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Sample records for short vertical sus304-tube

  1. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short-Takeoff and Vertical-Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. Three configurations (a lift plus lift/cruise concept, a hybrid fan vectored thrust concept, and a mixed flow vectored thrust concept) were initially investigated with one configuration selected for further design analysis. The selected configuration, the lift plus lift/cruise concept, was successfully integrated to accommodate the powered lift short takeoff and vertical landing requirements as well as the demanding supersonic cruise and point performance requirements. A supersonic fighter aircraft with a short takeoff and vertical landing capability using the lift plus lift/cruise engine concept seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  2. A Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing (STOVL) Aircraft Carrier (S-CVX).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    and operation of the modem aircraft carrier, assuming availability of short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, employing gas turbine ship ... propulsion and providing significant capability to support humanitarian operations. In the design study reported here, the authors take a systems

  3. Recessed source concept in nanoscale vertical surrounding gate (VSG) MOSFETs for controlling short-channel effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Jagadesh Kumar, M.

    2009-02-01

    In the recent past, vertical surrounding gate (VSG) MOSFETs have gained importance since defining their nanoscale channel length no longer depends on lithographic limitations and since they can lead to high packing densities. However, as the channel lengths decrease below 100 nm, VSG MOSFETs too suffer from short-channel effects due to the coupling between the drain and source side charges. In this paper, we demonstrate that using a recessed source, the short-channel effects in nanoscale VSG MOSFETs can be effectively controlled.

  4. Design of a Low Cost Short Takeoff-vertical Landing Export Fighter/attack Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Anne; Bodeker, Dan, III; Miu, Steve; Petro, Laura; Senf, Cary Taylor; Woeltjen, Donald

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft is presented that is suitable for export. An advanced four poster, low bypass turbofan engine is to be used for propulsion. Preliminary aerodynamic analysis is presented covering a determination of CD versus CL, CD versus Mach number, as well as best cruise Mach number and altitude. Component locations are presented and center of gravity determined. Cost minimization is achieved through the use of developed subsystems and standard fabrication techniques using nonexotic materials. Conclusions regarding the viability of the STOVL design are presented.

  5. Spatial and vertical distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soils from wastewater irrigated farmlands.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Wang, Thanh; Han, Wenya; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Qian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-03-15

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are one of the most complex groups of halogenated contaminants in the environment. However, studies of short chain CPs (SCCPs) in China are very scarce. In this study, the concentrations and distribution of SCCPs in farm soils from a wastewater irrigated area in China were investigated. SCCPs were detected in all topsoil samples, with the sum of the concentrations (ΣSCCPs) in the range of 159.9-1450 ng/g (dry weight, dw). A noticeable spatial trend and specific congener distribution were observed in the wastewater irrigated farmland. Soil vertical profiles showed that ΣSCCP concentrations below the plowed layer decreased exponentially and had a significant positive relationship (R(2) > 0.83) with total organic carbon in soil cores. Furthermore, soil vertical distributions indicated that lower chlorinated (Cl(5-6)) and shorter chain (C(10-12)) congeners are more prone to migrate to deeper soil layers compared to highly chlorinated and longer chain congeners. This work demonstrated that effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) could be a significant source of SCCPs to the ambient environment and wastewater irrigation can lead to higher accumulation of SCCPs in farm soils.

  6. Dispersion relations of short surface gravity waves over vertically sheared currents from stereo-video measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peureux, Charles; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2016-04-01

    The stereo-video reconstuction method [Leckler et al. 2015] allows now for the full reconstruction of 3D frequency-wavenumber spectra of short waves. A new field campaign in 2013 on the Katsiveli platform (Black Sea) provided such spectra in various wind and waves conditions, and particularly a stormy event, after which very mature waves had been generated. The short waves energies are found to be mostly located around a dispersion relation of the form, () ° ----------- ω ⃗k = gktanh(kH)+ ⃗kṡ ⃗Ueff The effective advection velocity [Kirby and Chen 1989] ⃗Ueff(k) integrates contributions from both the Stokes drift and quasi-eulerian current [Groeneweg and Klopman 1998]. We find that the effective drift velocity has a very weak wavenumber dependancy, as a result the eulerian current must be vertically sheared. This shear is relevant to the breaking of small scale waves [Banner and Phillips 1974]. It is possible that in field conditions the wind drift is much less important than in the laboratory. Bibliography Banner, M. L. and Phillips, O. M., On the incipient breaking of small scale waves, J. Fluid Mech., 1974, 65, 647. Groeneweg, J. and Klopman, G., Changes of the mean velocity profiles in the combined wave-current motion described in a GLM formulation, J. Fluid Mech., 1998, 370, 271-296. Kirby, J. T. and Chen, T. M., Surface waves on vertically sheared flows : Approximate dispersion relations, J. Geophys. Res., 1989, 94, 1013. Leckler, F., Ardhuin, F., Peureux, C.,Benetazzo, A., Bergamasco, F. and Dulov, V., Analysis and interpretation of frequency-wavenumber spectra of young wind-waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2015, 45, 2484-2496.

  7. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Borchers, Paul; Gomer, Charlie; Henderson, Dean; Jacobs, Tavis; Lawson, Todd; Peterson, Eric; Ross, Tweed, III; Bellmard, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design study of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. A brief historical survey of powered lift vehicles was presented, followed by a technology assessment of the latest supersonic STOVL engine cycles under consideration by industry and government in the U.S. and UK. A survey of operational fighter/attack aircraft and the modern battlefield scenario were completed to develop, respectively, the performance requirements and mission profiles for the study. Three configurations were initially investigated with the following engine cycles: a hybrid fan vectored thrust cycle, a lift+lift/cruise cycle, and a mixed flow vectored thrust cycle. The lift+lift/cruise aircraft configuration was selected for detailed design work which consisted of: (1) a material selection and structural layout, including engine removal considerations, (2) an aircraft systems layout, (3) a weapons integration model showing the internal weapons bay mechanism, (4) inlet and nozzle integration, (5) an aircraft suckdown prediction, (6) an aircraft stability and control analysis, including a takeoff, hover, and transition control analysis, (7) a performance and mission capability study, and (8) a life cycle cost analysis. A supersonic fighter aircraft with STOVL capability with the lift+lift/cruise engine cycle seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  8. Ex situ n and p doping of vertical epitaxial short silicon nanowires by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Pratyush Das; Kögler, Reinhard; Nguyen-Duc, Kien; Zakharov, Nikolai; Werner, Peter; Gösele, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Vertical epitaxial short (200-300 nm long) silicon nanowires (Si NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates were separately doped p- and n-type ex situ by implanting with B, P and As ions respectively at room temperature. Multi-energy implantations were used for each case, with fluences of the order of 1013-1014 cm-2, and the NWs were subsequently annealed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Transmission electron microscopy showed no residual defect in the volume of the NWs. Electrical measurements of single NWs with a Pt/Ir tip inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed significant increase of electrical conductivity of the implanted NWs compared to that of a nominally undoped NW. The p-type, i.e. B-implanted, NWs showed the conductivity expected from the intended doping level. However, the n-type NWs, i.e. P- and As-implanted ones, showed one to two orders of magnitude lower conductivity. We think that a stronger surface depletion is mainly responsible for this behavior of the n-type NWs.

  9. Short term variation in the vertical distribution of copepods off the coast of northern Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S L; Boyd, C M; Lane, P V.Z.

    1980-04-01

    Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a, oxygen, density and copepods were collected during November 1977 near 9/sup 0/S off Peru. The majority of three groups of copepod, the Oncaeidae, the Oithonidae and small calanoids, remained above the depth (approx. 30m) where concentrations of oxygen became less than 0.5 ml.l/sup -1/ both day and night. Centers of population of all three groups were in or below the pycnocline at all times. In daytime all three groups accumulated at depth, while at night all three groups showed some dispersion throughout the upper 30 m with statistically significant separation in the layers of Oncaeidae and small calanoids. Small calanoids were always higher in the water column than the Oncaeidae at night. The rather small, daily vertical excursions by the Oncaeidae and small calanoids exposed them to mean onshore, poleward flow by day and mean offshore, equatorward flow at night.

  10. Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.

  11. Short-term patterns of vertical particle flux in northern Benguela: a comparison between sinking POC and respiratory carbon consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osma, N.; Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Packard, T. T.; Postel, L.; Gómez, M.; Pollehne, F.

    2014-11-01

    Short-term variability of vertical carbon flux (C-flux) was assessed by two approaches at two stations on the Namibian shelf upwelling system (20°S). The first approach was based on modeling water-column respiratory CO2 production (Fc) by integrating vertical profiles of the respiratory electron transport system. The second approach was based on automated sediment trap sampling daily. In both cases, temporal variability at the same station proved to be greater than the spatial variability between stations. Comparison of the two methods yielded higher C-flux values from the sediment traps in the presence of upwelling filaments (7.85 vs 3.67 mmol C m- 2 d- 1). Contrarily, in the post-filament stage of the upwelling system, the values from the Fc models were higher (1.43 vs 2.57 mmol C m- 2 d- 1). This difference was attributed to compositional changes in sinking particles and their settling velocities. In combination, both approaches served to increase current understanding of the short-term particle fluxes in this northern Benguela upwelling system. The Fc approach was further applied to zooplankton from the same area in order to quantify their importance in attenuating the particulate organic C-flux. This attenuation, as measured by fractional consumption of the primary productivity, ranged from 2% to 20%.

  12. Assessment of Relapse Following Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy Mandibular Setback and Short-term Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Talesh, Koroush Taheri; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Sazavar, Mahdi; Yazdani, Javad

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Relapse is an important issue of concern following operations for mandibular setback. Decreasing the immobilization (IMF) period may play a role in this regard. Usual IMF period ranges from 1 to 2 months. We aimed to assess relapse following a 1-week IMF period. Materials and methods: This study aimed to assess 40 purely prognathic patients who had undergone Vertical Ramus osteotomy for mandibular setback. After the release of IMF, guiding elastics were used to direct the mandible to maximal intercuspation for 3 weeks. Relapse was measured from cephalometric radiographs preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Results: The mean skeletal horizontal relapse after 1 year in 40 treated patients was 0.6 mm. Conclusion: The mean skeletal horizontal relapse after 1 year was similar to figures reported for this operation with longer fixation. PMID:20694038

  13. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The

  14. Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jonathan M; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2010-07-01

    We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of approximately 1 microm diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 microm are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of approximately 900 degrees C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 degrees C. High quality (Q approximately 10(5)) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber.

  15. Management of Limited Vertical Bone Height in the Posterior Mandible: Short Dental Implants Versus Nerve Lateralization With Standard Length Implants.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Erhan; Keceli, Huseyin Gencay; Uysal, Serdar; Güngör, Hamiyet; Muhtarogullari, Mehmet; Tözüm, Tolga Fikret

    2016-05-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve lateralization (IANL) and short dental implants (SDI) are 2 viable implant-based treatment approaches in the presence of atrophied posterior mandible. Despite the risks of dysfunction, infection, and pathologic fractures in IANL, it becomes possible to place standard implants. The purpose of this study was to compare SDI and IANL approaches from clinical and radiographic aspects. Fifteen subjects having unilateral atrophic mandibles were allocated to SDI and IANL treatment groups. Following surgical procedures, early postoperative complications, implant survival, and periimplant clinical and radiographic parameters including probing pocket depth, attachment level, keratinized tissue amount, vertical tissue recession, and marginal bone loss were recorded at baseline and 1-year after prosthetic rehabilitation. In both groups, no implant was lost. Except usual postoperative complications, 2 patients had transient paraesthesia after IANL. According to time-dependent evaluation, both groups showed significant increase in probing pocket depth and attachment level at 1-year follow-up compared with baseline (P < 0.05). Except a slight but significant increase in mesial surface of SDI group (P < 0.05), no remarkable time-dependent change was identified in vertical tissue recession. Keratinized tissue amount did not exhibit any inter- or intragroup difference during whole study period. Marginal bone loss did not show any difference between IANL and SDI groups at follow-up. SDI placement or standard length implant placement with IANL can be considered promising alternatives in the treatment of atrophic mandibular posterior regions. However, SDI may be preferred in terms of lower complication risk.

  16. Short-term effects of complex and contrast training in soccer players' vertical jump, sprint, and agility abilities.

    PubMed

    Maio Alves, José Manuel Vilaça; Rebelo, António Natal; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the short-term effects of complex and contrast training (CCT) on vertical jump (squat and countermovement jump), sprint (5 and 15 m), and agility (505 Agility Test) abilities in soccer players. Twenty-three young elite Portuguese soccer players (age 17.4 +/- 0.6 years) were divided into 2 experimental groups (G1, n = 9, and G2, n = 8) and 1 control group (G3, n = 6). Groups G1 and G2 have done their regular soccer training along with a 6-week strength training program of CCT, with 1 and 2 training sessions.wk, respectively. G3 has been kept to their regular soccer training program. Each training session from the CCT program was organized in 3 stations in which a general exercise, a multiform exercise, and a specific exercise were performed. The load was increased by 5% from 1 repetition maximum each 2 weeks. Obtained results allowed identifying (a) a reduction in sprint times over 5 and 15 m (9.2 and 6.2% for G1 and 7.0 and 3.1%, for G2; p < 0.05) and () an increase on squat and jump (12.6% for G1 and 9.6% for G2; p < 0.05). The results suggested that the CCT induced the performance increase in 5 and 15 m sprint and in squat jump. Vertical jump and sprint performances after CCT program were not influenced by the number of CCT sessions per week (1 or 2 sessions.wk). From the obtained results, it was suggested that the CCT is an adequate training strategy to develop soccer players' muscle power and speed.

  17. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Short-Term Vertical Jump vs. Weightlifting Program on Athletic Power Development.

    PubMed

    Teo, Shaun Y M; Newton, Michael J; Newton, Robert U; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Teo, SYM, Newton, MJ, Newton, RU, Dempsey, AR, and Fairchild, TJ. Comparing the effectiveness of a short-term vertical jump vs. weightlifting program on athletic power development. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2741-2748, 2016-Efficient training of neuromuscular power and the translation of this power to sport-specific tasks is a key objective in the preparation of athletes involved in team-based sports. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in center of mass (COM) neuromuscular power and performance of sport-specific tasks after short-term (6-week) training adopting either Olympic-style weightlifting (WL) exercises or vertical jump (VJ) exercises. Twenty-six recreationally active men (18-30 years; height: 178.7 ± 8.3 cm; mass: 78.6 ± 12.2 kg) were randomly allocated to either a WL or VJ training group and performance during the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), depth jump (DJ), 20-m sprint, and the 5-0-5 agility test-assessed pre and posttraining. Despite the WL group demonstrating larger increases in peak power output during the CMJ (WL group: 10% increase, d = 0.701; VJ group: 5.78% increase, d = 0.328) and SJ (WL group: 12.73% increase, d = 0.854; VJ group: 7.27% increase, d = 0.382), no significant between-group differences were observed in any outcome measure studied. There was a significant main effect of time observed for the 3 VJs (CMJ, SJ, and DJ), 0- to 5-m and 0- to 20-m sprint times, and the 5-0-5 agility test time, which were all shown to improve after the training (all main effects of time p < 0.01). Irrespective of the training approach adopted by coaches or athletes, addition of either WL or VJ training for development of power can improve performance in tasks associated with team-based sports, even in athletes with limited preseason training periods.

  18. Very fast capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection for high-throughput analysis using short, vertically aligned capillaries.

    PubMed

    Mark, Jonas Josef Peter; Piccinelli, Paolo; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2014-09-01

    A method for conducting fast and efficient capillary electrophoresis (CE) based on short separation capillaries in vertical alignment was developed. The strategy enables for high-throughput analysis from small sample vials (low microliter to nanoliter range). The system consists of a lab-made miniaturized autosampling unit and an amperometric end-column detection (AD) cell. The device enables a throughput of up to 200 separations per hour. CE-AD separations of a dye model system in capillaries of only 4 to 7.5 cm length with inner diameters (ID) of 10 or 15 μm were carried out under conditions of very high electric field strengths (up to 3.0 kV/cm) with high separation efficiency (half peak widths below 0.2 s) in less than 3.5 s migration time. A non-aqueous background electrolyte, consisting of 10 mM ammonium acetate and 1 M acetic acid in acetonitrile, was used. The practical suitability of the system was evaluated by applying it to the determination of dyes in overhead projector pens.

  19. Differences in End Range of Motion Vertical Jump Kinetic and Kinematic Strategies Between Trained Weightlifters and Elite Short Track Speed Skaters.

    PubMed

    Haug, William B; Spratford, Wayne; Williams, Kym J; Chapman, Dale W; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify differences in end range of motion (ROM) kinetic and kinematic strategies between highly resistance and vertical jump-trained athletes and controls. Weightlifters (WL: n = 4), short track speed skaters (STSS: n = 5), and nonresistance-trained controls (C: n = 6) performed 6 standing vertical squat jumps (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ) without external resistance. Jump testing was performed using 3-dimensional marker trajectories captured with a 15-camera motion analysis system synchronized with 2 in-ground force plates. During SJ, there were large effects for the difference in time before toe off of peak vertical velocity between WL to STSS and C (ES: -1.43; ES: -1.73, respectively) and for the decrease between peak and toe off vertical velocity (ES: -1.28; ES: -1.71, respectively). During CMJ, there were large effects for the difference in time before toe off of peak vertical velocity between WL to STSS and C (ES: -1.28; ES: -1.53, respectively) and for decrease between peak and toe off vertical velocity (ES: -1.03; ES: -1.59, respectively). Accompanying these differences for both jump types were large effects for time of joint deceleration before toe off for all lower body joints between WL compared with C with large effects between WL and STSS at the hip and between STSS and C at the ankle. These findings suggest that the end ROM kinetic and kinematic strategy used during jumping is group-specific in power-trained athletes, with WL exhibiting superior strategies as compared with resistance- and jump-trained STSS.

  20. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  1. Effects of short-term two weeks low intensity plyometrics combined with dynamic stretching training in improving vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Selvam; Pradhan, Binita

    2014-01-01

    Sport specific training in basketball players should focus on vertical jump height and agility in consistent with demands of the sport. Since plyometrics training improves vertical jump height and agility, it can be useful training strategy to improve the performance of basketball players. A convenience sample of thirty professional basketball players were recruited. Following pre-intervention assessment, interventions using plyometrics training and dynamic stretching protocol was administered on the basketball players. The outcome measures were assessed before the intervention and at the end of first and second week. Statistically significant improvements in vertical jump height (31.68 ± 11.64 to 37.57 ± 16.74; P < 0.012) and agility (16.75 ± 2.49 to 16.51 ± 2.80; P <0.00) were observed between pretest--posttest measures and no changes in muscle girth and isometric muscle strength. The study concludes that short term two weeks plyometrics training combined with dynamic stretching as a useful sport specific training strategy to improve vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

  2. Vertical transmission of Mycoplasma wenyonii in cattle, supported by analysis of the ribonuclease P RNA gene - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Fumina; Suzuki, Jin; Hirata, Toh-Ichi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Harasawa, Ryô; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The vertical transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) wenyonii was investigated in beef cattle raised on a farm in Japan by analysing the ribonuclease P RNA (rnpB) gene sequence using PCR. Peripheral blood samples from 17 dams infected with M. wenyonii and from their neonatal calves were collected and colostrum samples were taken from cows immediately after parturition, and subsequently the blood samples of calves were monitored continuously for three months. At birth on day 0, although no rnpB gene was detected in the colostrum of any of the dams, four (23.5%) of the 17 calves born were positive. At three months after delivery, the number of positive calves decreased to three. Although horizontal transmission by blood-feeding arthropod vectors has been basically accepted as the most common route of haemoplasma infection, these findings suggest that vertical transmission is, at least in part, another most likely route of M. wenyonii infection in cattle.

  3. Design and optimization of thin film fully depleted vertical surrounding gate (VSG) MOSFETs for enhanced short channel immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranti, Abhinav; Rashmi; Haldar, S.; Gupta, R. S.

    2002-09-01

    A criterion is developed to select the ratio of silicon film thickness to gate oxide thickness between two limits to set the threshold voltage independent of channel length. The concept of short channel immunity factor ( γ) and critical length ( Lcritical) is evolved, which serves as the basic tool for device optimization for enhanced short channel immunity. The model shows new viewpoints for realizing future ULSI circuits with VSG MOSFETs.

  4. Vertical distribution of buoyant Microcystis blooms in a Lagrangian particle tracking model for short-term forecasts in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Anderson, E. J.; Wynne, T. T.; Stumpf, R. P.; Fanslow, D. L.; Kijanka, K.; Vanderploeg, H. A.; Strickler, J. R.; Davis, T. W.

    2016-07-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) are a problem in western Lake Erie, and in eutrophic fresh waters worldwide. Western Lake Erie is a large (3000 km2), shallow (8 m mean depth), freshwater system. CHABs occur from July to October, when stratification is intermittent in response to wind and surface heating or cooling (polymictic). Existing forecast models give the present location and extent of CHABs from satellite imagery, then predict two-dimensional (surface) CHAB movement in response to meteorology. In this study, we simulated vertical distribution of buoyant Microcystis colonies, and 3-D advection, using a Lagrangian particle model forced by currents and turbulent diffusivity from the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). We estimated the frequency distribution of Microcystis colony buoyant velocity from measured size distributions and buoyant velocities. We evaluated several random-walk numerical schemes to efficiently minimize particle accumulation artifacts. We selected the Milstein scheme, with linear interpolation of the diffusivity profile in place of cubic splines, and varied the time step at each particle and step based on the curvature of the local diffusivity profile to ensure that the Visser time step criterion was satisfied. Inclusion of vertical mixing with buoyancy significantly improved model skill statistics compared to an advection-only model, and showed greater skill than a persistence forecast through simulation day 6, in a series of 26 hindcast simulations from 2011. The simulations and in situ observations show the importance of subtle thermal structure, typical of a polymictic lake, along with buoyancy in determining vertical and horizontal distribution of Microcystis.

  5. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    DOE PAGES

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; ...

    2015-05-26

    We present an analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models as part of the “Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)” project. A lead time of 12–36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests thatmore » the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. In conclusion, the wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. Additionally, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.« less

  6. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steve J.; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane E.; Caian, Mihaela; Cole, Jason; Hagos, Samson M.; Hannay, Cecile; Kim, Daehyun; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Pritchard, Michael S.; Roehrig, Romain; Shindo, Eiki; Vitart, Frederic; Wang, Hailan

    2015-05-26

    We present an analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models as part of the “Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)” project. A lead time of 12–36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests that the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. In conclusion, the wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. Additionally, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.

  7. The vertical and the longitudinal dynamic responses of the vehicle-track system to squat-type short wavelength irregularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Zili; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    The squat, a kind of rolling contact fatigue occurring on the rail top, can excite the high-frequency vehicle-track interaction effectively due to its geometric deviations with a typical wavelength of 20-40 mm, leading to the accelerated deterioration of a track. In this work, a validated 3D transient finite element model is employed to calculate in the time domain the vertical and the longitudinal dynamic contact forces between the wheel and the rail caused by squats. The vehicle-track structure and the wheel-rail continua are both considered in order to include all the important eigencharacteristics of the system related to squats. By introducing the rotational and translational movements of the wheel, the transient wheel-rail rolling contact is solved in detail by a 3D frictional contact model integrated. The contact filter effect is considered automatically in the simulations by the finite size of the contact patch. The present work focuses on the influences of the length, width and depth of a light squat on the resulted dynamic contact forces, for which idealised defect models are used. The growth of a squat is also modelled to a certain extent by a series of defects with different dimensions. The results show that the system is mainly excited at two frequencies separately in the vertical and the longitudinal dynamics. Their superposition explains the typical appearance of mature squats. As a squat grows up, the magnitude of the excited vibration at the lower frequency increases faster than the one at the higher frequency.

  8. Short vertical-wavelength inertia-gravity waves generated by a jet-front system at Arctic latitudes - VHF radar, radiosondes and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réchou, A.; Kirkwood, S.; Arnault, J.; Dalin, P.

    2014-07-01

    Inertia-gravity waves with very short vertical wavelength (λz≤1000 m) are a very common feature of the lowermost stratosphere as observed by the 52 MHz radar ESRAD (Esrange MST radar) in northern Scandinavia (67.88° N, 21.10° E). The waves are seen most clearly in radar-derived profiles of buoyancy frequency (N). Here, we present a case study of typical waves from 21 February to 22 February 2007. Good agreement between N2 derived from radiosondes and by radar shows the validity of the radar determination of N2. Large-amplitude wave signatures in N2 are clearly observed by the radar and the radiosondes in the lowermost stratosphere, from 9 km to 14-16 km height. Vertical profiles of horizontal wind components and potential temperature from the radiosondes show the same waves. Mesoscale simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are carried out to complement the analysis of the waves. Good agreement between the radar and radiosonde measurements and the model (except for the wave amplitude) shows that the model gives realistic results and that the waves are closely associated to the upper-level front in an upper-troposphere jet-front system. Hodographs of the wind fluctuations from the radiosondes and model data show that the waves propagate upward in the lower stratosphere confirming that the origin of the waves is in the troposphere. The observations and modelling all indicate vertical wavelengths of 700 ± 200 m. The radiosonde hodograms indicate horizontal wavelengths between 40 and 110 km and intrinsic periods between 6 and 9 h. The wave amplitudes indicated by the model are however an order of magnitude less than in the observations. Finally, we show that the profiles of N2 measured by the radar can be used to estimate wave amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic periods and momentum fluxes which are consistent with the estimates from the radiosondes.

  9. Short vertical-wavelength inertia-gravity waves generated by a jet-front system at Arctic latitudes — VHF radar, radiosondes and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réchou, A.; Kirkwood, S.; Arnault, J.; Dalin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Inertia-gravity waves with very short vertical wavelength (λz < 1000 m) are a very common feature of the lowermost stratosphere as observed by the 52 MHz radar ESRAD in northern Scandinavia (67.88° N, 21.10° E). The waves are seen most clearly in radar-derived profiles of buoyancy frequency (N). Here, we present a case study of typical waves from the 21 February to the 22 February 2007. Very good agreement between N2 derived from radiosondes and by radar shows the validity of the radar determination of N2. Large-amplitude wave signatures in N2 are clearly observed by the radar and the radiosondes in the lowermost stratosphere, from 9 km to 14-16 km height. Vertical profiles of horizontal wind components and potential temperature from the radiosondes show the same waves. Mesoscale simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are carried out to complement the analysis of the waves. Good agreement between the radar and radiosonde measurements and the model (except for the wave amplitude) shows that the model gives realistic results and that the waves are closely associated to the upper-level front in an upper-troposphere jet-front system. Hodographs of the wind fluctuations from the radiosondes, show that the waves propagate upward in the lower stratosphere confirming that the origin of the waves is in the troposphere. The observations and modelling all indicate vertical wavelengths of 700 + 200 m. The model and the radiosonde hodograms indicate horizontal wavelengths between 37 and 100 km and intrinsic periods between 6 and 9 h. The wave amplitudes indicated by the model are however, an order of magnitude less than in the observations. We show finally that the profiles of N2 measured by the radar can be used to estimate wave amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic periods and momentum fluxes which are consistent with the estimates from the radiosondes.

  10. Short-Term Fidelity, Habitat Use and Vertical Movement Behavior of the Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii as Determined by Acoustic Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingqiu; Xu, Qiang; Alós, Josep; Liu, Hui; Xu, Qinzeng; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The recent miniaturization of acoustic tracking devices has allowed fishery managers and scientists to collect spatial and temporal data for sustainable fishery management. The spatial and temporal dimensions of fish behavior (movement and/or vertical migrations) are particularly relevant for rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) because most rockfish species are long-lived and have high site fidelity, increasing their vulnerability to overexploitation. In this study, we describe the short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d) spatial behavior, as determined by acoustic tracking, of the black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, a species subject to overexploitation in the Yellow Sea of China. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection) in the study area was 0.92 ± 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h) was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The preference of this species for the artificial reefs that were recently deployed in the study area suggests that artificial seascapes may be effective management tools to attract individuals. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the identification of key

  11. Short-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser applications: from high-throughput multimode fiber links to two-dimensional interchip interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, Rainer; King, Roger; Mederer, Felix; Kicherer, Max; Giaretta, Giorgio; Ebeling, Karl J.

    2001-07-01

    An overview is given of recent experiments employing 850 or 980 nm emission wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) for high-throughput very short reach optical data transmission. For future high-speed building backbones, we demonstrate the first transport of 40 Gbit/s data rates over 300 m of a new generation multimode fiber by means of a four-channel coarse wavelength-division multiplexing system. As an attractive route to overcoming high-speed electrical signaling problems on printed circuit boards, we show 10 Gbit/s per channel data transmission for densely spaced integrated polymer waveguides. Error-free VCSEL operation at 2.5 Gbit/s with a temperature range from -20 to +100 degree(s)C indicates compatibility with most industrial requirements. Finally, we demonstrate 850-nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for direct flip-chip bonding, which might prove useful for two-dimensional future silicon chip-to-chip interconnect solutions.

  12. Multiple-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Grading a Spacer Layer for Short-Reach Wavelength Division Multiplexing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Padullaparthi Babu; Sakaguchi, Takahiro; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2009-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple and unique method to fabricate the multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting at 980 nm by grading only the first low-index spacer layer of SiO2/Ta2O5 dielectric mirror. A multi step exposure to UV lithography followed by selective wet chemical etching has been applied to create spacer layer gradients. We have successfully realized equally spaced four-channel VCSELs with wavelength span exceeding 30.0 nm by grading a 230.0 nm spacer layer and achieved single mode lasing with a side mode suppression ratio in excess of 30.0 dB.

  13. THE VERTICAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, Stephen L.; Spencer, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    'THE VERTICAL' computer keyboard is designed to address critical factors which contribute to Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI) (including Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) in association with computer keyboard usage. This keyboard splits the standard QWERTY design into two halves and positions each half 90 degrees from the desk. In order to access a computer correctly. 'THE VERTICAL' requires users to position their bodies in optimal alignment with the keyboard. The orthopaedically neutral forearm position (with hands palms-in and thumbs-up) reduces nerve compression in the forearm. The vertically arranged keypad halves ameliorate onset occurrence of keyboard-associated RMI. By utilizing visually-reference mirrored mylar surfaces adjustable to the user's eye, the user is able to readily reference any key indicia (reversed) just as they would on a conventional keyboard. Transverse adjustability substantially reduces cumulative musculoskeletal discomfort in the shoulders. 'THE VERTICAL' eliminates the need for an exterior mouse by offering a convenient finger-accessible curser control while the hands remain in the vertically neutral position. The potential commercial application for 'THE VERTICAL' is enormous since the product can effect every person who uses a computer anywhere in the world. Employers and their insurance carriers are spending hundreds of millions of dollars per year as a result of RMI. This keyboard will reduce the risk.

