimates to observation errors as well as to the uncertainty in the boundary condition imposed around the nested grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974"><span>Attached and unattached fractions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22430197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22430197"><span>Fifteen non-CODIS autosomal <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat loci multiplex data from nine population groups <span class="hlt">living</span> in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The analysis of autosomal <span class="hlt">short</span> tandem repeat (STR) loci is a powerful tool in forensic genetics. We developed a multiplex system in which 15 non-Combined DNA Index System autosomal STRs (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D10S2325, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 1,098 unrelated subjects of nine population groups <span class="hlt">living</span> in Taiwan, including Taiwanese Han, indigenous Taiwanese of Taiwan Island, Tao, mainland Chinese, Filipinos, Thais, Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Caucasians, were collected and analyzed using this system. The distributions of the allelic frequencies and the forensic parameters of each population group were presented. The combined discrimination power and the combined power of exclusion were high in all population groups tested in this study. A multidimensional scaling plot of these nine population groups based on the Reynolds' genetic distances calculated from 15 autosomal STRs was constructed, and the genetic substructure in this area was presented. In conclusion, this 15 autosomal STR multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing in different populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459...58G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459...58G"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> increase in erosion during the African Humid Period: Evidence from the northern Kenya Rift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcin, Yannick; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Torres Acosta, Verónica; Melnick, Daniel; Guillemoteau, Julien; Willenbring, Jane; Strecker, Manfred R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The African Humid Period (AHP) between ∼15 and 5.5 cal. kyr BP caused major environmental change in East Africa, including filling of the Suguta Valley in the northern Kenya Rift with an extensive (∼2150 km2), deep (∼300 m) lake. Interfingering fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Baragoi paleo-delta provide insights into the lake-level history and how erosion rates changed during this time, as revealed by delta-volume estimates and the concentration of cosmogenic 10Be in fluvial sand. Erosion rates derived from delta-volume estimates range from 0.019 to 0.03 mm yr-1. 10Be-derived paleo-erosion rates at ∼11.8 cal. kyr BP ranged from 0.035 to 0.086 mm yr-1, and were 2.7 to 6.6 times faster than at present. In contrast, at ∼8.7 cal. kyr BP, erosion rates were only 1.8 times faster than at present. Because 10Be-derived erosion rates integrate over several millennia, we modeled the erosion-rate history that best explains the 10Be data using established non-linear equations that describe in situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production and decay. Two models with different temporal constraints (15-6.7 and 12-6.7 kyr) suggest erosion rates that were ∼25 to ∼300 times higher than the initial erosion rate (pre-delta formation). That pulse of high erosion rates was <span class="hlt">short</span> (∼4 kyr or less) and must have been followed by a rapid decrease in rates while climate remained humid to reach the modern 10Be-based erosion rate of ∼0.013 mm yr-1. Our simulations also flag the two highest 10Be-derived erosion rates at ∼11.8 kyr BP related to non-uniform catchment erosion. These changes in erosion rates and processes during the AHP may reflect a strong increase in precipitation, runoff, and erosivity at the arid-to-humid transition either at ∼15 or ∼12 cal. kyr BP, before the landscape stabilized again, possibly due to increased soil production and denser vegetation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Geo....31..533W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Geo....31..533W"><span>Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations among Bandelier Tuff feldspars: No evidence for a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> silicic magma chamber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolff, J. A.; Ramos, F. C.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>We report, for the first time, high-precision Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data from a high-silica rhyolite. Prior work on Sr <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the 1.6 Ma Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff (Valles caldera, New Mexico) established that large 87Sr/86Sr variations exist among Otowi glasses and sanidine phenocrysts. While the glasses display unequivocal evidence for wall-rock contamination of the Otowi magma following sanidine growth, a positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sri and 87Rb/86Sr among the feldspars could be interpreted as either a mixing line or an in situ magmatic isochron dating a differentiation event ˜270 k.y. prior to eruption. The 206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ranges for Otowi sanidines are 17.790 ± 0.002 to 17.831 ± 0.002 and 0.7074 0.7052, respectively. This Pb <span class="hlt">isotope</span> range cannot be produced by radiogenic ingrowth at the U/Pb ratios of the host magma on any geologically reasonable time scale, and hence is unequivocal evidence for open-system behavior of the Otowi magma prior to and/or concurrent with feldspar growth. Open-system behavior is predicted to control Sr <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations due to much higher concentrations of Sr, relative to Pb, in the country rock than in the magma. These observations therefore undermine any age significance of the Rb-Sr <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations. In the absence of supporting data, Rb-Sr relations alone do not impart any information about residence times of high-silica rhyolite magmas with subchondritic concentrations of Sr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816667W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816667W"><span>Tree ring <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of beech and spruce in response to <span class="hlt">short</span>-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The <span class="hlt">short</span>-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (<2 minutes) acceleration of protons to >13 GeV in association with solar flares.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCracken, Ken; Shea, Margaret Ann; Smart, Don</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> release) mechanism must then decrease greatly in efficiency abruptly ~3 minutes after it started. We note that this is not a unique example; the >10GeV particle pulse in the GLE of 20 January 2005 persisted for only 3 minutes; and a >4.5 GeV pulse at the commencement of the GLE of 7 December, 1982, only lasted one minute. We conclude with a comparison between these observations and the predictions of several proposed acceleration models. We conclude that these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bursts of highly relativistic cosmic rays have been accelerated in the reconnection regions associated with large solar flares. In the greater majority of cases, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high energy cosmic ray pulse at the commencement of a GLE is followed by a slowly rising component accelerated in the CME generated shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9913M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9913M"><span><span class="hlt">Living</span> on the edge: The oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> record of Eocene Basins at the margin of the Cenozoic North American plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Chamberlain, Page</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Topography has a strong impact on atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns and is a key element in reconstructing the dynamics of mountain building processes. The topographic evolution of the world's major orogens remains one of the most important questions when discussing the interactions among tectonics, climate, and Earth surface processes. Here, we focus on the spatial and temporal development of topography and relief in the western North American Cordillera and how changes in the topography may have affected precipitation patterns and vice versa. In this context, we sampled more than 20 sections in Eocene to Oligocene terrestrial (intermontane?) basins (Chumstick, Swauk, and Chuckanut) in western and central Washington (USA) to the W and E of the modern Cascades. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis of pedogenic carbonate in these sections allows us to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of ancient soilwater or groundwater, and ultimately precipitation. Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements of pedogenic concretions and calcic horizons interestingly yield uniformly low δ18O values of 10 to 13‰ SMOW despite the proximity of all sections to the Pacific moisture source. These extremely low oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> values can result from (1) highly 18O-depleted meteoric waters (soil- or groundwater), (2) burial diagenesis at moderate temperatures and interaction with 18O-depleted (ground)water, and (3) high burial temperatures and and exchange with basins brines. Vitrinite reflectance data and preservation of primary soil structures such as rootlets, root casts, burrows, or even preserved wood fragments clearly show that some of the low-d18O sections were not affected by high degrees of burial diagenesis. Thus, we believe that the primary <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signal of ancient soil- or groundwater is preserved at least in parts (if not in all) of these basins. Low δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate require highly 18O-depleted meteoric water, which in turn, would require high elevation either at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T"><span>Integrated Assessment on Effects of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) in Asia based on Numerical Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Ueda, K.; Masutomi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Nakata, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Goto, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Air pollution over the Asian region is a serious social problem. For example, activities of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) under the UNFCCC focus on raising awareness and improving scientific understanding of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant (SLCP) impacts and mitigation strategies. Our Japanese research project is searching an optimum reduction path of SLCPs considering climate change, health impacts, and agricultural damages. For this purpose, we use aerosol and chemistry models, SPRINTARS and CHASER, respectively, which have been developed by our group, coupled with a general circulation model, MIROC. In the phase 1 of this project, changes in concentrations and radiative forcing of each major SLCPs originating from China, east Asia, southeast Asia, and south Asia in the last 30 years are estimated with the models. Transient simulations along the new emission scenario, SSPs (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) are executed using the MIROC-SPRINTARS/CHASER with ocean circulation in the phase 2 to analyze full feedbacks including hydrological cycle affected by SLCPs. These simulated results will be utilized to estimate health and agricultural impacts of SLCPs. In this presentation, we discuss the optimum reduction path of SLCPs taking both mitigation of global warming and air pollution into consideration. Acknowledgements: Simulations in this study were executed with the supercomputer system of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. This study is partly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-12-3) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H01728 and 15K12190.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410431Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410431Y"><span>How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y"><span>How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M"><span>Current and future contributions of local emissions from shipping and hydrocarbon extraction flaring to <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marelle, L.; Raut, J. C.; Law, K.; Thomas, J. L.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Easter, R. C.; Herber, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic is increasingly open to human activity due to rapid Arctic warming, associated with decreased sea ice extent and snow cover. While pollution from in-Arctic sources is currently low, oil and gas extraction and marine traffic could become a significant future source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants (aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. It is currently unclear if these local sources might become significant compared to the long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution from the midlatitudes, which is currently the main source of Arctic pollution. Here, we investigate the current (2012) and future (2050) impact of emissions from shipping and oil and gas extraction on Arctic aerosols and ozone, in relation to emissions from long-range transport. These impacts are determined by performing 6-month long, quasi-hemispheric simulations over the Arctic region with the WRF-Chem model. Our regional simulations include up-to-date representations of cloud/aerosol interactions and secondary organic aerosol formation developed recently for WRF-Chem. In order to determine the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas extraction, we use recent emission inventories by Winther et al., 2014 for local shipping and ECLIPSEv5 for oil and gas flaring. Both inventories suggest that current and future emissions from these sources are higher than previous estimates. Simulations are evaluated using measurements at Arctic surface sites and aircraft campaigns (ACCESS, YAK) in 2012. Model results are then used to assess the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas flaring on modeled surface aerosol and ozone concentrations, direct aerosol and ozone radiative effects, indirect aerosol radiative effects, and aerosol deposition. Results are used to determine if these local emissions are expected to have a significant influence on these quantities at the local or the regional scale, compared to emissions transported from the midlatitudes and to other emission sources, including boreal fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G"><span>SMA observations towards the compact, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bipolar water maser outflow in the LkHα234 region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Curiel, S.; Anglada, G.; Gómez, J. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Patel, N. A.; Trinidad, M. A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations towards the LkHα234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of ˜5 arcsec (˜4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between ˜200 and ˜375 au and masses in the ˜0.08-0.3 M⊙ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r ≲ 135 au) circumstellar disc with a mass of ˜0.02 M⊙. This source is powering a compact (˜4000 au), low radial velocity (˜7 km s-1) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the `large-scale' counterpart of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, episodic, bipolar outflow observed through H2O masers at much smaller scales (˜180 au), and that has been created by the accumulation of the ejection of several episodic collimated events of material. The circumstellar gas around VLA 2 and VLA 3 is hot (˜130 K) and exhibits velocity gradients that could trace rotation. There is a bridge of warm and dense molecular gas connecting VLA 2 and VLA 3. We discuss the possibility that this bridge could trace a stream of gas between VLA 3 and VLA 2, increasing the accretion rate on to VLA 2 to explain why this source has an important outflow activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166"><span>ICV-transplanted human glial precursor cells are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> yet exert immunomodulatory effects in mice with EAE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Heechul; Walczak, Piotr; Muja, Naser; Campanelli, James T; Bulte, Jeff W M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 10(5) hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5-10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B"><span>Sediment fingerprinting with long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide tracers in the Root River watershed, southeastern Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belmont, P.; Stout, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The field of sediment fingerprinting has evolved rapidly over the past decade and is poised to improve our understanding not only of sediment sources, but also the routing of sediment through watersheds. Such information is essential for understanding and modeling human impacts on erosion and sediment routing at the watershed scale. In this study we use long- (Beryllium-10, 10Be) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (Lead-210 and Cesium-137, 210Pb and 137Cs, respectively) radionuclide tracers associated with suspended sediment to quantify sediment sources and channel-floodplain exchange across a range of watershed scales from 10 km2 to 4500 km2 in in the Root River, southeastern Minnesota, USA. The uppermost quarter of the Root River watershed was glaciated repeatedly during the late Pleistocene and is characterized by low relief agricultural fields and fine textured soils. The remainder of the watershed lies within the driftless area of the upper Midwestern US, which has not been glaciated in at least the past 500,000 years, and is characterized by karst topography, relatively steep hillslopes and bedrock channels that debouch into a wide, aggrading alluvial valley. The structure of the landscape exerts strong control on sediment generation and transport. Geochemical results indicate a highly variable erosion history, with significant variability of 10Be concentrations in source areas (agricultural fields, forested hillslopes, and alluvial floodplains and terraces) and inverted 10Be depth profiles (higher concentrations at depth) in floodplains, suggesting unsteady erosion and significant storage of legacy sediment. Concentrations of 10Be and 210Pb associated with suspended sediment show a systematic disparity in normalized concentrations, indicating that significant storage and re-suspension occurs in both systems as the sediment is routed through the channel-floodplain complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F"><span>Transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere through the Asian monsoon circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated organic compounds are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. The halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), such as bromoform, have atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year. When VSLS reach the stratosphere, they enhance ozone depletion and thus impact the climate. During boreal summer, the Asian monsoon circulation transfers air masses from the Asian troposphere to the global stratosphere. Still, the extent to which VSLS from the Indian Ocean contribute to the stratospheric halogen burden and their exact origin is unclear. Here we show that the monsoon circulation transports VSLS from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere. During the research cruises SO234-2 and SO235 in July-August 2014 onboard RV SONNE, we measured oceanic and atmospheric concentrations of bromoform (tropical lifetime at 10 km = 17 days), dibromomethane (150 days) and methyl iodide (3.5 days) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean and calculated their emission strengths. We use the Langrangian transport model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim meteorological fields to investigate the transport of oceanic emissions in the atmosphere. We analyze the direct contribution of observed bromoform emissions to the stratospheric halogen budget with forward trajectories. Furthermore, we investigate the connection between the Asian monsoon anticyclone and the oceanic source regions using backward trajectories. The West Indian Ocean is a strong source region of VSLS to the atmosphere and the monsoon transport is fast enough for bromoform to reach the stratosphere. However, the main source regions for the entrainment of oceanic air masses through the Asian monsoon anticyclone are the West Pacific and Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian Sea. Our findings indicate that changes in emission or circulation in this area due to climate change can directly affect the stratospheric halogen burden and thus the ozone layer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015"><span><span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl</p> <p>2012-01-20</p> <p>Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516"><span>Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine"><span>On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"><span>Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L−, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c− CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c−, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127− terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1− CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c− CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D"><span>NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>It was found that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4131770','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4131770"><span>Seasonal variations in photosynthesis, intrinsic water-use efficiency and stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of poplar leaves in a <span class="hlt">short</span>-rotation plantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Broeckx, L.S.; Fichot, R.; Verlinden, M.S.; Ceulemans, R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and transpirational water loss play an important role in the yield and the carbon sequestration potential of bioenergy-devoted cultures of fast-growing trees. For six poplar (Populus) genotypes in a <span class="hlt">short</span>-rotation plantation, we observed significant seasonal and genotypic variation in photosynthetic parameters, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) and leaf stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition (δ13C and δ18O). The poplars maintained high photosynthetic rates (between 17.8 and 26.9 μmol m−2 s−1 depending on genotypes) until late in the season, in line with their fast-growth habit. Seasonal fluctuations were mainly explained by variations in soil water availability and by stomatal limitation upon photosynthesis. Stomatal rather than biochemical limitation was confirmed by the constant intrinsic photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) during the growing season, closely related to leaf nitrogen (N) content. Intrinsic water-use efficiency scaled negatively with carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> discrimination (Δ13Cbl) and positively with the ratio between mesophyll diffusion conductance (gm) and stomatal conductance. The WUEi – Δ13Cbl relationship was partly influenced by gm. There was a trade-off between WUEi and photosynthetic N-use efficiency, but only when soil water availability was limiting. Our results suggest that seasonal fluctuations in relation to soil water availability should be accounted for in future modelling studies assessing the carbon sequestration potential and the water-use efficiency of woody energy crops. PMID:25074859</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V14A..03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V14A..03W"><span>Crustal reworking during a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> magma pulse: 11 m.y. <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> record from the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster, central Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, B. A.; Grunder, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Since ~11 Ma, successive eruptions from the Aucanquilcha Volcanic Cluster (AVC) in northern Chile document the magmatic evolution of a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> subduction system. Situated within the central volcanic zone of the Andes, the AVC is constructed upon remarkably thick (~70 km) crust—a heterogeneous filter through which all central Andean lavas are extensively processed and modified. The 11 m.y. history of the AVC is characterized by sluggish eruption rates from ~11-5 Ma, with an increase in eruptive output between ~5-2.5 Ma, and a return to modest eruption rates from ~2.5 Ma to present. This pattern is attributed to the waxing, climactic, and waning stages of a magmatic ‘pulse’. Eruptive pulsing in the form of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> magmatic systems appears to be not uncommon (cf. APVC, Tuolumne, SRMVF), and we exploit the AVC lavas to explore the geochemical signal accompanying the evolution of such a system. More specifically, <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (whole rock Sr, Nd, Pb; O from plagioclase) and trace elements of the AVC lavas are employed to investigate the compositional influence of the crustal filter on the production of arc lavas. 87Sr/86Sr of AVC andesite to dacite lavas ranges from 0.70509 to 0.70680, with a broad increase through time. Three analyses from nearby, recently erupted basaltic andesite scoria cones yield relatively high ratios of 0.706347 - 0.706826. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.512262 - 0.512590 (scoria cones: 0.512300 - 0.512323), and decrease through time, consistent with the Sr data. δ18O ranges from 6.47 to 7.47, with the lowest values associated with the onset of AVC volcanism. 206Pb/204Pb ranges from 18.4679 to 18.7039, with a small, but distinguishable, increase through time. Dy/Yb ranges from 1.79 - 3.45 and Sm/Yb ranges from 2.18 - 6.66, with a marked increase from 11 Ma to present. The AVC is situated on the boundary between two distinct Pb domains (Arequipa and Antofalla) of the central Andean crust. The minor fluctuation seen in Pb <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> through time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464314"><span>Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mouse (Mus musculus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Jason C L; McClelland, Grant B; Faure, Paul A; Klaiman, Jordan M; Staples, James F</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Lower ROS release rate in long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. We compared liver mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-<span class="hlt">lived</span>) and house mouse (<span class="hlt">short-lived</span>). We hypothesized that low ROS release rates in long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) increased mitochondrial proton conductance ('uncoupling to survive'), and/or (iii) increased ETC oxidative capacity ('spare oxidative capacity'). H(2)O(2) release rate was 70% lower in bats than mice despite similar respiration rates. Consistent with 'uncoupling to survive', proton leakiness was 3-fold higher in bats at membrane potentials above 130mV. Basal H(2)O(2) release rate and respiration rates were 2-fold higher in sparrows than mice. Consistent with 'spare oxidative capacity', subsaturating succinate decreased H(2)O(2) release rate in sparrows but not mice. Moreover, succinate:Cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was 3-fold higher in sparrows, and ETC inhibitors increased ROS release rate 20-27-fold in sparrows (with glutamate or subsaturating succinate) but only 4-5-fold in mice. Taken together these data suggest that complexes I and III are less reduced under physiological conditions in sparrows. We conclude that different long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> species may use distinct mechanisms to lower mitochondrial ROS release rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21467035','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21467035"><span>Discovery of Highly Excited Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Isomers in Neutron-Rich Hafnium and Tantalum <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> through Direct Mass Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reed, M. W.; Cullen, I. J.; Walker, P. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Kempley, R. S.; Swan, T. P. D.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Winckler, N.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Farinon, F.; Heil, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kuzminchuk, N.; Litvinov, S.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.</p> <p>2010-10-22</p> <p>A study of cooled {sup 197}Au projectile-fragmentation products has been performed with a storage ring. This has enabled metastable nuclear excitations with energies up to 3 MeV, and half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> extending to minutes or longer, to be identified in the neutron-rich nuclides {sup 183,184,186}Hf and {sup 186,187}Ta. The results support the prediction of a strongly favored isomer region near neutron number 116.