  14. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-07-01

    Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  15. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from Observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  16. Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2007-11-01

    When a tennis ball rests on top of a basketball and both drop to the floor together, the tennis ball is projected vertically at high speed. A mass-spring model of the impact, as well as air track data, suggest that the tennis ball should be projected at relatively low speed. Measurements of the forces on each ball and the bounce of vertically aligned superballs are used to resolve the discrepancy.

  17. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  18. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... syndrome Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  19. Offset vertical radar profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witten, A.; Lane, J.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction tomography imaging was applied to VRP data acquired by vertically moving a receiving antenna in a number of wells. This procedure simulated a vertical downhole receiver array. Similarly, a transmitting antenna was sequentially moved along a series of radial lines extending outward from the receiver wells. This provided a sequence of multistatic data sets and, from each data set, a two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional image of spatial variations in wave speed was reconstructed.

  20. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  1. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  2. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  3. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  5. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  6. A vertical cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Alió Sanz, Juan J; Iglesias Conde, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Correctly assessing open-bite malocclusions has remained problematic because clinicians have not had entirely reliable methods of determining the exact amount of skeletal and dental contributions to the problem. A new cephalometric technique, the vertical cephalometric analysis, offers orthodontists a system that precisely identifies the percentage of skeletal and dentoalveolar components that open-bite patients have. The vertical cephalometric analysis offers a discriminating diagnostic method for evaluating, diagnosing, and treatment planning for patients with open bite. This technique will allow clinicians to classify patients with accuracy, as well as to establish prognoses and select therapies.

  7. Considerations For Distributed Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    that provides options to the JFC and the overall joint plan. The paper draws conclusions regarding the applicability of the new distributed concept...It also suggests a modification to the concept that provides options to the JFC and the overall joint plan. The paper draws conclusions...Moammar Gadhafi’s Secret Surveillance Network,” WIRED , May 18, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/05/ff_libya/. 14 locate in areas where aircraft can

  8. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  9. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  10. Short philtrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by: Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Cohen syndrome DiGeorge syndrome Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) Home Care ... short philtrum, you may want to note that diagnosis in your personal medical record. Images The face ...

  11. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  12. Hilly Surroundings (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree view of the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was taken on the rover's 189th sol on Mars (July 15, 2004). It was assembled from images taken by the rover's navigation camera at a position referred to as Site 72, which is at the base of the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills.'' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction.

  13. Protective Vertical Shelters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-29

    on Generic MX Structures" by John Betz. 5. (AFCMD/82-013) "Finite Element Dynamic Analysis of th, DCT-2 Models" by Barry Bingham . 61 (AFCMD/82-017) "MX...facility to define the HEST structure for the GOVS tests. A SAMSON dynamic finite-element computer code provided pretest predictions of strdsses and...as piecewise linear, elastic- plastic materials. TEST DESCRIPTION Shel ter Models The generic MX vertical shelter is basically a large, reinforced

  14. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  15. A World Vertical Network.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    and continental levelling nets into a unifiled World Vertical Network. OD ,~ 173 OITON F I OV 5 I OSOLEI tnc las 9if led SECURITY CLASSIP CATION O T...rp,0p,Xp is T(P) = V(P) - U (P) (2.2) The gravity potential of the Earth is W(P) = V(P) + ((P) (2.3) where o ( P) = w rp’ cos 2 Op corresponds to the...is, therefore, A W(P,Q) = U(P) + T(P) + 0 (P) - U(Q) - T(Q) - o (Q) (2.4) With both P and Q on the Earth’s surface, the uncertainties in the calculated

  16. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  17. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 #6;± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  18. Vertical Acoustic Arrays in the Deep Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F.

    2002-12-01

    The R/P FLIP has made possible the deployments of vertical arrays to study sound propagation and ambient noise in the deep ocean in ways never before possible from existing research vessels. Long vertical arrays can be deployed without the flow noise contamination from platform motion, long a bane for making such studies. The vertical stability of FLIP combined with the deep mooring capability developed by Earl D. Bronson made it possible to deploy multi-element arrays beginning with a versatile 20 element array with variable spacing developed by Bill Whitney in Fred Spiess's group. The 20 element array consisted of bungee mounted hydrophones in metal cages at either uniform spacing or variable spacing to meet directivity or other requirements. It was assembled on station in the vertical and deployed to the desired depths for the elements. Gerald Morris at MPL conducted ambient noise studies using variable spacing of the elements to below the critical depth as well as in the water column above. Vic Anderson used it for his DIMUS processing system for detecting low level signals masked by ambient noise. As a 500 meter array, I used it for a series of CONTRACK (Continuous Tracking of signals at long range) experiments to resolve multipaths so they wouldn't interfere with one another. The VEKA vertical array developed by Rick Swenson of NORDA was deployed in very deep (below 3300 m) water by Dan Ramsdale of NORDA using the winch and double lay armored cable on FLIP, the same cable system for the MPL 20 element array. In my group Bruce Williams designed a rapidly deployable array to study vertical anisotropy of ambient noise as a function of range from near shore shipping via downslope conversion in a series of 48 hours FLIP stations 350, 1000 and 1500 miles from the Pacific coast. A short 120 element array, 1000 meters long, was built by John Hildebrands's group for a test of matched field processing and the SLICE experiment in acoustic tomography research of Peter

  19. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  20. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  1. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  2. 4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF VERTICAL BORING MACHINE. (Bullard) Vertical turning lathe (VTL). Machining the fixture for GE Turboshroud. G.S. O'Brien, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  3. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  4. Vertically reciprocating auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  5. Diagnosis of vertical motion from VAS retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, Henry E.; Funk, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite-derived temperature profiles are used to determine if reliable estimates of synoptic-scale vertical motion can be obtained from the adiabatic, vorticity, and omega equation techniques. The period of study contains a short-wave trough over the Midwest and a convective outbreak over the middle Mississippi River Valley. Satellite soundings are available at 1-3 h intervals at five times. The emphasis is on assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the three vertical motion procedures, and determining the effects of short-interval observations on the calculations. Results show that the quasi-geostrophic omega equation provided patterns and magnitudes most consistent with observed weather events and 12 h radiosonde-derived motions. The vorticity method produced less satisfactory results, while adiabatic motions were unacceptable. The time derivative term dominated adiabatic motions and was a major influence in the vorticity method. Unrealistic temperature tendencies resulted from the retrieval algorithm; i.e., a diurnal temperature bias extended upwards to 500 mb, and there was a compensating effect at higher levels.

  6. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite different dependences on object distance and binocular eye posture, which have not previously been spelt out. We present analytical approximations for each type of vertical disparity, valid for more general conditions than previous derivations in the literature: we do not restrict ourselves to objects near the fixation point or near the plane of regard, and we allow for non-zero torsion, cyclovergence and vertical misalignments of the eyes. We use these expressions to derive estimates of the latitude and longitude vertical disparity expected at each point in the visual field, averaged over all natural viewing. Finally, we present analytical expressions showing how binocular eye position – gaze direction, convergence, torsion, cyclovergence, and vertical misalignment – can be derived from the vertical disparity field and its derivatives at the fovea. PMID:20055544

  7. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  8. The School Library Vertical File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the maintenance of vertical files in the school library. Topics covered include circulation, weeding, using materials for special displays, acquiring materials, policies on advertising and controversial issues, cross-references, subject headings, introducing students to vertical files, beginning a collection, and preservation. (MES)

  9. Vertical Beam Polarization at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimme, B. S.; Achenbach, P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Baunack, S.; Bender, D.; Beričič, J.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Dehn, M.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Gutheil, B.; Herrmann, P.; Hoek, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kolar, T.; Kreidel, H.-J.; Maas, F.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, J.; Müller, U.; Nillius, F.; Nuck, A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schoth, M.; Schulz, F.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Spruck, B.; Štajner, S.; Thiel, M.; Tioukine, V.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2017-04-01

    For the first time a vertically polarized electron beam has been used for physics experiments at MAMI in the energy range between 180 and 855 MeV. The beam-normal single-spin asymmetry An, which is a direct probe of higher-order photon exchange beyond the first Born approximation, has been measured in the reaction 12C (e → , e ‧)12C . Vertical polarization orientation was necessary to measure this asymmetry with the existing experimental setup. In this paper we describe the procedure to orient the electron polarization vector vertically, and the concept of determining both its magnitude and orientation with the available setup. A sophisticated method has been developed to overcome the lack of a polarimeter setup sensitive to the vertical polarization component.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  11. Vertically scanned laser sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Arranz, Alicia; Zhu, Shouping; Yang, Yujie; Shi, Liangliang; Wang, Jun; Shen, Chen; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Laser sheet microscopy is a widely used imaging technique for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescence signal in fixed tissue or small organisms. In laser sheet microscopy, the stripe artifacts caused by high absorption or high scattering structures are very common, greatly affecting image quality. To solve this problem, we report here a two-step procedure which consists of continuously acquiring laser sheet images while vertically displacing the sample, and then using the variational stationary noise remover (VSNR) method to further reduce the remaining stripes. Images from a cleared murine colon acquired with a vertical scan are compared with common stitching procedures demonstrating that vertically scanned light sheet microscopy greatly improves the performance of current light sheet microscopy approaches without the need for complex changes to the imaging setup and allows imaging of elongated samples, extending the field of view in the vertical direction.

  12. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. Experimental parameters were the fin width, thickness, height and the dispersed fin length. As the results, it was found from the experiment there was a dispersed fin length corresponding to the condensation at the maximum and its value was 1.75 mm. As the characteristic, the condensation changed from slowly increasing to rapidly increasing and then decreasing at a steep grade, with decreasing the dispersed fin length. In addition, the fin height did not affect this optimum dispersed fin length and the dispersed fin length affects the dependence of the condensation on different fin thickness. Further, the prediction values have a good agreement with the experimental data except the case of short dispersed fin length.

  13. Vertical motion simulator familiarization guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    The Vertical Motion Simulator Familiarization Guide provides a synoptic description of the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) and descriptions of the various simulation components and systems. The intended audience is the community of scientists and engineers who employ the VMS for research and development. The concept of a research simulator system is introduced and the building block nature of the VMS is emphasized. Individual sections describe all the hardware elements in terms of general properties and capabilities. Also included are an example of a typical VMS simulation which graphically illustrates the composition of the system and shows the signal flow among the elements and a glossary of specialized terms, abbreviations, and acronyms.

  14. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  15. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  16. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  17. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corrective measures taken are also described.

  18. Vertical Sextants give Good Sights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mark

    Many texts stress the need for marine sextants to be held precisely vertical at the instant that the altitude of a heavenly body is measured. Several authors lay particular emphasis on the technique of the instrument in a small arc about the horizontal axis to obtain a good sight. Nobody, to the author's knowledge, however, has attempted to quantify the errors involved, so as to compare them with other errors inherent in determining celestial position lines. This paper sets out to address these issues and to pose the question: what level of accuracy of vertical alignment can reasonably be expected during marine sextant work at sea ?When a heavenly body is brought to tangency with the visible horizon it is particularly important to ensure that the sextant is held in a truly vertical position. To this end the instrument is rocked gently about the horizontal so that the image of the body describes a small arc in the observer's field of vision. As Bruce Bauer points out, tangency with the horizon must be achieved during the process of rocking and not a second or so after rocking has been discontinued. The altitude is recorded for the instant that the body kisses the visible horizon at the lowest point of the rocking arc, as in Fig. 2. The only other visual clue as to whether the sextant is vertical is provided by the right angle made by the vertical edge of the horizon glass mirror with the horizon. There may also be some input from the observer's sense of balance and his hand orientation.

  19. Verticality perception during off-vertical axis rotation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoets, R A A; Van Gisbergen, J A M; Medendorp, W P

    2007-05-01

    During prolonged rotation about a tilted yaw axis, often referred to as off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), a percept of being translated along a conical path slowly emerges as the sense of rotation subsides. Recently, we found that these perceptual changes are consistent with a canal-otolith interaction model that attributes the illusory translation percept to improper interpretation of the ambiguous otolith signals. The model further predicts that the illusory translation percept must be accompanied by slowly worsening tilt underestimates. Here, we tested this prediction in six subjects by measuring the time course of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) during OVAR stimulation at three different tilt-rotation speed combinations, in complete darkness. Throughout the 2-min run, at each left-ear-down and right-ear-down position, the subject indicated whether a briefly flashed line deviated clockwise or counterclockwise from vertical to determine the SVV with an adaptive staircase procedure. Typically, SVV errors indicating tilt underestimation were already present at rotation onset and then increased exponentially to an asymptotic value, reached at about 60 s after rotation onset. The initial error in the SVV was highly correlated to the response error in a static tilt control experiment. The subsequent increase in error depended on both rotation speed and OVAR tilt angle, in a manner predicted by the canal-otolith interaction model. We conclude that verticality misjudgments during OVAR reflect a dynamic component linked to canal-otolith interaction, superimposed on a tilt-related component that is also expressed under stationary conditions.

  20. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning, and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. For the first time, Fermilab has organized a 3D MPW run, to which more than 25 different designs have been submitted by the consortium.

  1. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  2. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  3. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  4. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  5. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Submarine Rocket (ASROC): Ship -launched rocket used in ASW.  RIM-174 SM6: Advanced version of a ship -launched SM2 missile capable of over-the...Operational planners strive to fmd ways to load missiles on Vertical Latmch System (VLS) ships to meet mission requit·ements in theit· AI·ea of...Responsibility (AOR). Requirements are variable: there are missions requiting specific types of missiles; each ship may have distinct capability or capacity to

  6. Vertical Gun Test Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    phosphate (TBP) as a chemical agent simulant in a maximum of six vertical gun experiments to be conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and... phosphate . Using either of Ka-Bandprocess, with 2 these two substances would not achieve the test objectives of realistically simulating the threat. In...resources, geology and soils , hazardous materials and hazardous waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics and environmental justice

  7. Mated vertical ground vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT) was considered to provide an experimental base in the form of structural dynamic characteristics for the shuttle vehicle. This data base was used in developing high confidence analytical models for the prediction and design of loads, pogo controls, and flutter criteria under various payloads and operational missions. The MVGVT boost and launch program evolution, test configurations, and their suspensions are described. Test results are compared with predicted analytical results.

  8. Bimanual-vertical hand movements.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay C; Cohen, Matthew L; Williamson, John; Burtis, Brandon; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-07-01

    Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

  9. Inertial Rise in Short Capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shardt, Orest; Waghmare, Prashant; Mitra, Sushanta; Derksen, Jos

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the primarily inertial rise of liquid in vertical glass capillaries that are shorter than the equilibrium rise height (Jurin height). We focus on the behavior of the liquid upon reaching the top of the capillary and use high-speed imaging to observe the motion of the liquid-air interface with high spatial and temporal resolution. We examine the dependence of the interface behavior on the meniscus speed and capillary height and describe a new phenomenon. Upon reaching the upper edge of a sufficiently short capillary, the meniscus inverts, rises upward, and bulges out radially. The bulging liquid then wets the external surface of the capillary and slides down. The meniscus inside the capillary retracts, falling below the upper edge, and then oscillates vertically with decaying amplitude, inverting several times before reaching a steady shape. A theoretical analysis is used to interpret the conditions required for this phenomenon to occur. A key assumption in the analysis is that the transient flow is inertial and therefore the capillary driving force is balanced by the weight and inertia of the rising liquid column while viscous forces are comparatively small. The analysis points to the possibility of obtaining previously-unseen behavior under reduced gravity.

  10. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Lindsey E.; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning “opposite”, i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues. PMID:26716835

  11. The Subjective Visual Vertical and the Subjective Haptic Vertical Access Different Gravity Estimates.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Lindsey E; Makooie, Bobbak; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) both claim to probe the underlying perception of gravity. However, when the body is roll tilted these two measures evoke different patterns of errors with SVV generally becoming biased towards the body (A-effect, named for its discoverer, Hermann Rudolph Aubert) and SHV remaining accurate or becoming biased away from the body (E-effect, short for Entgegengesetzt-effect, meaning "opposite", i.e., opposite to the A-effect). We compared the two methods in a series of five experiments and provide evidence that the two measures access two different but related estimates of gravitational vertical. Experiment 1 compared SVV and SHV across three levels of whole-body tilt and found that SVV showed an A-effect at larger tilts while SHV was accurate. Experiment 2 found that tilting either the head or the trunk independently produced an A-effect in SVV while SHV remained accurate when the head was tilted on an upright body but showed an A-effect when the body was tilted below an upright head. Experiment 3 repeated these head/body configurations in the presence of vestibular noise induced by using disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (dGVS). dGVS abolished both SVV and SHV A-effects while evoking a massive E-effect in the SHV head tilt condition. Experiments 4 and 5 show that SVV and SHV do not combine in an optimally statistical fashion, but when vibration is applied to the dorsal neck muscles, integration becomes optimal. Overall our results suggest that SVV and SHV access distinct underlying gravity percepts based primarily on head and body position information respectively, consistent with a model proposed by Clemens and colleagues.

  12. Vertical separation of the two beams

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.

    1985-10-01

    The author discusses the problem of design of insertion points on the SSC, and in particular keeping the length necessary for them under control. Here he considers the possibility of having vertically separated beams, without a vertical dispersion suppressor.

  13. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  14. Spectral characteristics of vertical ground motion in the Northridge and other earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Niazi, M.; Campbell, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    Spectral characteristics of vertical ground motion recorded during the Northridge earthquake are evaluated and compared to those of other earthquakes. Relationship between vertical and horizontal spectra is examined through development of attenuation of vertical and horizontal response spectra. Vertical-to-horizontal response spectral relationship is then compared to that of 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and several other earthquakes recorded over SMART-1 array in Taiwan. This preliminary analysis shows that the main characteristics of vertical-to-horizontal spectral ratio are similar to those of other earthquakes. One main characteristic is that in the near-field region and in short period range, the ratio is much higher than commonly assumed ratio of 2/3.

  15. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-07

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  16. Continental seismic events observed by the MPL vertical DIFAR array

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; D`Spain, G.

    1993-11-01

    The vertical DIFAR array, an underwater acoustic sensor system, deployed by the Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL) was in place over the continental shelf off of Southern California and recorded the HUNTERS TROPHY nuclear test and nearly a score of after-shocks of the Landers/Big Bear earthquakes. Data from this array raise the possibility that detection thresholds for continental events may be significantly lower for arrays over the continental shelf than for arrays in the deep ocean basins. Offshore stations could be used to fill gaps in land-based seismic networks for monitoring the NPT and a CTBT, especially for monitoring non-cooperating nations with large coastlines. This preliminary report provides an analysis of the HUNTERS TROPHY observation as well as one of the Landers aftershocks. The analysis suggests detection thresholds for vertical hydrophone arrays below mb 3.0 at ranges between 3 and 4 degrees, and below mb 4.4 out to 6 degrees. This report also describes two signal processing techniques that enhance the detection potential of short vertical arrays. These methods are deterministic null steering to suppress horizontally propagating ambient ocean noise, and matched field processing for vertically-incident acoustic fields. The latter technique is ideally suited for acoustic fields derived from incident seismic waves, and may be viewed as a {open_quotes}synthetic aperture{close_quotes} approach to increase the effective aperture of the array.

  17. On the vertical-shear instability in astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, A. J.; Latter, H. N.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the linear stability of astrophysical discs exhibiting vertical shear, which arises when there is a radial variation in the temperature or entropy. Such discs are subject to a `vertical-shear instability', which recent non-linear simulations have shown to drive hydrodynamic activity in the MRI-stable regions of protoplanetary discs. We first revisit locally isothermal discs using the quasi-global reduced model derived by Nelson et al. This analysis is then extended to global axisymmetric perturbations in a cylindrical domain. We also derive and study a reduced model describing discs with power-law radial entropy profiles (`locally polytropic discs'), which are somewhat more realistic in that they possess physical (as opposed to numerical) surfaces. The fastest growing modes have very short wavelengths and are localized at the disc surfaces (if present), where the vertical shear is maximal. An additional class of modestly growing vertically global body modes is excited, corresponding to destabilized classical inertial waves (`r modes'). We discuss the properties of both types of modes, and stress that those that grow fastest occur on the shortest available length-scales (determined either by the numerical grid or the physical viscous length). This ill-posedness makes simulations of the instability difficult to interpret. We end with some brief speculation on the non-linear saturation and resulting angular momentum transport.

  18. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-01

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  19. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  20. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  1. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  2. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  3. 46 CFR 108.160 - Vertical ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vertical ladders. 108.160 Section 108.160 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.160 Vertical ladders. (a) Each vertical ladder must...

  4. Analysis of vertical interconnection measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, F. A.

    The paper examines the predominance of the effects that measurement points, geometries, and alignment have on the interpretation of measured values of contact resistance of vertical interconnections in multilayer electronic packages. It is concluded that: (1) four-terminal measurements for contact resistance are misleading; (2) measured values are mostly a function of structural geometry; (3) simulation in two dimensions and subsequent synthesis is a good predictor in three-dimensional simulations; (4) the dual-contact site is a good alignment aid and contact-resistance indicator; and (5) the measured resistance value should only be used as a reference, and not as an indicator of good or bad.

  5. ?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Michael

    Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

  6. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  7. Short bowel syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Small intestine insufficiency; Short gut syndrome; Necrotizing enterocolitis - short bowel ... The small intestine absorbs much of the nutrients found in foods we eat. When one half or more of our small ...

  8. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  9. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  10. SHORT-WAVELENGTH MAGNETIC BUOYANCY INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Mizerski, K. A.; Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W. E-mail: tina@maths.leeds.ac.uk

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by Gilman of the short-wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by k, is large (i.e., short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as k is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate z since, in the large k limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, which, for sufficiently strong field gradients, are the most unstable. The results of our analysis are backed up by comparison with a series of initial value problems. Finally, we extend the analysis to three-dimensional perturbations.

  11. Local and Remote Influences on Vertical Wind Shear over the Northern Tropical Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Zhu, X.

    2009-12-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the most important parameters controlling the frequency and intensity of Atlantic hurricanes. It has been argued that in global warming scenarios, the mechanical effect of changing vertical wind shear may even trump the thermodynamic effect of increasing Atlantic sea surface temperatures, when it comes to projected trends in Atlantic hurricane activity. Despite its importance, little is known about the connection between vertical shear in the north Atlantic region and the global atmospheric circulation, apart from the well-known positive correlation with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we analyze the statistical relationship between vertical shear and features of the large-scale circulation such as the distribution of sea surface temperature and vertical motion. We examine whether this relationship is different on interannual timescales associated with ENSO as compared to the decadal timescales associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). We also investigate how well the global general circulation models manage to simulate the observed vertical shear in this region, and its relationship to the large-scale circulation. Our analyses reveal an interesting sensitivity to air-sea coupling in model simulations of vertical shear. Another interesting property of vertical shear, as defined in the context of hurricane studies, is that it is positive definite, rather like precipitation. This means that it has a very nongaussian probability distribution on short timescales. We analyze how this nongaussianity changes when averaged over longer timescales.

  12. Wave field features of shallow vertical discontinuity and their application in non-destructive detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Xia, J.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The geotechnical integrity of critical infrastructure can be seriously compromised by the presence of fractures or crevices. Non-destructive techniques to accurately detect fractures in critical infrastructure such as dams and highways could be of significant benefit to the geotechnical industry. This paper investigates the application of shallow seismic and georadar methods to the detection of a vertical discontinuity using numerical simulations. The objective is to address the kinematical analysis of a vertical discontinuity, determine the resulting wave field characteristics, and provide the basis for determining the existence of vertical discontinuities based on the recorded signals. Simulation results demonstrate that: (1) A reflection from a vertical discontinuity produces a hyperbolic feature on a seismic or georadar profile; (2) In order for a reflection from a vertical discontinuity to be produced, a reflecting horizon below the discontinuity must exist, the offset between source and receiver (x0) must be non-zero, on the same side of the vertical discontinuity; (3) The range of distances from the vertical discontinuity where a reflection event is observed is proportional to its length and to x0; (4) Should the vertical crevice (or fracture) pass through a reflecting horizon, dual hyperbolic features can be observed on the records, and this can be used as a determining factor that the vertical crevice passes through the interface; and (5) diffractions from the edges of the discontinuity can be recorded with relatively smaller amplitude than reflections and their ranges are not constrained by the length of discontinuity. If the length of discontinuity is short enough, diffractions are the dominant feature. Real-world examples show that the shallow seismic reflection method and the georadar method are capable of recording the hyperbolic feature, which can be interpreted as vertical discontinuity. Thus, these methods show some promise as effective non

  13. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  14. Making Tracks on Mars (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been making tracks on Mars for seven months now, well beyond its original 90-day mission. The rover traveled more than 3 kilometers (2 miles) to reach the 'Columbia Hills' pictured here. In this 360-degree view of the rolling martian terrain, its wheel tracks can be seen approaching from the northwest (right side of image).

    Spirit's navigation camera took the images that make up this mosaic on sols 210 and 213 (Aug. 5 and Aug. 8, 2004). The rover is now conducting scientific studies of the local geology on the 'Clovis' outcrop of the 'West Spur' region of the 'Columbia Hills.' The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometrical seam correction. Scientists plan for Spirit to take a color panoramic image from this location.

  15. Pulsejet engine dynamics in vertical motion using momentum conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheche, Tiberius O.

    2017-03-01

    The momentum conservation law is applied to analyse the dynamics of a pulsejet engine in vertical motion in a uniform gravitational field in the absence of friction. The model predicts the existence of a terminal speed given the frequency of the short pulses. The conditions where the engine does not return to the starting position are identified. The number of short periodic pulses after which the engine returns to the starting position is found to be independent of the exhaust velocity and gravitational field intensity for a certain frequency of pulses. The pulsejet engine and turbojet engine aircraft models of dynamics are compared. Also the octopus dynamics is modelled. The paper is addressed to intermediate undergraduate students of classical mechanics and aerospace engineering.

  16. Paediatric short case examination.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2014-11-01

    The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations.

  17. Short dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone loss were evaluated. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Meta-analyses were performed by the pooling of survival data by implant surface, surgical technique, implant location, type of edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term.

  18. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, G.F.

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  19. Influence of Compression and Stiffness Apparel on Vertical Jump Performance.

    PubMed

    Wannop, John W; Worobets, Jay T; Madden, Ryan; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-04-01

    Compression apparel alters both compression of the soft tissues and the hip joint stiffness of athletes. It is not known whether it is the compression elements, the stiffness elements, or some combination that increases performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how systematically increasing upper leg compression and hip joint stiffness independently from one another affects vertical jumping performance. Ten male athletes performed countermovement vertical jumps in 8 concept apparel conditions and 1 control condition (loose fitting shorts). The 8 apparel conditions, 4 that specifically altered the amount of compression exerted on the thigh and 4 that altered the hip joint stiffness by means of elastic thermoplastic polyurethane bands, were tested on 2 separate testing sessions (one testing the compression apparel and the other testing the stiffness apparel). Maximum jump height was measured, while kinematic data of the hip, knee, and ankle joint were recorded with a high-speed camera (480 Hz). Both compression and stiffness apparel can have a positive influence on vertical jumping performance. The increase in jump height for the optimal compression was due to increased hip joint range of motion and a trend of increasing the jump time. Optimal stiffness also increased jump height and had the trend of decreasing the hip joint range of motion and hip joint angular velocity. The exact mechanisms by which apparel interventions alter performance is not clear, but it may be due to alterations to the force-length and force-velocity relationships of muscle.

  20. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  1. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement. PMID:28293135

  2. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  3. Vertical combustor for particulate refuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, P. M.; Carlson, L.

    1981-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is constructed of a vertical combustor for refuse particle combustion in order to analyze it for waste energy recovery. The three components of the model, fuel particles, inert solid particles and the gaseous mixture are described by momentum, energy, and mass conservation equations, resulting in three different flow velocities and temperatures for the medium. The gaseous component is further divided into six chemical species that evolve in combustion at temperatures below about 1367 K. A detailed description is given of the fuel particle combustion through heating, devolatilization, and combustion of the volatile gas in the boundary layer, return of the flame sheet to the fuel surface, and char combustion. The solutions show the combustor to be viable for U.S. refuse which consists of combustibles that can be volatilized up to 85 to 95% below 1366 K. Char combustion, however, is found to be too slow to be attempted in the combustor, where the fuel residence time is of the order of 2 s.

  4. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönke, Johannes; Fried, Eliot

    2017-02-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement.

  5. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  6. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  7. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  8. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Shortness of breath By Mayo Clinic Staff Few sensations are as frightening as not being able to get enough air. Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in the chest, air hunger or a ...

  9. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  10. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  11. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  12. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  13. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  14. Teaching Students the Verticality of Technical Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Advocates making technical writing courses more vertical in structure by including an extensive study of at least one specific form of technical documentation. Examines how students can gain experience in the vertical process by designing, writing, testing, and producing user manuals for on-campus cooperative education clients. Lists the benefits…

  15. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  16. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-06-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  17. Vertical Files in Midlands Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillis, John G.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews survey responses from 127 nonmedical academic libraries in Nebraska, Iowa, and Kansas regarding their vertical files (e.g., acquisitions, weeding, size, nature, collection management, frequency of use, maintenance of statistics, types of users, circulation, and security), reporting that 109 had vertical files, with most emphasizing topics…

  18. Vertical Hegelianism and Beyond: Digital Cinema Editing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Roger B.

    Cinema as an art and communication form is entering its second century of development. Sergei Eisenstein conceived of editing in horizontal and vertical terms. He saw vertical editing patterns primarily as the synchronization of simultaneous image and sound elements, particularly music, no create cinematic meaning by means of the relationship…

  19. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  20. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  1. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  2. Sonic Anemometer Vertical Wind Speed Measurement Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochendorfer, J.; Horst, T. W.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Meyers, T. P.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy covariance studies, errors in the measured vertical wind speed cause errors of a similar magnitude in the vertical fluxes of energy and mass. Several recent studies on the accuracy of sonic anemometer measurements indicate that non-orthogonal sonic anemometers used in eddy covariance studies underestimate the vertical wind speed. It has been suggested that this underestimation is caused by flow distortion from the interference of the structure of the anemometer itself on the flow. When oriented ideally with respect to the horizontal wind direction, orthogonal sonic anemometers that measure the vertical wind speed with a single vertically-oriented acoustic path may measure the vertical wind speed more accurately in typical surface-layer conditions. For non-orthogonal sonic anemometers, Horst et al. (2014) proposed that transducer shadowing may be a dominant factor in sonic flow distortion. As the ratio of sonic transducer diameter to path length and the zenith angle of the three transducer paths decrease, the effects of transducer shadowing on measurements of vertical velocity will decrease. An overview of this research and some of the methods available to correct historical data will be presented.