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP1WB002R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP1WB002R"><span>SIPT--An Ultrasensitive Mass Spectrometer for Rare <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ringle, Ryan</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Over the last few decades, advances in radioactive beam facilities like the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) have made <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, rare-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> beams available for study in various science areas, and new facilities, like the Facility for Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Beams (FRIB) under construction at MSU, will provide even more exotic rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The determination of the masses of these rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> is of utmost importance since it provides a direct measurement of the binding energy of the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. For this purpose we are currently developing a dedicated Single-Ion Penning Trap (SIPT) mass spectrometer at NSCL to handle the specific challenges posed by rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. These challenges, which include <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and extremely low production rates, are dealt with by employing the narrowband FT-ICR detection method under cryogenic conditions. Used in concert with the 9.4-T time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the 7-T SIPT system will ensure that the LEBIT mass measurement program at MSU will make optimal use of the wide range of rare <span class="hlt">isotope</span> beams provided by the future FRIB facility, addressing such topics as nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental interactions. Over the last few decades, advances in radioactive beam facilities like the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) have made <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, rare-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> beams available for study in various science areas, and new facilities, like the Facility for Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Beams (FRIB) under construction at MSU, will provide even more exotic rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The determination of the masses of these rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> is of utmost importance since it provides a direct measurement of the binding energy of the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. For this purpose we are currently developing a dedicated Single-Ion Penning Trap (SIPT) mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"><span>Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trathen, Danielle Y.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G.; Valdés, Ángel A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M"><span>Daily variation of radon gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386241"><span>Persistent autoantibody-production by intermediates between <span class="hlt">short</span>-and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells in inflamed lymph nodes of experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tiburzy, Benjamin; Szyska, Martin; Iwata, Hiroaki; Chrobok, Navina; Kulkarni, Upasana; Hirose, Misa; Ludwig, Ralf J; Kalies, Kathrin; Westermann, Jürgen; Wong, David; Manz, Rudolf Armin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Autoantibodies are believed to be maintained by either the continuous generation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> plasma cells in secondary lymphoid tissues or by long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells localized in bone marrow and spleen. Here, we show in a mouse model for the autoimmune blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) that chronic autoantibody production can also be maintained in inflamed lymph nodes, by plasma cells exhibiting intermediate lifetimes. After EBA induction by immunization with a mCOL7c-GST-fusion protein, antigen-specific plasma cells and CD4 T cells were analyzed. Plasma cells were maintained for months in stable numbers in the draining lymph nodes, but not in spleen and bone marrow. In contrast, localization of mCOL7c-GST -specific CD4 T cells was not restricted to lymph nodes, indicating that availability of T cell help does not limit plasma cell localization to this site. BrdU-incorporation studies indicated that pathogenic mCOL7c- and non-pathogenic GST-specific plasma cells resemble intermediates between <span class="hlt">short</span>-and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of about 7 weeks. Immunization with mCOL7c-GST also yielded considerable numbers of plasma cells neither specific for mCOL7c- nor GST. These bystander-activated plasma cells exhibited much shorter half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and higher population turnover, suggesting that plasma cell lifetimes were only partly determined by the lymph node environment but also by the mode of activation. These results indicate that inflamed lymph nodes can harbor pathogenic plasma cells exhibiting distinct properties and hence may resemble a so far neglected site for chronic autoantibody production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3873383"><span>Persistent Autoantibody-Production by Intermediates between <span class="hlt">Short</span>-and Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> Plasma Cells in Inflamed Lymph Nodes of Experimental Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tiburzy, Benjamin; Szyska, Martin; Iwata, Hiroaki; Chrobok, Navina; Kulkarni, Upasana; Hirose, Misa; Ludwig, Ralf J.; Kalies, Kathrin; Westermann, Jürgen; Wong, David; Manz, Rudolf Armin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Autoantibodies are believed to be maintained by either the continuous generation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> plasma cells in secondary lymphoid tissues or by long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells localized in bone marrow and spleen. Here, we show in a mouse model for the autoimmune blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) that chronic autoantibody production can also be maintained in inflamed lymph nodes, by plasma cells exhibiting intermediate lifetimes. After EBA induction by immunization with a mCOL7c-GST-fusion protein, antigen-specific plasma cells and CD4 T cells were analyzed. Plasma cells were maintained for months in stable numbers in the draining lymph nodes, but not in spleen and bone marrow. In contrast, localization of mCOL7c-GST -specific CD4 T cells was not restricted to lymph nodes, indicating that availability of T cell help does not limit plasma cell localization to this site. BrdU-incorporation studies indicated that pathogenic mCOL7c- and non-pathogenic GST-specific plasma cells resemble intermediates between <span class="hlt">short</span>-and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> plasma cells with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of about 7 weeks. Immunization with mCOL7c-GST also yielded considerable numbers of plasma cells neither specific for mCOL7c- nor GST. These bystander-activated plasma cells exhibited much shorter half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and higher population turnover, suggesting that plasma cell lifetimes were only partly determined by the lymph node environment but also by the mode of activation. These results indicate that inflamed lymph nodes can harbor pathogenic plasma cells exhibiting distinct properties and hence may resemble a so far neglected site for chronic autoantibody production. PMID:24386241</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28216330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28216330"><span>(223)Ra-dichloride spectrometric characterization: Searching for the presence of long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with radiological protection implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Jiménez, J; López-Montes, A; Núñez-Martínez, L; Villa-Abaunza, A; Fraile, L M; Sánchez-Tembleque, V; Udías, J M</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>(223)Ra-dichloride was approved with the commercial name of Xofigo in 2014 for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (223)Ra is obtained by neutron irradiation of (226)Ra yielding (227)Ac, which decays to (227)Th and (223)Fr, both decaying to (223)Ra. Since (223)Ra is predominantly (95.3%) an alpha emitter with a 11.42days long half-life, the radiopharmaceutical, its remnants, the patient, and waste material can be managed and disposed with low radiation protection requirements. (227)Ac is a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> (T1/2=21.77years) beta emitter that demands strong radiation protection measures. In particular waste disposal has to follow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Commission (EC) regulations. Since (227)Ac is involved in the production of (223)Ra, an impurity analysis of each batch is required after production. Due to time restrictions, the manufacturer's detection limit (<0.001%) exceeds the one required to assure that (227)Ac concentrations are below direct disposal levels. To improve the detection limit, long-term accurate spectroscopy is required. Alpha and gamma spectroscopy measurements were carried out at the Complutense University Nuclear Physics Laboratory. After twelve months follow up of a sample, (227)Ac concentration was found to be smaller than 10(-9). This allows for direct waste disposal and no additional radiation protection restrictions than those required for (223)Ra. The presence of contamination by other radioisotopes was also ruled out by this experiment. Specifically (226)Ra, involved in (223)Ra production as the original parent and with a very long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> (T1/2=1577years) alpha emitter, was also below the experimental detection limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..763T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..763T"><span>Impact of feeding and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term temperature stress on the content and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of fatty acids, sterols, and alcohols in the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tolosa, I.; Treignier, C.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This study assesses the combined effect of feeding and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term thermal stress on various physiological parameters and on the fatty acid, sterol, and alcohol composition of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis. The compound-specific carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of the lipids was also measured. Under control conditions (26°C), feeding with Artemia salina significantly increased the symbiont density and chlorophyll content and the growth rates of the corals. It also doubled the concentrations of almost all fatty acid (FA) compounds and increased the n-alcohol and sterol contents. δ13C results showed that the feeding enhancement of FA concentrations occurred either via a direct pathway, for one of the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds of the food (18:3n-3 FA), or via an enhancement of photosynthate transfer (indirect pathway), for the other coral FAs. Cholesterol (C27Δ5) was also directly acquired from the food. Thermal stress (31°C) affected corals, but differently according to their feeding status. Chlorophyll, protein content, and maximal photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) decreased to a greater extent in starved corals. In such corals, FA concentrations were reduced by 33%, (especially C16, C18 FAs, and n-3 PUFA) and the sterol content by 27% (especially the C28∆5,22 and C28∆5). The enrichment in the δ13C signature of the storage and structural FAs suggests that they were the main compounds respired during the stress to maintain the coral metabolism. Thermal stress had less effect on the lipid concentrations of fed corals, as only FA levels were reduced by 13%, with no major changes in their <span class="hlt">isotope</span> carbon signatures. In conclusion, feeding plays an essential role in sustaining T. reniformis metabolism during the thermal stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010887','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010887"><span>Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"><span>Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"><span>Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP21B2247R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP21B2247R"><span>Evidence for a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> increase in atmospheric CO2 at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reichgelt, T.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Fox, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the earliest Miocene the Antarctic ice sheet retreated substantially following the Mi-1 glaciation event. The relationship between pCO2 and orbital scale climate variations at this time is poorly understood, due to the paucity of pCO2 reconstructions with sufficient temporal resolution. Here, we report a pCO2 reconstruction based on fossil leaf micromorphological properties and supported by δ13C measurements, that indicates that pCO2 increased following the Mi-1 event and remained elevated for approximately 24 kyrs. The fossil leaves analyzed (Lauraceae) and δ13C measurements come from a drill core of annually laminated sediments recovered from a maar lake deposit in southern New Zealand spanning ~100 kyr across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. The lake had a large and stable anoxic zone, allowing for remarkable preservation of organic material, including exquisitely preserved fossil leaves. The leaf stomatal/epidermal cell ratio (stomatal index) decreased for ~24 kyr during this time period, suggesting increased pCO2. δ13C values of primarily terrestrially sourced lake organic matter decreased by ~4‰ across the same interval, providing further support for an abrupt 24kyr-long increase in pCO2 at this time. By comparison with stomatal conductance and pCO2-induced carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation in modern land plants, we estimate that the magnitude of the pCO2 increase was between 140 and 220 ppm. These results imply that dynamic variations in pCO2 occurred at precessional timescales during the early Miocene. We are further constraining the magnitude of pCO2 change and quantifying the pCO2 levels by: 1) Analyzing micromorphology and δ13C of close ecological and taxonomical modern analogues to early Miocene New Zealand Lauraceae, to better quantify changes in gas conductance and carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation in response to recent pCO2 changes; 2) Directly measuring δ13C values and stomatal geometry of fossil leaves, to quantify pCO2 values using a recently</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003TrGeo...1..129C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003TrGeo...1..129C"><span>Oxygen <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> in Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clayton, R. N.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p> et al., 1996). In their paper reporting the discovery of 18O in the Earth's atmosphere, Giauque and Johnston (1929) refer to nonuniform distribution of oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as a "remote possibility," whereas Manian et al. (1934) sought to find variations in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> abundances in meteorites as evidence for an origin outside the solar system.In addition to the abundance variations due to nuclear processes, there are important <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variations produced within molecular clouds, the precursors to later star-formation. The most important process is <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> self-shielding in the UV photodissociation of CO (van Dishoeck and Black, 1988). This process results from the large differences in abundance between C16O, on the one hand, and C17O and C18O on the other. Photolysis of CO occurs by absorption of stellar UV radiation in the wavelength range 90-100 nm. The reaction proceeds by a predissociation mechanism, in which the excited electronic state <span class="hlt">lives</span> long enough to have well-defined vibrational and rotational energy levels. As a consequence, the three <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species - C16O, C17O, and C18O - absorb at different wavelengths, corresponding to the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shift in vibrational frequencies. Because of their different number densities, the abundant C16O becomes optically thick in the outermost part of the cloud (nearest to the external source of UV radiation), while the rare C17O and C18O remain optically thin, and hence dissociate at a greater rate in the cloud interior. The differences in chemical reactivity between C16O molecules and 17O and 18O atoms may lead to <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> selective reaction products. This scenario has been suggested to explain meteoritic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> patterns, as discussed below (Yurimoto and Kuramoto, 2002).Stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> abundances in meteoritic material provide an opportunity to evaluate the thoroughness of mixing of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of diverse stellar sources. Molybdenum presents a good test case: it has seven stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, derived from at least three</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......219L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......219L"><span>Precision Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span>, Neutron-Rich, R-Process Nuclei About the N=82 Waiting Point</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lascar, Daniel David</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis details the precision mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich ground-state nuclei and isomeric states that approach or lie on the proposed rapid neutron capture process (r-process) path. For many of the nuclei measured the work presented here will be the rst direct mass measurements of these nuclei, including 130In, 137Sb, 133I, and 134I. The measurements were made using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer (CPT), located at the ATLAS heavy ion-linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Ground states and isomers have been measured with the CPT at fractional precisions (δm/m) between 10-7, and 10-8. The nuclei were produced at the new CAlifornium Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to ATLAS. Because nuclear masses are required for measuring neutron separation energies, and neutron separation energies are important inputs in r-process network calculations, precision mass measurements are critical for advancing our knowledge of the r-process. This thesis will give the astrophysical motivation for making these mass measurements, the theoretical background behind ion trapping and mass measurements using ion traps, an explanation of the CPT apparatus, the mass measurements themselves, and the results of those measurements as they pertain to r-process network calculations. Results of these mass measurements show significant shifts in the r-process path over a range of temperatures and neutron densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23832075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23832075"><span>Metabolic adaptations to <span class="hlt">short</span>-term every-other-day feeding in long-<span class="hlt">living</span> Ames dwarf mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long <span class="hlt">living</span> Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long <span class="hlt">living</span> and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816083','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816083"><span>Metabolic adaptations to <span class="hlt">short</span>-term every-other-day feeding in long-<span class="hlt">living</span> Ames dwarf mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Rakoczy, Sharlene</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long <span class="hlt">living</span> Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long <span class="hlt">living</span> and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. PMID:23832075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D"><span>Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906162"><span>Carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions (δ(13) C) of leaf, wood and holocellulose differ among genotypes of poplar and between previous land uses in a <span class="hlt">short</span>-rotation biomass plantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verlinden, M S; Fichot, R; Broeckx, L S; Vanholme, B; Boerjan, W; Ceulemans, R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The efficiency of water use to produce biomass is a key trait in designing sustainable bioenergy-devoted systems. We characterized variations in the carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition (δ(13) C) of leaves, current year wood and holocellulose (as proxies for water use efficiency, WUE) among six poplar genotypes in a <span class="hlt">short</span>-rotation plantation. Values of δ(13) Cwood and δ(13) Cholocellulose were tightly and positively correlated, but the offset varied significantly among genotypes (0.79-1.01‰). Leaf phenology was strongly correlated with δ(13) C, and genotypes with a longer growing season showed a higher WUE. In contrast, traits related to growth and carbon uptake were poorly linked to δ(13) C. Trees growing on former pasture with higher N-availability displayed higher δ(13) C as compared with trees growing on former cropland. The positive relationships between δ(13) Cleaf and leaf N suggested that spatial variations in WUE over the plantation were mainly driven by an N-related effect on photosynthetic capacities. The very coherent genotype ranking obtained with δ(13) C in the different tree compartments has some practical outreach. Because WUE remains largely uncoupled from growth in poplar plantations, there is potential to identify genotypes with satisfactory growth and higher WUE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834182"><span>The rare <span class="hlt">isotope</span> accelerator (RIA) facility project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christoph Leemann</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>The envisioned Rare-<span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator (RIA) facility would add substantially to research opportunities for nuclear physics and astrophysics by combining increased intensities with a greatly expanded variety of high-quality rare-<span class="hlt">isotope</span> beams. A flexible superconducting driver linac would provide 100 kW, 400 MeV/nucleon beams of any stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> from hydrogen to uranium onto production targets. Combinations of projectile fragmentation, target fragmentation, fission, and spallation would produce the needed broad assortment of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> secondary beams. This paper describes the project's background, purpose, and status, the envisioned facility, and the key subsystem, the driver linac. RIA's scientific purposes are to advance current theoretical models, reveal new manifestations of nuclear behavior, and probe the limits of nuclear existence [3]. Figures 1 and 2 show, respectively, examples of RIA research opportunities and the yields projected for pursuing them. Figure 3 outlines a conceptual approach for delivering the needed beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376961"><span>Effects of a <span class="hlt">short</span> period of elevated circulating corticosterone on postnatal growth in free-<span class="hlt">living</span> Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Müller, Claudia; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Environmental conditions affect growth and development and, through developmental plasticity, create phenotypic variation. In suboptimal conditions current survival is traded-off against development. Corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, may be involved in the reallocation of energy from growth to maintenance, but its effect on growth has rarely been investigated in altricial birds under natural conditions in the wild. In free-<span class="hlt">living</span> Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus nestlings, we artificially elevated corticosterone to stress-induced levels over 2-3 days in the middle of the nestling stage by implanting biodegradable implants, controlling the treatment with a placebo group. We measured the length of primary feather 8, hand length, tarsus length, body mass and subcutaneous fat stores from day 10 to 25. During corticosterone elevation, primary growth of cort-nestlings was significantly reduced to 71% of placebo-nestlings, hand and tarsus growth were significantly reduced to 14% and 26% of placebo-nestlings, respectively, and body mass increase stopped, while subcutaneous fat-store growth was not affected. Over the following 5 days, primary growth was still significantly suppressed to 84% of placebo-nestlings, while hand, tarsus and body mass growth were back to normal. During the subsequent 4 days, cort-nestlings partly compensated for the lag in body mass by significantly accelerating the body mass increase compared with placebo-nestlings. Before fledging, primary length was 10% shorter, hand and tarsus 5% and 4% shorter and body mass 8.5% lower in cort-nestlings than in placebo-nestlings, while fat score did not differ significantly between the two groups. Thus, we have shown that in free-<span class="hlt">living</span>, altricial nestlings a few days of elevated plasma corticosterone levels alone, without food restriction, suppressed growth and this could only partly be compensated for afterwards. Feather, bone and body mass growth were reduced to different degrees</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.123..358T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.123..358T"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> 36Cl and its decay products 36Ar and 36S in the early solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, G.; Crowther, S. A.; Burgess, R.; Gilmour, J. D.; Kelley, S. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Variable excesses of 36S have previously been reported in sodalite in the Allende and Ningqiang meteorites and used to infer the presence of 36Cl in the early solar system. Until now no unambiguous evidence of the major decay product, 36Ar (98%), has been found. Using low fluence fast neutron activation we have measured small amounts of 36Ar in the Allende sodalite Pink Angel, corresponding to 36Cl/35Cl = (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10-8. This is a factor of 200 lower than the highest value inferred from 36S excesses in sodalite. High resolution I-Xe analyses confirm that the sodalite formed between 4561 and 4558 Ma ago. The core of Pink Angel sodalite yielded a precise formation age of 4559.4 ± 0.6 Ma. Deposition of sodalite containing <span class="hlt">live</span> 36Cl, seven million years or so after the formation of the CAI, appears to require a local production mechanism involving intense neutron irradiation within the solar nebula. The constraint imposed by the near absence of neutron induced 128Xe is most easily satisfied if the 36Cl were produced in a fluid precursor of the sodalite. The low level of 36Ar could be accounted for as a result of residual in-situ36Cl decay, up to 1-2 Ma after formation of the sodalite, and/or later diffusive loss, in line with the low activation energy for Ar diffusion in sodalite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100809','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100809"><span>The age related markers lipofuscin and apoptosis show different genetic architecture by QTL mapping in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Nothobranchius fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ng'oma, Enoch; Reichwald, Kathrin; Dorn, Alexander; Wittig, Michael; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Allesandro</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Annual fish of the genus Nothobranchius show large variations in lifespan and expression of age-related phenotypes between closely related populations. We studied N. kadleci and its sister species N. furzeri GRZ strain, and found that N.kadleci is longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> than the N. furzeri. Lipofuscin and apoptosis measured in the liver increased with age in N. kadleci with different profiles: lipofuscin increased linearly, while apoptosis declined in the oldest animals. More lipofuscin (P < 0.001) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) was observed in N. furzeri than in N. kadleci at 16w age. Lipofuscin and apoptotic cells were then quantified in hybrids from the mating of N. furzeri to N. kadleci. F1 individuals showed heterosis for lipofuscin but additive effects for apoptosis. These two age-related phenotypes were not correlated in F2 hybrids. Quantitative trait loci analysis of 287 F2 fish using 237 markers identified two QTL accounting for 10% of lipofuscin variance (P < 0.001) with overdominance effect. Apoptotic cells revealed three significant- and two suggestive QTL explaining 19% of variance (P < 0.001), showing additive and dominance effects, and two interacting loci. Our results show that lipofuscin and apoptosis are markers of different age-dependent biological processes controlled by different genetic mechanisms. PMID:25093339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017nuco.confa0608H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017nuco.confa0608H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> 244Pu Points to Neutron Star Binary Mergers as Sites for r-Process Nucleosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi; Paul, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of the radioactive 244Pu abundances can break the degeneracy between high-rate/low-yield and low-rate/high-yield scenarios for the production of heavy r-process elements. The first corresponds to production by core collapse supernovae (cc-SNe) while the latter corresponds to production by e.g., neutron star binary mergers. The estimated 244Pu abundance in the current interstellar medium inferred from deep-sea measurements is significantly lower than that corresponding Early Solar System abundances. We estimate the expected median value of the 244Pu abundances and fluctuations around this value in both models [1]. We show that while the current and Early Solar System abundances are explained within the low-rate/high-yield scenario, they are incompatible with the high-rate/low-yield (cc-SNe) model. The inferred event rate remarkably agrees with neutron star binary merger rates estimated from Galactic neutron star binaries and from <span class="hlt">short</span> gamma-ray bursts. The ejected mass of r-process elements per event agrees with both theoretical and observational macronova estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1246892','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1246892"><span>Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: Shining light on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forbidden 5f transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Yang, P.; D'Aleo, A.; Abergel, R. J.