  3. Multiport well design for sampling of ground water at closely spaced vertical intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples form the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Trace experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorocarbon concentrations.

  4. Multiport well design for sampling of ground water at closely spaced vertical intervals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples from the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Tracer experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorcarbon concentrations.

  5. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  6. Effects of vertical rotation on Arabidopsis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Various gross morphological end points of Arabidopsis development are examined in an attempt to separate the effects of growth on the horizontal clinostat into a component caused by rotation alone and another component caused by the altered position with respect to the direction of the g-vector. In a series of tests which involved comparisons between vertical stationary plants, vertical rotated plants, and plants rotated on clinostats, certain characters were consistently influenced by vertical rotation alone. The characters for which this effect was statistically significant were petiole length and leaf blade width.

  7. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  8. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollrock, R.H.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported consisted of the fabrication and whirl testing of a vertical axis wind turbine. Problems are reported in blade fabrication and balancing. It is planned to provide speed control with a water agitator. (LEW)

  10. Vertical stratification in arthropod spatial distribution research.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity within individual host trees is often overlooked in surveys of phytophagous arthropod abundance and distribution. The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui is controlled by the predator Rhyzobius lophanthae to a greater degree on leaves at 75-cm height than on leaves at ground level within its host tree Cycas micronesica. The direct influence of elevation on the predator indirectly generates vertical heterogeneity of the scale insect. Arthropod sampling schemes that fail to include all strata within the vertical profile of the host tree species may generate misleading outcomes. Results indicate that sub-meter increments can reveal significant differences in vertical distribution of phytophagous insects, and that inclusion of observations on other organisms that interact with the target arthropod may illuminate determinants of vertical heterogeneity.

  11. Vertical Water Vapor Distribution at Phoenix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Phoenix SSI camera data along with radiative transfer modeling are used to retrieve the vertical water vapor profile. Preliminary results indicate that water vapor is often confined near the surface.

  12. Geometry independence of three-string vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    The geometry independence of three-string vertices in both HIKKO's and Witten's string field theories is examined. A careful regularization shows that the anomaly which has been reported by Morris and Mañes vanishes.

  13. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study

    SciTech Connect

    Lodde, P.F.

    1980-07-01

    The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

  14. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  15. Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Vertical Vergence Calibration for Augmented Reality Displays Mark A. Livingston∗ Adam Lederer Virtual Reality...dimensional Graphics and Realism—Virtual Reality Keywords: augmented reality , head-mounted display, vergence 1 INTRODUCTION Many augmented reality (AR

  16. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  17. Interventions for dissociated vertical deviation

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Wang, Xue; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “strabismus” describes misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may deviate inward, outward, upward, or downward. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a well-recognized type of upward drifting of one or both eyes, which can occur in children or adults. DVD often develops in the context of infantile- or childhood-onset horizontal strabismus, either esotropia (inward-turning) or exotropia (outward-turning). For some individuals, DVD remains controlled and can only be detected during clinical testing. For others, DVD becomes spontaneously “manifest” and the eye drifts up of its own accord. Spontaneously manifest DVD can be difficult to control and often causes psychosocial concerns. Traditionally, DVD has been thought to be asymptomatic, although some individuals have double vision. More recently it has been suggested that individuals with DVD may also suffer from eyestrain. Treatment for DVD may be sought either due to psychosocial concerns or because of these symptoms. The standard treatment for DVD is a surgical procedure; non-surgical treatments are offered less commonly. Although there are many studies evaluating different management options for the correction of DVD, a lack of clarity remains regarding which treatments are most effective. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of various surgical and non-surgical interventions in randomized controlled trials of participants with DVD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), PubMed (1948 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 3

  18. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    DOEpatents

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  19. Short wavelength FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  20. V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Low Speed and Transition Equivalent Systems Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    had t9 adjust his piloting technique quickly. The pilots felt this was unacceptable, and even dangerous . 38 NADC-81 104-60 1.0 Rate Command .2 C...TR5 K8 ., -. 031 rad/cn PILOT A: Back on attitude type system, I think, I can’t really 6 tell. It is just too darn sluggish and this thing is dangerous ...can’t make this thing respond very fast. That can be dangerous in close confines. You really got to sneak up on the pad. So we are back to where I can’t

  1. Vertical Ge/Si Core/Shell Nanowire Junctionless Transistor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Cai, Fuxi; Otuonye, Ugo; Lu, Wei D

    2016-01-13

    Vertical junctionless transistors with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure based on Ge/Si core/shell nanowires epitaxially grown and integrated on a ⟨111⟩ Si substrate were fabricated and analyzed. Because of efficient gate coupling in the nanowire-GAA transistor structure and the high density one-dimensional hole gas formed in the Ge nanowire core, excellent P-type transistor behaviors with Ion of 750 μA/μm were obtained at a moderate gate length of 544 nm with minimal short-channel effects. The experimental data can be quantitatively modeled by a GAA junctionless transistor model with few fitting parameters, suggesting the nanowire transistors can be fabricated reliably without introducing additional factors that can degrade device performance. Devices with different gate lengths were readily obtained by tuning the thickness of an etching mask film. Analysis of the histogram of different devices yielded a single dominate peak in device parameter distribution, indicating excellent uniformity and high confidence of single nanowire operation. Using two vertical nanowire junctionless transistors, a PMOS-logic inverter with near rail-to-rail output voltage was demonstrated, and device matching in the logic can be conveniently obtained by controlling the number of nanowires employed in different devices rather than modifying device geometry. These studies show that junctionless transistors based on vertical Ge/Si core/shell nanowires can be fabricated in a controlled fashion with excellent performance and may be used in future hybrid, high-performance circuits where bottom-up grown nanowire devices with different functionalities can be directly integrated with an existing Si platform.

  2. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of…

  3. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  4. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... coupler (or simulated coupler) having only frictional vertical force resistance at the mating interface... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  5. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  6. Horizontal and vertical disparity, eye position, and stereoscopic slant perception.

    PubMed

    Backus, B T; Banks, M S; van Ee, R; Crowell, J A

    1999-03-01

    The slant of a stereoscopically defined surface cannot be determined solely from horizontal disparities or from derived quantities such as horizontal size ratio (HSR). There are four other signals that, in combination with horizontal disparity, could in principle allow an unambiguous estimate of slant: the vergence and version of the eyes, the vertical size ratio (VSR), and the horizontal gradient of VSR. Another useful signal is provided by perspective slant cues. The determination of perceived slant can be modeled as a weighted combination of three estimates based on those signals: a perspective estimate, a stereoscopic estimate based on HSR and VSR, and a stereoscopic estimate based on HSR and sensed eye position. In a series of experiments, we examined human observers' use of the two stereoscopic means of estimation. Perspective cues were rendered uninformative. We found that VSR and sensed eye position are both used to interpret the measured horizontal disparities. When the two are placed in conflict, the visual system usually gives more weight to VSR. However, when VSR is made difficult to measure by using short stimuli or stimuli composed of vertical lines, the visual system relies on sensed eye position. A model in which the observer's slant estimate is a weighted average of the slant estimate based on HSR and VSR and the one based on HSR and eye position accounted well for the data. The weights varied across viewing conditions because the informativeness of the signals they employ vary from one situation to another.

  7. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  8. High-temperature long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalit, Near Moses

    Vertical cavity lasers(VCLs) have recently been the subject of much research effort around the world. These lasers hold the promise of inexpensive, low threshold, high speed sources for optical communication. Short wavelength lasers have many applications, including free space optical interconnects and short distance datacom, but have limited potential for longer distances due to the absorption and dispersion spectrum of standard optical fiber. The longer wavelength sources near 1.3 or 1.5 /mu m are ideally suited for medium and long distance applications. Interoperability as well as compatibility with existing fiber optic infrastructure also call for longer wavelength sources. However, large volume commercialization of such devices, for applications such as FTTH(fiber to the home), requires a wide temperature range of operation ([-]40o C to 85o C). Historically, the realization of such high performance long-wavelength vertical cavity- lasers has been difficult. Nonetheless, advances in fabrication techniques, such as wafer fusion, have allowed for ever increasing device performance. In this thesis, we present recent results that include devices with multigigahetz frequency responses, hundred of microwatts of cw output powers, as well as 65o C continuous-wave operating temperatures. In addition, these devices have now been demonstrated as sources in link transmission experiment at 2.5 Gb/s over 200 km of optical fiber, far surpassing the record distance-bandwidth products of any other VCL experiment. We analyze here the design and fabrication of these record performance devices. Further advancements may soon lead to commercial level performance.

  9. Vertical orbital dystopia--surgical correction.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A

    1981-02-01

    The surgical correction of vertical malpositions of the human eye has been made relatively safe and reliable by recent surgical techniques. The authors define this condition as vertical orbital dystopia and review the etiology of this deformity in 38 recent consecutive cases that were surgically treated at the Craniofacial Anomalies Center of The University of Virginia. Some new and useful tests are described that are of value to the plastic surgeon in analysis of the facial deformity and in planning the appropriate surgical procedure to correct the vertical dystopia of one or both eyes. Several cases are illustrated that describe the principal surgical methods of moving the eye up or down without loss of vision. The vertical eye shifts in this series have been in the range of 2 to 3 mm to over 22 mm. No loss of vision was produced by these corrections. The most common difficulties and complications of orbital dystopia corrections are described. The implications of this type of surgery in terms of visual physiology are suggested. The authors conclude that surgical correction of vertical orbital dystopias is possible, safe, and rewarding to the patients. However, they advise that the correction is best performed in young children and by a specially trained team of plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and ophthalmologists.

  10. Thermal Impacts of Vertical Greenery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safikhani, Tabassom; Abdullah, Aminatuzuhariah Megat; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Baharvand, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    - Using vertical greenery systems to reduce heat transmission is becoming more common in modern architecture. Vertical greenery systems are divided into two main categories; green facades and living walls. This study aims to examine the thermal performance of vertical greenery systems in hot and humid climates. An experimental procedure was used to measure indoor temperature and humidity. These parameters were also measured for the gap between the vertical greenery systems and wall surfaces. Three boxes were used as small-scale rooms. Two boxes were provided with either a living wall or a green facade and one box did not have any greenery (benchmark). Blue Trumpet Vine was used in the vertical greenery systems. The data were recorded over the course of three sunny days in April 2013. An analyses of the results showed that the living wall and green facade reduced indoor temperature up to 4.0 °C and 3.0 °C, respectively. The living wall and green facade also reduced cavity temperatures by 8.0 °C and 6.5 °C, respectively.

  11. Reconstructing the vertical profile of humidity on the basis of the vertical profile of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazlova, T. I.

    1974-01-01

    The vertical profile of humidity in the atmosphere is developed on the basis of the vertical profile of temperature using an empirical formula linking changes in humidity with changes in temperature and altitude. The atmosphere is divided into three layers by altitude, since the condition for the formation of humidity varies with altitude.

  12. Short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, D W; Robinson, M K

    2000-12-01

    The short bowel syndrome is a symptom complex that occurs in adults who have less than 200 cm of jejunum-ileum remaining after intestinal resection. Similar symptoms are observed in infants and children following massive bowel resection or congenital anomalies and in individuals with longer segments of intestine with severe mucosal disease. Initial care should focus on a thorough excision of nonviable bowel, an exact measurement of the remaining viable bowel, placing all intestine in continuity at the initial or subsequent operation, and controlling initial food intake. With time, adaptation of the remnant intestine occurs, and absorptive function may be maximized by enhancing the enteral diet and minimizing parenteral nutrition. Growth factors and specialized nutrients may also enhance this process. Intestinal transplantation should be considered in selected individuals with the short bowel syndrome who fail intestinal rehabilitation protocols.

  13. Short pulse neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  14. Hydraulic induced instability on a vertical service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosmans, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The case history contained provides insight toward the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of a vertical pump. It clearly demonstrates the need for measurements on the rotor at or near the impeller area. The results are reported of an analysis on a service water pump. This pump is typical of the water pumps used throughout the power generation industry. Although little is known of the mechanical behavior of vertical pumps because of difficulty in modeling the rotor system, recent developments in the application of submersible proximity transducers have made possible the measurement of pump dynamics under operating conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the proper selection and installation of vibration-monitoring transducers as well as to measure the effects of imbalance, misalignment, and hydraulics on the performance and reliability of vertical pumps. In addition, the cause of shaft failures on this pump was to be determined.

  15. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling.

    PubMed

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A

    2009-05-01

    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  16. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  17. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  18. Turbulence in vertical axis wind turbine canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Araya, Daniel B.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results from three different full scale arrays of vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) under natural wind conditions are presented. The wind velocities throughout the turbine arrays are measured using a portable meteorological tower with seven, vertically staggered, three-component ultrasonic anemometers. The power output of each turbine is recorded simultaneously. The comparison between the horizontal and vertical energy transport for the different turbine array sizes shows the importance of vertical transport for large array configurations. Quadrant-hole analysis is employed to gain a better understanding of the vertical energy transport at the top of the VAWT arrays. The results show a striking similarity between the flows in the VAWT arrays and the adjustment region of canopies. Namely, an increase in ejections and sweeps and decrease in inward and outward interactions occur inside the turbine array. Ejections are the strongest contributor, which is in agreement with the literature on evolving and sparse canopy flows. The influence of the turbine array size on the power output of the downstream turbines is examined by comparing a streamwise row of four single turbines with square arrays of nine turbine pairs. The results suggest that a new boundary layer forms on top of the larger turbine arrays as the flow adjusts to the new roughness length. This increases the turbulent energy transport over the whole planform area of the turbine array. By contrast, for the four single turbines, the vertical energy transport due to turbulent fluctuations is only increased in the near wake of the turbines. These findings add to the knowledge of energy transport in turbine arrays and therefore the optimization of the turbine spacing in wind farms.

  19. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  20. Calculation of vertical and ramp-assisted takeoffs for supersonic cruise fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure that allows rapid preliminary evaluations of the vertical, short, and normal takeoff performance of supersonic cruise aircraft concepts was developed into a numerical computer program. The program is used to determine the effects on takeoff performance of various parameters, such as thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, thrust vector angle, and flap setting. Ramp-assisted takeoffs for overloaded configurations typical of a ground-attack mission are included. The effects of wind on the takeoff performance are also considered.

  1. Sediment Vertical Flux in Unsteady Sheet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Jenkins, J. T.; Liu, P. L.

    2002-12-01

    In models for sediment suspension, two different boundary conditions have been employed at the sediment bed. Either the sediment concentration is given or the vertical flux of sediment is specified. The specification of the latter is usually called the pick-up function. Recently, several developments towards a better understanding of the sediment bed boundary condition have been reported. Nielson et al (Coastal Engineering 2002, 45, p61-68) have indicated a better performance using the sediment vertical flux as the bed boundary condition in comparisons with experimental data. Also, Drake and Calantoni (Journal of Geophysical Research 2001, 106, C9, p19859-19868) have suggested that in the nearshore environment with its various unsteady flow conditions, the appropriate sediment boundary conditions of a large-scale morphology model must consider both the magnitude the free stream velocity and the acceleration of the flow. In this research, a small-scale sheet flow model based on the two-phase theory is implemented to further study these issues. Averaged two-phase continuum equations are presented for concentrated flows of sediment that are driven by strong, fully developed, unsteady turbulent shear flows over a mobile bed. The particle inter-granular stress is modeled using collisional granular flow theory and a two-equation closure for the fluid turbulence is adopted. In the context of the two-phase theory, sediment is transported through the sediment vertical velocity. Using the fully developed sediment phase continuity equation, it can be shown that the vertical velocity of the sediment must vanish when the flow reaches a steady state. In other words, in fully developed conditions, it is the unsteadiness of the flow that induces the vertical motion of the sediment and that changes the sediment concentration profile. Therefore, implementing a boundary condition based on sediment vertical flux is consistent with both the two-phase theory and with the observation

  2. Photochemistry and vertical mixing. [in Uranus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Sandel, B. R.; Romani, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Earth-based observations relevant to the question of photochemistry and vertical mixing are discussed. Phytolysis of methane, the only known photochemically active volatile in the Uranian atmosphere, produces heavier hydrocarbons, the most abundant of which are ethane, acetylene, and the polyacetylenes. Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, these hydrocarbon products condense at the low temperatures prevalent in the middle atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Voyager notion that the atmosphere of Uranus is remarkable clear, it is found that the aerosols are widely and extensively distributed. Despite its photodestruction, methane remains stable in the Uranian atmosphere. The vertical mixing on Uranus is found to be the least efficient of any of the planetary atmospheres.

  3. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  4. Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in glass microchannels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tony A; Hosoi, A E; Ehrlich, Daniel J

    2009-01-08

    Vertical hydrodynamic focusing in microfluidic devices is investigated through simulation and through direct experimental verification using a confocal microscope and a novel form of stroboscopic imaging. Optimization for microfluidic cytometry of biological cells is examined. By combining multiple crossing junctions, it is possible to confine cells to a single analytic layer of interest. Subtractive flows are investigated as a means to move the analysis layer vertically in the channel and to correct the flatness of this layer. The simulation software (ADINA and Coventor) is shown to accurately capture the complex dependencies of the layer interfaces, which vary strongly with channel geometry and relative flow rates.

  5. Concepts for generating optimum vertical flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms for generating optimum vertical profiles are derived and examined. These algorithms form the basis for the design of onboard flight management concepts. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff weight, and range-to-destination are presented. Further considerations for mechanizing two different onboard methods of computing near-optimum flight profiles are then outlined. Finally, the results are summarized, and recommendations are made for further work. Technical details of optimum trajectory design, steering requirements for following these trajectories, and off-line computer programs for testing the concepts are included.

  6. Vertical high-precision Michelson wavemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A.; de Urquijo, J.; Mendoza, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and tested a traveling, Michelson-type vertical wavemeter for the wavelength measurement of tunable continuous-wave lasers in the visible part of the spectrum. The interferometer has two movable corner cubes, suspending vertically from a driving setup resembling Atwood's machine. To reduce the fraction-of-fringe error, a vernier-type coincidence circuit was used. Although simple, this wavemeter has a relative precision of 3.2 parts in 109 for an overall fringe count of about 7×106.

  7. Integrated asymmetric vertical coupler pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Askin; Akcag, Imran; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    Design and analysis of a novel pressure sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator asymmetric integrated vertical coupler is presented. The coupler is composed of a single mode low index waveguide and a thin silicon slab. Wavelength selective optical modulation of asymmetric vertical coupler is examined in detail. Its potential for sensing applications is highlighted as an integrated optical pressure sensor which can be realized by standard silicon micro-fabrication. Sensitivity of transmission of such couplers on refractive index change of silicon slab ensures that they are good candidates for applications requiring high sensitivities.

  8. Vertical Vergence Adaptation Produces an Objective Vertical Deviation That Changes With Head Tilt

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L.; Ramey, Nicholas A.; Adyanthaya, Rohit S.; Ying, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To document the cyclovertical ocular motor mechanism used for vertical fusion in healthy subjects, and to explore whether vertical vergence training in healthy individuals can produce objectively confirmed vertical deviations that change with head tilt, revealing a basic mechanism that can produce a pattern of misalignment in an otherwise normal ocular motor system that is similar to superior oblique muscle paresis (SOP). Methods. Seven subjects with normal orthoptic examinations were adapted to vertical image disparities using our tilting haploscopic eye-tracking apparatus presenting concentric circle targets without torsional cues. Static eye positions were recorded with head straight and when tilted 45 degrees to the left and right, during both binocular and monocular viewing. Results. Vertical fusional vergence was accompanied by a cycloversion, with the downward-moving eye intorting and the upward-moving eye extorting, implicating primary involvement of the oblique extraocular muscles. After adaptation to the slowly increasing vertical target separation, all subjects developed a temporary vertical deviation in the straight ahead position that increased with head tilt to one side and decreased with head tilt to the other side. Conclusions. These results not only show that head-tilt–dependent changes in vertical deviation are not necessarily pathognomonic for SOP, but also, and more importantly, suggest mechanisms that can mimic SOP and suggest a possible role for vertical vergence training in reducing deviations and thus the amount of head tilt required for fusion. Ultimately, vertical vergence training may provide an adjunct or alternative to extraocular muscle surgery in selected cases. PMID:23572100

  9. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  10. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the navigable channel under the span will be marked by a range of two green lights when the vertical lift...

  11. Short-wavelength bottom-emitting VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Barton, Jonathon S.; Geib, Kent M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Hindi, Jana J.

    1999-04-01

    The fabrication and performance of selectively oxidized 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes which emit through transparent GaP substrates is reported. Emission through the substrate is advantageous for many VCSEL configurations, such as for the incorporation of optical elements in the substrate or flip-chip integration to microelectronic circuitry. The short wavelength bottom- emitting VCSELs are fabricated by wafer fusion using an inert gas low temperature annealing process. The electrical characteristics of n- and p-type GaAs/GaAs and GaAs/GaP wafer bonded interfaces have been examined to optimize the annealing temperature. A significant reduction of the current-voltage characteristics of the VCSELs bonded to GaP substrates has been achieved whereby the bottom-emitting VCSELs show similar threshold voltage as compared to top- emitting lasers.

  12. Short course review and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  13. Vertical Drop Testing and Simulation of Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 14 vertical impact tests were conducted using Hybrid III 50th Percentile and Hybrid II 50th Percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of conducting these tests was threefold: to compare and contrast the impact responses of Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs under two different loading conditions, to compare the impact responses of the Hybrid III configured with a nominal curved lumbar spine to that of a Hybrid III configured with a straight lumbar spine, and to generate data for comparison with predicted responses from two commercially available ATD finite element models. The two loading conditions examined were a high magnitude, short duration acceleration pulse, and a low magnitude, long duration acceleration pulse, each created by using different paper honeycomb blocks as pulse shape generators in the drop tower. The test results show that the Hybrid III results differ from the Hybrid II results more for the high magnitude, short duration pulse case. The comparison of the lumbar loads for each ATD configuration show drastic differences in the loads seen in the spine. The analytical results show major differences between the responses of the two finite element models. A detailed discussion of possible sources of the discrepancies between the two analytical models is also provided.

  14. Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

  15. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Volume from High Spectral Resolution Infrared Transmission Measurements: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Kahn, Brian H.; Mills, Franklin P.; Irion, Fredrick W.; Steele, Helen M.; Gunson, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The high-resolution infrared absorption spectra of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are utilized to derive vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume density and extinction coefficient. Following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991, the ATMOS spectra obtained on three Space Shuttle missions (1992, 1993, and 1994) provide a unique opportunity to study the global stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer shortly after a major volcanic eruption and periodically during the decay phase. Synthetic sulfate aerosol spectra are fit to the observed spectra, and a global fitting inversion routine is used to derive vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume density. Vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume density for the three missions over portions of the globe are presented, with the peak in aerosol volume density occurring from as low as 10 km (polar latitudes) to as high as 20 km (subtropical latitudes). Derived aerosol volume density is as high as 2-3.5 (mu)m(exp 3) per cubic centimeter +/-10% in 1992, decreasing to 0.2-0.5 (mu)m(exp 3) per cubic centimeter +/-20% in 1994, in agreement with other experiments. Vertical extinction profiles derived from ATMOS are compared with profiles from Improved Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) and Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) that coincide in space and time and show good general agreement. The uncertainty of the ATMOS vertical profiles is similar to CLAES and consistently smaller than ISAMS at similar altitudes.

  16. GPS Imaging of Global Vertical Land Motion for Sea Level Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Hamlington, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal vertical land motion contributes to the signal of local relative sea level change. Moreover, understanding global sea level change requires understanding local sea level rise at many locations around Earth. It is therefore essential to understand the regional secular vertical land motion attributable to mantle flow, tectonic deformation, glacial isostatic adjustment, postseismic viscoelastic relaxation, groundwater basin subsidence, elastic rebound from groundwater unloading or other processes that can change the geocentric height of tide gauges anchored to the land. These changes can affect inferences of global sea level rise and should be taken into account for global projections. We present new results of GPS imaging of vertical land motion across most of Earth's continents including its ice-free coastlines around North and South America, Europe, Australia, Japan, parts of Africa and Indonesia. These images are based on data from many independent open access globally distributed continuously recording GPS networks including over 13,500 stations. The data are processed in our system to obtain solutions aligned to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF08). To generate images of vertical rate we apply the Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series to obtain robust non-parametric estimates with realistic uncertainties. We estimate the vertical land motion at the location of 1420 tide gauges locations using Delaunay-based geographic interpolation with an empirically derived distance weighting function and median spatial filtering. The resulting image is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, omits short wavelength features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates, and emphasizes long-wavelength mantle-driven vertical rates.

  17. Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other

  18. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Henry, M. David; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.

    2016-04-05

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicontopography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  19. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  20. Vertical boring mill capacity is increased

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

  1. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations.

  2. Vertical motions in the equatorial middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A single station vertical velocity equation which considers ageostrophic and diabatic effects derived from the first law of thermodynamics and a generalized thermal wind relation is presented. An analysis and verification procedure which accounts for measurement and calculation errors as well as time and space continuity arguments and theoretical predictions are described. Vertical velocities are calculated at every kilometer between 25 and 60 km and for approximately every three hours for the above diurnal period at Kourou (French Guiana), Fort Sherman (Panama Canal Zone), Ascension Island, Antigua (British West Indies) and Natal (Brazil). The results, plotted as time series cross sections, suggest vertical motions ranging in magnitude from 1 or 2 cm/sec at 30 km to as much as 15 cm/sec at 60 km. Many of the general features of the results agree well with atmospheric tidal predictions but many particular features suggest that both smaller time scale gravity waves (periods less than 6 hours) and synoptic type waves (periods greater than 1 day) may be interacting significantly with the tidal fields. The results suggest that vertical motions can be calculated for the equatorial middle atmosphere and must be considered a significant part of the motion for time scales from 8 to 24 hours.

  3. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  4. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  5. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  6. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  7. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  8. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  9. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  10. Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-09-01

    Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature.

  11. A Vertical Approach to Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gojak, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of mathematics standards, whether they are Common Core State Standards or other state standards, effective vertical mathematics teams offer an opportunity for teachers to grow professionally through shared experiences, for leadership to grow among the faculty, and for the school to change its perspective on the teaching and…

  12. Neurofibromatosis type II presenting as vertical diplopia.

    PubMed

    Sokwala, Ahmed; Knapp, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene

    2004-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type II (NF II) is rare and most commonly presents with hearing loss, tinnitus and/or vestibular disturbance in the third decade of life. The authors describe a rare case presenting with NF II with vertical diplopia due to IV(th) nerve palsy. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic despite multiple extensive lesions on MRI.

  13. The Vertical Limit of State Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 00 JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A... 1 - Chapter I: Territorial Sovereignty - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 -- Vertical Sovereignty

  14. Understanding airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, Jonathan; Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton, William R., Jr.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    Airglow imaging is a primary tool in the study of gravity waves at mesospheric and lower-thermospheric (MLT) altitudes, clearly revealing signatures of small-scale (<100 km) and short-period (<30 min) waves. Short-period waves are in particular able to carry significant momentum into the MLT [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, 2003, Rev. Geophys., 41(1)]. However, quantification of short-period wave fluxes and propagation characteristics is complicated by their susceptibility to refraction by ambient wind and thermal structure at airglow altitudes. These effects lead to vertical wavelengths that vary dramatically with altitude throughout the airglow layers, and reflection and ducting, which can prevent the accurate assessment of ampli-tude and vertical direction of propagation [e.g., Fritts, 2000, JGR, 105(D17), 22,355-22,360]. To investigate airglow signatures of short-period gravity waves, we utilize a two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics model coupled with OH Meinel band and OI 557.7 nm airglow photochem-istry models. Case studies where the ambient atmospheric structure significantly influences wave propagation are presented, for both ducted and reflected waves, and also for waves ap-proaching critical levels. Arising from Doppler shifts to higher and lower intrinsic frequencies, respectively, these effects contribute to significant variation of vertical wavelength throughout the airglow region, and may limit the altitude of propagation. Cancellation effects of vertically-integrated airglow volume emission rate perturbations are discussed, along with observable nonlinear features due to large amplitude [e.g., Huang et al., 2003, JGR, 108(A5), 1173], and effects of partial perturbations to airglow layers by vertically-confined waves [e.g., Snively et al., JGR, In Review, 2010]. In particular, it is demonstrated that high temporal and spatial resolution measurements of airglow intensity and brightness-weighted temperature, combined with detailed descriptions of ambient

  15. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  16. Short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Claire L; Reynolds, John V

    2010-10-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  17. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  18. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat

  19. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  20. Short QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Rainer; Wolpert, Christian; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Giustetto, Carla; Borggrefe, Martin

    2005-08-15

    The short QT syndrome constitutes a new clinical entity that is associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac death, syncope, and/or atrial fibrillation even in young patients and newborns. Patients with this congenital electrical abnormality are characterized by rate-corrected QT intervals<320 ms. Missense mutations in KCNH2 (HERG) linked to a gain-of-function of the rapidly activating delayed-rectifier current I(Kr) have been identified in the first two reported families with familial sudden cardiac death. Recently, two further gain-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the KvLQT1 (I(Ks)) channel and in the KCNJ2 gene encoding the strong inwardly rectifying channel protein Kir2.1 confirmed a genetically heterogeneous disease. The possible substrate for the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias may be a significant transmural dispersion of the repolarisation due to a heterogeneous abbreviation of the action potential duration. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the therapy of choice in patients with syncope and a positive family history of sudden cardiac death. However, ICD therapy in patients with a short QT syndrome has an increased risk for inappropriate shock therapies due to possible T wave oversensing. The impact of sotalol, ibutilide, flecainide, and quinidine on QT prolongation has been evaluated, but only quinidine effectively suppressed gain-of-function in I(Kr) with prolongation of the QT interval. In patients with a mutation in HERG, it rendered ventricular tachycardias/ventricular fibrillation non-inducible and restored the QT interval/heart rate relationship towards a normal range. It may serve as an adjunct to ICD therapy or as a possible alternative treatment, especially for children and newborns.

  1. Vertical distribution of phosphorus in agricultural drainage ditch soils.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Robert E; Needelman, Brian A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Allen, Arthur L

    2007-01-01

    Pedological processes such as gleization and organic matter accumulation may affect the vertical distribution of P within agricultural drainage ditch soils. The objective of this study was to assess the vertical distribution of P as a function of horizonation in ditch soils at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore Research Farm in Princess Anne, Maryland. Twenty-one profiles were sampled from 10 agricultural ditches ranging in length from 225 to 550 m. Horizon samples were analyzed for total P; water-extractable P; Mehlich-3 P; acid ammonium oxalate-extractable P, Fe, and Al (P ox, Fe ox, Al ox); pH; and organic C (n = 126). Total P ranged from 27 to 4882 mg kg(-1), P ox from 4 to 4631 mg kg(-1), Mehlich-3 P from 2 to 401 mg kg(-1), and water-extractable P from 0 to 17 mg kg(-1). Soil-forming processes that result in differences between horizons had a strong relationship with various P fractions and P sorption capacity. Fibric organic horizons at the ditch soil surface had the greatest mean P ox, Fe ox, and Al ox concentrations of any horizon class. Gleyed A horizons had a mean Fe ox concentrations 2.6 times lower than dark A horizons and were significantly lower in total P and P ox. Variation in P due to organic matter accumulation and gleization provide critical insight into short- and long-term dynamics of P in ditch soils and should be accounted for when applying ditch management practices.

  2. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  3. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  4. Extreme wave runup on a vertical cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Francesco; Dutykh, Denys; Dudley, John M.; Dias, FréDéRic

    2013-06-01

    Wave impact and runup onto vertical obstacles are among the most important phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher runups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in runup heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of extreme wave-coastal structure interaction.

  5. Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

  6. Congenital paralytic vertical talus. An anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Specht, E E

    1975-09-01

    Dissections of the feet of a three-month-old infant with paralytic congenital vertical talus secondary to lumbar myelomeningocele were compared with a dissection of a normal foot. The major differences appeared to be absence of the plantar intrinsic muscles and dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint. It is postulated that the pathological process begins as a failure of the intrinsic muscles to oppose the unbalanced, active dorsiflexion forces of the anterior crural muscles. This imbalance then allows disruption of the talonavicular joint, mechanically the least stable joint in the mid-part of the foot. All dorsiflexion forces acting on the ankle then become ineffective and plantar flexion forces serve only to pull the calcaneus and talus into equinus, causing a "vertical" talus. Treatment must be directed at reducing the talonavicular dislocation, correcting the equinus deformity of the hind part of the foot, and substituting for the undeveloped plantar intrinsic muscles.

  7. Vertical-Substrate MPCVD Epitaxial Nanodiamond Growth.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lu, Haiyu; Ishiwata, Hitoshi; Dahl, Jeremy; Carlson, Robert M K; Yan, Hao; Schreiner, Peter R; Vučković, Jelena; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas; Chu, Steven

    2017-03-08

    Color center-containing nanodiamonds have many applications in quantum technologies and biology. Diamondoids, molecular-sized diamonds have been used as seeds in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth. However, optimizing growth conditions to produce high crystal quality nanodiamonds with color centers requires varying growth conditions that often leads to ad-hoc and time-consuming, one-at-a-time testing of reaction conditions. In order to rapidly explore parameter space, we developed a microwave plasma CVD technique using a vertical, rather than horizontally oriented stage-substrate geometry. With this configuration, temperature, plasma density, and atomic hydrogen density vary continuously along the vertical axis of the substrate. This variation allowed rapid identification of growth parameters that yield single crystal diamonds down to 10 nm in size and 75 nm diameter optically active center silicon-vacancy (Si-V) nanoparticles. Furthermore, this method may provide a means of incorporating a wide variety of dopants in nanodiamonds without ion irradiation damage.

  8. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  9. Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode

    SciTech Connect

    CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.

    1999-09-16

    We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.

  10. Velocity Field in a Vertical Foam Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Kervil, Ronan; Nou, Soniraks; Cantat, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The drainage of vertical foam films governs their lifetime. For a foam film supported on a rectangular solid frame, when the interface presents a low resistance to shear, the drainage dynamics involves a complex flow pattern at the film scale, leading to a drainage time proportional to the frame width. Using an original velocimetry technique, based on fluorescent foam films and photobleaching, we measure the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity in a draining film, thus providing the first quantitative experimental evidence of this flow pattern. Upward velocities up to 10 cm /s are measured close to the lateral menisci, whereas a slower velocity field is obtained in the center of the film, with comparable downwards and horizontal components. Scaling laws are proposed for all characteristic velocities, coupling gravitational effects, and capillary suction.

  11. Laser drilling of vertical vias in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.D.; Gassman, R.A.; Keicher, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Any advance beyond the density of standard 2D Multichip Modules (MCM) will require a vertical interconnect technology that can produce reliable area array interconnection with small feature sizes. Laser drilled vertical vias have been controllably produced in standard silicon (Si) wafers down to 0.035mm (0.0014 inches) in diameter. Several laser systems and their system parameters have been explored to determine the optimum parametric set for repeatable vias in Si. The vias produced have exhibited clean smooth interior surfaces with an aspect ratio of up to 20:1 with little or no taper. All laser systems used, their system parameters, design modifications, theory of operation, and drilling results are discussed.

  12. Cephalometric estimation of vertical dimension of occlusion.

    PubMed

    Orthlieb, J D; Laurent, M; Laplanche, O

    2000-09-01

    The literature does not establish a single proven method for determining lower facial height, which is called the Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO), and the concept of a vertical comfort range is generally accepted. This study aimed to test the statistical significance of correlations of mandibular shape versus lower facial height in occlusion, using cephalometric measurements. Correlations for 505 consecutive healthy adults were calculated between angles that estimate the lower facial height and angles that estimate the mandibular shape. The mandibular angle (gonial) showed a higher coefficient of correlation (r = 0.691) than the inferior gonial angle. The dispersion remained large, i.e. r2 = 0.478. Cephalometric measurements, despite theirs imperfections, could help the practitioner to understand what the best course of treatment would be in order to obtain a lower facial height in occlusion showing a skeletal harmony with the mandibular shape.

  13. Experimental Studies in Helicopter Vertical Climb Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Data and analysis from an experimental program to measure vertical climb performance on an eight-foot model rotor are presented. The rotor testing was performed using a unique moving-model facility capable of accurately simulating the flow conditions during axial flight, and was conducted from July 9, 1992 to July 16, 1992 at the Dynamic Model Track, or 'Long Track,' just prior to its demolition in August of 1992. Data collected during this brief test program included force and moment time histories from a sting-mounted strain gauge balance, support carriage velocity, and rotor rpm pulses. In addition, limited video footage (of marginal use) was recorded from smoke flow studies for both simulated vertical climb and descent trajectories. Analytical comparisons with these data include a series of progressively more detailed calculations ranging from simple momentum theory, a prescribed wake method, and a free-wake prediction.

  14. Engineering high-performance vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.; Hou, H.Q.; Hietala, V.M.; Choquette, K.D.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The cw and high-speed performance of vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) are affected by both electrical and optical issues arising from the geometry and fabrication of these devices. Structures with low resistance semiconductor mirrors and Al-oxide confinement layers address these issues and have produced record performance including 50% power conversion efficiency and modulation bandwidths up to 20 GHz at small bias currents.

  15. Spirit 360-Degree View, Sol 388 (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on Spirit's 388th martian day, or sol (Feb. 4, 2005). Spirit had driven about 13 meters (43 feet) uphill toward 'Cumberland Ridge' on this sol. This location is catalogued as Spirit's Site 102, Position 513. The view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric and brightness seam correction.

  16. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  17. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  18. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  19. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  20. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Cassini space mission will reach Saturn’s orbit and release the Huygens probe (descending via parachute) into Titan’s atmosphere. The Huygens ...is outside the official mission scope). This accomplishment will likely come from future missions post- Cassini / Huygens . The use of vertical lift...from HST) With the arrival of the Cassini / Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and Titan in 2004 -- and the anticipated science and outreach bonanza from this

  1. The distinctive vertical heterophoria of dyslexics

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Quercia, Madeleine; Feiss, Léonard J; Allaert, François

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked for the presence of vertical heterophoria (VH) in 42 dyslexic children (22 males and 20 females) aged 118.5±12.9 months who were compared with a control group of 22 nondyslexic children (eleven males and eleven females) aged 112±9.8 months. Dyslexics presented a low-level (always <1 prism diopter) VH combined with torsion. This oculomotor feature clearly separates the dyslexic group from the normal readers group. It is independent of the type of dyslexia. The essential feature of this VH is a lability that appears during specific stimulation of sensory receptors involved in postural regulation. This lability is demonstrated using a vertical Maddox test conducted under very specific conditions in which postural sensors are successively stimulated in a predetermined order. A quantitative variation in this VH may be seen during the Bielchowsky Head Tilt Test, which reveals hypertonia of the lower or upper oblique muscles. Vertical orthophoria can be achieved by placing low-power prisms asymmetrically within the direction of action of the superior or inferior oblique muscles. The selection of power and axis is not only guided by elements of the eye examination but also from observation of postural muscle tone. All these elements suggest that the VH could be of postural origin and somehow related to the vertical action of the oblique muscles. VH and torsion are not harmful per se. There is no statistical relationship between their level and the various parameters used to assess the reading skills of dyslexic children. VH and torsion could be a clinical marker of global proprioceptive dysfunction responsible for high-level multisensory disturbances secondary to poor spatial localization of visual and auditory information. This dysfunction might also explain the motor disorders concomitant to dyslexia. PMID:26445526

  2. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej; Exner, Pavel

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of the Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale-invariant (or Fueloep-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  3. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  4. Vertical Scales of Turbulence at the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, Robert N.; Lowe, Stephen T.; Bester, Manfred; Danchi, William C.; Townes, Charles H.

    1995-01-01

    The vertical scales of turbulence at the Mount Wilson Observatory are inferred from data from the University of California at Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI), by modeling path length fluctuations observed in the interferometric paths to celestial objects and those in instrumental ground-based paths. The correlations between the stellar and ground-based path length fluctuations and the temporal statistics of those fluctuations are modeled on various timescales to constrain the vertical scales. A Kolmogorov-Taylor turbulence model with a finite outer scale was used to simulate ISI data. The simulation also included the white instrumental noise of the interferometer, aperture-filtering effects, and the data analysis algorithms. The simulations suggest that the path delay fluctuations observed in the 1992-1993 ISI data are largely consistent with being generated by refractivity fluctuations at two characteristic vertical scales: one extending to a height of 45 m above the ground, with a wind speed of about 1 m/ s, and another at a much higher altitude, with a wind speed of about 10 m/ s. The height of the lower layer is of the order of the dimensions of trees and other structures near the interferometer, which suggests that these objects, including elements of the interferometer, may play a role in generating the lower layer of turbulence. The modeling indicates that the high- attitude component contributes primarily to short-period (less than 10 s) fluctuations, while the lower component dominates the long-period (up to a few minutes) fluctuations. The lower component turbulent height, along with outer scales of the order of 10 m, suggest that the baseline dependence of long-term interferometric, atmospheric fluctuations should weaken for baselines greater than a few tens of meters. Simulations further show that there is the potential for improving the seeing or astrometric accuracy by about 30%-50% on average, if the path length fluctuations in the

  5. A Vertically Integrated Junctionless Nanowire Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Hur, Jae; Kang, Min-Ho; Bang, Tewook; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Lee, Dongil; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-03-09

    A vertically integrated junctionless field-effect transistor (VJ-FET), which is composed of vertically stacked multiple silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a gate-all-around (GAA) structure, is demonstrated on a bulk silicon wafer for the first time. The proposed VJ-FET mitigates the issues of variability and fabrication complexity that are encountered in the vertically integrated multi-NW FET (VM-FET) based on an identical structure in which the VM-FET, as recently reported, harnesses a source and drain (S/D) junction for its operation and is thus based on the inversion mode. Variability is alleviated by bulk conduction in a junctionless FET (JL-FET), where current flows through the core of the SiNW, whereas it is not mitigated by surface conduction in an inversion mode FET (IM-FET), where current flows via the surface of the SiNW. The fabrication complexity is reduced by the inherent JL structure of the JL-FET because S/D formation is not required. In contrast, it is very difficult to dope the S/D when it is positioned at each floor of a tall SiNW with greater uniformity and with less damage to the crystalline structure of the SiNW in a VM-FET. Moreover, when the proposed VJ-FET is used as nonvolatile flash memory, the endurance and retention characteristics are improved due to the above-mentioned bulk conduction.

  6. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  7. Vertical vorticity at a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of surface vorticity is developed as a necessary consequence of the discontinuity of flow at the fluid surface. The construct provides the proper boundary conditions for a vortex-dynamical description of surface waves. It is shown that the perturbed free surface in general possesses vertical vorticity, even when the underlying flow is irrotational and the fluid is ideal. This resolves a paradox pointed out by Umeki, who discovered irrotational surface waves with surface rotation in the horizontal plane. A dynamical equation for vertical vorticity at the free surface is derived and interpreted physically. The traditional idea that vortex lines terminate at fluid boundaries is shown to be unphysical and is amended to include surface vorticity. The extension of vertical surface vorticity into the bulk is connected with particular topological structures, such as plughole vortices, breaking waves, and Klein's Kaffeelöffel. This analysis generalizes boundary-layer vorticity theory to the free surface in the ideal limit. The analogy between surface vorticity on an ideal liquid and sheet currents at the surface of a superconductor is described. Work done as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University.

  8. Diffusion weighted vertical gradient and spin echo.

    PubMed

    Engström, Mathias; Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    In this work, diffusion weighting and parallel imaging is combined with a vertical gradient and spin echo data readout. This sequence was implemented and evaluated on healthy volunteers using a 1.5 and a 3 T whole-body MR system. As the vertical gradient and spin echo trajectory enables a higher k-space velocity in the phase-encoding direction than single-shot echo planar imaging, the geometrical distortions are reduced. When combined with parallel imaging such as generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition, the geometric distortions are reduced even further, while also keeping the minimum echo time reasonably low. However, this combination of a diffusion preparation and multiple refocusing pulses during the vertical gradient and spin echo readout, generally violates the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to interferences between echo pathways. To suppress the stimulated echo pathway, refocusing pulses with a sharper slice profiles and an odd/even crusher variation scheme were implemented and evaluated. Being a single-shot acquisition technique, the reconstructed images are robust to rigid-body head motion and spatially varying brain motion, both of which are common sources of artifacts in diffusion MRI.

  9. Vertical tectonics at an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct observations of vertical movements of the earth's surface are now possible with space-based GPS networks, and have applications to resources, hazards and tectonics. Here we present data on vertical movements of the Earth's surface in New Zealand, computed from the processing of GPS data collected between 2000 and 2015 by 189 permanent GPS stations. We map the geographical variation in vertical rates and show how these variations are explicable within a tectonic framework of subduction, volcanic activity and slow slip earthquakes. Subsidence of >3 mm/yr is observed along southeastern North Island and is interpreted to be due to the locked segment of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Uplift of 1-3 mm/yr further north along the margin of the eastern North Island is interpreted as being due to the plate interface being unlocked and underplating of sediment on the subduction thrust. The Volcanic Plateau of the central North Island is being uplifted at about 1 mm/yr, which can be explained by basaltic melts being injected in the active mantle-wedge at a rate of ∼6 mm/yr. Within the Central Volcanic Region there is a 250 km2 area that subsided between 2005 and 2012 at a rate of up to 14 mm/yr. Time series from the stations located within and near the zone of subsidence show a strong link between subsidence, adjacent uplift and local earthquake swarms.

  10. Sunrise enhancement of equatorial vertical plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Zhang, Ruilong; Le, Huijun

    2016-04-01

    Sunrise enhancement in vertical plasma drift over equatorial regions is not discernible in the statistical picture compared with the significant enhancement during dusk hours. In this report, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag. Moreover, we will report the effects of the sunrise enhancement of vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere as indicated from the observations and model simulations. We thanks National Central University of Taiwan providing the ROCSAT-1 data. The Ap and F107 indices are obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/). This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065), the Chinese Academy of Sciences project (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41321003).

  11. Vertical variations of coral reef drag forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Shai; Niewerth, Stephan; Koll, Katinka; Shavit, Uri

    2016-05-01

    Modeling flow in a coral reef requires a closure model that links the local drag force to the local mean velocity. However, the spatial flow variations make it difficult to predict the distribution of the local drag. Here we report on vertical profiles of measured drag and velocity in a laboratory reef that was made of 81 Pocillopora Meandrina colony skeletons, densely arranged along a tilted flume. Two corals were CT-scanned, sliced horizontally, and printed using a 3-D printer. Drag was measured as a function of height above the bottom by connecting the slices to drag sensors. Profiles of velocity were measured in-between the coral branches and above the reef. Measured drag of whole colonies shows an excellent agreement with previous field and laboratory studies; however, these studies never showed how drag varies vertically. The vertical distribution of drag is reported as a function of flow rate and water level. When the water level is the same as the reef height, Reynolds stresses are negligible and the drag force per unit fluid mass is nearly constant. However, when the water depth is larger, Reynolds stress gradients become significant and drag increases with height. An excellent agreement was found between the drag calculated by a momentum budget and the measured drag of the individual printed slices. Finally, we propose a modified formulation of the drag coefficient that includes the normal dispersive stress term and results in reduced variations of the drag coefficient at the cost of introducing an additional coefficient.

  12. Vertical suspsended sediment fluxes observed from ocean gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merckelbach, Lucas; Carpenter, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Many studies trying to understand a coastal system in terms of sediment transport paths resort to numerical modelling - combining circulation models with sediment transport models. Two aspects herein are crucial: sediment fluxes across the sea bed-water column interface, and the subsequent vertical mixing by turbulence. Both aspects are highly complex and have relatively short time scales, so that the processes involved are implemented in numerical models as parameterisations. Due to the effort required to obtain field observations of suspended sediment concentrations (and other parameters), measurements are scarce, which makes the development and tuning of parameterisations a difficult task. Ocean gliders (autonomous underwater vehicles propelled by a buoyancy engine) provide a platform complementing more traditional methods of sampling. In this work we present observations of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and dissipation rate taken by two gliders, each equipped with optical sensors and a microstructure sensor, along with current observations from a bottom mounted ADCP, all operated in the German Bight sector of the North Sea in Summer 2014. For about two weeks of a four-week experiment, the gliders were programmed to fly in a novel way as Lagrangian profilers to water depths of about 40 m. The benefit of this approach is that the rate of change of SSC - and other parameters - is local to the water column, as opposed to an unknown composition of temporal and spatial variability when gliders are operated in the usual way. Therefore, vertical sediment fluxes can be calculated without the need of the - often dubious - assumption that spatial variability can be neglected. During the experiment the water column was initially thermally stratified, with a cross-pycnocline diffusion coefficient estimated at 7\\cdot10-5 m2 s-1. Halfway through the experiment the remnants of tropical storm Bertha arrived at the study site and caused a complete mixing of the water

  13. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  14. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  15. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  16. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  17. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  18. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  19. ostglacial rebound from VLBI Geodesy: On Establishing Vertical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald .

    1996-01-01

    I propose that a useful reference frame for vertical motions is that found by minimizing differences between vertical motions observed with VLBI [Ma and Ryan, 1995] and predictions from postglacial rebound predictions [Peltier, 1995].

  20. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  1. Vertical Structure and Vertical Evolution of Halogen Activation Events Observed by Autonomous Buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, W. R.; Peterson, P.; Burd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions on saline surfaces release reactive halogen species in the Arctic during late winter / spring (Feb--May). These reactive halogens drastically alter the photooxidative environment, removing ozone and oxidizing mercury and hydrocarbons. Both the snowpack and suspended particles / blowing snow possess surfaces that can sustain this chemistry, leading to variations in reactive halogen vertical profiles and temporal evolution of those profiles. This chemistry also occurs in a typically stable (inverted) atmospheric structure that hinders vertical mixing, limiting the vertical extent of snowpack influence. In this presentation, Multiple-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) of bromine monoxide (BrO) along with optimal estimation inversions are used to measure the vertical structure of BrO. The effective mixing height of the BrO layer varies with atmospheric stability, and an event is shown where a shallow but highly concentrated layer of surface BrO encounters sea-ice-lead-induced convection that vertically mixes the BrO higher, initially diluting the surface concentration. Over time, the surface concentration recovers and the now thicker layer grows to a higher column density of BrO. Understanding of the relationship between BrO event intensity and meteorological situations can help to understand BrO chemistry and remote sensing and assist in prediction of how reactive halogens may respond to a changing Arctic climate.

  2. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE.

  3. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  4. Vertical Phase Segregation Induced by Dipolar Interactions in Planar Polymer Brushes

    DOE PAGES

    Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-13

    In this paper, we present a generalized theory for studying structural properties of a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent. We show that an explicit treatment of the dipolar interactions yields a macroscopic concentration dependent effective “chi” (the Flory–Huggins-like interaction) parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration dependent chi parameter promotes phase segregation in polymer solutions and brushes so that the polymer-poor phase consists of a finite/nonzero polymer concentration. Such a destabilization of the homogeneous phase by the dipolar interactions appears as vertical phase segregation in a planar polymer brush. In a vertically phase segregated polymermore » brush, the polymer-rich phase near the grafting surface coexists with the polymer-poor phase at the other end. Predictions of the theory are directly compared with prior reported experimental results for dipolar polymers in polar solvents. Excellent agreements with the experimental results are found, hinting that the dipolar interactions play a significant role in vertical phase segregation of planar polymer brushes. We also compare our field theoretical approach with the two-state and other models invoking ad hoc concentration dependence of the chi parameter. Interplay between the short-ranged excluded volume interactions and long-ranged dipolar interactions is shown to play an important role in affecting the vertical phase separation. Finally, effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the polymer segments and the solvent molecules are investigated in detail.« less

  5. Vertical Phase Segregation Induced by Dipolar Interactions in Planar Polymer Brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-13

    In this paper, we present a generalized theory for studying structural properties of a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent. We show that an explicit treatment of the dipolar interactions yields a macroscopic concentration dependent effective “chi” (the Flory–Huggins-like interaction) parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration dependent chi parameter promotes phase segregation in polymer solutions and brushes so that the polymer-poor phase consists of a finite/nonzero polymer concentration. Such a destabilization of the homogeneous phase by the dipolar interactions appears as vertical phase segregation in a planar polymer brush. In a vertically phase segregated polymer brush, the polymer-rich phase near the grafting surface coexists with the polymer-poor phase at the other end. Predictions of the theory are directly compared with prior reported experimental results for dipolar polymers in polar solvents. Excellent agreements with the experimental results are found, hinting that the dipolar interactions play a significant role in vertical phase segregation of planar polymer brushes. We also compare our field theoretical approach with the two-state and other models invoking ad hoc concentration dependence of the chi parameter. Interplay between the short-ranged excluded volume interactions and long-ranged dipolar interactions is shown to play an important role in affecting the vertical phase separation. Finally, effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the polymer segments and the solvent molecules are investigated in detail.

  6. Are all types of vertical information created equal?

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Steven M; Newcombe, Nora S

    2013-10-01

    The vertical component of space occurs in two distinct fashions in natural environments. One kind of verticality is orthogonal-to-horizontal (as in climbing trees, operating in volumetric spaces such as water or air, or taking elevators in multilevel buildings). Another kind of verticality, which might be functionally distinct, comes from navigating on sloped terrain (as in traversing hills or ramps).

  7. Mechanical design of NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelbert, D. F.; Bakke, A. P.; Chargin, M. K.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    NASA has designed and is constructing a new flight simulator with large vertical travel. Several aspects of the mechanical design of this Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) are discussed, including the multiple rack and pinion vertical drive, a pneumatic equilibration system, and the friction-damped rigid link catenaries used as cable supports.

  8. Vertically oval corneas in a child with holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther S; Wasserman, Barry N; Saslow, Judy G; Schnur, Rhonda E; Levin, Alex V

    2012-07-17

    Vertically oval-shaped corneas are an uncommon ophthalmic finding. The normal human cornea has an oval shape, but is wider in the horizontal dimension. The etiology of vertically oval corneas is unclear. This report presents a case of bilateral vertical oval corneas in a male infant with semilobar holoprosencephaly.

  9. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system in accordance... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except as... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  10. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section shall be achieved by verification testing of the coupler vertical restraint system in accordance... be equipped with couplers having this vertical restraint capability. (b) Test verification. Except as... section; (2) The testing apparatus shall simulate the vertical coupler performance at the mating...

  11. Diel Vertical Migration Thresholds of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Light and nutrient availability change throughout dinoflagellate diel vertical migration (DVM) and/or with subpopulation location in the water column along the west Florida shelf. Typically, the vertical depth of the shelf is greater than the distance a subpopulation can vertical...

  12. Correction of neglected vertical talus deformity in an adult.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-18

    Congenital vertical talus is an uncommon foot deformity that is characterised by a fixed dorsal dislocation of the navicular on the talar head and neck. Left untreated, a congenital vertical talus causes significant long-term disability. We present a case of neglected vertical talus in a middle-aged woman who was successfully treated with resection of the talar head and tendon transfers.

  13. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  14. Enhancement of Condensation on a Vertical Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rencai; Hatanaka, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shigefumi

    In previous study, the characteristic of the condensation heat transfer on the dispersed vertical surface were investigated experimentally for the application of the finned surface to the thermoelectric generator utilizing boiling and condensation as the electrodes of the thermoelectric module. A prediction model for this diapered finned surface was proposed, based on Adamek-Webb model of the condensation on a finned tube. In this study, a condensation heat transfer experiment on a vertical dispersed finned surfaces using FC5312 was carried out, in order to enhance the condensation heat transfer coefficient by optimizing the fin size on a dispersed heat transfer surface. The object of the experiment was limited to the rectangular fin with the height of 3 mm. Experimental parameters were the temperature difference, the fin groove width, the fin thickness and the dispersing size on the vertical direction. As the results, it was found from the experiment that the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient on the dispersed size is controlled by the fin groove width. That is, the condensation heat transfer coefficient will increase for a smaller fin groove width and will decrease for a larger fin groove width, with decreasing of the dispersing size. Moreover, there is an optimum fin thickness at which the condensation heat transfer coefficient becomes the maximum in the case of constant fin groove width for both size of the fin groove width. This effect of the fin thickness is more significant for the smaller fin groove width. Further, the prediction values exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data in the present experiment.

  15. Long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    DOEpatents

    Choquette, Kent D.; Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting near 1300 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave below, at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al.sub.0.94 Ga.sub.0.06 As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the active region, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55.degree. C.

  16. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  17. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  18. Vertical distribution of acetonitrile in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, J.; Nevejans, D.; Arijs, E.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of acetonitrile in the atmosphere was confirmed by results of surface and stratospheric investigations. Stratospheric measurements give mixing ratios typically decreasing with height from 3 ppt at 25 km to 0.5 ppt at 40 km. Measurements at the Earth's surface are less unanimous, although a ground level background mixing ratio of a few times 10 ppt seems realistic. Measurements are compatible with a small global surface source of acetonitrile and a small tropospheric loss. The vertical distribution of acetonitrile presented in consistent with general knowledge of its atmospheric chemistry.

  19. Low-Level Flight Simulation: Vertical Cues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    The ASPT visual s’ester Soiftware autoematic’ally droips the’m freim the scene- at altitudes above 2000 fe’et AGI.) In an attempt to make the cue’s...8217 vertical (V) field of view. The ASPT has a - 15’ view o er the nose. - 370 over the left side, and - 15’ over the right side. (The aircraft field of...simulation, the ASPT /F-16 provided several instructional features that were used in this study. A video display of the HUD (Figures 1 and 21 and forward

  20. Vertical-Screw-Auger Conveyer Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Vollmer, Hubert J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A conical feeder is attached to a vertically conveying screw auger. The feeder is equipped with scoops and rotated from the surface to force-feed regolith the auger. Additional scoops are possible by adding a cylindrical section above the conical funnel section. Such then allows the unit to collect material from swaths larger in diameter than the enclosing casing pipe of the screw auger. A third element includes a flexible screw auger. All three can be used in combination in microgravity and zero atmosphere environments to drill and recover a wide area of subsurface regolith and entrained volatiles through a single access point on the surface.

  1. Vertical orbital dystopia: definition, classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, S A; Sassani, R

    1995-01-01

    Correction of vertical orbital dystopia is an important component part of providing facial symmetry in a number of conditions of varied etiology having facial imbalance and asymmetry. The most important step is the initial one of making a proper diagnosis, since some conditions represent globe dystopia rather than true orbital dystopia, and can be treated by extracranial procedures. However, if an intracranial procedure is felt indicated, it adds to the safety rather than the complexity of the procedure, and one should not hesitate advocating this to the patient.

  2. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  3. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-04

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought.

  4. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  5. Vertical datum standardisation: a fundamental step towards a global vertical reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most important problems of modern geodesy is the definition and realisation of a global vertical reference system, which unifies, with high accuracy (at least 1 cm-level), the existing classical height datums; i.e. all existing physical heights (or geopotential numbers) have to be referred to one and the same equipotential surface, defined and realised in a global frame. The basic approach proposed at present to achieve this so-called vertical datum unification is based on the combination of physical heights (orthometric or normal heights) derived from levelling (reduced by gravity effects) with those computed from gravimetric (quasi-) geoid models and ellipsoidal heights. However, the combination of these heights "as they are" reflects the inconsistencies included in the height determination; for instance: 1) different ellipsoid parameters in gravity and geometry; 2) different tide systems; 3) different hypotheses for the estimation of orthometric heights and gravimetric geoid models; 4) different reference epochs with unknown height changes in time; 5) systematic errors over long distances in levelling; 6) different reductions for Earth-, ocean-, atmospheric tides, ocean and atmospheric loading, post-glacial rebound, etc. These inconsistencies mislead the vertical datum unification and limit the reliability of the global vertical reference system realisation to the m-level. In order to advance in the homogenisation of the input data and procedures for the solution of the vertical datum problem with a high and reliable accuracy, the Working Group "Vertical Datum Standardisation" was established for the term 2011-2015 by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), jointly with the IAG Commission 1 (Reference Frames), IAG Commission 2 (Gravity Field), and the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS). This contribution presents objectives, achievements, and coming challenges of this Working Group.