</p> <p>2016-03-10</p> <p>In this study, the photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am<sup>III</sup>) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for AmIII, generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very <span class="hlt">short</span> lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10<sup>–3</sup> to 10<sup>–2</sup>%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am<sup>III</sup> assigned to the <sup>5</sup>D<sub>1</sub> → <sup>7</sup>F<sub>1</sub> f–f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β<sub>110</sub> = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am<sup>III</sup> complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1246892-intramolecular-sensitization-americium-luminescence-solution-shining-light-short-lived-forbidden-transitions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1246892-intramolecular-sensitization-americium-luminescence-solution-shining-light-short-lived-forbidden-transitions"><span>Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: Shining light on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forbidden 5f transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Yang, P.; D'Aleo, A.; ...</p> <p>2016-03-10</p> <p>In this study, the photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (AmIII) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for AmIII, generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very <span class="hlt">short</span> lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10–3 to 10–2%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of AmIII assigned to the 5D1 → 7F1 f–f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formedmore » with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these AmIII complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961598"><span>Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forbidden 5f transitions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J</p> <p>2016-06-14</p> <p>The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very <span class="hlt">short</span> lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..123L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..123L"><span>The initial 41Ca/40Ca ratios in two type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions: Implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 41Ca</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This paper reports new 41Ca-41K <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data for two Type A CAIs, NWA 3118 #1Nb (Compact Type A) and Vigarano 3138 F8 (Fluffy Type A), from reduced CV3 chondrites. The NWA CAI is found to have carried <span class="hlt">live</span> 41Ca at the level of (4.6 ± 1.9) ×10-9 , consistent with the proposed Solar System initial 41Ca /40Ca = 4.2 ×10-9 by Liu et al. (2012a). On the other hand, the Vigarano CAI does not have resolvable radiogenic 41K excesses that can be attributed to the decay of 41Ca. Combined with the 26Al data that have been reported for these two CAIs, we infer that the 41Ca distribution was not homogeneous when 26Al was widespread at the canonical level of 26Al /27Al = 5.2 ×10-5 . Such a 41Ca heterogeneity can be understood under two astrophysical contexts: in situ charged particle irradiation by the protoSun in the solar nebula that had inherited some baseline 10Be abundance from the molecular cloud, and Solar System formation in a molecular cloud enriched in 26Al and 41Ca contaminated by massive star winds. That said, more high quality 41Ca data are still needed to better understand the origin of this radionuclide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21420887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21420887"><span>Half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the r-process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hosmer, P.; Estrade, A.; Montes, F.; Ouellette, M.; Pellegrini, E.; Schatz, H.; Aprahamian, A.; Arndt, O.; Pfeiffer, B.; Clement, R. R. C.; Mueller, W. F.; Morton, A. C.; Pereira, J.; Santi, P.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Farouqi, K.; Kratz, K.-L.; Liddick, S. N.; Mantica, P. F.</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>The {beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {beta}-delayed neutron emission (P{sub n} values) for {sup 74}Co (18{+-}15%) and {sup 75-77}Ni (10{+-}2.8%, 14{+-}3.6%, and 30{+-}24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the P{sub n} values of {sup 77-79}Cu, {sup 79,81}Zn, and {sup 82}Ga. For {sup 77-79}Cu and for {sup 81}Zn we obtain significantly larger P{sub n} values compared to previous work. While the new half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> for the Ni <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of {sup 75}Co (30{+-}11 ms) and {sup 80}Cu (170{sub -50}{sup +110} ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is better able to reproduce the A=78-80 abundance pattern inferred from the solar abundances. The new data also influence r-process models based on the neutrino-driven high-entropy winds in core collapse supernovae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28308759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28308759"><span>Regional structuring of genetic variation in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rock pool populations of Branchipodopsis wolfi (Crustacea: Anostraca).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brendonck, L; De Meester, L; Riddoch, B J</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>The genetic structure of three metapopulations of the southern African anostracan Branchipodopsis wolfi was compared by analysing allozyme variation at four loci (PGM, GPI, APK, AAT). In total, 17 local populations from three sites (metapopulations) were analysed from rock pools in south-eastern Botswana ranging from 0.2 to 21 m(2) in surface area. In three populations we found significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium at one or more loci due to heterozygote deficiencies. Genetic variability at one site was significantly lower than at the other sites, which may be linked to a greater incidence of extinction and recolonisation, as the basins at this site are shallower and have shorter hydrocycles. Across all local populations, a significant level of population differentiation was revealed. More than 90% of this variation was explained by differentiation among sites (metapopulations), although this differentiation did not correlate with geographic distance, or with environmental variables. Genetic differentiation among populations within metapopulations was low, but significant at all sites. At only one of the sites was a significantly positive association measured between genetic and geographic distance among local populations. Our data suggest that persistent stochastic events and limited effective long-range dispersal appear to dominate genetic differentiation among populations of B. wolfi inhabiting desert rock pools. The lack of association between geographic distance and genetic or ecological differences between rock pool sites is indicative of historical stochastic events. Low heterozygosity, the significant deviations from H-W equilibrium, and the large inter- but low intra-site differentiation are suggestive of the importance of <span class="hlt">short</span>-range dispersal. Gene flow between metapopulations of B. wolfi appears to be seriously constrained by distances of 2 km or even less.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26841726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26841726"><span>Impacts of Pristine and Transformed Ag and Cu Engineered Nanomaterials on Surficial Sediment Microbial Communities Appear <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, Joe D; Stegemeier, John P; Bibby, Kyle; Marinakos, Stella M; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Laboratory-based studies have shown that many soluble metal and metal oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENM) exert strong toxic effects on microorganisms. However, laboratory-based studies lack the complexity of natural systems and often use "as manufactured" ENMs rather than more environmentally relevant transformed ENMs, leaving open the question of whether natural ligands and seasonal variation will mitigate ENM impacts. Because ENMs will accumulate in subaquatic sediments, we examined the effects of pristine and transformed Ag and Cu ENMs on surficial sediment microbial communities in simulated freshwater wetlands. Five identical mesocosms were dosed through the water column with either Ag(0), Ag2S, CuO or CuS ENMs (nominal sizes of 4.67 ± 1.4, 18.1 ± 3.2, 31.1 ± 12, and 12.4 ± 4.1, respectively) or Cu(2+). Microbial communities were examined at 0, 7, 30, 90, 180, and 300 d using qPCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results suggest differential <span class="hlt">short</span>-term impacts of Ag(0) and Ag2S, similarities between CuO and CuS, and differences between Cu ENMs and Cu(2+). PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes displayed differential effects of Ag treatments on photosynthesis and of Cu treatments on methane metabolism. By 300 d, all metrics pointed to reconvergence of ENM-dosed mesocosm microbial community structure and composition, suggesting that the long-term microbial community impacts from a pulse of Ag or Cu ENMs are limited.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARJ26001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARJ26001C"><span>Aspects of conical intersections: Dynamics, bound states embedded in the continuum and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> electronic states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cederbaum, Lorenz</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Conical intersections are omnipresent in polyatomic molecules and their presence gives rise to the most severe breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Several general aspects of conical intersections and of the dynamics through them will be addressed. Particular attention will be paid to the question what happens to the potential energy surfaces if the electronic states are metastable. In addition, it is shown that nuclear dynamics on coupled potential surface can lead to bound states embedded in the continuum. Non-Born-Oppenheimer effects are responsible for the binding of these states. Once the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is introduced, these states at best become resonances which decay via potential tunnelling. The tunnelling is completely suppressed by the coupling between the electronic states. Another important issue which will be touched upon is dynamics in the presence of conical intersections in macrosystems. Here, the number of modes is extremely large and, nevertheless, their impact close to the intersections cannot be neglected. It is shown that effective modes can be derived which reproduce exactly the <span class="hlt">short</span>-time dynamics of the whole macrosystem at low cost. Numerical examples are given. References: H. K"oppel, W. Domcke and L.S. Cederbaum, Adv.Chem.Phys. 57, 59 (1984) G.A. Worth and L.S. Cederbaum, Annu-Rev.Phys.Chem. 55, 127 (2004) L.S. Cederbaum, R.S. Friedman, V.M Ryaboy and N. Moiseyev, Phys.Rev.Lett. 90, 013001 (2003) S. Feuerbacher, T. Sommerfeld and L.S. Cederbaum, J.Chem.Phys. 120, 3201 (2004) L.S. Cederbaum, E. Gindensperger and I. Burghardt, Phys.Rev.Lett. 94, 113003 (2005)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827055"><span>DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-<span class="hlt">LIVED</span> WASTE PACKAGES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.</p> <p>2003-02-27</p> <p>In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849"><span>Direct determination of nuclear polarization produced by beam-foil interaction for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. beta. emitter /sup 12/B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nojiri, Y.; Deutch, B.I.</p> <p>1983-07-18</p> <p>Nuclear polarization P of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ..beta.. emitter /sup 12/B was produced by the beam-foil interaction and directly determined via asymmetric ..beta.. decay. For a single tilted foil, at boron energy E/sub B/ = 1.0 MeV, Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 1.82(14)%. This was enhanced to Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 4.69(46)% by stacking four tilted foils. The dependence of P vs E/sub B/ was observed for a single tilted foil in the range of E/sub B/ = 0.6 to 1.3 MeV. The sign of P followed that of the tilt angle and was consistent with predictions from electron-density-gradient models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24028469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24028469"><span>Seasonal phenology of interactions involving <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very <span class="hlt">short</span> life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21627157','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21627157"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein photoreceptor revealed by combined structural probes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramachandran, Pradeep L; Lovett, Janet E; Carl, Patrick J; Cammarata, Marco; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jung, Yang Ouk; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Timmel, Christiane R; van Thor, Jasper J</p> <p>2011-06-22</p> <p>The signaling state of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) photoreceptor is transiently developed via isomerization of its blue-light-absorbing chromophore. The associated structural rearrangements have large amplitude but, due to its transient nature and chemical exchange reactions that complicate NMR detection, its accurate three-dimensional structure in solution has been elusive. Here we report on direct structural observation of the transient signaling state by combining double electron electron resonance spectroscopy (DEER), NMR, and time-resolved pump-probe X-ray solution scattering (TR-SAXS/WAXS). Measurement of distance distributions for doubly spin-labeled photoreceptor constructs using DEER spectroscopy suggests that the signaling state is well ordered and shows that interspin-label distances change reversibly up to 19 Å upon illumination. The SAXS/WAXS difference signal for the signaling state relative to the ground state indicates the transient formation of an ordered and rearranged conformation, which has an increased radius of gyration, an increased maximum dimension, and a reduced excluded volume. Dynamical annealing calculations using the DEER derived long-range distance restraints in combination with <span class="hlt">short</span>-range distance information from (1)H-(15)N HSQC perturbation spectroscopy give strong indication for a rearrangement that places part of the N-terminal domain in contact with the exposed chromophore binding cleft while the terminal residues extend away from the core. Time-resolved global structural information from pump-probe TR-SAXS/WAXS data supports this conformation and allows subsequent structural refinement that includes the combined energy terms from DEER, NMR, and SAXS/WAXS together. The resulting ensemble simultaneously satisfies all restraints, and the inclusion of TR-SAXS/WAXS effectively reduces the uncertainty arising from the possible spin-label orientations. The observations are essentially compatible with reduced folding of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24848974"><span>Soluble maize fibre affects <span class="hlt">short</span>-term calcium absorption in adolescent boys and girls: a randomised controlled trial using dual stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> tracers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whisner, Corrie M; Martin, Berdine R; Nakatsu, Cindy H; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda D; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M</p> <p>2014-08-14</p> <p>Soluble maize fibre (SCF) has been found to significantly improve bone mineral density and strength in growing rats compared with several other novel prebiotic fibres. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of SCF on Ca absorption and retention in pubertal children by studying the potential absorption mechanisms of the intestinal microbiota. A total of twenty-four adolescent boys and girls (12-15 years) participated in two 3-week metabolic balance studies testing 0 g/d SCF (control (CON) treatment) and 12 g/d SCF (SCF treatment) in a random order by inclusion in a low-Ca diet (600 mg/d). Fractional Ca absorption was measured at the end of the two intervention periods using a dual-stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> method. Diet composites and faecal and urine samples were collected daily and analysed for Ca content. Ca retention was calculated as dietary Ca intake minus Ca excretion in faeces and urine over the last 2 weeks. Microbial community composition in the faecal samples collected at the beginning and end of each session was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Fractional Ca absorption was 12 % higher (41 mg/d) after the SCF treatment compared with that after the CON treatment (0·664 (sd 0·129) and 0·595 (sd 0·142), respectively; P= 0·02), but Ca retention was unaffected. The average proportion of bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly greater in the participants after the SCF treatment than after the CON treatment. These results suggest that moderate daily intake of SCF, a well-tolerated prebiotic fibre, increases <span class="hlt">short</span>-term Ca absorption in adolescents consuming less than the recommended amounts of Ca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.</p> <p>2015-03-09</p> <p>Spectroscopic detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm{sup −1} was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ∼40 mm{sup 3}) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ∼109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 σ) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1σ minimum detected absorption coefficient is ∼1.1 × 10{sup −7 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ∼1.1 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992"><span>Leadership emergence over time in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in <span class="hlt">short</span> timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926"><span>Climate impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very <span class="hlt">short</span> rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.R5001N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.R5001N"><span>Development of fast-release solid catchers for rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nolen, Jerry; Greene, John; Elam, Jeffrey; Mane, Anil; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Winter, Raymond; Hess, David; Mushfiq, Mohammad; Stracener, Daniel; Wiendenhoever, Ingo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Porous solid catchers of rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are being developed for use at high power heavy ion accelerator facilities such as RIKEN, FRIB, and RISP. Compact solid catchers are complementary to helium gas catchers for parasitic harvesting of rare <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the in-flight separators. They are useful for <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for basic nuclear physics research and longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for off-line applications. Solid catchers can operate effectively with high intensity secondary beams, e.g. >> 1E10 atoms/s with release times as <span class="hlt">short</span> as 10-100 milliseconds. A new method using a very sensitive and efficient RGA has been commissioned off-line at Argonne and is currently being shipped to Florida State University for in-beam measurements of the release curves using stable beams. The same porous solid catcher technology is also being evaluated for use in targets for the production of medical <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> such as 211-At. Research supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under the SBIR Program and Contract # DE-AC02-06CH11357 and a University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center/ANL Pilot Project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5299092','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5299092"><span>Age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>Results of a wide-ranging <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P"><span>The very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>CHBr3 (bromoform) is a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (Λ) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, σ(Λ,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276"><span>Phylogeny, genetic variability and colour polymorphism of an emerging animal model: the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual Nothobranchius fishes from southern Mozambique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorn, A; Ng'oma, E; Janko, K; Reichwald, K; Polačik, M; Platzer, M; Cellerino, A; Reichard, M</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Nothobranchius are a group of small, extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifishes <span class="hlt">living</span> in temporary savannah pools in Eastern Africa and that survive annual desiccation of their habitat as dormant eggs encased in dry mud. One mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (CX32.2, GHITM, PNP) loci were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Nothobranchius species from southern and central Mozambique. This group shows marked variation in captive lifespan at both the inter- and intraspecific levels; lifespan varies from a few months to over a year. As their distribution encompasses a steep gradient between semi-arid and humid habitats, resulting in contrasting selection pressures on evolution of lifespan and associated life history traits, Mozambican Nothobranchius spp. have recently become a model group in studies of ageing, age-related disorders and life history evolution. Consequently, intraspecific genetic variation and male colour morph distribution was also examined in the recovered clades. Using Bayesian species tree reconstruction and single loci analyses, three large clades were apparent and their phylogenetic substructure was revealed at the inter- and intra-specific levels within those clades. The Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus clades were strongly geographically structured. Further, it was demonstrated that male colour has no phylogenetic signal in N. furzeri, where colour morphs are sympatric, but is associated with two reciprocally monophyletic groups in Nothobranchius rachovii clade, where colour morphs are parapatric. Finally, our analysis showed that a polymorphism in the Melanocortin1 receptor gene (which controls pigmentation in many vertebrates and was a candidate gene of male colouration in N. furzeri) is unrelated to colour phenotypes of the study species. Our results raise significant implications for future comparative studies of the species and populations analysed in the present work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189"><span>IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell</p> <p>2005-07-11</p> <p>For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B"><span>The possibility to measure the magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles (charm and beauty baryons) at LHC and FCC energies using the phenomenon of spin rotation in crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baryshevsky, V. G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The use of spin rotation effect in bent crystals for measuring the magnetic moment of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles in the range of LHC and FCC energies is considered. It is shown that the estimated number of produced baryons that are captured into a bent crystal grows as ∼γ 3 / 2 with increasing particle energy. Hence it may be concluded that the experimental measurement of magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles using the spin rotation effect is feasible at LHC and higher energies (for LHC energies, e.g., the running time required for measuring the magnetic moment of Λc+ is 2 ÷ 16 hours).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a by-product of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focussed on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health impacts but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve due to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate-change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783"><span>Reaction dynamics. Extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H</p> <p>2015-01-02</p> <p>The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Mills, G. E.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focused on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health and vegetation impacts, but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve owing to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner. The review shows that there remain a number of clear challenges for ozone such as explaining surface trends, incorporating new chemical understanding, ozone-climate coupling, and a better assessment of impacts. There is a clear and present need to treat ozone across the range of scales, a transboundary issue, but with an emphasis on the hemispheric scales. New observational opportunities are offered both by satellites and small sensors that bridge the scales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587799','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587799"><span>The impact of dietary restriction, intermittent feeding and compensatory growth on reproductive investment and lifespan in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Inness, Claire L.W; Metcalfe, Neil B</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>While dietary restriction usually increases lifespan, an intermittent feeding regime, where periods of deprivation alternate with times when food is available, has been found to reduce lifespan in some studies but prolong it in others. We suggest that these disparities arise because in some situations lifespan is reduced by the costs of catch-up growth (following the deprivation) and reproductive investment, a factor that has rarely been measured in studies of lifespan. Using three-spined sticklebacks, we show for the first time that while animals subjected to an intermittent feeding regime can grow as large as continuously fed controls that receive the same total amount of food, and can maintain reproductive investment, they have a shorter lifespan. Furthermore, we show that this reduction in lifespan is linked to rapid skeletal growth rate and is due to an increase in the instantaneous risk of mortality rather than in the rate of senescence. By contrast, dietary restriction caused a reduction in reproductive investment in females but no corresponding increase in longevity. This suggests that in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species where reproduction is size dependent, selection pressures may lead to an increase in intrinsic mortality risk when resources are diverted from somatic maintenance to both growth and reproductive investment. PMID:18445563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21933036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21933036"><span>Beyond reminders: a conceptual framework for using <span class="hlt">short</span> message service to promote prevention and improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coomes, Curtis M; Lewis, Megan A; Uhrig, Jennifer D; Furberg, Robert D; Harris, Jennie L; Bann, Carla M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The availability of effective antiretroviral therapy has altered HIV from being an acute disease to being a chronic, manageable condition for many people <span class="hlt">living</span> with HIV (PLWH). Because of their ubiquity and flexibility, mobile phones with <span class="hlt">short</span> message service (SMS) offer a unique opportunity to enhance treatment and prevention for people managing HIV. To date, very few US studies using SMS for HIV self-management have been published. In this article, we review the published SMS-based intervention research that aimed to improve healthcare quality and outcomes for PLWH and other chronic health conditions, and propose a conceptual model that integrates the communication functionality of SMS with important psychosocial factors that could mediate the impact of SMS on health outcomes. We posit that an SMS-based intervention that incorporates the elements of interactivity, frequency, timing, and tailoring of messages could be implemented to encourage greater medication adherence as well as impact other mutually reinforcing behaviors and factors (e.g., increasing patient involvement and social support, reducing risk behaviors, and promoting general health and well-being) to support better healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for PLWH. We recommend that future studies explore the potential linkages between variations in SMS characteristics and these mediating factors to determine if and how they influence the larger outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K"><span>Diurnal variation climatology of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We present a diurnal variation climatology for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920051231&hterms=appraisal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dappraisal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920051231&hterms=appraisal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dappraisal"><span>Age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents results of a wide-ranging <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.681....6A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.681....6A"><span>The last stages of the Avalonian-Cadomian arc in NW Iberian Massif: <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> and igneous record for a long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> peri-Gondwanan magmatic arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andonaegui, Pilar; Arenas, Ricardo; Albert, Richard; Sánchez Martínez, Sonia; Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gerdes, Axel</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The upper allochthonous units of NW Iberian Massif contain an extensive Cambrian magmatism (c. 500 Ma), covering felsic to mafic compositions. The magmatic activity generated large massifs of granitoids and gabbros, with calc-alkaline and tholeiitic compositions respectively. Petrological and geochemical features of these massifs are characteristic of volcanic arc. The plutons intruded siliciclastic sedimentary series deposited in the periphery of the West Africa Craton. U-Pb/Hf <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of detrital zircon in the siliciclastic host series, indicate continental arc activity between c. 750 Ma and c. 500 Ma. It was characterized by a large variety of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> sources, including from very old continental input, even Archean, to the addition of a significant amount of juvenile mafic material. These <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> sources experienced an extensive mixing that explains the composition and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> features (εHft from - 50 until + 15) of the represented Cambrian plutons. The Cambrian igneous rocks of the upper units of NW Iberia are related to the latest activity of the Avalonian-Cadomian arc. From the Middle Cambrian arc activity in the periphery of Gondwana was replaced by pronounced extension associated with the development of continental rifting, which finally led to separation of the microcontinent Avalonia. Subsequent drifting of Avalonia to the North caused progressive opening one of the main Paleozoic ocean, the Rheic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055201','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055201"><span>Long-<span class="hlt">Lived</span> CD4+IFN-γ+ T Cells rather than <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> CD4+IFN-γ+IL-10+ T Cells Initiate Rapid IL-10 Production To Suppress Anamnestic T Cell Responses during Secondary Malaria Infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Villegas-Mendez, Ana; Inkson, Colette A.; Shaw, Tovah N.; Strangward, Patrick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>CD4+ T cells that produce IFN-γ are the source of host-protective IL-10 during primary infection with a number of different pathogens, including Plasmodium spp. The fate of these CD4+IFN-γ+IL-10+ T cells following clearance of primary infection and their subsequent influence on the course of repeated infections is, however, presently unknown. In this study, utilizing IFN-γ–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and IL-10–GFP dual reporter mice, we show that primary malaria infection–induced CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells have limited memory potential, do not stably express IL-10, and are disproportionately lost from the Ag-experienced CD4+ T cell memory population during the maintenance phase postinfection. CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells generally exhibited a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector rather than effector memory T cell phenotype postinfection and expressed high levels of PD-1, Lag-3, and TIGIT, indicative of cellular exhaustion. Consistently, the surviving CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cell–derived cells were unresponsive and failed to proliferate during the early phase of secondary infection. In contrast, CD4+YFP+GFP− T cell–derived cells expanded rapidly and upregulated IL-10 expression during secondary infection. Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells were the major producers within an accelerated and amplified IL-10 response during the early stage of secondary malaria infection. Notably, IL-10 exerted quantitatively stronger regulatory effects on innate and CD4+ T cell responses during primary and secondary infections, respectively. The results in this study significantly improve our understanding of the durability of IL-10–producing CD4+ T cells postinfection and provide information on how IL-10 may contribute to optimized parasite control and prevention of immune-mediated pathology during repeated malaria infections. PMID:27630165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ACP.....2..249G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ACP.....2..249G"><span>Uptake of HNO3 to deliquescent sea-salt particles: a study using the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive <span class="hlt">isotope</span> tracer 13N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guimbaud, C.; Arens, F.; Gutzwiller, L.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Ammann, M.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The uptake of HNO3 to deliquescent airborne sea-salt particles (RH = 55%, P = 760 torr, T = 300 K) at concentrations from 2 to 575 ppbv is measured in an aerosol flow tube using 13N as a tracer. Small particles (<approx> 70 nm diameter) are used in order to minimize the effect of diffusion in the gas phase on the mass transfer. Below 100 ppbv, an uptake coefficient (gupt) of 0.50 ± 0.20 is derived. At higher concentrations, the uptake coefficient decreases along with the consumption of aerosol chloride. Data interpretation is further supported by using the North American Aerosol Inorganics Model (AIM), which predicts the aqueous phase activities of ions and the gas-phase partial pressures of H2O, HNO3, and HCl at equilibrium for the NaCl/HNO3/H2O system. These simulations show that the low concentration data are obtained far from equilibrium, which implies that the uptake coefficient derived is equal to the mass accommodation coefficient under these conditions. The observed uptake coefficient can serve as input to modeling studies of atmospheric sea-salt aerosol chemistry. The main sea-salt aerosol burden in the marine atmosphere is represented by coarse mode particles (> 1 µm diameter). This implies that diffusion in the gas-phase is the limiting step to HNO3 uptake until the sea-salt has been completely processed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24703767"><span>Submarine groundwater discharge estimation in an urbanized embayment in Hong Kong via <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and its implication of nutrient loadings and primary production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Moore, W S; Lee, Chun Ming</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>(224)Ra and (223)Ra are adopted as tracers to qualify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in Tolo Harbor, a highly urbanized embayment in Hong Kong. Based on the sampling data, a two-layered radium mass balance model is used to estimate lateral SGD and bottom SGD. Total SGD is estimated to be 1.2-3.0 cm d(-1), including lateral SGD of 5.7-7.9 cm d(-1) and bottom SGD of 0.3-2.0 cm d(-1). Fresh SGD is estimated to be (2.1-5.5) × 10(5)m(3)d(-1). Nutrient fluxes (mold(-1)) from SGD are estimated to be (3-7.4) × 10(4) (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), (2.4-6.2) × 10(2) (dissolved inorganic phosphate) and (6.5-16) × 10(4) (dissolved silicate). Primary productivity is estimated to be (1.5-15) × 10(6)gCd(-1), 2-53% of which is supported by SGD-induced phosphate fluxes. The study indicates that SGD is a significant source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious increase of primary production. These findings must be considered in future coastal ecological management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23332845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23332845"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050226975','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050226975"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> And Geochemical Investigations Of Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Richard J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The primary goals of our research over the past four years are to constrain the timing of certain early planetary accretion/differentiation events, and to constrain the proportions and provenance of materials involved in these processes. This work was achieved via the analysis and interpretation of long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systems, and the study of certain trace elements. Our research targeted these goals primarily via the application of the Re-187, Os-187, Pt-190 Os-186 Tc-98 Ru-99 and Tc-99 Ru-99 <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systems, and the determination/modeling of abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE; including Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pd, Pt, and maybe Tc). The specific events we examined include the segregation and crystallization histories of asteroidal cores, the accretion and metamorphic histories of chondrites and chondrite components, and the accretionary and differentiation histories of Mars and the Moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E"><span>The Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data (MUTED): A database to support the identification of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkeling, G.; Luesebrink, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Heyer, T.; Jaumann, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Images of Mars taken by spacecraft in the last few decades indicate that the landscape has changed and that current processes are continuously changing the surface. The modifications of the landscape are caused by exogenic processes including eolian activity, mass movement, the growth and retreat of the polar caps, glacial processes and crater-forming impacts. In particular the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board Mars Express (MEx) and the Context Camera (CTX) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) cover large areas at high resolution and thus are particularly well-suited to detect the extent and origin of surface changes on Mars. Multi-temporal observations of variable features on Mars became possible by the increasing number of repeated image acquisitions of the same surface areas. To support the investigation of surface changes that represents a key element in martian research, we developed MUTED, the "Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data", which is a tool for the identification of the spatial and multi-temporal coverage of planetary image data from Mars. Using MUTED, scientists are able to identify the location, number, and time range of acquisitions of overlapping images from, for example, HRSC and CTX. MUTED also includes images from other planetary datasets such as those of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). The database supports the identification and analysis of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes on Mars based on fast automatic planetary image database queries. From the multi-temporal planetary image database and investigations based on multi-temporal observations we will better understand the interactions between the surface of Mars and external forces, including the atmosphere. MUTED is available for the planetary scientific community via the webpage of the Institut für Planetologie (IfP) Muenster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D"><span>The development of miocene extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin in the Andean broken foreland: The Conglomerado Los Patos, Northwestern Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>del Papa, Cecilia E.; Petrinovic, Ivan A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Conglomerado Los Patos is a coarse-grained clastic unit that crops out irregularly in the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley in the Puna, Northwestern Argentina. It covers different units of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Salta Group by means of an angular unconformity and, in turn, is overlaid in angular unconformity by the Viscachayoc Ignimbrite (13 ± 0.3 Ma) or by late Miocene tuffs. Three lithofacies have been identified in the Corte Blanco locality; 1) Bouldery matrix-supported conglomerate (Gmm); 2) Clast-supported conglomerate (Gch) and 3) Imbricated clast-supported conglomerate (Gci). The stratigraphic pattern displays a general fining upward trend. The sedimentary facies association suggests gravitational flow processes and sedimentation in alluvial fan settings, from proximal to medial fan positions, together with a slope decrease upsection. Provenance studies reveal sediments sourced from Precambrian to Ordovician units located to the southwest, except for volcanic clasts in the Gmm facies that shows U/Pb age of 14.5 ± 0.5 Ma. This new age represents the maximum depositional age for the Conglomerado Los Patos, and it documents that deposition took place simultaneously during a period of increased tectonic and volcanic activity in the area. The structural analysis of the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley and the available thermochronological ages, indicate active N-S main thrusts and NW-SE transpressive and locally normal faults during the middle Miocene. In this context, we interpret the Conglomerado Los Patos to represent sedimentation in a small, extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin associated with the compressional Andean setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629"><span>Stepwise Catalytic Mechanism via <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Intermediate Inferred from Combined QM/MM MERP and PES Calculations on Retaining Glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Koča, Jaroslav</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals. PMID:25849117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114"><span>2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jílek, K; Timková, J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ~8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546"><span>The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed</p> <p>2010-01-10</p> <p>The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F"><span>Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S"><span>Preliminary Results of IS Plasma Focus as a Breeder of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Elahi, M.; Adlparvar, S.; Shahhoseini, E.; Sheibani, S.; Ranjber akivaj, H.; Alhooie, S.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Aghaei, N.; Amini, S.; Khalaj, M. M.; Zirak, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Soleimani, J.; Torkzadeh, F.; Mousazadeh, M. M.; Moradi, K.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Talaei, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Moslehi, A.; Kashani, A.; Babazadeh, A. R.; Bagiyan, F.; Ardestani, M.; Roozbahani, A.; Pourbeigi, H.; Tajik Ahmadi, H.; Ahmadifaghih, M. A.; Mahlooji, M. S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Zahedi, F.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Modified IS (Iranian Sun) plasma focus (10 kJ,15 kV, 94 μF, 0.1 Hz) has been used to produce the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope 13N (half-life of 9.97 min) through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The filling gas was 1.5-3 torr of hydrogen (60%) deuterium (40%) mixture. The target was solid nuclear grade graphite with 5 mm thick, 9 cm width and 13 in length. The activations of the exogenous target on average of 20 shots (only one-third acceptable) through 10-13 kV produced the 511 keV gamma rays. Another peak found at the 570 keV gamma of which both was measured by a NaI portable gamma spectrometer calibrated by a 137Cs 0.25 μCi sealed reference source with its single line at 661.65 keV and 22Na 0.1 μCi at 511 keV. To measure the gamma rays, the graphite target converts to three different phases; solid graphite, powder graphite, and powder graphite in water solution. The later phase approximately has a doubled activity with respect to the solid graphite target up to 0.5 μCi of 511 keV and 1.1 μCi of 570 keV gamma lines were produced. This increment in activity was perhaps due to structural transformation of graphite powder to nano-particles characteristic in liquid water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L"><span>Dating the Laschamp Excursion: Why Speleothems are Valuable Tools for Constraining the Timing and Duration of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Geomagnetic Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lascu, I.; Feinberg, J. M.; Dorale, J. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> geomagnetic events are reflections of geodynamo behavior at small length scales. A rigorous documentation of the anatomy, timing, duration, and frequency of centennial-to-millennial scale geomagnetic events can be invaluable for theoretical and numerical geodynamo models, and for the understanding the finer dynamics of the Earth's core. A critical ingredient for characterizing such geomagnetic instabilities are tightly constrained age models that enable high-resolution magnetostratigraphies. Here we focus on a North American speleothem geomagnetic record of the Laschamp excursion, which was the first geomagnetic excursion recognized and described in the paleomagnetic record, and remains the most studied event of its kind. The geological significance of the Laschamp lies chiefly in the fact that it constitutes a global time-synchronous geochronological marker. The Laschamp excursion occurred around the time of the demise of Homo neanderthalensis, in conjunction with high-amplitude, rapid climatic oscillations leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, and precedes a major supervolcano eruption in the Mediterranean. Thus, the precise determination of the timing and duration of the Laschamp would help in elucidating major scientific questions situated at the intersection of geology, paleoclimatology, and anthropology. Here we present a geomagnetic record from a stalagmite collected in Crevice Cave, Missouri, which we have dated using a combination of high-precision 230Th ages and annual layer counting using confocal microscopy. We have found a maximum duration for the Laschamp that spans the interval 42,250-39,700 years BP, and an age of 41,100 ± 350 years BP for the height of the excursion. During this period relative paleointensity decreased by an order of magnitude and the virtual geomagnetic pole was located at southerly latitudes. Our chronology provides the first robust bracketing for the Laschamp excursion, and improves on previous age determinations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H"><span>Time-series variations of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20800124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20800124"><span>Population-specific <span class="hlt">short</span>-form mini nutritional assessment with body mass index or calf circumference can predict risk of malnutrition in community-<span class="hlt">living</span> or institutionalized elderly people in taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan; Wang, Yi-Chen; Liao, Chiu-Ying</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>A simple, reliable, noninvasive, and easy-to-use instrument is important for successful monitoring of emerging nutrition problems in elderly people. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adoption of population-specific body mass index (BMI) cutpoints would improve the predictive ability of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-form Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and whether calf circumference could be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the <span class="hlt">short</span>-form MNA without compromising its predictive ability. Using convenience sampling, the study recruited 301 community-<span class="hlt">living</span>, 109 care center-<span class="hlt">living</span>, and 68 nursing home-<span class="hlt">living</span> elderly people, 65 years or older, as subjects. Subjects were evaluated with the <span class="hlt">short</span>-form MNA in three versions: (a) the original, (b) Taiwan version 1 (T1), that adopted population-specific BMI cutpoints, and (c) Taiwan version 2 (T2), which substituted calf circumference for BMI, and with the long-form MNA-T2 as a reference. The ability of the <span class="hlt">short</span> forms to predict the long-form MNA-T2 was evaluated with binary classification and analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results were analyzed with an SPSS for Windows 12.0 software package (version 12.0.1C, 2000, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results showed that adoption of population-specific anthropometric BMI cutpoints improved the predictive ability of the <span class="hlt">short</span>-form MNA, whereas replacement of BMI with calf circumference further improved the predictive ability of the scale (kappa values of the binary classification tests were 0.596, 0.742, and 0.843 for community-<span class="hlt">living</span>; 0.560, 0.683, and 0.839 for care center-<span class="hlt">living</span>; and 0.346, 0.454, and 0.522 for nursing home-<span class="hlt">living</span> elderly for the original, T1, and T2 MNA <span class="hlt">short</span>-form versions, respectively). These results suggest that modification of a measurement tool according to cultural or anthropometric features of the target population is necessary. The study also shows that calf circumference can be an acceptable alternative to BMI in the <span class="hlt">short</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068392','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068392"><span>Higher central fat and poor self-body image in <span class="hlt">short</span>-stature overweight/obese women <span class="hlt">living</span> in Brazilian shantytowns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Florêncio, Telma Toledo; Cavalcante, Fabiana Albuquerque; Lins, Isabela Lopes; Clemente, Ana Grotti; Sawaya, Ana Lydia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Short</span> stature in adult life, a possible consequence of poor perinatal conditions, is associated with higher risk of mortality and social disabilities. We aimed to determine whether low-income, overweight/obese, <span class="hlt">short</span>-stature (SS) women show alterations in body composition, self-body-image perception, and biochemical profile compared to their non-<span class="hlt">short</span> (NS) counterparts. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with women <span class="hlt">living</span> in shantytowns and mother or relatives to undernourished children treated in a center for recuperation and nutritional education. Inclusion criteria were: (1) age, 19–45 years; (2) stature < 152.3 cm or > 158.7 cm; and (3) body mass index > 25 kg/m2. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, biochemical, and body image data were collected. We analyzed 56 SS and 57 NS women. Results The SS group showed a higher waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (mean: 0.63; standard deviation: 0.06 for SS and mean: 0.60; standard deviation: 0.07 for the NS group; p = 0.02), and, in the adjusted analysis, showed lower fat-free mass (Estimated Marginal Mean for the SS group: 45.7 kg 95% confidence intervals (CI) (45.2–46.2) and for the NS group: 46.9 kg 95% CI (46.4–47.4); p < 0.01) and higher fat mass (Estimated Marginal Mean for the SS group: 32.5 95% CI (31.9–33.0) and for the NS group: 31.4 kg 95% CI (30.9–31.9); p < 0.01). Body mass index was a better predictor of current self-body-image perception for NS women. The SS coefficient values were β = 0.141, SE = 0.059, and R2-Nagelkerke = 0.107, and the NS coefficients values were β = 0.307, SE = 0.058, and R2-Nagelkerke = 0.491 (Z = 2.006; p < 0.05). Considering the obese subgroup, six out of 32 (18.8%) SS women and 14 out of 33 (42.4%) NS women perceived themselves as obese (χ2 = 4.27; p = 0.03). This difference remained significant even after adjustment by age, schooling, and number of children (p = 0.04). Only the total thyroxin showed significant differences between groups, lower in SS women</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973874"><span>Origin of uranium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations in early solar nebula condensates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tissot, François L H; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grossman, Lawrence</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>High-temperature condensates found in meteorites display uranium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variations ((235)U/(238)U), which complicate dating the solar system's formation and whose origin remains mysterious. It is possible that these variations are due to the decay of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide (247)Cm (t 1/2 = 15.6 My) into (235)U, but they could also be due to uranium kinetic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractionation during condensation. We report uranium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements of meteoritic refractory inclusions that reveal excesses of (235)U reaching ~+6% relative to average solar system composition, which can only be due to the decay of (247)Cm. This allows us to constrain the (247)Cm/(235)U ratio at solar system formation to (1.1 ± 0.3) × 10(-4). This value provides new clues on the universality of the nucleosynthetic r-process of rapid neutron capture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783122','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783122"><span>Origin of uranium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations in early solar nebula condensates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Grossman, Lawrence</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>High-temperature condensates found in meteorites display uranium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variations (235U/238U), which complicate dating the solar system’s formation and whose origin remains mysterious. It is possible that these variations are due to the decay of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide 247Cm (t1/2 = 15.6 My) into 235U, but they could also be due to uranium kinetic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fractionation during condensation. We report uranium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements of meteoritic refractory inclusions that reveal excesses of 235U reaching ~+6% relative to average solar system composition, which can only be due to the decay of 247Cm. This allows us to constrain the 247Cm/235U ratio at solar system formation to (1.1 ± 0.3) × 10−4. This value provides new clues on the universality of the nucleosynthetic r-process of rapid neutron capture. PMID:26973874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191775','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040191775"><span>Chemical and <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Study of Lab-formed Carbonates Under Cryogenic and Hydrothermal Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Socki, R. A.; Guan, Y.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gibson, E. K.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Aqueous environments on early Mars were probably relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and localized, as evidenced by the lack of abundant secondary minerals detected by the TES instrument. In order to better understand the aqueous history of early Mars we need to be able to interpret the evidence preserved in secondary minerals formed during these aqueous events. Carbonate minerals, in particular, are important secondary minerals for interpreting past aqueous environments as illustrated by the carbonates preserved in ALH84001. Carbonates formed in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, dynamic aqueous events often preserve kinetic rather than equilibrium chemical and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> processes, and predicting the behavior of such systems is facilitated by empirical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F</p> <p>2010-11-30</p> <p>The origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27873999','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27873999"><span>Evidence from stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and (10)Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W C</p> <p>2016-11-22</p> <p>About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, which would be preserved today as <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10)Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are suppressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121422','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5121422"><span>Evidence from stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and 10Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, which would be preserved today as <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are suppressed. PMID:27873999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713639B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713639B"><span>Evidence from stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and 10Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W. C.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, which would be preserved today as <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are suppressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28108093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28108093"><span>Source apportionment of lead in the blood of women of reproductive age <span class="hlt">living</span> near tailings in Taxco, Guerrero, Mexico: An <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vázquez Bahéna, Analine Berenice; Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Moreno Godínez, Ma Elena; Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrián; Ruiz, Joaquín; Huerta Beristain, Gerardo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The concentration and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of lead in the blood of forty seven women of reproductive age (15-45y) exposed to multiple sources in two rural communities of the mining region of Taxco, Guerrero in southern Mexico were determined in order to identify specific contributing sources and their apportionment and to trace probable ingestion pathways. Our data indicate that >36% of the studied women have blood lead concentrations above 10μgdL(-1) and up to 87% above 5μgdL(-1). Tailings contain between 2128 and 5988mgkg(-1) of lead and represent the most conspicuous source in the area. Lead contents in indoor dust are largely variable (21.7-987mgkg(-1)) but only 15% of samples are above the Mexican Regulatory Guideline for urban soils (400mgkg(-1)). By contrast, 85% of glazed containers (range: 0.026-68.6mgkg(-1)) used for cooking and food storage are above the maximum 2mgL(-1) of soluble lead established in the Mexican Guideline. The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition indicates that lead in the blood of 95% of the studied women can be modeled in terms of a mixing system between local ores (and derivatives), glazed pottery and Morelos bedrock, end-members, with the two former being largely the most important contributors. Only one sample shows influence of indoor paints. Indoor dust is dominated by ores and derivatives but some samples show evidence of contribution from a less radiogenic source very likely represented by interior paints. This study supports the application of lead <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios to identify potential sources and their apportionment in humans exposed to multiple sources of lead from both, natural and anthropogenic origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024876','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024876"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Biogeochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayes, J. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An overview is provided of the biogeochemical research. The funding, productivity, personnel and facilities are reviewed. Some of the technical areas covered are: carbon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> records; <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> studies of banded iron formations; <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effects in microbial systems; studies of organic compounds in ancient sediments; and development in <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> geochemistry and analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V72D..01T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V72D..01T"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> Timescales for Crustal Residence, Transport and Contamination of Flood Basalt Magma: Crystal <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Stratigraphy of the Columbia River Basalt Group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tollstrup, D. L.; Ramos, F. C.; Wolff, J. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Geochemical studies of continental flood basalt magmas provide evidence for contributions from one or more enriched reservoirs. There is, however, no consensus on the role of continental crust as a major source of enriched signatures. With its stratigraphy defined and mapped at the scale of individual flows, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the most thoroughly studied continental flood basalt province in the world. Its tectonic position (overlying both thin accreted Mesozoic crust and thick ancient cratonic crust) makes the CRBG ideal for isolating the contribution of crust in the petrogenesis of continental flood basalts. Many flows are plagioclase-phyric. Because plagioclase in basaltic magmas can be assumed to have grown at crustal pressures, growth layers in plagioclase phenocrysts record changes in the chemical and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of the magma occurring at crustal depths. We have initiated a micro-sampling study utilizing laser ablation multicollector ICP-MS (ThermoFinnigan Neptuner) to analyze 87Sr/86Sr variability in plagioclase and clinopyroxene phenocrysts (where present) and associated groundmass. Initial results are: 1) plagioclase and clinopyroxene phenocrysts within CRBG lavas are overall less radiogenic than host groundmass and 2) plagioclase phenocrysts are commonly zoned from less radiogenic cores to more radiogenic rims. The rims may have similar compositions to, or be less radiogenic than, host groundmass. One-dimensional diffusion modeling applied to observed 87Sr/86Sr zoning and crystal/groundmass gradients constrains phenocryst residence times, and the timescale of crustal-level petrogenetic events that modified CRBG magmas. Residence times for phenocrysts in their final host liquid may be as little as 10 years prior to quenching. These results require that the 87Sr/86Sr composition of the CRBG magmas increased rapidly with time at crustal pressures during and after phenocryst growth. This could result from mixing between magmas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815395A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815395A"><span>Mapping the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with <span class="hlt">short</span> term observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-<span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A"><span>A comparison of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbon (VSLS) and DMS aircraft measurements in the tropical west Pacific from CAST, ATTREX and CONTRAST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, Stephen J.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Apel, Eric C.; Atlas, Elliot; Donets, Valeria; Hopkins, James R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lidster, Richard T.; Lueb, Richard; Minaeian, Jamie; Navarro, Maria; Punjabi, Shalini; Riemer, Daniel; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present a comparison of aircraft measurements of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS, C2H6S) from a co-ordinated campaign in January-February 2014 in the tropical west Pacific. Measurements were made on the NASA Global Hawk, NCAR Gulfstream-V High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (GV HIAPER) and UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 (see Sect. 2.2) using four separate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instruments: one operated by the University of Miami (UoM), one from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and two from the University of York (UoY). DMS was measured on the BAe-146 and GV. The instruments were inter-calibrated for halocarbons during the campaign period using two gas standards on separate scales: a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) SX-3581 standard representative of clean low-hydrocarbon air, and an Essex canister prepared by UoM, representative of coastal air, which was higher in VSLS and hydrocarbon content. UoY and NCAR use the NOAA scale/standard for VSLS calibration, and UoM uses a scale based on dilutions of primary standards calibrated by GC with FID (flame ionisation detector) and AED (atomic emission detector). Analysis of the NOAA SX-3581 standard resulted in good agreement for CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, CH3I, CH2ICl and CH2I2 (average relative standard deviation (RSD) < 10 %). Agreement was in general slightly poorer for the UoM Essex canister with an RSD of < 13 %. Analyses of CHBrCl2 and CHBr3 in this standard however showed significant variability, most likely due to co-eluting contaminant peaks, and a high concentration of CHBr3, respectively. These issues highlight the importance of calibration at atmospherically relevant concentrations ( ˜ 0.5-5 ppt for VSLSs; see Fig. 5 for individual ranges). The UoY in situ GC-MS measurements on board the BAe-146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/198213','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/198213"><span>Stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analyses in paleoclimatic reconstruction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wigand, P.E.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Most traditional paleoclimatic proxy data have inherent time lags between climatic input and system response that constrain their use in accurate reconstruction of paleoclimate chronology, scaling of its variability, and the elucidation of the processes that determine its impact on the biotic and abiotic environment. With the exception of dendroclimatology, and studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organisms and pollen recovered from annually varved lacustrine sediments, significant periods of time ranging from years, to centuries, to millennia may intervene between climate change and its first manifestation in paleoclimatic proxy data records. Reconstruction of past climate through changes in plant community composition derived from pollen sequences and plant remains from ancient woodrat middens, wet environments and dry caves all suffer from these lags. However, stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analyses can provide more immediate indication of biotic response to climate change. Evidence of past physiological response of organisms to changes in effective precipitation as climate varies can be provided by analyses of the stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> content of plant macrofossils from various contexts. These analyses consider variation in the stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> (hydrogen, oxygen and carbon) content of plant tissues as it reflects (1) past global or local temperature through changes in meteoric (rainfall) water chemistry in the case of the first two <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, and (2) plant stress through changes in plant respiration/transpiration processes under differing water availability, and varying atmospheric CO, composition (which itself may actually be a net result of biotic response to climate change). Studies currently being conducted in the Intermountain West indicate both long- and <span class="hlt">short</span>-term responses that when calibrated with modem analogue studies have the potential of revealing not only the timing of climate events, but their direction, magnitude and rapidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163779.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163779.html"><span><span class="hlt">Live</span> Healthy, <span class="hlt">Live</span> Longer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy <span class="hlt">Living</span> Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy <span class="hlt">Living</span> About MedlinePlus Site Map ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26991121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26991121"><span>Abstracts of the 24th international <span class="hlt">isotope</span> society (UK group) symposium: synthesis and applications of labelled compounds 2015.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aigbirhio, F I; Allwein, S; Anwar, A; Atzrodt, J; Audisio, D; Badman, G; Bakale, R; Berthon, F; Bragg, R; Brindle, K M; Bushby, N; Campos, S; Cant, A A; Chan, M Y T; Colbon, P; Cornelissen, B; Czarny, B; Derdau, V; Dive, V; Dunscombe, M; Eggleston, I; Ellis-Sawyer, K; Elmore, C S; Engstrom, P; Ericsson, C; Fairlamb, I J S; Georgin, D; Godfrey, S P; He, L; Hickey, M J; Huscroft, I T; Kerr, W J; Lashford, A; Lenz, E; Lewinton, S; L'Hermite, M M; Lindelöf, Å; Little, G; Lockley, W J S; Loreau, O; Maddocks, S; Marguerit, M; Mirabello, V; Mudd, R J; Nilsson, G N; Owens, P K; Pascu, S I; Patriarche, G; Pimlott, S L; Pinault, M; Plastow, G; Racys, D T; Reif, J; Rossi, J; Ruan, J; Sarpaki, S; Sephton, S M; Simonsson, R; Speed, D J; Sumal, K; Sutherland, A; Taran, F; Thuleau, A; Wang, Y; Waring, M; Watters, W H; Wu, J; Xiao, J</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The 24th annual symposium of the International <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Society's United Kingdom Group took place at the Møller Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK on Friday 6th November 2015. The meeting was attended by 77 delegates from academia and industry, the life sciences, chemical, radiochemical and scientific instrument suppliers. Delegates were welcomed by Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK, chair of the IIS UK group). The subsequent scientific programme consisted of oral presentations, <span class="hlt">short</span> 'flash' presentations in association with particular posters and poster presentations. The scientific areas covered included <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> synthesis, regulatory issues, applications of labelled compounds in imaging, <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> separation and novel chemistry with potential implications for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> synthesis. Both <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were represented, as were stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The symposium was divided into a morning session chaired by Dr Rebekka Hueting (University of Oxford, UK) and afternoon sessions chaired by Dr Sofia Pascu (University of Bath, UK) and by Dr Alan Dowling (Syngenta, UK). The UK meeting concluded with remarks from Dr Ken Lawrie (GlaxoSmithKline, UK).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+fitness+AND+healthy&id=EJ878799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exercise+AND+fitness+AND+healthy&id=EJ878799"><span>The Effectiveness of Healthy Physical Fitness Programs on People with Intellectual Disabilities <span class="hlt">Living</span> in a Disability Institution: Six-Month <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Tung; Chou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Po-Hsun</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Little information is available on the provision of physical fitness and intervention program among people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study is to provide information of examining the effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities <span class="hlt">living</span> in a disability institution. There were 146…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NuPhA.721.1107B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NuPhA.721.1107B"><span>TRIμP — A radioactive <span class="hlt">isotope</span> trapping facility at KVI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berg, G. P. A.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hoekstra, R.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kopecky, S.; Kravchuk, V.; Morgenstern, R.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>TRIμP, a new research facility to produce and trap rare and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for high precision physics experiments is under design and construction at KVI. This facility makes use of the existing super-conducting cyclotron and the infrastructure of the laboratory. To be able to study a large variety of heavy ions a new dual function magnetic separator has been developed. Details of the separator and the status of the project will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSAES..50...75C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSAES..50...75C"><span>Geochronology and geochemistry of the Parashi granitoid, NE Colombia: Tectonic implication of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Early Eocene plutonism along the SE Caribbean margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardona, A.; Weber, M.; Valencia, V.; Bustamante, C.; Montes, C.; Cordani, U.; Muñoz, C. M.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The Parashi granitoid of northeasternmost Colombia intrudes the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene accretionary complex formed by the collision of the Caribbean arc and the continental margin of South America. This granitoid presently separated of the continental margin includes a major quartzdiorite body with andesite to dacite dikes and mafic enclaves. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS and K-Ar geochronology on the quartzdiorite and the dikes suggest that crystallization extended from ca. 47 to 51 Ma. Major and trace elements are characterized by a medium-K, immature continental arc signature and high Al2O3, Na2O and Ba-Sr contents. Initial 87Sr/86Sr <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values range between 0.7050 and 0.7054, with 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51235-0.51253, ɛNd and ɛHf values from -0.81 to -4.40 and -4.4 and -5.2. Major and trace element ratios and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> modeling suggest that sedimentary and/or quartzofeldspathic crustal sources were mixed with a mafic melt input. The petrotectonic and geological constraints derived from this granitoid suggest that Parashi plutonism records an immature, oblique subduction-zone setting in which the presence of a high-temperature mantle realm and strong plate coupling associated to upper crust subduction caused the partial fusion of a previously tectonically underplated mafic crust and associated metasediments exposed in the continental margin. The limited temporal expression of this magmatism and the transition to a regional magmatic hiatus are related to a subsequent change to strongly and slow oblique tectonics in the Caribbean-South America plate interactions and the underflow of a relatively thick slab of Caribbean oceanic crust.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/860223"><span>Heavy-ion-induced production and preseparation of <span class="hlt">short</span>-livedisotopes for chemistry experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dullmann, Christoph E.; Folden III, Charles M.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Hoffman, Darleane C.; Leitner, Daniela; Pang, Gregory K.; Sudowe, Ralf; Zielinski, Peter M.; Nitsche, Heino</p> <p>2005-02-24</p> <p>Physical separation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> produced inheavy-ion-induced fusion reactions is a powerful and well know method andoften applied in investigations of the heaviest elements, called thetransactinides (Z>=104). By extracting these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from a recoilseparator, they can be made available for transport to setups locatedoutside the heavily shielded irradiation position such as chemistrysetups. This physical preseparation technique overcomes many limitationscurrently faced in the chemical investigation of transactinides. Here wedescribe the basic principle using relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of thelighter group 4 elements zirconium (Zr) and hafnium (Hf) that are used asanalogs of the lightest transactinide element, rutherfordium (Rf, element104). The Zr and Hf <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were produced at the LBNL 88-Inch Cyclotronusing a cocktail of 18O and 50Ti beams and the appropriate targets.Subsequently, the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were physically separated in the BerkeleyGas-filled Separator (BGS) and guided to a Recoil Transfer Chamber (RTC)to transfer them to chemistry setups. The magnetic rigidities of thereaction products in low-pressure helium gas were measured and theiridentities determined with gamma-pectroscopy. Using preseparated isotopeshas the advantages of low background and beam plasma free environment forchemistry experiments. The new possibilities that open up for chemicalinvestigations of transactinide elements are descr ibed. The method canreadily be applied to homologous elements within other groups in theperiodic table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V23B3128G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V23B3128G"><span>Osmium and lead <span class="hlt">isotope</span> investigation of magmas within the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Pichincha Volcanic complex from the Northern Andean Volcanic zone (Ecuador)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gannoun, A.; Samaniego, P.; Martin, H.; Schiano, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Nauret, F.; Le Pennec, J. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The study of arc magmas most often stumbles on deciphering both the nature and the composition of the subduction components involved in magma genesis. In Ecuador, the subduction of the Carnegie ridge, appears as a key parameter accounting for the temporal chemical changes highlighted in the quaternary lavas, whose composition shifted from calc-alkaline to adakitic [1-3]. Moreover, the adakitic signature is only observed in an area located above the Carnegie ridge subduction [4, 5]. Re-Os and Pb <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of lavas from the Pichincha volcano were investigated, in order to document the nature and origin of this transition. The Pichincha Volcanic Complex consists of (1) an ancient, eroded edifice (the Rucu, 1.1-0.15 Ma), and (2) a younger edifice (Guagua, 60-11 ka). This structural evolution is correlated with significant variations of trace element abundances, mainly reflecting major processes of magmatic mixtures [1, 2]. In addition to Pichincha lavas, we also analysed the subducted oceanic basalts and sediments (Amadeus campaign), as well as samples of the Pichincha basement. In a 187Os/188Os vs. 1/Os diagram, Pichincha basalts define a positive trend ranging between an unradiogenic Os component (i.e., peridotitic mantle) and a radiogenic basaltic Os component with low Os content, which is consistent with Carnegie ridge basalt composition. On another hand, the sediments and basement samples plot away from this trend, indicating that crustal contamination contribution remained insignificant. This conclusion is also supported by the low 207Pb/204Pb ratios in the Guagua compared to Rucu lavas. Finally, in the Guagua lavas, the high 187Os/188Os ratios positively correlate with the adakitic character (high Sr/Y and La/Yb). [1] Samaniego S. et al. CMP 160 (2010) 239-260 [2] Schiano P. et al. CMP 160 (2010) 297-312 [3] Hidalgo S. et al. Lithos 132-133 (2012) 180-192 [4] Bourdon E. et al. J. Petrol. 43 (2002) 199-217 [5] Martin H. et al. Lithos 198-199 (2014) 1-13</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1099..715C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1099..715C"><span>DANCEing with the Stars: Measuring Neutron Capture on Unstable <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> with DANCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Couture, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Baker, J. D.; Bayarbadrahk, B.; Becker, J. A.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Fowler, M.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> heavier than iron are known to be produced in stars through neutron capture processes. Two major processes, the slow (s) and rapid (r) processes are each responsible for 50% of the abundances of the heavy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The neutron capture cross sections of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> on the s process path reveal information about the expected abundances of the elements as well as stellar conditions and dynamics. Until recently, measurements on unstable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, which are most important for determining stellar temperatures and reaction flow, have not been experimentally feasible. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was designed to perform time-of-flight neutron capture measurements on unstable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for nuclear astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and reactor development. DANCE is a 4-π BaF2 scintillator array which can perform measurements on sub-milligram samples of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> as <span class="hlt">short</span> as a few hundred days. These cross sections are critical for advancing our understanding of the production of the heavy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002923','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002923"><span>Formation and Preservation of the Depleted and Enriched Shergottite <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Reservoirs in a Convecting Martian Mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Walter S.; Jones, John H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There is compelling <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> and crater density evidence for geologically recent volcanism on Mars, in the last 100-200 million years and possibly in the last 50 million years. This volcanism is due to adiabatic decompression melting and thus requires some type of present-day convective upwelling in the martian mantle. On the other hand, martian meteorites preserve evidence for at least 3 distinct radiogenic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> reservoirs. Anomalies in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systems (Sm-146, Nd-142, Hf-182, W-182) require that these reservoirs must have developed in the first 50 to 100 million years of Solar System history. The long-term preservation of chemically distinct reservoirs has sometimes been interpreted as evidence for the absence of mantle convection and convective mixing on Mars for most of martian history, a conclusion which is at odds with the evidence for young volcanism. This apparent paradox can be resolved by recognizing that a variety of processes, including both inefficient mantle mixing and geographic separation of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> reservoirs, may preserve <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneity on Mars in an actively convecting mantle. Here, we focus on the formation and preservation of the depleted and enriched <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> and trace element reservoirs in the shergottites. In particular, we explore the possible roles of processes such as chemical diffusion and metasomatism in dikes and magma chambers for creating the <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> enriched shergottites. We also consider processes that may preserve the enriched reservoir against convective mixing for most of martian history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989767','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989767"><span>Spent fuel temperature and age determination from the analysis of uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scott, Mark R; Eccleston, George W; Bedell, Jeffrey J; Lockard, Chanelle M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The capability to determine the age (time since irradiation) of spent fuel can be useful for verification and safeguards. While the age of spent fuel can be determined based on measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products, these measurements are not routinely done nor generally reported. As an alternative, age can also be determined if the uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values are available. Uranium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span> are not strongly affected by fuel temperature, and bumup is determined from the {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> values. Age is calculated after estimating the {sup 241}Pu at the end of irradiation while accounting for the fuel temperature, which is determined from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 240}Pu. Burnup and age determinations are calibrated to reactor models that provide uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span> over the range of fuel irradiation. The reactor model must contain sufficient fidelity on details of the reactor type, fuel burnup, irradiation history, initial fuel enrichment and fuel temperature to obtain accurate <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> calculations. If the latter four are unknown, they can be derived from the uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span>. Fuel temperature has a significant affect on the production of plutonium <span class="hlt">isotopics</span>; therefore, one group cross section reactor models, such as ORIGEN, cannot be used for these calculations. Multi-group cross section set codes, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory's TRITON code, must be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21289631','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21289631"><span>DANCEing with the Stars: Measuring Neutron Capture on Unstable <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> with DANCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couture, A.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Baker, J. D.; Bayarbadrahk, B.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Reifarth, R.</p> <p>2009-03-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> heavier than iron are known to be produced in stars through neutron capture processes. Two major processes, the slow (s) and rapid (r) processes are each responsible for 50% of the abundances of the heavy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The neutron capture cross sections of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> on the s process path reveal information about the expected abundances of the elements as well as stellar conditions and dynamics. Until recently, measurements on unstable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, which are most important for determining stellar temperatures and reaction flow, have not been experimentally feasible. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was designed to perform time-of-flight neutron capture measurements on unstable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for nuclear astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and reactor development. DANCE is a 4-{pi}BaF{sub 2} scintillator array which can perform measurements on sub-milligram samples of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> as <span class="hlt">short</span> as a few hundred days. These cross sections are critical for advancing our understanding of the production of the heavy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NIMPA.352...79D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NIMPA.352...79D"><span>The TR13 control system for automatic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dale, D. J.; Ewert, T.; Harrison, D.; Lam, J.; Keitel, R.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The TR13 is a 13 MeV H cyclotron which produces <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> for use in PET scanners. Machines of this type are usually installed in hospitals and call for automatic operation with a minimum of operator intervention and maintenance. The control system implementation follows the approach of the TR30 line of cyclotrons, using commercial software and hardware wherever possible. The two-processor system uses an Allen Bradley PLC for control and an IBM PC as console computer. Aspects of automatic operation are discussed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1133373','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1133373"><span>Online Catalog of <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Products from DOE's National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> that are in <span class="hlt">short</span> supply for research and applications. <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates <span class="hlt">isotope</span> production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863152','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863152"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bartlett, Rodney J.; Morrey, John R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one <span class="hlt">isotope</span> of an element from gas molecules containing other <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827554"><span>[A <span class="hlt">short</span> biography of Paul Bonét-Maury (1900-1972) or parallel <span class="hlt">lives</span> of a pharmacist: researcher and judoka].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grognet, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Pharmacist by training, doctor in sciences and student of Marie Curie, he will be between 1925 and 1965 one of the pioneers of radiobiology, science of the study of the interaction between ionizing radiations and <span class="hlt">living</span> matter. He will be the initiator of the teaching on the use of radioelements in medicine and pharmacy. At the same time as he develops a scientific work of international level, he makes a commitment prematurely in the judo of which he will be one of the first four French black belts. He founds in 1946 the French Federation of this sport of which he will be president until 1956, year from which he becomes a general secretary of the International Federation of Judo until 1971.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51A2624B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51A2624B"><span>Zn <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation during adsorption on birnessite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bryan, A. L.; Dong, S.; Wasylenki, L. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>) reported a mixture of tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Zn sorbed on Mn oxides. In general, a species with lower coordination number favors heavier <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (Schauble, 2004). The potential explanations for the discrepancy between our results and our expectations include (1) a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> kinetic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> effect favors sorption of light Zn in our <span class="hlt">short</span> experiments, but will reverse on long time scales, (2) there are structural differences between our synthetic birnessite and Mn oxides previously studied, (3) our experiments are conducted at low ionic strength, and a change in Zn speciation at high ionic strength may lead to different <span class="hlt">isotope</span> behavior. Our subsequent work will evaluate these possible explanations. Manceau et al. (2002). GCA 66, 2639-2663. Maréchal et al. (2000). G3 1, 1015. Schauble (2004). RiMG 55, 65-112.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26423628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26423628"><span>Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping</p> <p>2015-09-24</p> <p>Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important <span class="hlt">short</span>-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1-0.3 ng/mL and 0.4-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%-105.4%, 98.2%-114.0% and 92.2%-108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD<7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and <span class="hlt">short</span> run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating <span class="hlt">short</span>-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive profiling of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20172687"><span>The effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities <span class="hlt">living</span> in a disability institution: six-month <span class="hlt">short</span>-term effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Yen, Cheng-Tung; Chou, Yu-Lan; Wu, Po-Hsun</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Little information is available on the provision of physical fitness and intervention program among people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study is to provide information of examining the effectiveness of healthy physical fitness programs on people with intellectual disabilities <span class="hlt">living</span> in a disability institution. There were 146 participants with intellectual disabilities (age 19-67 years) were recruited in the study. We collected information on disability condition (type and level), height, weight, BMI, and physical fitness status (includes V-shape sit and reach test, sit-up 30s, sit-up 60s, and shuttle run) at the beginning and 6 months later of the program intervention. The results show that there were statistical decreases in individual's weight, BMI score, BMI category, and positive improvement in V-shape sit and reach test, sit-up in 30s and 60s tests after 6-month interventions. However, the shuttle run test did not improve at the post-test among people with intellectual disabilities. The results also showed that the mild disability level group has the highest effectiveness on the healthy fitness program on decreasing body weight. Generally speaking, the preliminary study found the healthy exercise program has positive fitness effects on people with intellectual disabilities. To maximize the benefits of regular physical activity on people with ID, there is a need to evaluate the long-term effect of the intervention program and then to initiate the healthy exercise strategies in institution for this group of people.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2688266','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2688266"><span>High tandem repeat content in the genome of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri: a new vertebrate model for aging research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reichwald, Kathrin; Lauber, Chris; Nanda, Indrajit; Kirschner, Jeanette; Hartmann, Nils; Schories, Susanne; Gausmann, Ulrike; Taudien, Stefan; Schilhabel, Markus B; Szafranski, Karol; Glöckner, Gernot; Schmid, Michael; Cellerino, Alessandro; Schartl, Manfred; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the vertebrate with the shortest known life span in captivity. Fish of the GRZ strain <span class="hlt">live</span> only three to four months under optimal laboratory conditions, show explosive growth, early sexual maturation and age-dependent physiological and behavioral decline, and express aging related biomarkers. Treatment with resveratrol and low temperature significantly extends the maximum life span. These features make N. furzeri a promising new vertebrate model for age research. Results To contribute to establishing N. furzeri as a new model organism, we provide a first insight into its genome and a comparison to medaka, stickleback, tetraodon and zebrafish. The N. furzeri genome contains 19 chromosomes (2n = 38). Its genome of between 1.6 and 1.9 Gb is the largest among the analyzed fish species and has, at 45%, the highest repeat content. Remarkably, tandem repeats comprise 21%, which is 4-12 times more than in the other four fish species. In addition, G+C-rich tandem repeats preferentially localize to centromeric regions. Phylogenetic analysis based on coding sequences identifies medaka as the closest relative. Genotyping of an initial set of 27 markers and multi-locus fingerprinting of one microsatellite provides the first molecular evidence that the GRZ strain is highly inbred. Conclusions Our work presents a first basis for systematic genomic and genetic analyses aimed at understanding the mechanisms of life span determination in N. furzeri. PMID:19210790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31C0455Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31C0455Y"><span>Development of charge structure in a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">live</span> convective cell observed by a 3D lightning mapper and a phased array radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, S.; Adachi, T.; Kusunoki, K.; Wu, T.; Ushio, T.; Yoshikawa, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Thunderstorm observation has been conducted in Osaka, Japan, with a use of a 3D lightning mapper, called Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm (BOLT), and an X-band phased array radar (PAR). BOLT is a LF sensor network that receives LF emission associated with lightning discharges and locates LF radiation sources in 3D. PAR employs mechanical and electrical scans, respectively, in azimuthal and elevation direction, succeeding in quite high volume scan rate. In this presentation, we focus on lightning activity and charge structure in convective cells that lasted only <span class="hlt">short</span> time (15 minutes or so). Thunderstorms that consisted of several convective cells developed near the radar site. Precipitation structure of a convective cell in the thunderstorm was clearly observed by PAR. A reflectivity core of the convective cell appeared at an altitude of 6 km at 2245 (JST). After that the core descended and reached the ground at 2256 (JST), resulting in heavy precipitation on surface. The echo top height (30dBZ) increased intermittently between 2245 (JST) and 2253 (JST) and it reached at the altitude of 12 km. The convective cell dissipated at 2300. Many intra-cloud (IC) flashes were initiated within the convective cell. Most IC flashes that were initiated in the convective cell occurred during the time when the echo top height increased, while a few IC flashes were initiated in the convective cell after the cease of the echo top vertical development. These facts indicate that strong updraft at upper levels (about 8 km or higher) plays an important role on thunderstorm electrification for IC flashes. Moreover, initiation altitudes of the IC flashes and the positive charge regions removed by the IC flashes increased, as the echo top height increased. This fact implies that the strong updraft at the upper levels blew up positively-charged ice pellets and negatively-charged graupel, and lifted IC flash initiation altitudes and positive charge regions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007710&hterms=osmium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dosmium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007710&hterms=osmium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dosmium"><span>Rhenium-osmium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics of Group 2A and Group 4A iron meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We are investigating the Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics of two groups of magmatic iron meteorites (2A, 4A) in an attempt to establish precise 'total rock' isochrons by the Re-Os system. The Re-187/Os-187 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> system is recognized as a method by which the ages of iron meteorites can be directly determined and that can provide information on the timing of FeNi segregation and core formation in planetesimals. The Re-Os <span class="hlt">isotope</span> system permits the direct absolute dating of the metal phase in iron meteorites. Indirect dating of iron meteorites has been achieved in the past through the Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and most recently, Sm-Nd for silicate inclusions, where present. Relative dating has been obtained directly by extensive studies of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> system Pd-107/Ag-107 for the metal and sulfide phases and indirectly using I-129/Xe-129 in silicate and sulfide inclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607630"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090012288','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090012288"><span>LU-HF Age and <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Systematics of ALH84001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1158576','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1158576"><span>Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Draayer, Jerry P.</p> <p>2014-09-28</p> <p>We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to be produced by the Facility for Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.2153W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.2153W"><span>Accurate measurement of silver <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions in geological materials including low Pd/Ag meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woodland, S. J.; Rehkämper, M.; Halliday, A. N.; Lee, D.-C.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Very precise silver (Ag) <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions have been determined for a number of terrestrial rocks, and high and low Pd/Ag meteorites by utilizing multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The meteorites include primitive chondrites, the Group IAB iron meteorites Canyon Diablo and Toluca, and the Group IIIAB iron meteorite Grant. Silver <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements are primarily of interest because 107Ag was produced by decay of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide 107Pd during the formation of the solar system and hence the Pd-Ag chronometer has set constraints on the timing of early planetesimal formation. A 2σ precision of ±0.05‰ can be obtained for analyses of standard solutions when Ag <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios are normalized to Pd, to correct for instrumental mass discrimination, and to bracketing standards. Caution must be exercised when making Ag <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements because <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> artifacts can be generated in the laboratory and during mass spectrometry. The external reproducibility for geological samples based on replicate analyses of rocks is ±0.2‰ (2σ). All chondrites analyzed have similar Ag <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions that do not differ significantly (>0.3‰) from the 'terrestrial' value of the NIST SRM 978a Ag <span class="hlt">isotope</span> standard. Hence, they show no evidence of excess 107Ag derived from 107Pd decay or, of stable Ag <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation associated with volatile element depletion within the accretion disk or from parent body metamorphism. The Group IAB iron meteorite samples analyzed show evidence of complex behavior and disturbance of Ag <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systematics. Therefore, care must be taken when using this group of iron meteorites to obtain chronological information based on the Pd-Ag decay scheme.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596744"><span>Charge radii of neon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> across the sd neutron shell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marinova, K.; Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Kloos, S.; Kotrotsios, G.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Kowalska, M.; Keim, M.; Blaum, K.; Lievens, P.; Simon, H.</p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable {sup 20}Ne, based on the measurement of optical <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate {sup 17}Ne up to the neutron-rich {sup 28}Ne in the vicinity of the ''island of inversion.'' Within this range the charge radius is smallest for {sup 24}Ne with N=14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d{sub 5/2} shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N=8 and N=20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates well with the deformation effects which are known to be large for several neon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. In the neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, structural changes arise from the onset of proton-halo formation for {sup 17}Ne, shell closure in {sup 18}Ne, and clustering effects in {sup 20,21}Ne. On the neutron-rich side the transition to the island of inversion plays an important role, with the radii in the upper part of the sd shell confirming the weakening of the N=20 magic number. The results add new information to the radii systematics of light nuclei where data are scarce because of the small contribution of nuclear-size effects to the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shifts which are dominated by the finite-mass effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040065905&hterms=ruthenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Druthenium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040065905&hterms=ruthenium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Druthenium"><span>More on Ru Endemic <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Anomalies in Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We reported last year on endemic <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span>, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP13C1841S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP13C1841S"><span>Molybdenum <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> and Soil Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siebert, C.; Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The oxygenation state of Earth's oceans is a driver of evolution and extinction events as well as climate change. In recent years stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation of redox sensitive elements such as molybdenum (Mo) have been used as quantitative tracers of past redox-conditions in a number of marine environments. However, little is known about the processes controlling the Mo <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of the riverine inputs to the oceans and their <span class="hlt">short</span>- and long-term variations. Several recent studies [Archer & Vance, 2008; Pearce et al., 2010] have shown that many river waters have heavy Mo <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions. In some terrestrial weathering environments dissolved Mo <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions in rivers are controlled by the catchment lithology [Neubert et al., 2011]. However, many rivers show fractionation of Mo <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> relative to their catchment lithology. Possible mechanisms causing this fractionation are chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. This study has investigated the behavior of Mo <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> during weathering of basalt under different conditions. Results from oxic to reducing soil profiles in Hawaii show that redox conditions during soil formation can control Mo <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions in soils. Reducing soil profiles have light <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions whereas oxidizing profiles are heavy. This general <span class="hlt">isotope</span> behavior is confirmed by results from soil profiles from Iceland. Here reducing layers within the profiles show marked negative <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursions. In oxic profiles a surprisingly strong interaction of Mo with organic matter can be observed producing significant Mo <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation. This behavior might explain long term retention of Mo in soils besides its high mobility in molybdate form. Mo associated with organic matter is bioavailable and essential for processes like nitrogen fixation. In addition, we observe that fractionation relative to the source rock is dependent on the degree of weathering, i.e. relatively un-weathered profiles do not show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V11I..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V11I..03S"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> Magma Residence Times at Mt. Rainier and the Probable Absence of a Large, Integrated, and Long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Magma Reservoir System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sisson, T. W.; Lanphere, M. A.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Intensive, high-precision K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology have proven essential for producing modern geologic maps of volcanoes and from these determining the volcanoes' time-volume histories. If sufficiently abundant, these data can also reveal aspects of the magma supply system. For Cascade volcanoes a general result has been the demonstration that edifice growth is highly episodic. Mount Rainier grew in the last 500,000 years atop the remains of an ancestral edifice that was active in the same location 1 - 2 Myr ago. The 500,000 year history of the modern edifice falls into four stages of alternating high and low magmatic output of subequal duration, but major and trace element compositions of eruptives show no correlation with volcano growth stages. Instead, the same spectrum of magmas (andesite to low-Si dacite) erupted throughout the history of the volcano with compositions in the same relative abundances. Superimposed on this seemingly null result are at least 6 brief but pronounced excursions in magma trace-element compositions. Concentrations of Zr, Ba, or Sr can double and then return to background values passing into and out of a single flow or flow-group. Some excursions are tightly bracketed by mapping and by measured ages and have durations no more than the geochronologic measurement precision of about 10,000 years. True excursion durations are potentially much shorter. The brevity and abrupt onsets and cessations of these compositional excursions are evidence against the presence of a sizeable, long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> magma reservoir anywhere beneath the volcano, including a MASH zone in the lower crust, that would have attenuated, dampened, and homogenized compositional excursions introduced into the magmatic system. Instead, we take 10,000 years as a probable upper limit to the average residence time of magma batches transiting the crustal portion of Mount Rainier's plumbing system. A consistent scenario is that parental magmas enter the crust, differentiate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22462193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22462193"><span>IL-15 induces strong but <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heon, Elise K.; Wulan, Hasi; Macdonald, Loch P.; Malek, Adel O.; Braunstein, Glenn H.; Eaves, Connie G.; Schattner, Mark D.; Allen, Peter M.; Alexander, Michael O.; Hawkins, Cynthia A.; McGovern, Dermot W.; Freeman, Richard L.; Amir, Eitan P.; Huse, Jason D.; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.; Kauff, Noah P.; Meyers, Paul G.; Gleason, Michelle H.; Overholtzer, Michael G.; Wiseman, Sam S.; and others</p> <p>2015-08-14</p> <p> and IL-2 had different kinetics in inducing TI CD8 T cell responses. • IL-15 induced stronger but shorter-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TI CD8 T cell responses than IL-2. • IL-15, but not IL-2, caused upregulation of Tim-3 on TI CD8 T cells. • Blocking Tim-3 resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production in TI CD8 T cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858"><span>Direct mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L</p> <p>2011-03-18</p> <p>Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)  keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)  keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81..403A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81..403A"><span>The application of Westcott Formalism k0 NAA method to estimate <span class="hlt">short</span> and medium <span class="hlt">lived</span> elements in some Ghanaian herbal medicines complemented by AAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ayivor, J. E.; Okine, L. K. N.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Debrah, S. K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The epithermal neutron shape factor, α of the inner and outer irradiation sites of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was determined obtaining results of 0.105 for the inner (Channel 1) Irradiation site and 0.020 for the outer (channel 6) irradiation site. The neutron temperatures for the inner and outer irradiation sites were 27 °C and 20 °C, respectively. The α values used in Westcott Formalism k0 INAA was applied to determine multi elements in 13 Ghanaian herbal medicines used by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) for the management of various diseases complemented by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are namely Mist. Antiaris, Mist. Enterica, Mist. Morazia, Mist. Nibima, Mist. Modium, Mist. Ninger, Mist Sodenia, Mist. Tonica, Chardicca Powder, Fefe Powder, Olax Powder, Sirrapac powder and Lippia Tea. Concentrations of Al, As, Br, K, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined by <span class="hlt">short</span> and medium irradiations at a thermal neutron flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 s-1. Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Ca, Ba, Li and Sb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Ba, Cu, Li and V were present at trace levels whereas Al, Cl, Na, Ca were present at major levels. K, Br, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Fe and Sb were also present at minor levels. Arsenic was not detected in all samples. Standard Reference material, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder was simultaneously analysed with samples. The precision and accuracy of the method using real samples and standard reference materials were evaluated and within ±10% of the reported value. Multivariate analytical techniques, such as cluster analysis (Q-mode and R-mode CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA), have been applied to evaluate the chemical variations in the herbal medicine dataset. All the 13 samples may be grouped into 2 statistically significant clusters (liquid based and powdered herbal medicines), reflecting the different chemical compositions. R-mode CA and PCA suggest common</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A44C..08K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A44C..08K"><span>WRF/Chem study of dry and wet deposition of trifluoroacetic acid produced from the atmospheric degradation of a few <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> HFCs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kazil, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S.; Ahmadov, R.; Grell, G. A.; Talukdar, R. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> California. Dry deposition of TFA contributes on average with 26% to the total. Rainwater concentrations of TFA, averaged over the five-month simulation period remain at all locations below a threshold of 0.1 mg L-1; this value is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem. On shorter timescales, TFA rainwater concentrations can reach significantly higher values at locations with very low rainfall rates and comparably low overall TFA deposition, mainly in California and Nevada. While the TFA rainwater concentrations expected from a replacement of HFC-134a with the shorter-<span class="hlt">lived</span> TFP and PFP appear environmentally safe at most locations, the role of high TFA rainwater concentrations at locations with very low rainfall rates, and washdown of dry deposited TFA require future investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5995152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5995152"><span>Transuranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, D.C.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>The needs of the research community for the production of transuranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, the quantities required, the continuity of production desired, and what a new steady state neutron source would have to provide to satisfy these needs are discussed. Examples of past frontier research which need these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as well as an outline of the proposed Large Einsteinium Activation Program, LEAP, which requires roughly ten times the current production of /sup 254/Es are given. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/83375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/83375"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> chirality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Floss, H.G.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to <span class="hlt">isotope</span> substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJMPE..2640003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJMPE..2640003B"><span>The oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, B. Alex</p> <p></p> <p>The properties of the oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> provide diverse examples of progress made in experiments and theory. This chain of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> has been studied from beyond the proton drip line in 12O to beyond the neutron drip line in 25,26O. This <span class="hlt">short</span> survey starts with the microscopic G matrix approach for 18O of Kuo and Brown in the 1960’s and shows how theory has evolved. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 24O is particularly simple in terms of the nuclear shell model. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 16O exhibits the coexistence of single-particle and collective structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhA.955...79M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhA.955...79M"><span>Calculation of the fission-fragment yields of the pre-actinide nuclei by the example of the natPb <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maslyuk, V. T.; Parlag, O. A.; Lendyel, O. I.; Marynets, T. I.; Romanyuk, M. I.; Shevchenko, O. S.; Ranyuk, Ju. Ju.; Dovbnya, A. M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The calculations of the fission-fragment yields (mass and charge spectra) carried out within the frameworks of the proposed statistical method for the pre-actinide nuclei by the example of natPb (20 <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>) are presented. The role of neutron shells with N = 50 and N = 82 in realizing the single- and double-humped shape of the fission-fragment yields, respectively, for the neutron-deficit and neutron-excess Pb <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> has been investigated. An explanation of the experimental results on the natPb fission was performed taking into account transformations to the ensemble of the long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclear fragments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19551693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19551693"><span>Calcium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis by mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boulyga, Sergei F</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The variations in the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> can be particularly affected by neighboring major <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The extent of natural variations of stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> effects. <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small <span class="hlt">isotope</span> abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements was considered as revolutionary for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. The present article discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. In Sections 2 and 3, mass spectrometric methods applied to precise stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analysis and to the determination of (41)Ca are described. Section 4 contains a <span class="hlt">short</span> summary of selected applications, and includes tracer experiments and the potential use</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4303005','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4303005"><span><span class="hlt">ISOTOPE</span> SEPARATORS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bacon, C.G.