  6. Short stature with congenital ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Som J; Lakhani, Om J

    2015-12-09

    PIBIDS syndrome (photosensitivity, ichthyosis, brittle hair, intellectual impairment, decreased fertility and short stature) is a variant of trichothiodystrophy. It is a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. Short stature is a vital component of PIBIDS syndrome. We present the cases of two siblings in whom we diagnosed PIBIDS syndrome. On evaluation for short stature, they were found to have severe vitamin D deficiency, which on correction led to the patients having considerable gain in stature. With this case, we would also like to propose that vitamin D deficiency could be one of the treatable causes of short stature in PIBIDS syndrome.

  7. Characterization of vertical strain silicon MOSFET incorporating dielectric pocket (SDP-VMOSFET)

    SciTech Connect

    Napiah, Z. A. F. M. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Makhtar, N. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Othman, M. A. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Idris, M. I. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Arith, F. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Yasin, N. Y. M. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com Taib, S. N. E-mail: nazirah6969@gmail.com E-mail: idzdihar@utem.edu.my E-mail: yashidar@yahoo.com

    2014-02-24

    The vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) leads to a double channel width that can increase the packaging density. The strained silicon MOSFET was introduced to modify the carrier transport properties of silicon in order to enhance transport of both electrons and holes within strained layer. Dielectric pocket was act to control encroachment of the drain doping into the channel and reduce short channel effects (SCE). SDP-VMOSFET which was a combination of those advantages was proposed to overcome the SCE in term of leakage current, threshold voltage roll-off also Drain Induce Barrier Lowering (DIBL). As a result, SDP-VMOSFET produces a better threshold voltage and DIBL compared to related structures. Meanwhile, it gives slightly increased for leakage current compared to Vertical MOSFET Incorporating Dielectric Pocket. The characteristics of the SDP-VMOSFET are analyzed in order to optimize the performance of the device and leading to the next generation of IC technology.

  8. Dynamic Range of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers in Multimode Links

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.L.T.; Dalal, R.V.; Ram, R.J.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-07-07

    The authors report spurious free dynamic range measurements of 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers in short multimode links for radio frequency communication. For a 27m fiber link, the dynamic range at optimal bias was greater than 95dB-Hz{sup 2/3} for modulation frequencies between 1 and 5.5 GHz, which exceeds the requirements for antenna remoting in microcellular networks. In a free space link, they have measured the highest dynamic range in an 850nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser of 113dB-Hz{sup 2/3} at 900MHz. We have also investigated the effects of modal noise and differential mode delay on the dynamic range for longer lengths of fiber.

  9. Highly uniform and vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Kang, Jin Soo; Shin, Junyoung; Kim, Jin; Han, Seung-Joo; Park, Jongwoo; Min, Yo-Sep; Ko, Min Jae; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-04-01

    Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process.Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process

  10. Crystal Ice Formation of Solution and Its Removal Phenomena around Vertical Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Akutsu, Nobuaki

    Experimental and analytical studies for freezing phenomena of ethylene glycol solution around a vertical cooled polyvinyl-chloride cylinder have been performed. It is found that the crystal ice formed around the vertical cylinder is removed from the cylinder surface due to buoyancy force acting on the crystal ice. The crystal ice slides along the cylinder surface due to buoyancy force and grows in a shape of tube by joining with the neighbour ice. It is shown that the onset of ice removal condition is related to the heat flux at the cylinder surface when the latent heat of fusion is discharged with freezing, and that the heat flux ratio of 'from the cylinder surface into the cylinder' to 'from the cylinder surface to the solution' is an important parameter for the onset conditions. The ice removal occurs easily for short cylinders than for long ones.

  11. Vertical distribution of the chloromonad flagellate Heterosigma carterae in columns: Implications for bloom development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Matter, A.L.; Taub, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    Blooms of the marine flagellate Heterosigma carterae have been associated with catastrophic fish kills at mariculture facilities around the world. The precise cause(s) of the sudden appearance and disappearance of Heterosigma surface blooms has not been completely described or understood. Environmental data from prior studies of blooms indicate the presence of vertical stratification of the water column that is often induced by freshwater runoff. We report the relatively rapid concentration of Heterosigma cells at the surface of tubes shortly after the addition of distilled water to the surface. This phenomenon of cell concentration in surface waters may partially explain the sudden appearance of Heterosigma cells near the surface and subsequent disappearance when vertical stratification is lost due to turbulence or mixing. The results may lead to bloom mitigation techniques for net pen aquaculture.

  12. Diagnosis of vertical motions from VAS retrievals during a convective outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, T. W.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    GOES-VAS satellite retrievals are used to investigate an intense convective outbreak over the Mississippi River Valley on 21-22 July 1982. The primary goals are to assess the strengths and weaknesses of three methods for computing vertical motion using satellite retrievals and to determine the effects of short interval observations on the calculations. Then, the vertical motions are incorporated with thermodynamic parameters to assess the usefulness of VAS data in delineating factors leading to storm formation. Results indicate that the quasi-geotrophic omega equation provided patterns and magnitudes most consistent with observed weather events and the 12 h radiosonde-derived motions. The vorticity method generally produced reasonable patterns, especially over the convective outbreak, although magnitudes were large due to its time derivative.

  13. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  14. Effective solidity in vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The flow surrounding vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) is investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). This is done in a low-speed wind tunnel with a scale model that closely matches geometric and dynamic properties tip-speed ratio and Reynolds number of a full size turbine. Previous results have shown a strong dependance on the tip-speed ratio on the wake structure of the spinning turbine. However, it is not clear whether this is a speed or solidity effect. To determine this, we have measured the wakes of three turbines with different chord-to-diameter ratios, and a solid cylinder. The flow is visualized at the horizontal mid-plane as well as the vertical mid-plane behind the turbine. The results are both ensemble averaged and phase averaged by syncing the PIV system with the rotation of the turbine. By keeping the Reynolds number constant with both chord and diameter, we can determine how each effects the wake structure. As these parameters are varied there are distinct changes in the mean flow of the wake. Additionally, by looking at the vorticity in the phase averaged profiles we can see structural changes to the overall wake pattern.

  15. Vertical Profiling of Air Pollution at RAPCD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Bowdle, David A.; Johnson, Steven; Knupp, Kevin; Gillani, Noor; Biazar, Arastoo; Mcnider, Richard T.; Burris, John

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between local and regional pollution levels occurs at the interface of the Planetary Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere. Measuring the vertical distribution of ozone, aerosols, and winds with high temporal and vertical resolution is essential to diagnose the nature of this interchange and ultimately for accurately forecasting ozone and aerosol pollution levels. The Regional Atmospheric Profiling Center for Discovery, RAPCD, was built and instrumented to address this critical issue. The ozone W DIAL lidar, Nd:YAG aerosol lidar, and 2.1 micron Doppler wind lidar, along with balloon- borne ECC ozonesondes form the core of the W C D instrumentation for addressing this problem. Instrumentation in the associated Mobile Integrated Profiling (MIPS) laboratory includes 91 5Mhz profiler, sodar, and ceilometer. The collocated Applied particle Optics and Radiometry (ApOR) laboratory hosts an FTIR along with MOUDI and optical particle counters. With MODELS-3 analysis by colleagues in the National Space Science and Technology Center on the UAH campus and the co- located National Weather Service Forecasting Office in Huntsville, AL we are developing a unique facility for advancing the state of the science of pollution forecasting.

  16. Thunderstorm vertical velocities estimated from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R. F.; Fenn, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared geosynchronous satellite data with an interval of 5 min between images are used to estimate thunderstorm top ascent rates on two case study days. A mean vertical velocity of 3.4 m/sec for 23 clouds is calculated at a height of 8.7 km. This upward motion is representative of an area of approximately 10 km on a side. Thunderstorm mass flux of approximately 2 times 10 to the 8th power kg/sec is calculated, which compares favorably with previous estimates. There is a significant difference in the mean calculated vertical velocity between elements associated with severe weather reports (omega = 4.9 m/sec) and those with no such reports (2.4 m/sec). Calculations were made using a velocity profile for an axially symmetric jet to estimate the peak updraft velocity. For the largest observed omega value of 7.8 m/sec the calculation indicates a peak updraft of approximately 50 m/sec.

  17. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    DOEpatents

    Brulle, Robert V.

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  18. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E.; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically. PMID:27171170

  19. Highly uniform and vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Kang, Jin Soo; Shin, Junyoung; Kim, Jin; Han, Seung-Joo; Park, Jongwoo; Min, Yo-Sep; Ko, Min Jae; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-05-14

    Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process.

  20. Potential versus actual contribution of vertical transmission to pathogen fitness

    PubMed Central

    Kover, P. X.; Dolan, T. E.; Clay, K.

    1997-01-01

    Theory predicts that virulent parasites cannot be maintained at high prevalence if they are only vertically transmitted. However, parasites with high rates of vertical transmission that cause severe reduction in host fitness have been reported. Atkinsonella hypoxylon is a fungal pathogen capable of both vertical and horizontal transmission that drastically reduces its host's fitness. In contrast with theoretical predictions, field and laboratory observations suggested that the primary mechanism of transmission was vertical. Using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers, we investigated the effective contribution of vertical and horizontal transmission to the genetic structure of three natural populations of A. hypoxylon. We found high genotypic diversity and low linkage disequilibrium, indicating that most established genotypes are derived from horizontally transmitted, sexual spores. The low contribution of vertical transmission to the parasite's fitness despite its high potential might be due to lower establishment of cleistogamous seeds (through which vertical transmission occurs) or lower vigour of vertically transmitted fungal genotypes. Low establishment of vertically infected hosts might explain the persistence of virulent parasites with high apparent vertical transmission. Our results suggest that caution must be taken when using the potential for vertical transmission to make predictions about the evolution of parasite virulence.

  1. A Sensor Fusion Method for Tracking Vertical Velocity and Height Based on Inertial and Barometric Altimeter Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Genovese, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    A sensor fusion method was developed for vertical channel stabilization by fusing inertial measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and pressure altitude measurements from a barometric altimeter integrated in the same device (baro-IMU). An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) estimated the quaternion from the sensor frame to the navigation frame; the sensed specific force was rotated into the navigation frame and compensated for gravity, yielding the vertical linear acceleration; finally, a complementary filter driven by the vertical linear acceleration and the measured pressure altitude produced estimates of height and vertical velocity. A method was also developed to condition the measured pressure altitude using a whitening filter, which helped to remove the short-term correlation due to environment-dependent pressure changes from raw pressure altitude. The sensor fusion method was implemented to work on-line using data from a wireless baro-IMU and tested for the capability of tracking low-frequency small-amplitude vertical human-like motions that can be critical for stand-alone inertial sensor measurements. Validation tests were performed in different experimental conditions, namely no motion, free-fall motion, forced circular motion and squatting. Accurate on-line tracking of height and vertical velocity was achieved, giving confidence to the use of the sensor fusion method for tracking typical vertical human motions: velocity Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was in the range 0.04–0.24 m/s; height RMSE was in the range 5–68 cm, with statistically significant performance gains when the whitening filter was used by the sensor fusion method to track relatively high-frequency vertical motions. PMID:25061835

  2. Enhancing Discussion through Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sybil

    A teacher of English in a college-level intensive English language program describes a method for stimulating speech in high-intermediate and advanced students, using short stories. It is argued that in short stories, the themes are universal, and even shy students are willing to discuss this form of literature in class. Criteria for selecting…

  3. Short Stories in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Carole L., Ed.; Kratzke, Peter, Ed.

    Examining how teachers help students respond to short fiction, this book presents 25 essays that look closely at "teachable" short stories by a diverse group of classic and contemporary writers. The approaches shared by the contributors move from readers' first personal connections to a story, through a growing facility with the structure of…

  4. Investigating earthquake cycle vertical deformation recorded by GPS and regional tide gauge stations in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, S.; Konter, B.

    2013-12-01

    Geodetic and tide gauge measurements of vertical deformation record localized zones of uplift and subsidence that may document critical components of both long and short-period earthquake cycle deformation. In this study, we compare vertical tide gauge data from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) and vertical GPS data from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) for 10 approximately co-located station pairs along coastal California from Point Reyes, CA to Ensenada, Mexico. To compare these two datasets, we first truncate both datasets so that they span a common time frame for all stations (2007 - 2012). PSMSL data are treated for both average global sea level rise (~1.8 mm/yr) and global isostatic adjustment. We then calculate a 2-month running mean for tide gauge and a 1-month running mean for GPS datasets to smooth out daily oceanographic or anthropologic disturbances but maintain the overall trend of each dataset. As major ocean-climate signals, such as El Nino, are considered regional features of the Pacific Ocean and likely common to all California tide gauge stations, we subtract a reference sea level record (San Francisco station) from all other stations to eliminate this signal. The GPS and tide gauge data show varying degrees of correlation spanning both 3-month and 4-year time-scales. We infer that the slope of vertical displacements are largely controlled by interseismic motions, however displacements from major earthquakes are evident and are required to explain some of the unique signatures in the tide gauge and GPS data. Specifically, we find that stations from both datasets in Southern California show an anomalous trend since the 2010 Baja California earthquake. To further investigate this trend and others, we compare these data to vertical motions estimated by a suite of 3-D viscoelastic earthquake cycle deformation models. Long-term tide gauge time series are well simulated by the models, but short-term time series are not as

  5. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator - presentation slides

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    Direct emittance measurement based on vertical undulator is discussed. Emittance was evaluated from peak ratios, the smallest measured being 𝜀𝑦 =0.9 ±0.3 pm rad. The angular distribution of undulator radiation departs from Gaussian approximations, a fact of which diffraction-limited light sources should be aware.

  6. Treatment concepts for the posterior maxilla and mandible: short implants versus long implants in augmented bone.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Cha, Jae-Kook; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to describe treatment options for the posterior regions of the mandible and the maxilla, comparing short implants vs. longer implants in an augmented bone. The dental literature was screened for treatment options enabling the placement of dental implants in posterior sites with a reduced vertical bone height in the maxilla and the mandible. Short dental implants have been increasingly used recently, providing a number of advantages including reduced patient morbidity, shorter treatment time, and lower costs. In the posterior maxilla, sinus elevation procedures were for long considered to be the gold standard using various bone substitute materials and rendering high implant survival rates. More recently, implants were even placed without any further use of bone substitute materials, but the long-term outcomes have yet to be documented. Vertical bone augmentation procedures in the mandible require a relatively high level of surgical skill and allow the placement of standard-length dental implants by the use of autogenous bone blocks. Both treatment options, short dental implants, and standard-length implants in combination with vertical bone augmentation procedures, appear to result in predictable outcomes in terms of implant survival rates. According to recent clinical studies comparing the therapeutic options of short implants vs. long implants in augmented bone, the use of short dental implants leads to a number of advantages for the patients and the clinician.

  7. Treatment concepts for the posterior maxilla and mandible: short implants versus long implants in augmented bone

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to describe treatment options for the posterior regions of the mandible and the maxilla, comparing short implants vs. longer implants in an augmented bone. The dental literature was screened for treatment options enabling the placement of dental implants in posterior sites with a reduced vertical bone height in the maxilla and the mandible. Short dental implants have been increasingly used recently, providing a number of advantages including reduced patient morbidity, shorter treatment time, and lower costs. In the posterior maxilla, sinus elevation procedures were for long considered to be the gold standard using various bone substitute materials and rendering high implant survival rates. More recently, implants were even placed without any further use of bone substitute materials, but the long-term outcomes have yet to be documented. Vertical bone augmentation procedures in the mandible require a relatively high level of surgical skill and allow the placement of standard-length dental implants by the use of autogenous bone blocks. Both treatment options, short dental implants, and standard-length implants in combination with vertical bone augmentation procedures, appear to result in predictable outcomes in terms of implant survival rates. According to recent clinical studies comparing the therapeutic options of short implants vs. long implants in augmented bone, the use of short dental implants leads to a number of advantages for the patients and the clinician. PMID:28261519

  8. Rolling Motion of a Ball Spinning About a Near-Vertical Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-01-01

    A ball that is projected forward without spin on a horizontal surface will slide for a short distance before it starts rolling. Sliding friction acts to decrease the translation speed v and it acts to increase the rotation speed ω. When v = Rω, where R is the ball radius, the ball will start rolling and the friction force drops almost to zero since the contact point at the bottom of the ball comes to rest on the surface. The coefficient of rolling friction is much smaller than that for sliding friction. A different situation arises if the ball is projected forward while it is spinning about a vertical or near vertical axis. The latter situation arises in many ball sports. It arises if a player attempts to curve a ball down a bowling alley, or when a billiards player imparts sidespin or "English" to a ball,2 and it can arise in golf if a player strikes a ball with a putter at a point well away from the middle of the putter head. The situation also arises in the game of curling,3 although in that case the object that is projected is a cylindrical rock rather than a spherical ball, and it arises in tennis when a ball lands on the court spinning about a near vertical axis, as it does in both a slice serve and a kick serve. In a slice serve, the axis is almost vertical. In a kick serve, the axis is tilted about 30 degrees away from the vertical in order to increase the amount of topspin.4

  9. Vertical and Interfacial Transport in Wetlands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluxes connecting the water column, substrate, and atmosphere in wetland environments. To do this, analytical, numerical, and laboratory models have been used to quantify the hydrodynamic contributions to vertical fluxes. A key question is whether the hydrodynamic transport can be modeled as a diffusivity, and, if so, what the vertical structure of this diffusivity is. This question will be addressed in a number of flow types and for a number of fluxes. The fluxes of interest are heat, sediment, dissolved gases (such as methane and oxygen) and other dissolved solutes (such as nutrients and pollutants). The flows of interest include: unidirectional current, reversing flow (under waves, seiches, and tides), wind-sheared surface flows, and thermal convection. Rain and bioturbation can be important, but are not considered in the modeling work discussed herein. Specifically, we will present results on gas transport at wind-sheared free surface, sediment transport in unidirectional flow, and heat transfer in an oscillating flow cause by a seiche. All three of these will be used to consider the question of appropriate analytical models for vertical transport. The analytic models considered here are all 1D models that assume homogeneity in the horizontal plane. The numerical models use finite element methods and resolve the flow around individual vegetation stems in an idealized geometry. Laboratory models discussed herein also use an idealized geometry. Vegetation is represented by an array of cylinders, whose geometry is modeled after Scirpus spp. wetlands in Northern California. The laboratory model is constructed in a way that allows optical access to the flow, even in dense vegetation and far from boundaries. This is accomplished by using fluoropolymer plastics to construct vegetation models. The optical access allows us to employ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure

  10. Vertical land motion of Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Montillet, J. P.; Szeliga, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use GPS measurements from 400 stations located throughout the Pacific Northwest to estimate steady-state vertical land motion for the purpose of constraining relative sea level rise projections. Vertical motions are typically only a few percent of horizontal rates and the same order of magnitude as current sea level rise rates, so may either ameliorate or exacerbate future climate impacts. We use data from receivers operating from 1994 through 2015, each with at least three years of continuous daily measurements. Furthermore, daily position time series resulting from the processing of two GPS centers, namely the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA), are considered throughout this study. The goal is two fold: the dissemination into the scientific community of the difference in processing between these two centers, and the level of agreement between the estimated crustal for future sea-level studies in the Pacific Northwest. We model both target and reference frame receiver trajectories as a superposition of discrete processes comprising steady-state tectonic motion, annual and bi-annual sinusoids exhibiting stationary phase and amplitude that reflect both local hydrology as well as artifacts introduced through satellite clock and orbit corrections, and discrete offsets due to known earthquakes (with Mw > 6) and hardware changes. Qualitatively, Vancouver Island shows long-term uplift of ~2 mm/year, consistent with both interseismic strain accumulation from the Juan de Fuca subduction along the coast and post-glacial rebound inland, and consistent with earlier reports based on few stations and shorter time series. Further south, coastal uplift rates transition to near-zero south of Pacific Beach, and remain low southward to Cape Blanco. Vertical motion is more heterogeneous throughout Puget Sound, but most regions show subsidence of ~0.5 - 1 mm/yr. The predominant subsidence throughout Puget Sound, where the

  11. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  12. Predicting Vertical Jump Height from Bar Velocity

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s-2). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r2 = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r2 = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key points Vertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer. The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s-2 and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement. Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  13. Effect of vertical active vibration isolation on tracking performance and on ride qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimasi, F. P.; Allen, R. E.; Calcaterra, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect on pilot performance and comfort of an active vibration isolation system for a commercial transport pilot seat is reported. The test setup consisted of: a hydraulic shaker which produced random vertical vibration inputs; the active vibration isolation system; the pilot seat; the pilot control wheel and column; the side-arm controller; and a two-axis compensatory tracking task. The effects of various degrees of pilot isolation on short-term (two-minute) tracking performance and comfort were determined.

  14. Bipolar Cascade Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for RF Photonic Link Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    advisor position with very short notice, and Dr . Thomas R. Nelson, Jr. whose scientific curiosity always brings more out of me than I ever realized I...growth expertise. I also want to acknowledge Dr . John Albrecht, Dr . John Loehr, Dr . Robert Bedford, Lt. Col. Michael Estes, PhD, for sharing their...Allerman, S. Kurtz I. Fritz, W. Brei- land, K. Geib R. Sieg, J. Scott, and R. Naone. “Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008).

    Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction.

    Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top.

    The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches).

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  19. Vertical and rotational motion of mahogany seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camposano, A. V. C.; Virtudes, N. C.; Otadoy, R. E. S.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    Starting with a set of basic assumptions and with the application of well-known Newtonian physics, a theoretical model has been established for the flight of the mahogany winged seed. Using a high-speed camera, we successfully confirmed that the mahogany winged seed attains a vertical and rotational terminal velocity. From our model the mahogany seed has a terminal speed of 1.45 m/s. The experimental value of the terminal velocity on the average is 1.47 m/s (only about 1% error). The experimental value of the angular velocity was found to be around 54.33 rad/s, about 14% error compared to the predicted terminal velocity of 47.5 rad/s. The high predictable nature of a mahogany's terminal velocity can facilitate the biologist's study of mahogany mass seed dispersal.

  20. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitates specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.

  1. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  2. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  3. Stability of vertical and horizontal axis Levitrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Taylor, D. B.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of the new horizontal axis Levitron3 is compared with that of the vertical axis device. The rotation frequency ranges are similar because they are determined by the same precessional micro-trap, for which some theory is given. But the macro-trap of the horizontal axis system gives it far greater mechanical stability. Field-line studies allow this to be more easily visualized. The greater stability allows for educational experiments which could only be contemplated with the old Levitron: driven precession and nutation and motion along the field lines. These experiments illustrate some very fundamental space dynamics and several other topics. The enhanced stability may also lead to electro-mechanical applications.

  4. Vertical axis wind turbine control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    McNerney, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Early expensive in automatic operation of the Sandia 17-m vertical axis research wind turbine (VAWT) has demonstrated the need for a systematic study of control algorithms. To this end, a computer model has been developed that uses actual wind time series and turbine performance data to calculate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model has been used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long-term energy production. An attempt has been made to generalize these results from local site and turbine characteristics to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  5. Integrated Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R. R.; Wu, J. C.; Stadler, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) Memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid state, block access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1 Gbit/sq cm areal storage density, data rates of hundreds of megabits/sec, and submillisecond average access time simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBLs are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of BVL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single chip memory using 25 Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. The current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results are described which are used to assist the design process.

  6. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  7. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, R.; Döhler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Görsdorf, U.

    1993-03-01

    Long-term measurements of the ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 years. All data have been reevaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms unravel significant long-term trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 years. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere has been found. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced trace gas concentrations.

  8. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, R.; Döhler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Görsdorf, U.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term measurements of ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground-based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 yr. All data have been re-evaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest lasting European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms reveal significant longterm trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 yr. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere became evident. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced tracer gas concentrations.

  9. Vertical transmission of the Ohdo blepharophimosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mhanni, A A; Dawson, A J; Chudley, A E

    1998-05-01

    Ohdo blepharophimosis syndrome (OBS) is a multiple congenital anomalies-mental retardation syndrome composed of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, partial deafness, and mental retardation. Previously reported cases of OBS have been sporadic except for the report by Ohdo et al. [1986, J Med Genet 23:242-244] that described two affected sisters and a first cousin favoring autosomal recessive inheritance. The original report by Ohdo et al. [1986] may reflect nonpenetrance of an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder or genetic heterogeneity of OBS. We report on a child and the mother who have blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental anomalies, mild hearing loss, and mental retardation. Chromosome analysis in both showed a balanced paracentric inversion of the long arm of chromosome 9, which was also present in two phenotypically normal sibs of the mother. This is the first report of vertical transmission of OBS suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. X-linked dominant and mitochondrial inheritance are other possible modes of inheritance.

  10. Analytical model for a vertical buoyant jet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    An analytical model for a round and two-dimensional turbulent buoyant jet which is discharged vertically into a stagnant ambient is developed. The buoyant jet is considered to have three separate zone models which are matched to form a complete solution. The velocity field is determined for the entire jet and plume regions by the use of an eddy viscosity which varies along the axis of the jet. The centerline decay of buoyancy is determined throughout and the results are compared to existing numerical codes. The model is applied to the disposal of carbon dioxide enriched seawater. The results can be used to provide design information for minimizing or maximizing the dilution of a discharge by the receiving environment.

  11. Estimating tropical vertical motion profile shapes from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, L. E.; Handlos, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical structure of tropical deep convection strongly influences interactions with larger scale circulations and climate. This research focuses on investigating this vertical structure and its relationship with mesoscale tropical weather states. We test the hypothesis that vertical motion shape varies in association with weather state type. We estimate mean state vertical motion profile shapes for six tropical weather states defined using cloud top pressure and optical depth properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The relationship between vertical motion and the dry static energy budget are utilized to set up a regression analysis that empirically determines two modes of variability in vertical motion from reanalysis data. We use these empirically determined modes, this relationship and surface convergence to estimate vertical motion profile shape from observations of satellite retrievals of rainfall and surface convergence. We find that vertical motion profile shapes vary systematically between different tropical weather states. The "isolated systems" regime exhibits a more ''bottom-heavy'' profile shape compared to the convective/thick cirrus and vigorous deep convective regimes, with maximum upward vertical motion occurring in the lower troposphere rather than the middle to upper troposphere. The variability we observe with our method does not coincide with that expected based on conventional ideas about how stratiform rain fraction and vertical motion are related.

  12. Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming.

    PubMed

    Graversen, Rune G; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Tjernström, Michael; Källén, Erland; Svensson, Gunilla

    2008-01-03

    Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades-a phenomenon that is known as the 'Arctic amplification'. The underlying causes of this temperature amplification remain uncertain. The reduction in snow and ice cover that has occurred over recent decades may have played a role. Climate model experiments indicate that when global temperature rises, Arctic snow and ice cover retreats, causing excessive polar warming. Reduction of the snow and ice cover causes albedo changes, and increased refreezing of sea ice during the cold season and decreases in sea-ice thickness both increase heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. Changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, as well as cloud cover, have also been proposed to cause Arctic temperature amplification. Here we examine the vertical structure of temperature change in the Arctic during the late twentieth century using reanalysis data. We find evidence for temperature amplification well above the surface. Snow and ice feedbacks cannot be the main cause of the warming aloft during the greater part of the year, because these feedbacks are expected to primarily affect temperatures in the lowermost part of the atmosphere, resulting in a pattern of warming that we only observe in spring. A significant proportion of the observed temperature amplification must therefore be explained by mechanisms that induce warming above the lowermost part of the atmosphere. We regress the Arctic temperature field on the atmospheric energy transport into the Arctic and find that, in the summer half-year, a significant proportion of the vertical structure of warming can be explained by changes in this variable. We conclude that changes in atmospheric heat transport may be an important cause of the recent Arctic temperature amplification.

  13. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  14. Gravity dependence of subjective visual vertical variability.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, A A; Bockisch, C; Straumann, D; Olasagasti, I

    2009-09-01

    The brain integrates sensory input from the otolith organs, the semicircular canals, and the somatosensory and visual systems to determine self-orientation relative to gravity. Only the otoliths directly sense the gravito-inertial force vector and therefore provide the major input for perceiving static head-roll relative to gravity, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV). Intraindividual SVV variability increases with head roll, which suggests that the effectiveness of the otolith signal is roll-angle dependent. We asked whether SVV variability reflects the spatial distribution of the otolithic sensors and the otolith-derived acceleration estimate. Subjects were placed in different roll orientations (0-360 degrees, 15 degrees steps) and asked to align an arrow with perceived vertical. Variability was minimal in upright, increased with head-roll peaking around 120-135 degrees, and decreased to intermediate values at 180 degrees. Otolith-dependent variability was modeled by taking into consideration the nonuniform distribution of the otolith afferents and their nonlinear firing rate. The otolith-derived estimate was combined with an internal bias shifting the estimated gravity-vector toward the body-longitudinal. Assuming an efficient otolith estimator at all roll angles, peak variability of the model matched our data; however, modeled variability in upside-down and upright positions was very similar, which is at odds with our findings. By decreasing the effectiveness of the otolith estimator with increasing roll, simulated variability matched our experimental findings better. We suggest that modulations of SVV precision in the roll plane are related to the properties of the otolith sensors and to central computational mechanisms that are not optimally tuned for roll-angles distant from upright.

  15. Genetic Evaluation of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Genetics plays a major role in determining an individual's height. Although there are many monogenic disorders that lead to perturbations in growth and result in short stature, there is still no consensus as to the role that genetic diagnostics should play in the evaluation of a child with short stature. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed was performed, focusing on the genetic diagnosis of short stature as well as on specific diagnostic subgroups included in this article. Consensus guidelines were reviewed. Evidence Synthesis: There are a multitude of rare genetic causes of severe short stature. There is no high-quality evidence to define the optimal approach to the genetic evaluation of short stature. We review genetic etiologies of a number of diagnostic subgroups and propose an algorithm for genetic testing based on these subgroups. Conclusion: Advances in genomic technologies are revolutionizing the diagnostic approach to short stature. Endocrinologists must become facile with the use of genetic testing in order to identify the various monogenic disorders that present with short stature. PMID:24915122

  16. Relationships Between Vertical Jump and Full Squat Power Outputs With Sprint Times in U21 Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Marques, Mário C.; van den Tillaar, Roland; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10–20, T10–30, T20–30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=−0.56/–0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players. PMID:23487438

  17. Relationships between vertical jump and full squat power outputs with sprint times in u21 soccer players.

    PubMed

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Marques, Mário C; van den Tillaar, Roland; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10-20, T10-30, T20-30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=-0.56/-0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players.