</p> <p>1958-08-26</p> <p>An improvement is presented in the structure of an <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981E%26PSL..53..391M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981E%26PSL..53..391M"><span>Fluxes of uranium and thorium series <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in the Santa Barbara Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Willard S.; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Michel, Jacqueline</p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>Samples from the MANOP Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap intercomparison were analyzed for the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. All of the traps showed approximately the same compositions and <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios, indicating that they trapped similar materials. The 234Th flux via falling particles was very close to the flux predicted from the production and scavenging rates of 234Th from the water column. The 210Pb content of the trapped particles and the surface sediments were the same, however, the measured flux of 210Pb was seven times greater than the predicted flux. Predicted and measured fluxes of 228Th and 210Po were similarly out of balance. To explain this apparent inconsistency, we suggest (as others have done) that the Santa Barbara Basin is an area where scavenging from the water column is intensified and where sediments deposited initially on the margins may be physically remobilized on a <span class="hlt">short</span> time scale. These two effects increase the apparent area from which the basin derives the longer-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> but does not increase significantly the supply of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 234Th.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460060"><span>IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE <span class="hlt">ISOTOPE</span> MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quitte, Ghylaine; Markowski, Agnes; Latkoczy, Christopher; Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas</p> <p>2010-09-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements, very <span class="hlt">short</span> time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, <span class="hlt">live</span> {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003271.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003271.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> stature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Idiopathic <span class="hlt">short</span> stature; Non-growth hormone deficient <span class="hlt">short</span> stature ... syndrome Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.6669P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.6669P"><span>Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemical species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...10.6059P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...10.6059P"><span>Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from Observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemical species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012899&hterms=museum+objects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmuseum%2Bobjects','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012899&hterms=museum+objects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmuseum%2Bobjects"><span>Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no <span class="hlt">live</span> Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MAR.K1071B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MAR.K1071B"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Randomness and Maxwell's Demon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezin, Alexander A.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> disorder in crystals can lead to suppression of thermal conductivity, mobility variations and (weak) Anderson localization on <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> fluctuations. The latter (AAB, J.ChemPhys.1984) is akin to polaron effect (self-localization due polarization). Possibility of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> patterning (IP) increases near melting point (thermally activated <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> hopping swaps). Crystal near melting threshold become “informationally sensitive” as if its IP is operated by some external Maxwell’s Demon, MD (AAB, URAM J, 2002). At this state <span class="hlt">short</span> range (e.g. electrostatic inverse square) forces evolve into long-range interactions (due to divergence of order parameter) and information sensitivity can be further amplified by (say) a single fast electron (e.g. beta-particle from decay of 14-C or other radioactive <span class="hlt">isotope</span>) which may result in cascade of impact ionization events and (<span class="hlt">short</span> time-scale) enhancement of screening by impact-generated non-equilibrium (non-thermal) electrons. In this state informationally driven (MD-controlled) IP (Eccles effect) can result in decrease of positional entropy signifying emergence of physical complexity out of pure information, similar to peculiar “jinni effect” on closed time loops in relativistic cosmology (R.J.Gott, 2001) or Wheeler’s “it from bit” metaphor. By selecting special IP, MD modifies ergodicity principle in favor of info rich states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013eipq.book...55Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013eipq.book...55Z"><span>Superheavies: <span class="hlt">Short</span>-Term Experiments and Far-Reaching Designs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter</p> <p></p> <p>Low values of the fusion cross sections and very <span class="hlt">short</span> half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of nuclei with Z>120 put obstacles in synthesis of new elements. However the fusion reactions of medium mass projectiles with different actinide targets still can be used for the production of the not-yet-synthesized SH nuclei. The gap of unknown SH nuclei, located between the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> which were produced earlier in the cold and hot fusion reactions, could be filled in fusion reactions of ^{48}Ca with available lighter <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Pu, Am, and Cm. Cross sections for the production of these nuclei are predicted to be rather large, and the corresponding experiments can be easily performed at existing facilities. The use of heavier actinide targets give us a chance to produce more neutron enriched SH <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Moreover, for the first time, a narrow pathway is found to the middle of the island of stability owing to possible β ^+ decay of SH <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> which can be formed in ordinary fusion reactions of stable nuclei. Multi-nucleon transfer processes at near barrier collisions of heavy (and very heavy, U-like) ions seem to be quite realistic reaction mechanism allowing us to produce new neutron enriched heavy nuclei located in the unexplored upper part of the nuclear map. Neutron capture reactions can be also used for the production of the long-<span class="hlt">living</span> neutron rich SH nuclei. Strong neutron fluxes might be provided by pulsed nuclear reactors and by nuclear explosions in laboratory conditions and by supernova explosions in nature. All these possibilities are discussed in the chapter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/958307','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/958307"><span>Compelling Research Opportunities using <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-04-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span>, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the <span class="hlt">short</span> term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27886808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27886808"><span>Comparative <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ecology of African great apes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes <span class="hlt">live</span> in C3-dominated habitats, variation in <span class="hlt">isotope</span> signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in <span class="hlt">isotope</span> baselines across different habitats and whether <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation <span class="hlt">isotope</span> baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/assistedliving.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/assistedliving.html"><span>Assisted <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250705','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250705"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the <span class="hlt">short</span> half-life of clinically used <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, other long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64S.145B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64S.145B"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Peter M.</p> <p></p> <p>A rash of new controversy has emerged around the subject of mass-independent <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation effects, particularly in the case of the oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. To be sure, the controversy has been around for awhile, but it has been given new impetus by the results of a recent study by Mark H. Thiemens and John E. Heidenreich III of the University of California, San Diego (Science, March 4, 1983).Gustav Arrhenius has been trying to convince the planetary science community that chemical effects in <span class="hlt">isotope</span> fractionation processes could explain observations in meteorites that appear to be outside of the traditionally understood mass-dependent fractionations (G. Arrhenius, J . L. McCrumb, and N. F. Friedman, Astrophys. Space Sci, 65, 297, 1974). Robert Clayton had made the basic observations of oxygen in carbonaceous chondrites that the slope of the δ17 versus δ18 line was 1 instead of the slope of ½ characteristic of terrestrial rocks and lunar samples (Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 28, 501, 1978). The mass-independent effects were ascribed to the apparent contribution of an ancient presolar system component of O16.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A51E0193Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A51E0193Y"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> simulation for 140 years with Reanalysis atmospheric and its comparison with climate proxy data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshimura, K.; Stott, L. D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Yoshimura et al. [2008] completed 30-year Reanalysis-"nudged" <span class="hlt">isotope</span>-incorporated AGCM simulation. In their method, large scale forcing was taken from NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2, and water <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> were fully predicted, including their sources and sinks, without utilizing any water <span class="hlt">isotope</span> observations. Several direct comparisons between the dataset and <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements revealed that the dataset is accurate enough to serve as an alternative to water <span class="hlt">isotope</span> assimilation analysis. Thus the dataset was found to be very useful for investigating the atmospheric behavior responsible for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variability in precipitation and vapor. Moreover, Stott et al. [in prep] has shown that the model simulates the history of decadal variability during the late 20th century as reconstructed from d18O of cellulose extracted from the annual rings of the long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> Bristlecone Pine from White Mountain in Southern California. The close match between the simulated and measured <span class="hlt">isotope</span> records is a further validation of the model’s ability to accurately simulate regional-scale atmospheric behavior over the Southwestern US. This is particularly important because tree ring chronologies from these long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> trees have been used previously to reconstruct recurrent decadal-length drought throughout 20th century and beyond. Using the new <span class="hlt">isotope</span> enabled GCM allows us to investigate questions such as how <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> distinct sources of atmospheric moisture have changed in the past and whether such changes arise from similar and recurrent ocean/atmospheric variability. The initial simulation is however, too <span class="hlt">short</span> to investigate longer-term variability. Therefore, in the present study we begun to extend the model simulations to include AD1871 to AD2008, using the so-called "20thC Reanalyasis" atmospheric dataset [Compo et al., 2010]. One of the preliminary results includes a simulation of sea surface δ18O, which can now be compared to coral records. The preliminary results indicate the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP43B0687G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP43B0687G"><span>High-Resolution <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Records of the Late Ordovician and Late Carboniferous: A Comparative Perspective on Glacial Carbon and Sulfur Cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gill, B. C.; Lyons, T. W.; Saltzman, M. R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) faithfully tracks the sulfur <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of seawater in both modern and ancient environments. Therefore, analyses of carbonate rocks permit the generation of parallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data for seawater spanning geologic history. Our previous work in the early and middle Paleozoic has revealed parallel, <span class="hlt">short</span>-term (1-4 Myrs) carbon and sulfur <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursions. The relationship between the two <span class="hlt">isotope</span> systems seems to change over time, perhaps tracking longer-term evolution of the marine sulfur reservoir and of the primary loci of carbon burial, including increased burial on land. CAS <span class="hlt">isotope</span> records therefore have the potential to shed essential mechanistic light on the causes (global versus regional) for carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursions observed throughout the geological record. Previous work on the Late Carboniferous and Late Ordovician documented the existence of carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursions of varying magnitude during these glacial episodes. The Late Carboniferous glaciations classically show evidence for multiple glacial-interglacial cycles with repeated, low magnitude (1 to 3 per mil) carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursions. By contrast, the Late Ordovician was characterized by a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> glaciation with a corresponding single 4-6 per mil carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> excursion. The modes and rates of carbon cycling reflected in the differing styles of C <span class="hlt">isotope</span> behavior are the subject of debate, making these time-slices ideal for the CAS <span class="hlt">isotope</span> approach. Carbon and sulfur <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data from Pennsylvanian (Missourian Stage) cyclothems exposed in Kansas City, Missouri, show rapid <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variability. We have preliminarily attributed these rapid changes to local reservoir effects linked to fluctuating sea level and its relationship to black shale deposition within the midcontinent basin and weathering on the basin margin during lowstands. Other work on the cyclic Carboniferous Bird Spring Formation, Nevada, is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881883','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881883"><span>The Need for a Neutron Source at the Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ahle, L E; Rusnak, B; Roberts, K E; Roeben, M D; Hausmann, M; Reifarth, R; Vieira, D</p> <p>2005-05-13</p> <p>An intense neutron source facility with radiochemical processing capability is necessary at the Rare <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Accelerator to fully realize its potential benefit to stockpile stewardship and astrophysics. While many of the important physics missions of RIA can be addressed with radioactive ion beams, direct neutron cross-section measurements of interest to stockpile stewardship and astrophysics cannot because one cannot make a neutron target. Thus, one must collect a sufficient amount of the appropriate <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotope</span>, quickly chemically process the material into a target, and promptly radiate the sample with an intense ''beam'' of neutrons. The unprecedented production rates expected at RIA enables many of these direct neutron cross-section measurements, but only if the proper infrastructure is in place. This document not only describes the major piece of this required infrastructure, a neutron source facility with radiochemical processing capabilities, but also the motivation for measuring such direct neutron cross-sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Sci...331.1175S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Sci...331.1175S"><span>Oxygen <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21385711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21385711"><span>Oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J</p> <p>2011-03-04</p> <p>Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2965G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2965G"><span>Multiple linear regression for <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia Alonso, J. I.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>There are two typical applications of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> measurements: the detection of natural variations in <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systems and the detection man-made variations using enriched <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> as indicators. For both type of measurements accurate and precise <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio measurements are required. For the so-called non-traditional stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, multicollector ICP-MS instruments are usually applied. In many cases, chemical separation procedures are required before accurate <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements can be performed. The off-line separation of Rb and Sr or Nd and Sm is the classical procedure employed to eliminate isobaric interferences before multicollector ICP-MS measurement of Sr and Nd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios. Also, this procedure allows matrix separation for precise and accurate Sr and Nd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios to be obtained. In our laboratory we have evaluated the separation of Rb-Sr and Nd-Sm isobars by liquid chromatography and on-line multicollector ICP-MS detection. The combination of this chromatographic procedure with multiple linear regression of the raw chromatographic data resulted in Sr and Nd <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratios with precisions and accuracies typical of off-line sample preparation procedures. On the other hand, methods for the labelling of individual organisms (such as a given plant, fish or animal) are required for population studies. We have developed a dual <span class="hlt">isotope</span> labelling procedure which can be unique for a given individual, can be inherited in <span class="hlt">living</span> organisms and it is stable. The detection of the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> signature is based also on multiple linear regression. The labelling of fish and its detection in otoliths by Laser Ablation ICP-MS will be discussed using trout and salmon as examples. As a conclusion, <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurement procedures based on multiple linear regression can be a viable alternative in multicollector ICP-MS measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..94c4302I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..94c4302I"><span>Measurement of picosecond lifetimes in neutron-rich Xe <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ilieva, S.; Kröll, Th.; Régis, J.-M.; Saed-Samii, N.; Blanc, A.; Bruce, A. M.; Fraile, L. M.; de France, G.; Hartig, A.-L.; Henrich, C.; Ignatov, A.; Jentschel, M.; Jolie, J.; Korten, W.; Köster, U.; Lalkovski, S.; Lozeva, R.; Mach, H.; Mǎrginean, N.; Mutti, P.; Paziy, V.; Regan, P. H.; Simpson, G. S.; Soldner, T.; Thürauf, M.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Warr, N.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Background: Lifetimes of nuclear excited states in fission fragments have been studied in the past following <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation, thus giving access mainly to the fragments' daughters and only to long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> isomeric states in the primary fragments. For the first time now, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited states in the primary fragments, produced in neutron-induced prompt fission of 235U and 241Pu, were studied within the EXILL&FATIMA campaign at the intense neutron-beam facility of the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. Purpose: We aim to investigate the quadrupole collective properties of neutron-rich even-even 138,140,142Xe <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> lying between the double shell closure N =82 and Z =50 and a deformed region with octupole collectivity. Method: The γ rays emitted from the excited fragments were detected with a mixed array consisting of 8 HPGe EXOGAM Clover detectors (EXILL) and 16 LaBr3(Ce) fast scintillators (FATIMA). The detector system has the unique ability to select the interesting fragment making use of the high resolution of the HPGe detectors and determine subnanosecond lifetimes using the fast scintillators. For the analysis the generalized centroid difference method was used. Results: We show that quadrupole collectivity increases smoothly with increasing neutron number above the closed N =82 neutron shell. Our measurements are complemented by state-of-the-art theory calculations based on shell-model descriptions. Conclusions: The observed smooth increase in quadrupole collectivity is similar to the evolution seen in the measured masses of the xenon <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> chain and is well reproduced by theory. This behavior is in contrast to higher Z even-even nuclei where abrupt change in deformation occurs around N =90 .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009M%26PS...44..971F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009M%26PS...44..971F"><span>Tellurium <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fehr, M. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Halliday, A. N.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>A method for the precise and accurate determination of the tellurium (Te) <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) has been developed. The technique utilizes multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) with either Faraday detectors or a dual ion-counting system. The external reproducibility (2σ) for 126Te/125Te was ~15‰ and ~2‰ when 3 pg and 65 pg of Te were analyzed with the electron multipliers. Measurements performed on 200 pg of Te using Faraday detectors and time-resolved software displayed an external reproducibility of ~8‰ for 126Te/124Te, whereas 3 ng Te could be measured to a precision of about 0.6‰. Analyses of five CAIs from the Allende chondrite yielded Te concentrations that range from 12 to 537 ppb and the inclusions are therefore depleted in Te relative to bulk Allende by factors of about 2 to 86. The Sn/Te ratios of the CAIs are also fractionated compared to bulk Allende (which displays 124Sn/128Te ≍ 0.1) with 124Sn/128Te ratios of about 0.1 to 2.5. The Te <span class="hlt">isotope</span> measurements for these refractory inclusions yielded no 126Te excesses from the decay of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide 126Sn (τ½ = 234,500 years) and the most precise analysis provided a ɛ126Te value of 1 ± 6 (ɛ126Te = 126Te/ 124Te normalized to 122Te/124Te = 0.53594 and reported relative to the JMC Te standard). Minor differences in the Te <span class="hlt">isotope</span> composition of the CAIs relative to the terrestrial standard and bulk Allende hint at the presence of small deficits in r-process Te <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> or excess of s-process Te, but these nucleosynthetic anomalies are barely resolvable given the analytical uncertainties. Hence, it is also conceivable that these effects reflect small unresolved analytical artifacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029454','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029454"><span>Radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in Cayuga Lake, New York: Indicators of inflow and mixing processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kraemer, T.F.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Naturally occurring radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) were measured in lake and tributary water of Cayuga Lake, New York, during the course of a vernal inflow event in the spring of 2001. A large influx of groundwater, probably from a carbonate aquifer, entered the lake at its extreme southern end early in the vernal inflow event and spread northward, covering an extensive part of the southern end of the lake. The low 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of this water mass, compared with bulk lake water, allowed its identification through time. Estimates of mixing with bulk lake water were calculated from changes in the 226Ra content. Groundwater inflow to the lake around the delta of a major tributary was detected on the basis of 223Ra and 224Ra activity of lake and tributary water. Inflow of a water mass to the surface of the lake was also detected using 223Ra and 224Ra activity. The integrity of this water mass was monitored using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Suspended sediment in the lake water is a source of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 223Ra (???2 ?? 10 -4 dpm L-1) and 224Ra (???3 ?? 10 -3 dpm L-1), but bottom sediments are a more significant source of 228Ra. Radium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> can be valuable new tools in limnological investigations, allowing detection and monitoring of events and processes such as water inflow and mixing, determining sources of inflowing water, and monitoring introduced water masses as they move within the lake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866241','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866241"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Atcher, Robert W.; Friedman, Arnold M.; Hines, John</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987E%26PSL..86..129W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987E%26PSL..86..129W"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> abundances - Inferences on solar system and planetary evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>For matter that has been removed from a region of nucleosynthetic activity and the effects of interactions with nuclear active particles, the only changes in nuclear abundances that can occur in an isolated system derive from the decay of radioactive nuclei of an element to yield the nucleus of another element. These two related nuclei furnish the absolute chronometers of geologic and cosmic time, through the decay of spontaneously radioactive parent nuclei and the accumulation of daughter nuclei. For systems related to such cosmic processes as the formation of the solar system from the precursor interstellar medium, and involving the very early evolution of the sun, there may arise considerable complexity, due to the intrinsic <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> heterogeneity of the medium and the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6900935','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6900935"><span>Incorporation of stable and radioactive <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> via organoborane chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kabalka, G.W.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>An organic synthesis involving the use of organoboranes rather than the traditional substitution reactions and Grignard reagents for the rapid preparation of physiologically active materials labelled with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> is discussed in detail. The iodination reaction for incorporating I-123 or I-125 into compounds was found to proceed via an electrophilic attack by the iodine molecule on the electron-rich borax complex, did not require the presence of strong base, and was complete in 60 sec. The procedure also uses radiolabeled NaI rather than the more unstable iodine monochloride usually used. A similar procedure was developed for labelling compounds with Br-77. Other direct one-pot syntheses are described for incorporation of O-17, N-13, N-15, C-11, and C-13 into compounds very rapidly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012770','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012770"><span>Lead and strontium <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-<span class="hlt">lived</span> magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show <span class="hlt">isotopic</span>, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026796','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026796"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ward, P.D.; Garrison, G.H.; Haggart, J.W.; Kring, D.A.; Beattie, M.J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> record shows a series of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> pattern consists of a series of <span class="hlt">short</span> duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.224..589W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.224..589W"><span><span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ward, Peter D.; Garrison, Geoffrey H.; Haggart, James W.; Kring, David A.; Beattie, Michael J.