  18. Decoration of vertical graphene with aerosol nanoparticles for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shumao; Guo, Xiaoru; Ren, Ren; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-08-01

    A facile method was demonstrated to decorate aerosol Ag nanoparticles onto vertical graphene surfaces using a mini-arc plasma reactor. The vertical graphene was directly grown on a sensor electrode using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The aerosol Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Then, the nanoparticles were assembled on the surface of vertical graphene through the assistance of an electric field. Based on our observation, nonagglomerated Ag nanoparticles formed in the gas phase and were assembled onto vertical graphene sheets. Nanohybrids of Ag nanoparticle-decorated vertical graphene were characterized for ammonia gas detection at room temperature. The vertical graphene served as the conductance channel, and the conductance change upon exposure to ammonia was used as the sensing signal. The sensing results show that Ag nanoparticles significantly improve the sensitivity, response time, and recovery time of the sensor.

  19. Infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity for depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-05-01

    Both horizontal and vertical binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with vertical disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with vertical disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and vertical disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.

  20. Robotic platform for traveling on vertical piping network

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A; Vrettos, Nick J; Krementz, Daniel; Marzolf, Athneal D

    2015-02-03

    This invention relates generally to robotic systems and is specifically designed for a robotic system that can navigate vertical pipes within a waste tank or similar environment. The robotic system allows a process for sampling, cleaning, inspecting and removing waste around vertical pipes by supplying a robotic platform that uses the vertical pipes to support and navigate the platform above waste material contained in the tank.

  1. Dechirper wakefields for short bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-06-01

    In previous work (Bane and Stupakov, 2015 [1]) general expressions, valid for arbitrary bunch lengths, were derived for the wakefields of corrugated structures with flat geometry, such as is used in the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper. However, the bunch at the end of linac-based X-ray FELs-like the LCLS-is extremely short, and for short bunches the wakes can be considerably simplified. In this work, we first derive analytical approximations to the short-range wakes. These are generalized wakes, in the sense that their validity is not limited to a small neighborhood of the symmetry axis, but rather extends to arbitrary transverse offsets of driving and test particles. The validity of these short-bunch wakes holds not only for the corrugated structure, but rather for any flat structure whose beam-cavity interaction can be described by a surface impedance. We use these wakes to obtain, for a short bunch passing through a dechirper: estimates of the energy loss as function of gap, the transverse kick as a function of beam offset, the slice energy spread increase, and the emittance growth. In the Appendix, a more accurate derivation-than that is found in Bane and Stupakov (2015) [1]-of the arbitrary bunch length wakes is performed; we find full agreement with the earlier results, provided the bunches are short compared to the dechirper gap, which is normally the regime of interest.

  2. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  3. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4-Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-09-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, compared with ~247 F g-1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4-graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4-graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4-graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg-1.

  4. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4–Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-01-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, compared with ~247 F g−1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4–graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4–graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg−1. PMID:26333591

  5. Length perception of horizontal and vertical bisected lines.

    PubMed

    Charras, Pom; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2010-03-01

    In an inverted T figure, the vertical line is largely overestimated (Avery and Day in J Exp Psychol 81:376-380, 1969). This vertical overestimation results from the vertical and bisection biases. Line orientation biases length perception in the sense that the vertical line of a L shape is perceived as longer than the horizontal line of the same physical length. In the inverted T figure, the vertical line is overestimated because of its orientation but also because the horizontal line is bisected. In the current study, we used various two-line configurations to investigate the role of bisection a/symmetry in line length perception and its interaction with the vertical bias. Experiment 1 showed that symmetry and asymmetry of bisection have different consequences on line length perception, as previously shown by Wolfe et al. (Percept Psychophys 67:967-979, 2005). Experiments 2 focused on the relation between the vertical and bisection biases by manipulating orthogonally line orientation and bisection a/symmetry. The results provided evidence that bisection can prevent the manifestation of the vertical bias, so that when the two lines are bisected, vertical lines are not anymore overestimated. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings claiming that saccades could play an essential role in length perception.

  6. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND TRAFFIC DECK - Hagerstown Road Bridge, Spanning Little Cotoctin Creek at Old Hagerstown Road, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  7. Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Hecht, H.; Lyne, L. E.; Sienko, K. H.; Cheung, C. C.; Kavelaars, J.

    2001-01-01

    Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects of pitch and yaw head movements in participants placed supine on a rotating bed with their head at the center of rotation, feet at the rim. The vast majority of participants experienced motion sickness, inappropriate vertical nystagmus and illusory tilt and roll as predicted by a semicircular canal model. However, a small but significant number of the 28 participants experienced tilt in the predicted plane but in the opposite direction. Heart rate was elevated following one-second duration head turns. Significant adaptation occurred following a series of head turns in the light. Vertical nystagmus, motion sickness and illusory tilt all decreased with adaptation. Consequences for artificial gravity produced by short-radius centrifuges as a countermeasure are discussed. Grant numbers: NCC 9-58. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconstruction of the vertical electron density profile based on vertical TEC using the simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Zhu, Peng; Nishioka, Michi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Zhou, Chen; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to reconstruct the vertical electron density profile based on vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) using the simulated annealing algorithm. The present technique used the Quasi-parabolic segments (QPS) to model the bottomside ionosphere. The initial parameters of the ionosphere model were determined from both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza et al., 2014) and vertical TEC (vTEC). Then, the simulated annealing algorithm was used to search the best-fit parameters of the ionosphere model by comparing with the GPS-TEC. The performance and robust of this technique were verified by ionosonde data. The critical frequency (foF2) and peak height (hmF2) of the F2 layer obtained from ionograms recorded at different locations and on different days were compared with those calculated by the proposed method. The analysis of results shows that the present method is inspiring for obtaining foF2 from vTEC. However, the accuracy of hmF2 needs to be improved in the future work.

  9. Observations of vertical winds and the origin of thermospheric gravity waves launched by auroral substorms and westward travelling surges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, D.

    1986-01-01

    Several sequences of observations of strong vertical winds in the upper thermosphere are discussed, in conjunction with models of the generation of such winds. In the auroral oval, the strongest upward winds are observed in or close to regions of intense auroral precipitation and strong ionospheric currents. The strongest winds, of the order of 100 to 200 m/sec are usually upward, and are both localized and of relatively short duration (10 to 20 min). In regions adjacent to those displaying strong upward winds, and following periods of upward winds, downward winds of rather lower magnitude (40 to about 80 m/sec) may be observed. Strong and rapid changes of horizontal winds are correlated with these rapid vertical wind variations. Considered from a large scale viewpoint, this class of strongly time dependent winds propagate globally, and may be considered to be gravity waves launched from an auroral source. During periods of very disturbed geomagnetic activity, there may be regions within and close to the auroral oval where systematic vertical winds of the order of 50 m/sec will occur for periods of several hours. Such persistent winds are part of a very strong large scale horizontal wind circulation set up in the polar regions during a major geomagnetic disturbance. This second class of strong horizontal and vertical winds corresponds more to a standing wave than to a gravity wave, and it is not as effective as the first class in generating large scale propagating gravity waves and correlated horizontal and vertical oscillations. A third class of significant (10 to 30 m/sec) vertical winds can be associated with systematic features of the average geomagnetic energy and momentum input to the polar thermosphere, and appear in statistical studies of the average vertical wind as a function of Universal Time at a given location.

  10. A vertical coarse approach scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevniok, Benedict

    A Pan-style scanning tunneling microscope (STM), with a vertical coarse approach mechanism, was designed, built and tested. The microscope will be operated in ultra-high vacuum and also at cryogenic temperatures (8 K) inside a continuous flow cryostat. Fundamental differences in operating principle exist between the new microscope and the beetle-type inertial sliders [1] that have been the mainstay of the group for the last eight years. While Pan-style microscopes do already exist [2], they remain challenging to build, and an active area of research [3]. This system represents a bold departure from well-trodden paths, and will greatly expand the range of experiments that our group can perform. The operating principles of inertial piezoelectric motors are detailed. Design guidelines for a piezoelectric motor are given, and used in the design of the vertical coarse approach motor. A simple, inexpensive implementation for creating waveforms with an extremely fast fall time is discussed. Motor performance is tested, and a minimum step size of 20nm is found for frequencies ranging from 0 Hz to 3 kHz. The motor operates with high dynamic range: individual 20nm steps can be taken, as well as being able to move at a velocity of 0.4mm s-1. Little is known about the vibrational properties of Pan-style microscopes. Vibrational testing of the microscope revealed the expected scanner bending mode at 1.6 kHz (above the scanner bending mode of our beetles at 1.2 kHz), and a complicated response signal above this frequency. Custom extension springs for an eddy-current damping system are built and tested. A low resonant frequency of 1.8 Hz is found, which is ideal for the application. Initial testing of the STM in ambient conditions is performed on two different surfaces. A moire supermesh [4] with periodicity 3nm is observed on a highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, and agrees well with previously published results. Using a flame-annealed Gold on mica surface, a low

  11. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  12. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  13. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  14. Seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and diel vertical migration of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, T. longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) in the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogawa, Sayaka; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Saito, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Tsuneo; Shimode, Shinji; Kikuchi, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    We studied seasonal and regional change in vertical distribution and DVM patterns of four euphausiid species (Euphausia pacifica, Thysanoessa inspinata, Thysanoessa longipes, and Tessarabrachion oculatum) from two years of surveys using MOCNESS above 1500 m depth across a transect in 3 regions of the northwestern (NW) Pacific, off east of Japan; Oyashio, Kuroshio, and Oyashio-Kuroshio Mixed Water Regions (MWR). The four euphausiid species exhibited a regional change in vertical distribution, i.e., slightly deeper in the MWR and much deeper in the Kuroshio region than in the Oyashio region. They found in higher and wider temperature ranges in the MWR than in the Oyashio region, which demonstrated that the four species were able to adapt to different temperatures in different regions. In the MWR and Oyashio regions, E. pacifica is a surface migrant (differences between day and night mean median depths, D-N, were ca. 300 m) and T. oculatum is a moderate subsurface migrant that performs short DVM in the upper mesopelagic zone (D-N ca. 100 m). The other two morphologically similar Thysanoessa species (T. inspinata and T. longipes) segregated vertically between E. pacifica and T. oculatum at night in the Oyashio region, suggesting vertical habitat partitioning with the former two species but not with themselves. However, a seasonal pattern was observed in the vertical distribution and DVM of T. longipes in the Oyashio region. It behaves as a surface migrant in May, whereas most of individuals were found in the mesopelagic layer in September. In contrast, T. inspinata did not exhibit a clear DVM throughout the year (i.e., a moderate subsurface migrant). This seasonal difference might be a strategy to minimize competition between related species. Among the four species, only E. pacifica was found in higher temperatures at night than during the daytime, and the highest temperatures at the median depth varied among species (from 7.5 °C to 13.7 °C) although the lowest

  15. Compact grating coupler between vertically stacked silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Po; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2004-07-01

    The area of integrated optical circuits has been undergoing rapid development due to the important applications of fiber communication systems and optical interconnects. A significant challenge of photonic circuits is to increase circuit density and to miniaturize these devices. The vertical integration of stacked waveguides for photonic circuits onto a single substrate is a promising configuration to enable the dense monolithic integration of three-dimensional photonic devices. Application of high-index-contrast waveguides, such as silicon-on-insulator waveguides, is another important way to increase the density of optical circuits due to their small sizes. These waveguides produce high confinement in the guiding layers and have the advantages of compactness and immunity of cross-talk between different waveguides. It is thus expected that efficient coupling of light between vertically integrated waveguides where no direct field-overlap of guided modes exists is a key issue. We propose a compact double-grating coupler to realize efficient coupling through radiation modes between two vertically stacked SOI waveguides. The grating is strong enough to be considered as a onedimensional photonic bandgap structure which facilitates a very short coupling length. Simulations suggest that a 22% efficiency is achievable in coupling light from one waveguide to another with a 12.9μm long grating. We find that the coupling efficiency is enhanced by Fabry-Perot resonance between two gratings. Coupling efficiency can be dramatically increased by incorporating a reflective under-layer structure or using blazed grating.

  16. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-12-31

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents.

  17. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  18. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Snyders, Rony; Colomer, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers) to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs. PMID:23504581

  19. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  20. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1-39 mm2 s-1 in kinematic viscosities and 40-72 mN m-1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  1. Thermal convection in vertically suspended soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie

    In normal fluids, a temperature difference can create a density difference. In the presence of the gravitational field, denser fluid will fall and lighter fluid will rise, causing fluid motion known as thermal convection. This type of convection can occur on different scales, from a single growing crystal to mantle movement inside the earth. Although many experiments have been conducted in unstably stratified fluids, there have been few laboratory experiments studying convective turbulence in stably stratified fluids, which is more common in nature. Here I present a two-dimensional (2D) convection in a stably stratified vertical soap film. It was found that the interaction between the gravitational potential energy, due to the 2D density fluctuation, and the kinetic energy is important. This interplay between the two energy sources manifests itself in the statistical properties of velocity and 2D density fluctuations in the system. Our experimental findings shed new lights to a turbulent system that strongly couples to a non-passive field.

  2. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  3. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  4. Investigation of dust vertical dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Hyde, Truell

    2007-11-01

    The dust acoustic wave (DAW) was first theoretically predicted in 1990 by Rao et al. [Ref] and later observed experimentally by Barkan, et al. [Ref. 2], Pieper and Goree [Ref. 3] and others. The charge on the dust, Debye length and various other fundamental complex plasma parameters can be obtained experimentally through measurement of the DAW. Since under normal laboratory conditions, ordered structures formed within a complex plasma are generally two dimensional in nature, the majority of experiments to date examining such a system's dispersion relationships have been conducted on the horizontal plane. We will present an experimental method providing for a vertical dispersion relationship measurement, and present corresponding data. References [1]. N. N. Rao, P. K. Shukla, and M. Y. Yu, ``Dust-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas,'' Planet. Space Sci. 38, 543-546 (1990). [2]. A. Barkan, R. L. Merlino, and N. D'Angelo, ``Laboratory observation of the dust-acoustic wave mode,'' Phys. Plasmas, 2, 3563-3565, 1995. [3]. J. B. Pieper, J. Goree, ``Dispersion of Plasma Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strong-Coupling Regime,'' Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 3137-3140, 1996.

  5. Premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Kirill A.

    2016-04-01

    Analytical treatment of the premixed flame propagation in vertical tubes with smooth walls is given. Using the on-shell flame description, equations for a quasi-steady flame with a small but finite front thickness are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that near the limits of inflammability, solutions describing upward flame propagation come in pairs having close propagation speeds and that the effect of gravity is to reverse the burnt gas velocity profile generated by the flame. On the basis of these results, a theory of partial flame propagation driven by a strong gravitational field is developed. A complete explanation is given of the intricate observed behavior of limit flames, including dependence of the inflammability range on the size of the combustion domain, the large distances of partial flame propagation, and the progression of flame extinction. The role of the finite front-thickness effects is discussed in detail. Also, various mechanisms governing flame acceleration in smooth tubes are identified. Acceleration of methane-air flames in open tubes is shown to be a combined effect of the hydrostatic pressure difference produced by the ambient cold air and the difference of dynamic gas pressure at the tube ends. On the other hand, a strong spontaneous acceleration of the fast methane-oxygen flames at the initial stage of their evolution in open-closed tubes is conditioned by metastability of the quasi-steady propagation regimes. An extensive comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data is made.

  6. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  7. Absolute Position Encoders With Vertical Image Binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic patternrecognition encoders that measure rotary and linear 1-dimensional positions at conversion rates (numbers of readings per unit time) exceeding 20 kHz have been invented. Heretofore, optoelectronic pattern-recognition absoluteposition encoders have been limited to conversion rates <15 Hz -- too low for emerging industrial applications in which conversion rates ranging from 1 kHz to as much as 100 kHz are required. The high conversion rates of the improved encoders are made possible, in part, by use of vertically compressible or binnable (as described below) scale patterns in combination with modified readout sequences of the image sensors [charge-coupled devices (CCDs)] used to read the scale patterns. The modified readout sequences and the processing of the images thus read out are amenable to implementation by use of modern, high-speed, ultra-compact microprocessors and digital signal processors or field-programmable gate arrays. This combination of improvements makes it possible to greatly increase conversion rates through substantial reductions in all three components of conversion time: exposure time, image-readout time, and image-processing time.

  8. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, R.; Doehler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Goersdorf, U.

    1992-12-01

    Long-term measurements of ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground-based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 yr. All data have been re-evaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest lasting European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms reveal significant long-term trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 yr. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere became evident. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced tracer gas concentrations.

  9. The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewei, Li; Jiahuang, Lin; Yang, Kang Zi; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Wong Say Juan, Jeremias

    2011-07-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.

  10. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  11. Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Corradini, M.L.; Pernsteiner, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    Free convective condensation in a vertical enclosure was studied numerically and the results were compared with experiments. In both the numerical and experimental investigations, mist formation was observed to occur near the cooling wall, with significant droplet concentrations in the bulk. Large recirculation cells near the end of the condensing section were generated as the heavy noncondensing gas collecting near the cooling wall was accelerated downward. Near the top of the enclosure the recirculation cells became weaker and smaller than those below, ultimately disappearing near the top of the condenser. In the experiment the mist density was seen to be highest near the wall and at the bottom of the condensing section, whereas the numerical model predicted a much more uniform distribution. The model used to describe the formation of mist was based on a Modified Critical Saturation Model (MCSM), which allows mist to be generated once the vapor pressure exceeds a critical value. Equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and MCSM calculations were preformed, showing the experimental results to lie somewhere in between the equilibrium and nonequilibrium predictions of the numerical model. A single adjustable constant (indicating the degree to which equilibrium is achieved) is used in the model in order to match the experimental results.

  12. Mudflow rheology in a vertically rotating flume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Westphal, Jerome A.; Jobson, Harvey E.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Joint research by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Missouri-Rolla currently (1990) is being conducted on a 3.05 meters in diameter vertically rotating flume used to simulate mudflows under steady-state conditions. Observed mudflow simulations indicate flow patterns in the flume are similar to those occurring in natural mudflows. Variables such as mean and surface velocity, depth, and average boundary shear stress can be measured in this flume more easily than in the field or in a traditional tilting flume. Sensitive variables such as sediment concentration, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits also can be precisely and easily controlled. A known Newtonian fluid, SAE 30 motor oil, was tested in the flume and the computed value for viscosity was within 12.5 percent of the stated viscosity. This provided support that the data from the flume can be used to determine the rheological properties of fluids such as mud. Measurements on mud slurries indicate that flows with sediment concentrations ranging from 81 to 87 percent sediment by weight can be approximated as Bingham plastic for strain rates greater than 1 per second. In this approximation, the yield stress and Bingham viscosity were extremely sensitive to sediment concentration. Generally, the magnitude of the yield stress was large relative to the change in shear stress with increasing mudflow velocity.

  13. Vertical Distribution of Vibrationally Excited Hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Becker, Erich; Sonnemann, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the vertical distribution of the vibrationally excited states of hydroxyl (OH*) is important for the interpretation of airglow measurements with respect to dynamical processes in the mesopause region. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the distribution of OH* that highlights the dependence on atomic oxygen and temperature. In addition, we use an advanced numerical model for the formation and relaxation of OH* and investigate the distributions of the different vibrationally exited states of OH*. For the production of OH*, the model includes the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone, as well as the reaction of atomic oxygen with hydroperoxy radicals. As loss processes we include 1) deactivation by atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and molecular nitrogen, 2) spontaneous emission, and 3) loss due to chemical reaction with atomic oxygen. All these processes take the dependence on the vibrational number into account. The quenching by molecular and atomic oxygen is parameterized by a multi-quantum relaxation scheme. This diagnostic model for OH* has been implemented as part of a chemistry-transport model that is driven by the dynamics simulated with the KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model). Numerical results confirm that emission from excited states with higher vibrational number is weaker and emanates from higher altitudes. In addition we find that the OH*-peak altitudes depend significantly on season and latitude. This behavior is mainly controlled by the corresponding variations of atomic oxygen and temperature, as is also confirmed by the aforementioned approximate theory.

  14. Microfluidic dielectrophoretic sorter using gel vertical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jason; Nelson, Edward L.; Li, G. P.; Bachman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We report the development and results of a two-step method for sorting cells and small particles in a microfluidic device. This approach uses a single microfluidic channel that has (1) a microfabricated sieve which efficiently focuses particles into a thin stream, followed by (2) a dielectrophoresis (DEP) section consisting of electrodes along the channel walls for efficient continuous sorting based on dielectric properties of the particles. For our demonstration, the device was constructed of polydimethylsiloxane, bonded to a glass surface, and conductive agarose gel electrodes. Gold traces were used to make electrical connections to the conductive gel. The device had several novel features that aided performance of the sorting. These included a sieving structure that performed continuous displacement of particles into a single stream within the microfluidic channel (improving the performance of downstream DEP, and avoiding the need for additional focusing flow inlets), and DEP electrodes that were the full height of the microfluidic walls (“vertical electrodes”), allowing for improved formation and control of electric field gradients in the microfluidic device. The device was used to sort polymer particles and HeLa cells, demonstrating that this unique combination provides improved capability for continuous DEP sorting of particles in a microfluidic device. PMID:24926390

  15. Temporal variability of vertical export flux at the DYFAMED time-series station (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Lavigne, Héloïse; Migon, Christophe; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Estournel, Claude; Coppola, Laurent; Miquel, Juan-Carlos

    2013-12-01

    , nutrients brought to surface waters by the vertical mixing trigger phytoplankton blooms, which generate new material for the vertical transfer of dissolved and particulate matter. Maximum Chl-a occurs shortly after the MLD maximum. Gačić et al. (2002) observed a marked seasonal variability of POC fluxes in the Adriatic Sea. Spring maxima are associated with phytoplankton blooms. In spite of interannual variations in the intensity of the phytoplankton blooms, their seasonal distribution and biomass abundance are reproducible (Marty et al., 2002), with maximum values of carbon assimilation in March and April (Marty and Chiavérini, 2002; Fig. 2). Indeed, high vertical export fluxes were observed within the present dataset in spring, as a result of biological productivity (e.g. 2000). In summer and fall, the heating of the sea surface results in a stratified water column with a shallow ML which is rapidly exhausted of nutrients. During such oligotrophic conditions (June to November), the concentrations of biogenic matter in the photic layer are minimal. Therefore, owing to insignificant transfer of POC, atmospherically-transported individual particles presumably do not sink (or sink with negligible sinking velocity), according to Stokesian settling calculations (Stokes, 1901). In the absence of packaging into large biogenic material (adsorption onto phytoplanktonic debris or incorporation into fecal pellets), atmospheric particles thus accumulate in the surface ML. In addition, dissolved atmospheric matter (e.g., from atmospheric wet deposition) is not removed from surface waters via its assimilation by phytoplankton, and it accumulates in the surface ML (e.g. dissolved organic matter (DOM); (Copin-Montégut and Avril, 1993)). Consequently, the lowest vertical export fluxes are observed during this period of the year. For example, years 2003 and 2004 exhibited minimal vertical export fluxes during summer and fall (Fig. 2). However, summer 2002 was unusual, with relatively a

  16. Competency-Based Route to Vertical Curriculum Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Laura; And Others

    What competency-based instruction is and how it can help improve vertical articulation between the curriculum of secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical education programs in Minnesota is the focus of this booklet. Explanation consists of responses to the following questions: (1) What is vertical curriculum articulation? (2) What is…

  17. Proposed technique for vertical alignment of a crane's cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gera, J., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Proposed vertical alignment technique senses the attitude of a cranes cable and displays any deviation from the vertical. The system consists of a detector assembly fixed to the boom and a display scope located in the cabin. It has potential application with either fixed-boom cranes or gantries.

  18. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... below the outermost edge of the bridge span structure so as to be visible from an approaching vessel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  19. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... below the outermost edge of the bridge span structure so as to be visible from an approaching vessel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  20. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... below the outermost edge of the bridge span structure so as to be visible from an approaching vessel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  1. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING (PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING (PART OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2). TWO FURNACES, WITH THEIR SUPPORT FRAMEWORK, ARE VISIBLE TO THE RIGHT. THE TALL STRUCTURE IN THE CENTER TOWARD THE BACKGROUND IS THE VERTICAL QUENCH TOWER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS WITH CASTLE ROCK IN BACKGROUND. JUNCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL AND TOP CHORD WITH STABILIZING LATERAL STRUT ABOVE AND SWAY STRUT BELOW. ORIGINAL PAIRED DIAGONAL EYE BARS LATER REINFORCED WITH TIE ROD - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  3. Effects of Vertical Scaling Methods on Linear Growth Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Zhao, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Vertical scaling is necessary to facilitate comparison of scores from test forms of different difficulty levels. It is widely used to enable the tracking of student growth in academic performance over time. Most previous studies on vertical scaling methods assume relatively long tests and large samples. Little is known about their performance when…

  4. Measurements of vertical air currents in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, K O

    1931-01-01

    To summarize, the experiments with balloons, sailplanes and light airplanes conducted thus far, reveal the vertical velocities of the air to be primarily dependent on the vertical temperature distribution. Stable stratifications result in up-and-down currents forced by the contour of the ground, which are readily recognized in flight and, if need be, may be avoided.

  5. Vertical and seasonal variations in temperature responses of leaf respiration in a Chamaecyparis obtusa canopy.

    PubMed

    Araki, Masatake G; Gyokusen, Koichiro; Kajimoto, Takuya

    2017-02-23

    Leaf respiration (R) is a major component of carbon balance in forest ecosystems. Clarifying the variability of leaf R within a canopy is essential for predicting the impact of global warming on forest productivity and the potential future function of the forest ecosystem as a carbon sink. We examined vertical and seasonal variations in short-term temperature responses of leaf R as well as environmental factors (light and mean air temperature) and physiological factors [leaf nitrogen (N), leaf mass per area (LMA), and shoot growth] in the canopy of a 10-year-old stand of hinoki cypress [Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.] in Kyushu, Japan. Leaf respiration rate adjusted to 20 °C (R20) exhibited evident vertical gradients in each season and was correlated with light, LMA and leaf N. In contrast, the temperature sensitivity of leaf R (Q10) did not vary vertically throughout the seasons. Seasonally, Q10 was higher in winter than in summer and was strongly negatively correlated to mean air temperature. A negative correlation of R20 with mean air temperature was also observed for each of the three canopy layers. These results clearly indicate that leaf R was able to adjust to seasonal changes in ambient temperature under field conditions and down-regulate during warmer periods. We also found that the degree of thermal acclimation did not vary with canopy position. Overall, our results suggest that vertical and seasonal variations in temperature responses of leaf R within a hinoki cypress canopy could be predicted by relatively simple parameters (light and temperature). There was an exception of extremely high R20 values in April that may have been due to the onset of shoot growth in spring. Understanding thermal acclimation and variations in leaf R within forest canopies will improve global terrestrial carbon cycle models.

  6. Late cenozoic vertical movements of non-volcanic islands in the Banda Arc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smet, M. E. M.; Fortuin, A. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.; Van Hinte, J. E.

    During onshore campaigns of the Snellius-II Expedition late Cenozoic sections were recorded and systematically sampled on the non-volcanic outer Banda Arc Islands of Timor, Buton, Buru, Seram and Kai. Microfaunal studies provided age and palaeobathymetric data to construct geohistory diagrams. Geohistory analysis of field and laboratory data allows to calculate rates of vertical movements of the island basements. The vertical movements were intermittent and differed widely from place to place in the arc; short periods of uplift alternated with longer periods of tectonic rest or subsidence and lateral variations in timing and magnitude seem to be more the rule than the exception. Movements affected larger segments of the arc at about the same time, especially since the late Pliocene, when widespread vertical movements started, which led to the present configuration of the arc. Rates of uplift or subsidence differed within each segment. On an intermediate scale, deformation has the character of tilting or doming of whole islands or parts of islands. On a local scale, various types of deformation occur. Calculated duration of uplift pulses is in the order of a million years where less than 50 cm·ka -1 of vertical movements are involved. Sections, however, with a high time stratigraphic resolutions show pulses of uplift with a duration of only some hundreds of thousands of years and rates of more than 500 cm·ka -1. The duration of such pulses therefore is comparable to that of eustatic third order sea level changes. But because their amplitude is an order of magnitude larger, this implies that in tectonically active areas eustatic signals, preserved in the sedimentary record, will be overprinted by tectonics, i.e. will be difficult to disentangle from the tectonic signal.

  7. Vertical δ13C and δ15N changes during pedogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunn, Melanie; Spielvogel, Sandra; Wells, Andrew; Condron, Leo; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2015-04-01

    The natural abundance of soil organic matter (SOM) stable C and N isotope ratios are subjected to vertical changes throughout the soil profile. This vertical distribution is a widely reported phenomenon across varieties of ecosystems and constitutes important insights of soil carbon cycling. In most ecosystems, SOM becomes enriched in heavy isotopes by several per mill in the first few centimeters of the topsoil. The enrichment of 13C in SOM with soil depth is attributed to biological and physical-chemical processes in soil e.g., plant physiological impacts, microbial decomposition, sorption and transport processes. Such vertical trends in 13C and 15N abundance have rarely been related to SOM composition during pedogenesis. The aims of our study were to investigate short and long-term δ13C and δ15N depth changes and their interrelations under progressing pedogenesis and ecosystem development. We sampled soils across the well studied fordune progradation Haast-chronosequence, a dune ridge system under super-humid climate at the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island (43° 53' S, 169° 3' E). Soils from 11 sites with five replicates each covered a time span of around 2870 yr of soil development (from Arenosol to Podzol). Vertical changes of δ13C and δ15N values of SOM were investigated in the organic layers and in 1-cm depth intervals of the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil. With increasing soil depth SOM became enriched in δ13C by 1.9 ± SE 0.1 o and in δ15N by 6.0 ± 0.4 ‰˙Litter δ13C values slightly decreased with increasing soil age (r = -0.61; p = 0.00) likely due to less efficient assimilation linked to nutrient limitations. Fractionation processes during mycorrhizal transfer appeared to affect δ15N values in the litter. We found a strong decrease of δ15N in the early succession stages ≤ 300 yr B.P. (r = -0.95; p = 0.00). Positive relations of vertical 13C and 15N enrichment with soil age might be related to decomposition and appeared to be

  8. Vertical Wellbore Flow Monitoring for Assessing Spatial and Temporal Flow Relationships with a Dynamic River Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2010-10-01

    A useful tool for identifying the temporal and spatial ambient wellbore flow relationships near a dynamic river boundary is to continuously monitor ambient vertical wellbore flow with an electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF). This is important because the presence of the wellbore can result in significant mixing or exchange of groundwater vertically across the aquifer. Mixing or exchanging groundwater within the well-screen section can have significant impacts on the distribution of contaminants within the aquifer and adverse effects on the representativeness of groundwater samples collected from the monitoring well. EBF monitoring data collected from long, fully screened wells at Hanford’s 300-Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, located ~260 to 290 m from the Columbia River, demonstrate that ambient vertical wellbore flow exhibits both a positive (direct) and inverse temporal relationship with periodic river-stage fluctuations over short distances. The ambient flow monitoring wells fully penetrate a highly transmissive unconfined aquifer that consists of unconsolidated coarse sediments of the Hanford formation. The spatial distribution of ambient vertical wellbore flows across the IFRC’s ~2,200 m2 well-field size indicates two general regions of inverse ambient wellbore flow behavior. The western region of the IFRC site is characterized by ambient vertical wellbore flows that are positively related to river-stage fluctuations. In contrast, the eastern region of the site exhibits ambient wellbore flows that are inversely related to river-stage fluctuations. The cause of this opposite relationship between ambient wellbore flows and river-stage changes is not completely understood; however, the positive relationships appear to be associated with high-energy Hanford formation flood deposits. These flood deposits have a well-defined northwest-southeast trend and are believed to coincide with a local paleochannel. This local paleochannel bisects

  9. Heterogeneous Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity in an Aquitard as Determined by Head Profiles and Pumping Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D. J.; Bradbury, K. R.; Cherry, J. A.; Gotkowitz, M. G.; Parker, B. L.

    2005-12-01

    The vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of aquitards is one of the most important parameters in groundwater flow systems but presents special challenges for estimation. It determines the role of the aquitard in a flow system and is a measure of the protection given by the aquitard to underlying aquifers. The properties of aquitards vary vertically and estimates of Kv should reflect this heterogeneity. Vertical head profiles in aquitards show this heterogeneity, and are probably the most important data to be collected in aquitard studies. The heads rarely vary in a linear fashion with depth as would be expected in a homogeneous medium. Instead, most head loss is either at the top or the bottom of the identified aquitard, suggesting that some portion of the aquitard has a much lower Kv than the rest. While this portion is the most effective part of the aquitard, the rest of the aquitard can still present a barrier to flow. We determined the Kv profile of a six-meter thick shaley aquitard, the Eau Claire Formation, by measuring head profiles in, above, and below the aquitard before and during a pumping test. The head profile before the pumping test was measured using three systems: a FLUTeTM multi-level system with pressure transducers, a short interval straddle packer, and series of buried pressure transducers. All three measurements of heads gave similar profiles. The head decreased 1.5 meters in the upper five meters of the aquitard with most of the head drop, nine meters, occurring over the lower meter of the aquitard. The vertical component of gradient varied by a factor of 30. During the pumping test, the head profiles were measured with the FLUTe system and the buried pressure transducers. In general the two measurement systems agreed but significant differences occurred in the lowest conductivity part of the aquitard. The head profile measured by the FLUTe system showed variation similar to that in the rest of the aquitard while the head measured by the

  10. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, R. K.; Sivaraman, C.; Shippert, T. R.; Riihimaki, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  11. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  12. The oceanic vertical pump induced by mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Klein, Patrice; Lapeyre, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The motivation to study the vertical exchanges of tracers associated with mesoscale eddies is that the mean concentration of most oceanic tracers changes rapidly with depth. Because mesoscale processes may transport these tracers vertically, biogeochemists hypothesized that these vertical exchanges may strongly affect global tracer budgets. This hypothesis has motivated a large number of biogeochemical studies that we review here by focusing on the significant advances that have been achieved and the remaining issues and uncertainties. The main question that emerges concerns the importance of the submesoscales (10 km in the horizontal) in these vertical exchanges. Independently, in the past decade, fluid dynamicists examined the three-dimensional properties of submesoscales generated by a mesoscale (100 km in the horizontal) turbulent eddy field. We review their results and discuss how the vertical exchanges associated with these submesoscales may answer the issues raised by biogeochemical studies and inspire future directions.

  13. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  14. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  15. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2011-12-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  16. A vertical handoff decision algorithm based on ARMA prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Shen, Jiao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qiuhuan

    2012-01-01

    With the development of computer technology and the increasing demand for mobile communications, the next generation wireless networks will be composed of various wireless networks (e.g., WiMAX and WiFi). Vertical handoff is a key technology of next generation wireless networks. During the vertical handoff procedure, handoff decision is a crucial issue for an efficient mobility. Based on auto regression moving average (ARMA) prediction model, we propose a vertical handoff decision algorithm, which aims to improve the performance of vertical handoff and avoid unnecessary handoff. Based on the current received signal strength (RSS) and the previous RSS, the proposed approach adopt ARMA model to predict the next RSS. And then according to the predicted RSS to determine whether trigger the link layer triggering event and complete vertical handoff. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the RSS-based scheme with a threshold in the performance of handoff and the number of handoff.

  17. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-01

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j// , at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  18. Buoyant miscible displacement flows in vertical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, A.; Larachi, F.; Taghavi, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    The displacement flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids is investigated experimentally in a vertical pipe of long aspect ratio (δ-1 ≈ 210). The fluids have a small density difference and they have the same viscosity. The heavy displacing fluid is initially placed above the light displaced fluid. The displacement flow is downwards. The experiments cover a wide range of the two dimensionless parameters that largely describe the flow: the modified Reynolds number (0 ≤ Ret⪅800) and the densimetric Froude number (0 ≤ Fr ≤ 24). We report on the stabilizing effect of the imposed flow and uncover the existence of two main flow regimes at long times: a stable displacement flow and an unstable displacement flow. The transition between the two regimes occurs at a critical modified Reynolds number " separators=" R et | Critical , as a function of Fr. We study in depth the stable flow regime: First, a lubrication model combined with a simple initial acceleration formulation delivers a reasonable prediction to the time-dependent penetrating displacing front velocity. Second, we find two sub-regimes for stable displacements, namely, sustained-back-flows and no-sustained-back-flows. The transition between the two sub-regimes is a marginal stationary interface flow state, which is also well predicted by the lubrication model. The unstable regime is associated to instabilities and diffusive features of the flow. In addition, particular patterns such as front detachment phenomenon appear in the unstable flow regime, for which we quantify the regions of existence versus the dimensionless groups.

  19. Hydrodynamics of a vertical hydraulic fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1987-03-24

    We have developed a numerical algorithm, HUBBERT, to simulate the hydrodynamics of a propagating vertical, rectangular fracture in an elastic porous medium. Based on the IFD method, this algorithm assumes fracture geometry to be prescribed. The breakdown and the creation of the incipient fracture is carried out according to the Hubbert-Willis theory. The propagation of the fracture is based on the criterion provided by Griffith, based on energy considerations. The deformation properties of the open fracture are based on simple elasticity solutions. The fracture is assumed to have an elliptical shape to a distance equal to the fracture height, beyond which the shape is assumed to be parallel plate. A consequence of Griffith's criterion is that the fracture must propagate in discrete steps. The parametric studies carried out suggest that for a clear understanding of the hydrodynamics of the hydraulic fracture many hitherto unrecognized parameters must be better understood. Among these parameters one might mention, efficiency, aperture of the newly formed fracture, stiffness of the newly formed fracture, relation between fracture aperture and permeability, and well bore compliance. The results of the studies indicate that the patterns of pressure transients and the magnitudes of fracture length appear to conform to field observations. In particular, the discrete nature of fracture propagation as well as the relevant time scales of interest inferred from the present work seem to be corroborated by seismic monitoring in the field. The results suggest that the estimation of least principal stress can be reliably made either with shut in data or with reinjection data provided that injection rates are very small.

  20. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches).

    Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica.

    The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  2. A Vertical Differential Configuration in GPR prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pochanin, Gennadiy; Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla; Catapano, Ilaria; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    small objects and interfaces. This configuration can be labeled as a vertical differential configuration. At the conference, the reconstruction capabilities of this differential GPR configuration system will be discussed by means of an analysis of the problem based on a properly designed microwave tomographic inversion approach. The proposed approach exploits the Born approximation and faces the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse scattering problem. In this way, the problem of the local minima is avoided [7] and it is possible to impose some regularization to the problem in an easy way problem [8-9]. At the conference, a theoretical analysis of the mathematical propserties of the scattering operator under the vertical differential configuration will be presented showing that, with respect to the horizontal differential configuration, the vertical one allows to reject the direct coupling between the antennas but not the coupling of the antennas occurring through the air-soil interface. On the other hand, the filtering properties of the operator at hand con be considered, let say, less severe in some cases. At the conference, both some numerical and experimental results will be shown. References [1] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Effects of the background removal in linear inverse scattering", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 46, pp. 1104-1114, April 2008. [2] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Three-Dimensional FDTD modeling of a ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol. 38, pp. 1513-1521, July 2000. [3] L. Gurel, U. Oguz, "Optimization of the transmitter-receiver separation in the ground penetrating radar", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 51, no 3, pp. 362-370, March 2003. [4] R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "A microwave tomography approach for a differential configuration in GPR prospecting", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., vol. 54, pp. 3541 - 3548, 2006. [5] Y.A. Kopylov, S.A. Masalov, G.P. Pochanin, "The way of isolation between transmitting

  3. Short-range Fundamental forces

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, I; Baessler, Stefan; Buechner, M; Fedorov, General Victor; Hoedl, S.; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Pignol, G; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Yu.

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: (1) spin-independent forces; and (2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  4. Long Swarms and Short Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Many earthquake swarms at volcanoes last several months, then have a sharp uptick in rate in the hours before eruption. Examples include 2006 Augustine, 8.5 months then 10 hours; 1992 Spurr, 10 months then 4 hours; 1994 Rabaul, ~1 year then 27 hours; 2008 Kasatochi, 6 weeks then 2 days; and 2011 Puyuehue Cordon Caulle, 5 weeks then 2 days. For the well studied Augustine case, broadband data showed that very long period (VLP) energy accompanied 221 of 722 located earthquakes in the 10 hours before the first explosive eruption on 11 January 2006. This was revealed by low-pass filtering and the period of the VLP signal was 50 sec. The Augustine broadband stations were campaign instruments at distances of 2-3 km from the vent. No similar VLP energy has been found in events during the 8.5 month long swarm. Okmok volcano had a short swarm only lasting 5 hours prior to its 12 July 2008 eruption. Low-pass filtering of data from broadband station OKSO, 10 km from the vent, showed that 23 of 42 located events had VLP energy with a period of 30-40 sec. Events from Kasatochi volcano were scanned on station ATKA. Here the broadband station is much farther away at 88 km but the earthquakes in the short swarm 7 August 2008 were much larger with many M>3 events. The station suffered data gaps so only a few hours of data were scanned but numerous events were observed with VLP energy starting just after the P phase. Low-pass filtering showed VLP energy with a period of 10-12 sec. No VLP energy has been found in events of the preceding 6 week long swarm. These observations at three different volcanoes suggest that the short swarms represent a different process than the long swarms. The long swarms likely reflect pressure increases in the surrounding country rock caused by increasing magma pressure. The short swarms in contrast, appear to represent discrete pulses of magma injection at shallow depths. For all three volcanoes the earthquakes looked like typical volcano-tectonic (VT

  5. Longitudinal Differences of Ionospheric Vertical Density Distribution and Equatorial Electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valledares, C.E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian approx. 37 deg and 290 deg E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation

  6. Short-term energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Pick of the (Short) Flicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Frank, Ed.

    1967-01-01

    Five experts suggest a list of 50 short motion pictures which are inexpensive and fit easily within a normal class period. These films, not narrowly related to specific disciplines, range from visual poems inducing creative responses, to films analyzing the problems of maturing in an irrelevant society. Twenty of the film entries have annotations…

  8. Vertical behavior and diet of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) vary with latitude in the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Allain, Valerie; Nicol, Simon J.; Evans, Karen J.; Hoyle, Simon D.; Dupoux, Cyndie; Vourey, Elodie; Dubosc, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) are an important upper tropic-level oceanic predator with a circum-global distribution. Little is known of the movements and diet of albacore tuna in the South Pacific Ocean and how variability in both might influence the vulnerability of albacore tuna to fisheries across their range. We coupled data derived from satellite-tagged albacore tuna with stomach samples collected from individuals at the same locations to characterize the vertical behavior, thermal and dietary habits of albacore tuna at tropical (New Caledonia and Tonga) and temperate (New Zealand) latitudes. A total of 18 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed on albacore tuna remained attached for 0-50 days. Position estimates, calculated from 11 tags, described short-term movements of predominantly less than 500 km, although one fish moved more than 1000 km over a period of 50 days. Vertical behavior and diet differed substantially between tropical and temperate latitudes. At tropical latitudes, albacore tuna showed a distinct diel pattern in vertical habitat use, occupying shallower, warmer waters above the mixed layer depth (MLD) at night, and deeper, cooler waters below the MLD during the day. In contrast, there was little evidence of a diel pattern of vertical behavior in albacore tuna at temperate latitudes, with fish limited to shallow waters above the MLD almost all of the time. Spatial patterns of species composition in stomach contents were consistent with vertical movement patterns, with significantly more deepwater prey species consumed in tropical waters than in temperate waters. Albacore in tropical waters also consumed significantly greater diversities of prey than in temperate waters, predominately preying on fish species, whereas those in temperate waters predominately preyed on crustacea. Our results indicate that the vertical distribution of albacore is constrained either by thermal preferences with diet reflecting these preferences, by the vertical

  9. Solution chemistry approach to fabricate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on gold wires: towards vertically integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flavel, Benjamin S.; Yu, Jingxian; Ellis, Amanda V.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2008-11-01

    A monolayer of hexadecyltrichlorosilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane was self-assembled onto a p-type silicon (100) substrate to provide a resist for electrochemical anodization with an atomic force microscope cantilever. Silane treatment of the oxide nanostructures created by anodization lithography allowed for the creation of a chemically heterogeneous surface, containing regions of -NH2 or -SH surrounded by -CH3 functionality. These patterned regions of -NH2 or -SH provided the point of attachment for citrate-stabilized gold colloid nanoparticles, which act as 'seed' particles for the electro-less deposition of gold. This has allowed the creation of gold wires on a silicon surface. Carbon nanotubes, with high carboxylic acid functionality, were vertically immobilized on the patterned gold wires with the use of a cysteamine monolayer and a condensation reaction. Such a material may prove useful in the creation of future vertically integrated electronic devices where it is desirable for electron transport to be in three dimensions and this electron transport is demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry.

  10. Vertical nystagmus: clinical facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C; Milea, D

    2005-06-01

    The pathophysiology of spontaneous upbeat (UBN) and downbeat (DBN) nystagmus is reviewed in the light of several instructive clinical findings and experimental data. UBN due to pontine lesions could result from damage to the ventral tegmental tract (VTT), originating in the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN), coursing through the ventral pons and transmitting excitatory upward vestibular signals to the third nerve nucleus. A VTT lesion probably leads to relative hypoactivity of the drive to the motoneurons of the elevator muscles with, consequently, an imbalance between the downward and upward systems, resulting in a downward slow phase. The results observed in internuclear ophthalmoplegia suggest that the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is involved in the transmission of both upward and downward vestibular signals. Since no clinical cases of DBN due to focal brainstem damage have been reported, it may be assumed that the transmission of downward vestibular signals depends only upon the MLF, whereas that of upward vestibular signals involves both the MLF and the VTT. The main focal lesions resulting in DBN affect the cerebellar flocculus and/or paraflocculus. Apparently, this structure tonically inhibits the SVN and its excitatory efferent tract (i.e. the VTT) but not the downward vestibular system. Therefore, a floccular lesion could result in a disinhibition of the SVN-VTT pathway with, consequently, relative hyperactivity of the drive to the motoneurons of the elevator muscles, resulting in an upward slow phase. UBN also results from lesions affecting the caudal medulla. An area in this region could form part of a feedback loop involved in upward gaze-holding, originating in a collateral branch of the VTT and comprising the caudal medulla, the flocculus and the SVN, successively. Therefore, it is suggested that the main types of spontaneous vertical nystagmus due to focal central lesions result from a primary dysfunction of the SVN-VTT pathway, which becomes

  11. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clémence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  12. VERTICAL BEAM SIZE CONTROL IN TLS AND TPS.

    SciTech Connect

    KUO, C.C.; CHEN, J.R.; CHOU, P.J.; CHANG, H.P.; HSU, K.T.; LUO, G.H.; TSAI, H.J.; WANG, D.J.; WANG, M.H.

    2006-06-26

    Vertical beam size control is an important issue in the light source operations. The horizontal-vertical betatron coupling and vertical dispersion were measured and corrected to small values in the TLS 1.5 GeV storage ring. Estimated beam sizes are compared with the measured values. By employing an effective transverse damping system, the vertical beam blow-up due to transverse coherent instabilities, such as the fast-ion beam instability, was suppressed. As a result, the light source is very stable. In NSRRC we are designing an ultra low emittance 3-GeV storage ring and its designed vertical beam size could be as small as a few microns. The ground and mechanic vibration effects, and coherent instabilities could spoil the expected photon brightness due to blow-up of the vertical beam size if not well taken care of. The contributions of these effects to vertical beam size increase will be evaluated and the counter measures to minimize them will be proposed and reported in this paper.

  13. Estimating Vertical Groundwater Velocities Using Groundwater Thermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga, M. A.; Leap, D. I.; Petruccione, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    An understanding of vertical groundwater flow through unconsolidated deposits is a component for predicting fate and transport of contaminants in the saturated zone. Groundwater movement through heterogeneous glacial deposits common to northern Indiana (USA) provided a test setting for determining if measured vertical groundwater thermal gradients could aid in calculating vertical groundwater velocity estimates. Field procedure was conducted by collecting stratified groundwater temperatures from a series of cased monitoring wells previously advanced through glacial till and outwash sedimentary sequences. Groundwater thermal gradients (temperature-depth profiles) were plotted and matched using automated computer modeling software (Microsoft Excel Solver) with published type curves to derive a dimensionless parameter for estimating vertical groundwater velocities. Data results matched predictions, to include an increase in vertical groundwater velocities during the seasonally wetter Spring; and, higher calculated vertical groundwater velocities for the finer-grained till aquitards when compared to aquifers comprised of coarser-grained outwash deposits. This study shows promise and has gathered interest both in the scientific community and environmental consulting practice for estimating vertical migration rates of contaminants (specifically those affected by advection) within the saturated zone. Government agencies or consultants, for instance, could also potentially apply this estimation technique to measure and map localized recharge rates for developing more accurate wellhead protection zones.

  14. Response of ramus following vertical lengthening with distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kisnisci, Reha S

    2011-09-01

    Vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable surgical procedures in the management of musculoskeletal maxillofacial deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the mandibular ramus following vertical lengthening by means of distraction osteogenesis. This study included eight non-syndromic adult patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis. The vertical height deficiency of the mandibular ramus and the ramus/condyle unit on the affected side were simultaneously reconstructed by transportation of a bone segment using distraction osteogenesis following gap arthroplasty. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms taken postoperatively before active distraction, at the completion of distraction and 6, 12, 24 months after distraction, were compared to evaluate the changes of the ramus height. In all cases the vertical ramus and ramus/condyle unit height loss were successfully reconstructed by distraction osteogenesis. There was no relapse in the amount of height gained by distraction osteogenesis at the 24 months follow-up review (p>0.05). Acute one stage vertical lengthening of the mandibular ramus is considered to be one of the least stable musculoskeletal procedures with relapse being a significant adverse outcome. In this clinical study gradual vertical lengthening of the ramus through ramus/condyle unit distraction osteogenesis has maintained the initial vertical ramus height gained for 24 months.

  15. Vertical fine structure observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.P.

    1981-11-20

    Measurements of vertical displacement and horizontal velocity finestructure near the equator at 110/sup 0/W in the eastern Pacific Ocean are reported. Profiles were scaled to a constant Bruent-Vaeisaelae frequency ocean (N/sub 0/ = 1 cph) in accordance with a WKBJ approximation. A total of 57 CTD casts between 3/sup 0/N and 3/sup 0/S taken during five cruises in 1979 were analyzed. Results show an equatorial enhancement of vertical displacement is similar variance for vertical wavelengths longer than 50 sdbar (stretched decibars). This enhancement is similar to that which has been reported at 125/sup 0/W and 179/sup 0/E. Difference between locations can be accounted for by the observed temporal variability at 110/sup 0/W. Coherence between vertical displacement profiles separated in time by dealys of 2 hours to 120 hour indicate that the high wave number structures were largely associated with time scales of 4 days and less. Meridionally, vertical structures longer than 300 sdbar were coherent within 50 km of the equator. We interpret this vertical displacement fine structure enhancement as high wave number equatorially trapped inertial-gravity waves. The velocity fine structure measurements in July 1979 also indicate equatorially enhanced horizontal kinetic energy for vertical wave lengths longer than 100 sdbar. The velocity structures persisted over the 56 hour of measurement and appeared to have longer time scales than the vertical displacements. Meridional energy measurement and appeared to have longer time scales than the vertical displacements. Meridional energy exceeded zonal energy; however, the two components were coherent. We interpret these velocity structures as inertial-gravity waves which were produced off the equator and are propagating through the equatorial region.

  16. Myofacial pain dysfunction: a manifestation of the short-face syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Sickels, J E; Ivey, D W

    1979-11-01

    The practitioner who treats patients with MPD should be aware that certain anatomic variations may predispose a patient to developing the syndrome. We feel that the newly described entity, the short-face syndrome, is such an example. Patients exhibiting short-face syndrome are overclosed. Their condition appears to be improved by establishing an increased vertical dimension of occlusion. This is first accomplished with the use of a processed acrylic resin occlusal splint. If a patient has been asymptomatic at the new occlusal relationship, a maxillary osteotomy is recommended to achieve a more permanent functional and cosmetic result.

  17. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noersomadi; Tsuda, T.

    2016-02-01

    We retrieved temperature (T) profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI) method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20-27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency squared (N2) near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs) with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total) potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO) retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p) for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a) 90-150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b) 170-230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30-50° N in region (a), and 50-70° N in region (b), which was related to the topography. At 30-50° N in region (b), EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to convective activity. The ratio of EpT to the

  18. Flow Split of Churn Flow at a Vertical Impacting T,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Barnea, D. and Dukler , A.E. (980). "Modelling flow pattern .transitions for steady upwards gas liquid flow in vertical tubes", (AIChE Journal Vol. 26...churn flow at a vertical impacting T DTIC 4 ELECTE B J Azzopardi, A Purvis and A H Govan JAU I1MD COPYRIGHT ANO REPRODUCTION fn lies about copyriqht ant...FLOW SPLIT OF CHURN FLOW AT A VERTICAL IMPACTING T B. J. Azzopardi, A. Purvi:’ and A. H. Govan ABSTRACT Measurements have been made of the flow split

  19. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  20. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.; Battles, James E.; Hull, John R.; Rote, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  1. A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  2. Testing of a Shrouded, Short Mixing Stack Gas Eductor Model Using High Temperature Primary Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    underground pipe to building 249. Air enters the test facility through a vertical standpipe which contains an eight inch butterfly valve in parallel with a...bypass globe valve (Figure 6). The butterfly valve is - .- normally closed, flow through the bypass valve only being 48 q sufficient to operate the gas...eight inch butterfly valve and enters a short section of piping which is used by other departments to supply various experiments. The second arm of the

  3. Constraining the vertical surface motions of the Hampshire Basin, south England During the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Philip; England, Richard; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    mechanism for the observed return to a long wavelength tilting of the UK superimposed on short wavelength variations in surface topography caused by an existing state of tectonic stress, possibly inherited in the early to mid Cenozoic. Considering the tectonic and structural evidence available, the Cenozoic topography could be explained by magmatic underplating associated with north Atlantic opening and/or crustal buckling as a result of the Alpine collisional sequences. Additional deep boreholes from the London basin and East Anglia provide a comprehensive 3D tectonic map of vertical surface motions during the early to mid Cenozoic. From this we may be able to understand more about the major tectonic controls influencing southern England at this time and what is modifying the current surface elevation change on short wavelengths.

  4. Short Trips and a Traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Cameron joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in IGY-related activities in Antarctica. He served as Chief Glaciologist at Wilkes Station, on the coast of East Antarctica. This was a joint Navy-civilian operation consisting of 17 Navy personnel and 10 scientists. Specifically, his glaciological team consisted of two colleagues with whom he had worked before - Olav Loken in Norway in the summer of 1953, and John Molholm in Greenland in the summer of 1954. This team spent much of its time at a remote station established 80 kilometers (50 miles) inland, where they conducted both meteorological and glaciological studies. One of the glaciological studies entailed digging a 35-meter (approx.115-foot) vertical pit to study snow densification and stratigraphy. The assignment for the Navy Seabees was to first establish a joint US-NZ base at Cape Hallett and then go along the coast of East Antarctica and set up Wilkes Station.

  5. The Role of Spatial and Temporal Variability in Determining the Magnitude and Structure of Thermospheric Vertical Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, E.; Ridley, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Vertical winds in the thermosphere can occur in various spatial scales and vary in very short time-scales. They are typically associated with barometric, divergent, and nonhydrostatic motions. Increasing number of observational studies suggest that vertical winds are temporally and spatially highly variable and their magnitudes and structures are overall not captured well enough by contemporary general circulation models (GCMs) that are based on the hydrostatic assumption and have coarse spatial resolutions and relatively large time steps. In this study, using the 3-D nonhydrostatic Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) developed at the University of Michigan, we investigate the physical mechanisms that control the magnitudes and structures of the thermosphere neutral vertical winds, focusing on the role of spatial and temporal variability simulated by GITM. To identify the response of the high-latitude thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) to variable magnetospheric inputs, such as the IMF Bz, the associated Joule and auroral heating are analyzed. In a series of systematic simulations, the magnitude and temporal variations of Bz are modulated. Additionally, the effects of random electric field variability are investigated by implementing first constant and then temporally variable noise term in the electric fields. Vertical winds are found to be sensitive to spatial resolution as well as to the specific form of temporally varying magnetospheric input and random noise in the electric field input.

  6. Oxidized carbon fiber supported vertical WS2 nanosheets arrays as efficient 3 D nanostructure electrocatalyts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiao; Yan, Kai-Li; Liu, Zi-Zhang; Lu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Bin; Chi, Jing-Qi; Li, Xiao; Liu, Yan-Ru; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Oxidized carbon fiber (oCF) as support successfully realizes the vertical growth of uniform WS2 nanosheets arrays for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) via a facile hydrothermal process. Thanks to oxygen functional groups on oCF, vertical WS2 nanosheets structures have grown more easily on oCF, which can provide better dispersion, short charge transfer distance and more exposed active sites for HER in comparison with bulk WS2 and WS2 nanosheets on bare carbon fiber (CF) fabricated at the same condition. The electrochemical measurements confirmed that WS2/oCF possesses better HER activity than bulk WS2 and WS2/CF. Especially, the 10-h stability with unchanged vertical WS2 nanosheets morphology further demonstrate the positive effect of oxygen functional groups on the enhanced vertical structure and close combination between WS2 and oCF. It may offer a facile way to realize more exposed active sites from stable electrocatalyst hybrids of transition metal sulfides by surface oxidization of carbon supports.

  7. Syndromic Disorders with Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  8. Masseter thickness, endurance and exercise-induced pain in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology.

    PubMed

    Farella, Mauro; Bakke, Merete; Michelotti, Ambra; Rapuano, Alessia; Martina, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular features of the masseter muscle in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology. Fifteen short-faced (mandibular plane-Frankfurt plane angle < 15 degrees) and 15 normal- to long-faced (mandibular plane-Frankfurt plane angle > or = 23 degrees) male students participated. The thickness of the masseter was assessed by ultrasonography. Onset and endurance of exercise pain were recorded during sustained biting at a level of 15% of maximum voluntary contraction and 30 micro V electromyographic activity. Pain and fatigue was measured on visual analog scales before and after the biting, as well as before and after 10 min chewing. Statistical comparison showed that the masseter muscle was significantly thicker (+15%) in the short-faced than the normal- to long-faced subjects. The pain onset time and endurance time were also consistently shorter in short-faced subjects, whereas the intensity of pain and fatigue did not differ significantly between the two groups. Multiple stepwise regression showed positive influence from the mandibular plane inclination and the masseter thickness on the pain onset time and endurance time. The present findings support the concept that subjects with different craniofacial morphology show neuromuscular differences.

  9. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  10. [Australian short-beaked echidna].

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P

    1995-12-01

    The Australian short-beaked echidna, a monotreme, is one of the oldest living mammals on earth. It is recorded to be the most widely distributed native mammal on the island continent and classed as 'common'. Yet, little is known about its natural history and biology in the wild. What science has learned about the echidna in the past 200 years and why there are still large gaps is reported here.

  11. Deeper look into short strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Valatka, Saulius

    2012-03-01

    Using a recent conjecture of Basso we compute three leading nontrivial coefficients in the strong coupling expansion of the anomalous dimensions of short operators in the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] sector of AdS/CFT. We show that our results are consistent with the numerical results obtained using the Y-system and TBA approach earlier thus providing further support to the Y-system conjecture.

  12. (Short articles on energy conservation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, L.

    1985-01-01

    The following short articles are reprinted after being published in the Tri-County Times, Slater, Iowa, by Laurent Hodges of the Iowa State University Energy Extension Service: water power; small hydroelectric plants; condensation problems (three parts); energy quiz and answers; the airtight drywall approach; benefits of natural lighting; energy and Iowa's building code; heating, water heating and cooling costs in Iowa; the cost of keeping cool; and reducing the cost of keeping cool. (DLC)

  13. Tilt changes of short duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, Stuart

    1976-01-01

    Section I of this report contains a classification scheme for short period tilt data. For convenience, all fluctuations in the local tilt field of less than 24 hours duration will be designated SP (i.e., short period) tilt events. Three basic categories of waveshape appearance are defined, and the rules for naming the waveforms are outlined. Examples from tilt observations at four central California sites are provided. Section II contains some coseismic tilt data. Fourteen earthquakes in central California, ranging in magnitude from 2.9 to 5.2, were chosen for study on four tiltmeters within 10 source dimensions of the epicenters. The raw records from each of the four tiltmeters at the times of the earthquakes were photographed and are presented in this section. Section III contains documentation of computer programs used in the analysis of the short period tilt data. Program VECTOR computes the difference vector of a tilt event and displays the sequence of events as a head-to-tail vector plot. Program ONSTSP 1) requires two component digitized tilt data as input, 2) scales and plots the data, and 3) computes and displays the amplitude, azimuth, and normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude. Program SHARPS computes the onset sharpness, (i.e., the normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude at the onset of the tilt event) as a function of source-station distance from a model of creep-related tilt changes. Program DSPLAY plots the digitized data.