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> record shows a series of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> pattern consists of a series of <span class="hlt">short</span> duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RaPC..123..109L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RaPC..123..109L"><span>Determination of the cross section for (n,p) reaction with producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei on the 162,163Dy <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Junhua; Feng, Zhifu; An, Li; Jiang, Li; He, Long</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Activation cross-sections for the 162Dy(n,p)162Tb and 163Dy(n,p)163Tb reactions have been measured by means of the activation technique and a coaxial HPGe γ-ray detector at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV. The fast neutrons were produced via the 3H(d,n)4He reaction on Pd-300 neutron generator. The natural high-purity Dy2O3 powder was used as target material. Theoretical excitation functions were calculated using the nuclear-reaction codes EMPIRE-3.2 Malta and TALYS-1.6 with default parameters, at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. The results were also discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature, with the comprehensive evaluation data in ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDF-4.0 libraries, and with the estimates obtained from a published empirical formula based on the statistical model with Q-value dependence and odd-even effects taken into consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6028419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6028419"><span>New, heavy transuranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hulet, E.K.</p> <p>1990-10-22</p> <p>In this report, we offer our most recent results concerning the decay properties for five new <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> of Md, No, Lr, and for {sup 258m}Md. In additions to these successful experiments, we have also conducted searches for {sup 263}(105), {sup 264}(105), {sup 272}(109), and superheavy elements from bombardments of {sup 254}Es with heavy ions. {sup 2} An exciting finding in the course of this work is a new fission phenomenon, which we have termed bidmodal fission''. This is described in a subsequent section. The final part summarizes our conclusions based on the unexpectedly long half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> and surprising fission properties of the heaviest nuclei. 27 refs., 19 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9248T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9248T"><span>High-Resolution <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Monitoring of Cave Air CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Töchterle, Paul; Dublyansky, Yuri; Mandic, Magda; Stöbener, Nils; Jost, Hj; Spötl, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1 s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray <span class="hlt">Isotope</span> Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. The data show two distinct patterns in terms of CO2 concentration and its <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> composition, which are closely coupled with the temperature difference between the cave interior and the outside atmosphere. This gradient controls the direction of air flow in the cave on a seasonal to synoptic timescale (chimney-type ventilation). The summer circulation is characterised by CO2 closely resembling atmospheric values (pCO2 = 399 ± 12 ppm, δ13C = -8.5 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 8.1 ± 2.5 permil). The winter circulation mode features generally higher CO2 concentrations and lower <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions (pCO2 = 409 ± 14 ppm, δ13C = -10.1 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 2.3 ± 1.5 permil). The high temporal resolution of stable <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data allows tracking cave air ventilation changes, including transient and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ones. Moreover, the data make it possible to address concomitant geochemical processes, such as the input of atmospheric CO2 and the degassing of CO2 from seepage water. These processes would not be possible to quantify without the new generation of laser-based <span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio instruments represented by the Delta Ray.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.133..463B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.133..463B"><span>Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in Allende CAIs?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The abundance and distribution of <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of <span class="hlt">isotope</span> heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions. These Ba <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba <span class="hlt">isotope</span> data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of <span class="hlt">live</span> 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68....7C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68....7C"><span>Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen <span class="hlt">isotope</span> compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/<span class="hlt">isotope</span> ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced <span class="hlt">shortly</span> after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the <span class="hlt">short</span>-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOUC...14.1053W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOUC...14.1053W"><span>The signatures of stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> δ 15N and δ 13C in anadromous and non-anadromous Coilia nasus <span class="hlt">living</span> in the Yangtze River, and the adjacent sea waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lei; Tang, Wenqiao; Dong, Wenxia</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are increasingly used to investigate seasonal migrations of aquatic organisms. This study employed stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> ( δ 13C and δ 15N) for Coilia nasus from the lower Yangtze River and the adjacent East China Sea to distinguish different ecotypic groups, ascertain trophic nutrition positions, and reflect environmental influences on C. nasus. δ 13C signatures of C. nasus sampled from Zhoushan (ZS), Chongming (CM), and Jingjiang (JJ) waters were significantly higher than those from the Poyang Lake (PYL) ( P < 0.05). By contrast, δ 15N signatures of C. nasus in ZS, CM, and JJ groups were significantly lower than those in PYL group ( P < 0.05). Basing on δ 13C and δ 15N signatures, we could distinguish anadromous (ZS, CM, and JJ) and non-anadromous (PYL) groups. The trophic level (TL) of anadromous C. nasus ranged from 2.90 to 3.04, whereas that of non-anadromous C. nasus was 4.38. C. nasus occupied the middle and top nutrition positions in the marine and Poyang Lake food webs, respectively. C. nasus in Poyang Lake were significantly more enriched in δ 15N but depleted in δ 13C, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient inputs and terrigenous organic carbon are important to the Poyang Lake food web. This study is the first to apply δ 15N and δ 13C to population assignment studies of C. nasus in the Yangtze River and its affiliated waters. Analysis of stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> ( δ 15N and δ 13C) is shown to be a useful tool for discriminating anadromous and non-anadromous C. nasus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4031314','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4031314"><span>Method for separating <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jepson, B.E.</p> <p>1975-10-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Isotopes</span> are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one <span class="hlt">isotope</span> is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the <span class="hlt">isotope</span> is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kids.niehs.nih.gov/topics/healthy-living/index.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kids.niehs.nih.gov/topics/healthy-living/index.htm"><span>Healthy <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Environment & Health Healthy <span class="hlt">Living</span> Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be a Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diapers&pg=3&id=EJ100728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diapers&pg=3&id=EJ100728"><span>Bachelor <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Germer, Sondra</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Male high school students in a Bachelor <span class="hlt">Living</span> Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scorpion&id=EJ150692','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=scorpion&id=EJ150692"><span><span class="hlt">Living</span> Laboratories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mules, B. R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Presented is a review of various methods of keeping <span class="hlt">live</span> animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eldercare.gov/ELDERCARE.NET/Public/Resources/Factsheets/Assisted_Living.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.eldercare.gov/ELDERCARE.NET/Public/Resources/Factsheets/Assisted_Living.aspx"><span>Assisted <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Transportation Back to top How to Choose a Facility? The following suggestions can help you get started ... for a safe, comfortable and appropriate assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> facility: Think ahead. What will the resident’s future needs ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/summer09/articles/summer09pg6.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/summer09/articles/summer09pg6.html"><span>Assisted <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted <span class="hlt">living</span> facility as it does on the quality of care. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/environmental-topics/greener-living','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/environmental-topics/greener-living"><span>Greener <span class="hlt">Living</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Learn about how to <span class="hlt">live</span> a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7330631','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7330631"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> separation by photochromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Suslick, K.S.</p> <p>1975-10-03</p> <p>A photochromatographic method for <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation is described. An <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> mixed molecular species is adsorbed on an adsorptive surface, and the adsorbed molecules are irradiated with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite desired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thus separate them from the undesired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. (BLM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862772','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862772"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> separation by photochromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Suslick, Kenneth S.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">isotope</span> separation method which comprises physically adsorbing an <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> mixed molecular species on an adsorptive surface and irradiating the adsorbed molecules with radiation of a predetermined wavelength which will selectively excite a desired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. Sufficient energy is transferred to the excited molecules to desorb them from the surface and thereby separate them from the unexcited undesired <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> species. The method is particularly applicable to the separation of hydrogen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6801531','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6801531"><span>Transuranium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> - an overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seaborg, G.T.</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>As the result of a transplutonium production program, most of the actinide elements are available in weighable quantity. The transactinide elements begin with element 104, the first element beyond lawrencium (number 103, the heaviest actinide element), and extend, in principle, indefinitely. Chemical properties can be predicted using the periodic table and by calculating electronic structures using modern atomic computer programs. Successful synthesis of elements beyond those presently known will depend on hoped-for observable production cross sections and half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> aided by nucleonic shell structure. Although half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> become very <span class="hlt">short</span> as the atomic number increases (1 s at 106, milliseconds at 107-109), and yields become very small (one atoms per week or less), predictions indicate that closed nucleon shells would ensure sufficiently long half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> for detection and increased yields in the region of some larger atomic and neutron numbers (island of stability at, e.g., Z = 114 and N = 184 or subislet at N = 162). Shell structure has been observed at N = 152 and the unexpectedly long half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> of the heaviest known elements indicate stabilization by some shell structure. The author is confident that it will be possible to reach the island of stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.361..162K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.361..162K"><span>Neutron capture on Pt <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in iron meteorites and the Hf-W chronology of core formation in planetesimals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kruijer, Thomas S.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kleine, Thorsten; Sprung, Peter; Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 182Hf-182W <span class="hlt">isotope</span> system can provide powerful constraints on the timescales of planetary core formation, but its application to iron meteorites is hampered by neutron capture reactions on W <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> resulting from exposure to galactic cosmic rays. Here we show that Pt <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> in magmatic iron meteorites are also affected by capture of (epi)thermal neutrons and that the Pt <span class="hlt">isotope</span> variations are correlated with variations in 182W/184W. This makes Pt <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> a sensitive neutron dosimeter for correcting cosmic ray-induced W <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shifts. The pre-exposure 182W/184W derived from the Pt-W <span class="hlt">isotope</span> correlations of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorites are higher than most previous estimates and are more radiogenic than the initial 182W/184W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI). The Hf-W model ages for core formation range from +1.6±1.0 million years (Ma; for the IVA irons) to +2.7±1.3 Ma after CAI formation (for the IID irons), indicating that there was a time gap of at least ˜1 Ma between CAI formation and metal segregation in the parent bodies of some iron meteorites. From the Hf-W ages a time limit of <1.5-2 Ma after CAI formation can be inferred for the accretion of the IID, IVA and IVB iron meteorite parent bodies, consistent with earlier conclusions that the accretion of differentiated planetesimals predated that of most chondrite parent bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21484502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21484502"><span>COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN <span class="hlt">ISOTOPES</span> DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup 26}Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ellinger, Carola I.; Young, Patrick A.; Desch, Steven J.</p> <p>2010-12-20</p> <p>Injection of material from a core-collapse supernova into the solar system's already-formed disk is one proposed mechanism for producing the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, such as {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, inferred from <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> studies of meteorites to have existed in the solar nebula. This hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis that the injection of enough supernova material to match the meteoritic abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca would produce large, measurable, and unobserved collateral effects on oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Here we calculate again the shifts in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> due to the injection of supernova material in the solar nebula, using a variety of nucleosynthetic conditions of our own progenitor explosions. Unlike previous studies of this type, we also consider the effect of non-homogeneity in abundance distribution of the nucleosynthesis products after the explosion. We calculate the shifts in oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> due to the injection of sufficient supernova material to produce the meteoritic abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, and analyze the predicted shifts in detail for compatibility with meteoritic data. We find that the range in possible <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> shifts is considerable and sensitive to parameters such as progenitor mass and anisotropy of the explosion; however, a small number of compatible scenarios do exist. Because of the wide range of outcomes and the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> yields to assumed conditions, it is difficult to constrain the supernova that may have led to the injection of {sup 26}Al in the solar nebula. Conversely, we argue that the existence of viable counterexamples demonstrates that it is premature to use oxygen <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> to rule out the injection of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca into the solar nebula protoplanetary disk by a nearby supernova.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.9163H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.9163H"><span>A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (TransCom-VSLS): linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Patra, P. K.; Leeson, A. A.; Krysztofiak, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Andrews, S. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Aschmann, J.; Atlas, E. L.; Belikov, D. A.; Bönisch, H.; Carpenter, L. J.; Dhomse, S.; Dorf, M.; Engel, A.; Feng, W.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Griffiths, P. T.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hommel, R.; Keber, T.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Maksyutov, S.; Mantle, H.; Mills, G. P.; Miller, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Moore, F.; Navarro, M. A.; Oram, D. E.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Pyle, J. A.; Quack, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Saikawa, E.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Sala, S.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Taguchi, S.; Tegtmeier, S.; Lidster, R. T.; Wilson, C.; Ziska, F.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The first concerted multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) has been performed, within the framework of the ongoing Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom). Eleven global models or model variants participated (nine chemical transport models and two chemistry-climate models) by simulating the major natural bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), over a 20-year period (1993-2012). Except for three model simulations, all others were driven offline by (or nudged to) reanalysed meteorology. The overarching goal of TransCom-VSLS was to provide a reconciled model estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) of bromine from these gases, to constrain the current measurement-derived range, and to investigate inter-model differences due to emissions and transport processes. Models ran with standardised idealised chemistry, to isolate differences due to transport, and we investigated the sensitivity of results to a range of VSLS emission inventories. Models were tested in their ability to reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial distribution of VSLS at the surface, using measurements from NOAA's long-term global monitoring network, and in the tropical troposphere, using recent aircraft measurements - including high-altitude observations from the NASA Global Hawk platform. The models generally capture the observed seasonal cycle of surface CHBr3 and CH2Br2 well, with a strong model-measurement correlation (r ≥ 0.7) at most sites. In a given model, the absolute model-measurement agreement at the surface is highly sensitive to the choice of emissions. Large inter-model differences are apparent when using the same emission inventory, highlighting the challenges faced in evaluating such inventories at the global scale. Across the ensemble, most consistency is found within the tropics where most of the models (8 out of 11) achieve best agreement to surface CHBr3 observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DMP.H4005C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DMP.H4005C"><span><span class="hlt">Isotope</span> shift measurements on the D1 line in francium <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> at TRIUMF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collister, R.; Tandecki, M.; Gwinner, G.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Francium is the heaviest alkali and has no stable <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. The longest-<span class="hlt">lived</span> among them, with half-<span class="hlt">lives</span> from seconds to a few minutes, are now available in the new Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF, Canada, for future weak interaction studies. We present <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shift measurements on the 7S1 / 2 --> 7P1 / 2 (D 1) transition on three <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>, 206, 207 and 213 in a magneto-optical trap. The shifts are measured using a c.w. Ti:sapphire laser locked to a stabilized cavity at the mid-point between two hyperfine transitions of the reference <span class="hlt">isotope</span> 209Fr. Scanning tunable microwave sidebands locate transitions in the other <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. In combination with the D 2 <span class="hlt">isotope</span> shifts, analysis can provide a separation of the field shift, due to a changing nuclear charge radius, and specific mass shift, due to changing electron correlations, in these <span class="hlt">isotopes</span>. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONYACT from Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP33E..07T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP33E..07T"><span>Tracking Eukaryotic Production and Burial Through Time with Zinc <span class="hlt">Isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, T. Y. S.; Planavsky, N.; Owens, J. D.; Love, G. D.; Lyons, T.; Peterson, L. C.; Knoll, A. H.; Dupont, C. L.; Reinhard, C.; Zumberge, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Zinc is an important, often co-limiting nutrient for eukaryotes in the oceans today. Given the importance of Zn in the modern oceans, we developed a Zn <span class="hlt">isotope</span> approach to track the extent of Zn limitation and eukaryotic production through Earth's history. Specifically, we use the <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> systematics of the pyrite (δ66Znpyr), rock extracts (bitumen) and kerogen pyrolysate (δ66Znorg) within euxinic black shales. We show that δ66Znpyr of euxinic core-top muds from the Cariaco basin capture the global deep seawater signature, validating its use as a seawater proxy. Additionally, we propose that Δ66Znpyr-org can be used to track surface water zinc bioavailability. Detailed studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> oceanic anoxic events such as Cretaceous OAE2, which punctuate an otherwise dominantly oxic Phanerozoic world, exhibit dramatic shifts in seawater δ66Zn and organic bound zinc. Such perturbations are consistent with the demise of eukaryotes under a nitrogen stressed regime, in which cyanobacteria carry the competitive advantage. Contradictory to previous models, however, our data suggest that zinc remained largely bioavailable throughout these anoxic intervals despite significant drawdown of the global reservoir. The framework developed from studies of the modern, Cenozoic, and Mesozoic can be used to track the Precambrian evolution of the marine Zn cycle and the rise of eukaryotic algae to ecological dominance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> philtrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... caused by: Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Cohen syndrome DiGeorge syndrome Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) Home Care ... <span class="hlt">short</span> philtrum, you may want to note that diagnosis in your personal medical record. Images The face ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364361','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364361"><span>SULFUR <span class="hlt">ISOTOPIC</span> COMPOSITIONS OF SUBMICROMETER SiC GRAINS FROM THE MURCHISON METEORITE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto; Heger, Alexander; Pignatari, Marco; Lin, Yangting</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 μm) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si (δ{sup 29}Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, δ{sup 30}Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge {sup 32}S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of {sup 32}S from the decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> {sup 32}Si (τ{sub 1/2} = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si can be produced in SNe by <span class="hlt">short</span> neutron bursts; evidence for initial {sup 44}Ti (τ{sub 1/2} = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal {sup 32}S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large {sup 28}Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies expected from their large Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> normal S are the most likely explanations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799..156X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799..156X"><span>Sulfur <span class="hlt">Isotopic</span> Compositions of Submicrometer SiC Grains from the Murchison Meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yuchen; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto; Heger, Alexander; Pignatari, Marco; Lin, Yangting</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We report C, Si, N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> compositions of presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the SiC-rich KJE size fraction (0.5-0.8 μm) of the Murchison meteorite. One thousand one hundred thirteen SiC grains were identified based on their C and Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios. Mainstream, AB, C, X, Y, and Z subtypes of SiC, and X-type silicon nitride (Si3N4) account for 81.4%, 5.7%, 0.1%, 1.5%, 5.8%, 4.9%, and 0.4%, respectively. Twenty-five grains with unusual Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> ratios, including one C grain, 16 X grains, 1 Y grain, 5 Z grains, and 2 X-type Si3N4 grains were selected for N, S, Mg-Al, and Ca-Ti <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> analysis. The C grain is highly enriched in 29Si and 30Si (δ29Si = 1345‰ ± 19‰, δ30Si = 1272‰ ± 19‰). It has a huge 32S excess, larger than any seen before, and larger than that predicted for the Si/S supernova (SN) zone, providing evidence against the elemental fractionation model by Hoppe et al. Two SN models investigated here present a more satisfying explanation in terms of a radiogenic origin of 32S from the decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 32Si (τ1/2 = 153 yr). Silicon-32 as well as 29Si and 30Si can be produced in SNe by <span class="hlt">short</span> neutron bursts; evidence for initial 44Ti (τ1/2 = 60 yr) in the C grain is additional evidence for an SN origin. The X grains have marginal 32S excesses, much smaller than expected from their large 28Si excesses. Similarly, the Y and Z grains do not show the S-<span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies expected from their large Si <span class="hlt">isotopic</span> anomalies. Low intrinsic S contents and contamination with <span class="hlt">isotopically</span> normal S are the most likely explanations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12140554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12140554"><span>Tungsten <span class="hlt">isotope</span> evidence from approximately 3.8-Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoenberg, Ronny; Kamber, Balz S; Collerson, Kenneth D; Moorbath, Stephen</p> <p>2002-07-25</p> <p>The 'Late Heavy Bombardment' was a phase in the impact history of the Moon that occurred 3.8 4.0 Gyr ago, when the lunar basins with known dates were formed. But no record of this event has yet been reported from the few surviving rocks of this age on the Earth. Here we report tungsten <span class="hlt">isotope</span> anomalies, based on the (182)Hf (182)W system (half-life of 9 Myr), in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks from the 3.7 3.8-Gyr-old Isua greenstone belt of West Greenland and closely related rocks from northern Labrador, Canada. As it is difficult to conceive of a mechanism by which tungsten <span class="hlt">isotope</span> heterogeneities could have been preserved in the Earth's dynamic crust mantle environment from a time when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (182)Hf was still present, we conclude that the metamorphosed sediments contain a component derived from meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1194307','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1194307"><span>Potential impact of releases from a new Molybdenum-99 production facility on regional measurements of airborne xenon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Metz, Lori A.; Miley, Harry S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The monitoring of the radioactive xenon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe is important for the detection of nuclear explosions. While backgrounds of the xenon <span class="hlt">isotopes</span> are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, they are constantly replenished from activities dominated by the fission-based production of 99Mo used for medical procedures. One of the most critical locations on earth for the monitoring of nuclear explosions is the Korean peninsula, where the Democratic Republic of North Korea (DPRK) has announced that it had conducted three nuclear tests between 2009 and 2013. This paper explores the bac