  14. Orogeny can be very short

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc–continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted ≈18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10-15. Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  15. High-speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, K.L.; Ochiai, M.; Hietala, V.M.

    1997-03-01

    High speed modulation and pulsing are reported for oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with inverted doping and proton implantation to reduce the extrinsic limitations.

  16. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  17. 18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VERTICAL VIEW. DETAIL, VIEW FROM LANDING ON CONTROL CABIN LADDER, AT APPROXIMATELY BRIDGE DECK LEVEL, SHOWING PORTION OF GEAR TRAIN AT TURNTABLE. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  18. 32. VERTICAL / STRUT / UPPER CHORD DETAIL AT PINCONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL / STRUT / UPPER CHORD DETAIL AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  19. 22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM CHORD ON PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS. HYDRAULICALLY FORGED EYES ON ROLLED STOCK. - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  20. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  1. Detail, east truss of south span, showing railing, vertical UL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east truss of south span, showing railing, vertical U-L, diagonal eyebar U-L with turnbuckle - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  2. Heat convection in a vertical channel: Plumes versus turbulent diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibert, M.; Pabiou, H.; Tisserand, J.-C.; Gertjerenken, B.; Castaing, B.; Chillà, F.

    2009-03-01

    Following a previous study [Gibert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 084501 (2006)], convective heat transfer in a vertical channel of moderate dimensions follows purely inertial laws. It would be therefore a good model for convective flows of stars and ocean. Here we report new measurements on this system. We use an intrinsic length in the definition of the characteristic Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. We explicit the relation between this intrinsic length and the thermal correlation length. Using particle imaging velocimetry, we show that the flow undergoes irregular reversals. We measure the average velocity profiles and the Reynolds stress tensor components. The momentum flux toward the vertical walls seems negligible compared to the shear turbulent stress. A mixing length theory seems adequate to describe the horizontal turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, but fails for the vertical ones. We propose a naive model for vertical heat transport inspired by the Knudsen regime in gases.

  3. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate delineation of plume boundaries and vertical contaminant distribution are necessary in order to adequately characterize waste sites and determine remedial strategies to be employed. However, it is important to consider the sampling objectives, sampling methods, and sampl...

  4. 28. DETAILHORIZONTAL METAL SUPPORTS CONNECTING THE VERTICAL PIER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. DETAIL--HORIZONTAL METAL SUPPORTS CONNECTING THE VERTICAL PIER OF THE TRAVELLING CRANE SUPPORT TO THE WALL. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 14. Robert A. Ryan, photographer. TOP CHORD & VERTICAL COMPRESSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Robert A. Ryan, photographer. TOP CHORD & VERTICAL COMPRESSION MEMBERS AT L2, 3 & 4 OF SPAN 2; SUTLIFF IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NE - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  6. 't Hooft vertices, partial quenching, and rooted staggered QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Claude; Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the properties of 't Hooft vertices in partially quenched and rooted versions of QCD in the continuum. These theories have a physical subspace, equivalent to ordinary QCD, that is contained within a larger space that includes many unphysical correlation functions. We find that the 't Hooft vertices in the physical subspace have the expected form, despite the presence of unphysical 't Hooft vertices appearing in correlation functions that have an excess of valence quarks (or ghost quarks). We also show that, due to the singular behavior of unphysical correlation functions as the massless limit is approached, order parameters for nonanomalous symmetries can be nonvanishing in finite volume if these symmetries act outside of the physical subspace. Using these results, we demonstrate that arguments recently given by Creutz - claiming to disprove the validity of rooted staggered QCD - are incorrect. In particular, the unphysical 't Hooft vertices do not present an obstacle to the recovery of taste symmetry in the continuum limit.

  7. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  8. 8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) AND FOURTH (lower) STS., SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. OPERATOR'S SIDE OF 48' MILL STAND SHOWING DIALS, VERTICAL ROLL SCREWDOWN, AND VIEW THROUGH HOUSING TO PINION STAND. Martin Stupich, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  10. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LEVEL 0’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED END POST, AND UPPER CHORD - Kennan-Jump River Bridge, Spanning South fork of Jump River on County Highway "N", Kennan, Price County, WI

  13. 10. DETAIL OF JUNCTION BETWEEN LOWER CHORD, VERTICAL LACED CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF JUNCTION BETWEEN LOWER CHORD, VERTICAL LACED CHANNEL, FLOOR BEAM, EYE BAR, AND U-BOLT. WEST ABUTMENT. - River Road Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek in Spring Creek Township, Hallton, Elk County, PA

  14. 14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD - VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONALS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  15. 11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS AND GUARDRAILS. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  16. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  17. 13. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, TOP CHORD, SWAY BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, TOP CHORD, SWAY BRACING, TOP STRUTS, CENTER OF SOUTH TRUSS - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  18. 12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, TOP CHORD, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH TRUSS (RIVETED CONNECTION) - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  19. Models for extracting vertical crustal movements from leveling data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdahl, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Various adjustment strategies are being used in North America to obtain vertical crustal movements from repeated leveling. The more successful models utilize polynomials or multiquadric analysis to describe elevation change with a velocity surface. Other features permit determination of nonlinear motions, motions associated with earthquakes or episodes, and vertical motions of blocks where boundaries are prespecified. The preferred models for estimating crustal motions permit the use of detached segments of releveling to govern the shape of a velocity surface and allow for input from nonleveling sources such as tide gages and paired lake gages. Some models for extracting vertical crustal movements from releveling data are also excellent for adjusting leveling networks, and permit mixing old and new data in areas exhibiting vertical motion. The new adjustment techniques are more general than older static models and will undoubtedly be used routinely in the future as the constitution of level networks becomes mainly relevelings.

  20. 11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  1. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  2. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND FADED PAINTINGS OF FARM ANIMALS: COW, DONKEYS AND HORSE. - De Turck House, Barn, State Route 662 vicinity, Oley Township, Oley, Berks County, PA

  4. View down into vertical flame channel of Test Stand 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View down into vertical flame channel of Test Stand 'A' from superstructure. Wooden platform open side faces west. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, OFF VERTICAL DEFLECTOR SHEAVE, MOTOR, BRAKE, PINION SHAFT, DRIVE WHEEL. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. VERTICAL VIEW OF SPILLWAY LOOKING TOWARDS INTAKE; FACING WESTNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VERTICAL VIEW OF SPILLWAY LOOKING TOWARDS INTAKE; FACING WEST-NORTHWEST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Reservoir and Dam Complex, North Bank of Snake River, extreme Eastern end of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  7. INTAKE, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING EAST Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING EAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  8. 8. Detail of northeast inclined endpost, hip vertical, upper chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of northeast inclined endpost, hip vertical, upper chord, and portal bracing; looking north/northeast - Brosseau Road Bridge, County Road 694 spanning Cloquet at River, Burnett, St. Louis County, MN

  9. 6. Typical top chord connection at hip vertical, east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Typical top chord connection at hip vertical, east end on north side, facing northeast - Campbell's Levee Bridge, Spanning South Fork, Forked Deer River at Westover Road, Jackson, Madison County, TN

  10. 15. Perspective view of bascule and vertical lift spans, each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Perspective view of bascule and vertical lift spans, each in open position, facing east - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. 15. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD, SECONDARY VERTICAL POST, DIAGONAL MEMBERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF TOP CHORD, SECONDARY VERTICAL POST, DIAGONAL MEMBERS, AND TOP LATERAL CONNECTION ON WEST SIDE OF TRUSS, VIEW NORTHWEST - Shaytown Road Bridge, Spanning Thornapple River, Vermontville, Eaton County, MI

  12. Normalized vertical ice mass flux profiles from vertically pointing 8-mm-wavelength Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Brad W.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    During the FIRE 2 (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) project, NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) operated its 8-mm wavelength Doppler radar extensively in the vertically pointing mode. This allowed for the calculation of a number of important cirrus cloud parameters, including cloud boundary statistics, cloud particle characteristic sizes and concentrations, and ice mass content (imc). The flux of imc, or, alternatively, ice mass flux (imf), is also an important parameter of a cirrus cloud system. Ice mass flux is important in the vertical redistribution of water substance and thus, in part, determines the cloud evolution. It is important for the development of cloud parameterizations to be able to define the essential physical characteristics of large populations of clouds in the simplest possible way. One method would be to normalize profiles of observed cloud properties, such as those mentioned above, in ways similar to those used in the convective boundary layer. The height then scales from 0.0 at cloud base to 1.0 at cloud top, and the measured cloud parameter scales by its maximum value so that all normalized profiles have 1.0 as their maximum value. The goal is that there will be a 'universal' shape to profiles of the normalized data. This idea was applied to estimates of imf calculated from data obtained by the WPL cloud radar during FIRE II. Other quantities such as median particle diameter, concentration, and ice mass content can also be estimated with this radar, and we expect to also examine normalized profiles of these quantities in time for the 1993 FIRE II meeting.

  13. Source/Drain Engineering for High Performance Vertical MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamoto, Takuya; Endoh, Tetsuo

    In this paper, Source/Drain (S/i>/D) engineering for high performance (HP) Vertical MOSFET (V-MOSFET) in 3Xnm generation and its beyond is investigated, by using gradual S/i>/D profile while degradation of driving current (ION) due to the parasitic series resistance (Rpara) is minimized through two-dimensional device simulation taking into account for gate-induced-drain-leakage (GIDL). In general, it is significant to reduce spreading resistance in the case of conventional Planar MOSFET. Therefore, in this study, we focused and analyzed the abruptness of diffusion layer that is still importance parameter in V-MOSFET. First, for improving the basic device performance such as subthreshold swing (SS), ION, and Rpara, S/D engineering is investigated. The dependency of device performance on S/D abruptness (σS/D) for various Lightly Doped Drain Extension (LDD) abruptness (σLDD) is analyzed. In this study, Spacer Length (LSP) is defined as a function of σS/D. As σS/D becomes smaller and S/D becomes more abrupt, LSP becomes shorter. SS depends on the σS/D rather than the σLDD. ION has the peak value of 1750µA/µm at σS/D =2nm/dec. and σLDD=3nm/dec. when the silicon pillar diameter (D) is 30nm and the gate length (Lg) is 60nm. As σS/D becomes small, higher ION is obtained due to reduction of Rpara while SS is degraded. However, when σS/D becomes too small in the short channel devices (Lg =60nm and Lg =45nm), ION is degraded because the leakage current due to GIDL is increased and reaches IOFF limit of 100nA/µm. In addition, as σLDD becomes larger, larger ION is obtained in the case of Lg =100nm and Lg =60nm because channel length becomes shorter. On the other hand, in the case of Lg =45nm, as σLDD becomes larger, ION is degraded because short channel effect (SCE) becomes significant. Next, the dependency of the basic device performance on D is investigated. By slimming D from 30nm to 10nm, while SS is improved and approaches the ideal value of 60mV/Decade, ION

  14. Characteristics of F/A-18 vertical tail buffeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, E. F.; Huttsell, L. J.

    2003-03-01

    A time-accurate computational analysis of vertical tail buffeting of full F/A-18 aircraft is conducted at typical flight conditions to identify the buffet characteristics of fighter aircraft. The F/A-18 aircraft is pitched at wide range of high angles of attack at Mach number of 0.243 and Reynolds number of 11 millions. Strong coupling between the fluid and structure is considered in this investigation. Strong coupling occurs when the inertial effect of the motion of the vertical tail is fed back into the flow field. The aerodynamic flow field around the F/A-18 aircraft is computed using the Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamical structural response of the vertical tail is predicted using direct finite-element analysis. The interface between the fluid and structure is applied using conservative and consistent interfacing methodology. The motion of the computational grid due to the deflection of the vertical tail is computed using transfinite interpolation module. The investigation revealed that the vertical tail is subject to bending and torsional responses, mainly in the first modes of vibrations. The buffet loads increase significantly as the onset of vortex breakdown moves upstream of the vertical tails. The inboard surface of the vertical tail has more significant contribution in the buffet excitation than the outboard surface. In addition, the pressure on the outboard surface of the vertical tail is less sensitive to the angle of attack than the pressure on the inboard surface. The buffet excitation peaks shift to lower frequency as the angle of attack increases. The computational results are compared, and they are in close agreement, with several flight and experimental data.

  15. Vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other 2D materials

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, I. V.

    2016-01-15

    Recent advances in the fabrication of vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other dielectric and semiconductor single-layer materials, including hexagonal boron nitride and transition-metal dichalcogenides, are reviewed. Significant progress in this field is discussed together with the great prospects for the development of vertical heterostructures for various applications, which are associated, first of all, with reconsideration of the physical principles of the design and operation of device structures based on graphene combined with other 2D materials.

  16. PMSE dependence on long-period vertical motions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.Y.N.; Morley, R.L.

    1995-05-15

    The authors analyze the temporal relationship between PMSE (polar mesosphere summer echoes) and long-period vertical motions using the Poker Flat, Alaska radar data. The results show that the vertical velocity leads PMSE by 90{degrees} to 180{degrees} with a possible upward trend in phase with increasing frequency. They show that this is consistent with the current PMSE theories which depend primarily upon the presence of charged ice aerosols for the enhancement of radar scatter. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Interconnect Technology for Vertical Nanowire Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    nanowire light emitting diodes ( LEDs ), nanowire-based field effect transistors (FETs), resonators, batteries or biomedical applications. Keywords...vertical nanowire arrays are the best configuration for solid state super-capacitors [11,12], lithium ion batteries [13] and NW- LEDs [14],. These...electrodes are formed on top and bottom of NWs. For vertical NW-based LEDs , FETs or batteries, device performance could be significantly enhanced

  18. Alignment and operability analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump.

  19. Mathematical model of induced flow on the airplane vertical tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Edu, Raluca Ioana

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the flow around the vertical tail of an airplane, based on the general elements of the aerodynamic design, with details leading to the separate formulation of the Fourier coefficients in the series solution of the Prandtl's lifting-line equation. Numerical results are obtained in Maple soft environment, for a standard configuration of an airplane geometry. The results include the discussion of the vortex model for the sidewash gradient on the vertical stabilizer.

  20. The Vertical Lift Industrial Base: Outlook 2004-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    update their business and management practices as they move toward a lean manufacturing paradigm and away from the vertically- integrated structure of...success in vertical lift technology, however, Sikorsky has been slow to embrace lean manufacturing . Over the last two years it has started to move in...strategy. If this were to occur, suppliers like Sikorsky could become oversized SIKORSKY AIRCRAFT • Moving toward lean manufacturing implementation

  1. Dynamic Stability of Positively Buoyant Submersibles: Vertical Plane Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    7 b. Longitudunal Center of Buoyancy, xGB...........8 C. Vertical Center of Buoyancy, zGB .......................*’**"*8 2. Assumed...Variations in the Amount of Excess Buoyancy (bB) ..................... 52 3. Variations in Vertical Center of Gravity ( ZGB ) ........................... 57 4...56 20. Stable Surge Velocity (u) Solutions for Variations in ZGB ...................... 57 21. Stable Heave Velocity (w) Solutions for

  2. Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

  3. Glutinous Water. Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces from Fire Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) Most of the water used in firefighting is not only...Naval Research Laboratory AD-A277 280 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--94-7431 DTIC S ELECTE MAR 24 19941 Glutinous Water F Protecting Vertical...TYPE AND DATES COVERED February 28, 1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Glutinous Water Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces From Fire

  4. Vertical Scales of Turbulence at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, Robert N.

    1995-01-01

    The vertical scales of turbulence at the Mt. Wilson observatory are inferred from data from the University of California at Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI), by modeling path length fluctuations observed in the interferometric paths to celestial objects and those in instrumental ground- based paths. The correlations between the stellar and ground-based path length fluctuations and the temporal statistic of those fluctuations are modeled on various time scales to constrain the vertical scales.

  5. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  6. Evaluation of vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated sediments.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Michael; Dietrich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Detailed information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) is essential to describe the dynamics of groundwater movement at contaminated sites or as input data used for modeling. K values in high vertical resolution should be determined because K tends to be more continuous in the horizontal than in the vertical direction. To determine K in shallow unconsolidated sediments and in the vertical direction, the recently developed direct-push injection logger can be used. The information obtained by this method serves as a proxy for K and has to be calibrated to obtain quantitative K values of measured vertical profiles. In this study, we performed direct-push soil sampling, sieve analyses and direct-push slug tests to obtain K values in vertical high resolution. Using the results of direct-push slug tests, quantitative K values obtained by the direct-push injection logger could be determined successfully. The results of sieve analyses provided lower accordance with the logs due to the inherent limitations of the sieving method.

  7. Vertical Small-Needle Caudal Epidural Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Maniquis Smigel, Liza; Dean Reeves, Kenneth; Jeffrey Rosen, Howard; Patrick Rabago, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests that a vertical small-needle injection method enters the caudal epidural space with comparable efficacy to cephalad-directed methods, with less intravascular injection. Objectives Assess the success rate of vertical caudal epidural injection using epidurography and the frequency of intravascular injection using a vertical small-needle approach. Patients and Methods Participants had chronic generalized non-surgical low back pain and either gluteal and/or leg pain and were enrolled in a simultaneous clinical trial assessing the analgesic effect of 5% dextrose epidural injection. A 25 gauge 3.7 cm hypodermic needle was placed at the sacral hiatus using a fingertip-guided vertical technique without imaging assistance, followed by fluoroscopic epidurography. Minimal needle redirection was allowed up to 10 degrees from the vertical plane if the initial epidurogram showed an extradural pattern, followed by repeat epidurography. Results First needle placement without imaging resulted in blood return in 1/199 participants and positive epidurography in 179/199 (90%). Minimal needle repositioning resulted in a positive epidurogram in the remaining 19 attempts. No intravascular injection patterns were observed. Conclusions This compares favorably to published success rates of fluoroscopically-guided technique and was well tolerated. Vertical caudal epidural injection may be suitable for combination with ultrasound-guided methods with Doppler flow monitoring. PMID:27826539

  8. GPS vertical axis performance enhancement for helicopter precision landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denaro, Robert P.; Beser, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    Several areas were investigated for improving vertical accuracy for a rotorcraft using the differential Global Positioning System (GPS) during a landing approach. Continuous deltaranging was studied and the potential improvement achieved by estimating acceleration was studied by comparing the performance on a constant acceleration turn and a rough landing profile of several filters: a position-velocity (PV) filter, a position-velocity-constant acceleration (PVAC) filter, and a position-velocity-turning acceleration (PVAT) filter. In overall statistics, the PVAC filter was found to be most efficient with the more complex PVAT performing equally well. Vertical performance was not significantly different among the filters. Satellite selection algorithms based on vertical errors only (vertical dilution of precision or VDOP) and even-weighted cross-track and vertical errors (XVDOP) were tested. The inclusion of an altimeter was studied by modifying the PVAC filter to include a baro bias estimate. Improved vertical accuracy during degraded DOP conditions resulted. Flight test results for raw differential results excluding filter effects indicated that the differential performance significantly improved overall navigation accuracy. A landing glidepath steering algorithm was devised which exploits the flexibility of GPS in determining precise relative position. A method for propagating the steering command over the GPS update interval was implemented.

  9. Vertical load capacities of roof truss cross members

    PubMed Central

    Gearhart, David F.; Morsy, Mohamed Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Trusses used for roof support in coal mines are constructed of two grouted bolts installed at opposing forty-five degree angles into the roof and a cross member that ties the angled bolts together. The load on the cross member is vertical, which is transverse to the longitudinal axis, and therefore the cross member is loaded in the weakest direction. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the vertical load capacity and deflection of three different types of cross members. Single-point load tests, with the load applied in the center of the specimen and double-point load tests, with a span of 2.4 m, were conducted. For the single-point load configuration, the yield of the 25 mm solid bar cross member was nominally 98 kN of vertical load, achieved at 42 cm of deflection. For cable cross members, yield was not achieved even after 45 cm of deflection. Peak vertical loads were about 89 kN for 17 mm cables and 67 kN for the 15 mm cables. For the double-point load configurations, the 25 mm solid bar cross members yielded at 150 kN of vertical load and 25 cm of deflection. At 25 cm of deflection individual cable strands started breaking at 133 and 111 kN of vertical load for the 17 and 15 mm cable cross members respectively. PMID:27547484

  10. Vertical load capacities of roof truss cross members.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, David F; Morsy, Mohamed Khaled

    2016-05-01

    Trusses used for roof support in coal mines are constructed of two grouted bolts installed at opposing forty-five degree angles into the roof and a cross member that ties the angled bolts together. The load on the cross member is vertical, which is transverse to the longitudinal axis, and therefore the cross member is loaded in the weakest direction. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the vertical load capacity and deflection of three different types of cross members. Single-point load tests, with the load applied in the center of the specimen and double-point load tests, with a span of 2.4 m, were conducted. For the single-point load configuration, the yield of the 25 mm solid bar cross member was nominally 98 kN of vertical load, achieved at 42 cm of deflection. For cable cross members, yield was not achieved even after 45 cm of deflection. Peak vertical loads were about 89 kN for 17 mm cables and 67 kN for the 15 mm cables. For the double-point load configurations, the 25 mm solid bar cross members yielded at 150 kN of vertical load and 25 cm of deflection. At 25 cm of deflection individual cable strands started breaking at 133 and 111 kN of vertical load for the 17 and 15 mm cable cross members respectively.

  11. Stratospheric constituent response to vertically propagating equatorial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salby, Murry L.

    1988-02-01

    Planetary-scale equatorial waves play an important role in the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere. They are believed to be excited in unsteady convective heating in the tropical troposphere. From convective centers in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), equatorial waves propagate vertically into the upper atmosphere where they are eventually absorbed, e.g., through radiative dissipation. A spectrum of vertically propagating Kelvin waves was revealed to be trapped about the equator, radiating vertically out of the tropical troposphere. Two other Kelvin waves were found with phase velocities 2 and 4 times as fast. The ultrafast Kelvin waves move at nearly 120 m/s and are seen to propagate to the highest altitude observed by Nimbus-7 LIMS. Each class has the form of a Kelvin wave, a Gaussian centered on the equator and propagating vertically, and all satisfy the dispersion relationship for equatorial Kelvin waves. These vertically propagating Kelvin waves account for a substantial fraction of the temperature variability in the tropical stratosphere. In combination, they lead to temperature fluctuations in excess of 5K in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Because several chemical constituents are photochemically controlled in this region, vertically propagating Kelvin waves are expected to lead to variations in the abundances of such species.

  12. Flux calculation of short turbulent events - comparison of three methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Carsten; Göckede, Mathias; Foken, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The eddy covariance method is commonly used to calculate vertical turbulent exchange fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Besides other assumptions, it requires steady-state flow conditions. If this requirement is not fulfilled over the averaging interval of, for example, 30 min, the fluxes might be miscalculated. Here two further calculation methods, conditional sampling and wavelet analysis, which do not need the steady-state assumption, were implemented and compared to eddy covariance. All fluxes were calculated for 30 min averaging periods, while the wavelet method - using both the Mexican hat and the Morlet wavelet - additionally allowed us to obtain a 1 min averaged flux. The results of all three methods were compared against each other for times with best steady-state conditions and well-developed turbulence. An excellent agreement of the wavelet results to the eddy covariance reference was found, where the deviations to eddy covariance were of the order of < 2 % for Morlet as well as < 7 % for Mexican hat and thus within the typical error range of eddy covariance measurements. The conditional sampling flux also showed a very good agreement to the eddy covariance reference, but the occurrence of outliers and the necessary condition of a zero mean vertical wind velocity reduced its general reliability. Using the Mexican hat wavelet flux in a case study, it was possible to locate a nightly short time turbulent event exactly in time, while the Morlet wavelet gave a trustworthy flux over a longer period, e.g. 30 min, under consideration of this short-time event. At a glance, the Mexican hat wavelet flux offers the possibility of a detailed analysis of non-stationary times, where the classical eddy covariance method fails. Additionally, the Morlet wavelet should be used to provide a trustworthy flux in those 30 min periods where the eddy covariance method provides low-quality data due to instationarities.

  13. Accuracy and repeatability of the Pedar Mobile system in long-term vertical force measurements.

    PubMed

    Hurkmans, H L P; Bussmann, J B J; Benda, E; Verhaar, J A N; Stam, H J

    2006-01-01

    Portable insole pressure systems can be used to measure the vertical force during long-term (hours) measurements to determine the patient's amount of weight bearing during daily activities in the hospital and at home. Especially for long-term measurements, the amount and duration of loading pressure insoles can have a large influence on the accuracy, as previous studies found a time-dependent behavior after a relatively short period (minutes) of constant loading. Therefore, this study assessed the accuracy and repeatability of a portable capacitive insole system (Pedar, Novel(GmbH)) to measure vertical force during long-term loading. Static loading experiments were performed during which the Pedar insoles were loaded with 5 and 10 N/cm2 for 7 h. Dynamic loading experiments were performed with one Pedar insole which was cyclically loaded with 300, 500 and 1000 N during two sessions of 1200 load cycles. The static and dynamic experiments were repeated 3 days later. Accuracy, due to offset drift, decreased in time during the start of the static experiments (percent error: -1.9% to 0.3% at hour 0; 26.3% to 34% at hour 7). The percent error for the dynamic experiments ranged from -16% to -19%, from -3% to -7% and from -8% to approximately 0% when the insole was loaded with 300, 500 and 1000 N, respectively. The amount of drift ranged from 12 to 62 N for the 500 and 1000 N loads, respectively. The mean day-to-day percentage difference for the static and dynamic experiments ranged from -2.3% to 0.5%, and from -2.9% to 3.0%, respectively. The results indicate that drift correction is necessary for accurate assessment of vertical force by the Pedar Mobile system to determine the amount of weight bearing during long-term measurements.

  14. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  15. A polar cap absorption model optimization based on the vertical ionograms analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaalov, N. Y.; Moskaleva, E. V.

    2016-11-01

    Space weather events significantly affect the high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The now-casting and forecasting of HF radio wave absorption is important for the HF communication industries. This paper assimilates vertical sounding data into an absorption model to improve its performance as a now-casting tool. The approach is a modification of the algorithm elaborated by Sauer and Wilkinson, which is based on the riometer data. The optimization is focused on accounting for short timescale variation of the absorption. It should be noted that the expression of the frequency dependence of absorption induced by the energetic particle precipitation employed in Sauer and Wilkinson model is based on the riometer data at frequencies of 20, 30, and 50 MHz. The approach suggested in this paper provides an opportunity for expanding the frequency dependence of the absorption for frequencies below 10 MHz. The simulation of the vertical ionograms in the polar cap region uses a computational model designed to overcome the high frequency wave propagation problem in high latitude of the Earth. HF radio wave absorption induced by solar UV illumination, X-ray flares and energetic particles precipitation is taken into consideration in our model. The absorption caused by the energetic particle precipitation is emphasized, because the study is focused on HF wave propagation in polar cap region. A comparison of observed and simulated vertical ionograms enables the coefficients, which relate absorption (day-time and night-time) to integral proton flux to be refined. The values of these coefficients determined from evaluation of the data recorded by any reliable ionosonde are valid for absorption calculation in high-latitude region.

  16. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias.

    PubMed

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-10-06

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed.

  17. Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Otto, William H; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Spiering, Barry A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1199-1202, 2012-The present study compared the effects of 6 weeks of weightlifting plus traditional heavy resistance training exercises vs. kettlebell training on strength, power, and anthropometric measures. Thirty healthy men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (a) weightlifting (n = 13; mean ± SD: age, 22.92 ± 1.98 years; body mass, 80.57 ± 12.99 kg; height, 174.56 ± 5.80 cm) or (b) kettlebell (n = 17; mean ± SD: age, 22.76 ± 1.86 years; body mass, 78.99 ± 10.68 kg; height, 176.79 ± 5.08 cm) and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. A linear periodization model was used for training; at weeks 1-3 volume was 3 × 6 (kettlebell swings or high pull), 4 × 4 (accelerated swings or power clean), and 4 × 6 (goblet squats or back squats), respectively, and the volume increased during weeks 4-6 to 4 × 6, 6 × 4, and 4 × 6, respectively. Participants were assessed for height (in centimeters), body mass (in kilograms), and body composition (skinfolds). Strength was assessed by the back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), whereas power was assessed by the vertical jump and power clean 1RM. The results of this study indicated that short-term weightlifting and kettlebell training were effective in increasing strength and power. However, the gain in strength using weightlifting movements was greater than that during kettlebell training. Neither method of training led to significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures. In conclusion, 6 weeks of weightlifting induced significantly greater improvements in strength compared with kettlebell training. No between-group differences existed for the vertical jump or body composition.

  18. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias

    PubMed Central

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P.; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short ‘shrub-like’ climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed. PMID:25079869

  19. Femtosecond laser modification of an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes intercalated with Fe phase nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Labunov, Vladimir; Prudnikava, Alena; Bushuk, Serguei; Filatov, Serguei; Shulitski, Boris; Tay, Beng Kang; Shaman, Yury; Basaev, Alexander

    2013-09-03

    Femtosecond lasers (FSL) are playing an increasingly important role in materials research, characterization, and modification. Due to an extremely short pulse width, interactions of FSL irradiation with solid surfaces attract special interest, and a number of unusual phenomena resulted in the formation of new materials are expected. Here, we report on a new nanostructure observed after the interaction of FSL irradiation with arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) intercalated with iron phase catalyst nanoparticles. It was revealed that the FSL laser ablation transforms the topmost layer of CNT array into iron phase nanospheres (40 to 680 nm in diameter) located at the tip of the CNT bundles of conical shape. Besides, the smaller nanospheres (10 to 30 nm in diameter) are found to be beaded at the sides of these bundles. Some of the larger nanospheres are encapsulated into carbon shells, which sometime are found to contain CNTs. The mechanism of creation of such nanostructures is proposed.

  20. Understanding the nanoscale local buckling behavior of vertically aligned MWCNT arrays with van der Waals interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yupeng; Kim, Hyung-ick; Wei, Bingqing; Kang, Junmo; Choi, Jae-boong; Nam, Jae-Do; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2015-09-14

    The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of a collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as a lateral support effect during the buckling process. The local buckling propagation and development of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interactions among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analyses show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wavelengths, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and development mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect.