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Sample records for short-lived alpha particle-emitting

  1. Optimizing the Delivery of Short-Lived Alpha Particle-Emitting Isotopes to Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Gregory P.

    2004-11-24

    The underlying hypothesis of this project was that optimal alpha emitter-based radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) could be achieved by pairing the physical half-life of the radioisotope to the biological half-life of the targeting vehicle. The project had two specific aims. The first aim was to create and optimize the therapeutic efficacy of 211At-SAPS-C6.5 diabody conjugates. The second aim was to develop bispecific-targeting strategies that increase the specificity and efficacy of alpha-emitter-based RAIT. In the performance of the first aim, we created 211At-SAPS-C6.5 diabody conjugates that specifically targeted the HER2 tumor associated antigen. In evaluating these immunoconjugates we determined that they were capable of efficient tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy of established human tumor xenografts growing in immunodeficient mice. We also determined that therapeutic doses were associated with late renal toxicity, likely due to the role of the kidneys in the systemic elimination o f these agents. We are currently performing more studies focused on better understanding the observed toxicity. In the second aim, we successfully generated bispecific single-chain Fv (bs-scFv) molecules that co-targeted HER2 and HER3 or HER2 and HER4. The in vitro kinetics and in vivo tumor-targeting properties of these molecules were evaluated. These studies revealed that the bs-scFv molecules selectively localized in vitro on tumor cells that expressed both antigens and were capable of effective tumor localization in in vivo studies.

  2. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  3. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle-emitting immunoconjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M.; Kinsey, B.M.; Kassis, A.L.; Ferrara, J.L.M.; Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.; Coleman, C.N.; Adelstein, S.J.; Burakoff, S.J.

    1988-05-20

    Alpha particles are energetic short-range ions whose higher linear energy transfer produces extreme cytotoxicity. An ..cap alpha..-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate consisting of a bismuth-212-labeled monoclonal immunoglobulin M specific for the murine T cell/neuroectodermal surface antigen Thy 1.2 was prepared. Analysis in vitro showed that the radioimmunoconjugate was selectively cytotoxic to a Thy 1.2/sup +/ EL-4 murine tumor cell line. Approximately three bismuth-212-labeled immunoconjugates per target cell reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H)thymidine by the EL-4 target cells to background levels. Mice inoculated intraperitoneally with EL-4 cells were cured of their ascites after intraperitoneal injection of 150 microcuries of the antigen-specific radioimmunoconjugate, suggesting a possible role for such conjugates in intracavitary cancer therapy. 18 references, 3 figures.

  4. Intense alpha-particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Stieff, L.R.; Germani, M.S.; Tanner, A.B.; Evans, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion microscopy has demonstrated the presence of small, intense ??-particle emitting crystallites in laboratory-produced tailings derived from the sulfuric acid milling of uranium ores. The ??-particle activity is associated with the isotope pair 210Pb 210Po, and the host mineral appears to be PbSO4 occurring as inclusions in gypsum laths. These particles represent potential inhalation hazards at uranium mill tailings disposal areas. ?? 1994.

  5. Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

  6. Targeted alpha therapy using short-lived alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D’huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. Areas covered: We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. Expert opinion: We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies’ pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the short-lived α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease. PMID:27145158

  7. Enhanced retention of the alpha-particle-emitting daughters of Actinium-225 by liposome carriers.

    PubMed

    Sofou, Stavroula; Kappel, Barry J; Jaggi, Jaspreet S; McDevitt, Michael R; Scheinberg, David A; Sgouros, George

    2007-01-01

    Targeted alpha-particle emitters hold great promise as therapeutics for micrometastatic disease. Because of their high energy deposition and short range, tumor targeted alpha-particles can result in high cancer-cell killing with minimal normal-tissue irradiation. Actinium-225 is a potential generator for alpha-particle therapy: it decays with a 10-day half-life and generates three alpha-particle-emitting daughters. Retention of (225)Ac daughters at the target increases efficacy; escape and distribution throughout the body increases toxicity. During circulation, molecular carriers conjugated to (225)Ac cannot retain any of the daughters. We previously proposed liposomal encapsulation of (225)Ac to retain the daughters, whose retention was shown to be liposome-size dependent. However, daughter retention was lower than expected: 22% of theoretical maximum decreasing to 14%, partially due to the binding of (225)Ac to the phospholipid membrane. In this study, Multivesicular liposomes (MUVELs) composed of different phospholipids were developed to increase daughter retention. MUVELs are large liposomes with entrapped smaller lipid-vesicles containing (225)Ac. PEGylated MUVELs stably retained over time 98% of encapsulated (225)Ac. Retention of (213)Bi, the last daughter, was 31% of the theoretical maximum retention of (213)Bi for the liposome sizes studied. MUVELs were conjugated to an anti-HER2/neu antibody (immunolabeled MUVELs) and were evaluated in vitro with SKOV3-NMP2 ovarian cancer cells, exhibiting significant cellular internalization (83%). This work demonstrates that immunolabeled MUVELs might be able to deliver higher fractions of generated alpha-particles per targeted (225)Ac compared to the relative fractions of alpha-particles delivered by (225)Ac-labeled molecular carriers.

  8. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  9. Renal tubulointerstitial changes after internal irradiation with alpha-particle-emitting actinium daughters.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V; McDevitt, Michael R; LaPerle, Krista; Sgouros, George; Scheinberg, David A

    2005-09-01

    The effect of external gamma irradiation on the kidneys is well described. However, the mechanisms of radiation nephropathy as a consequence of targeted radionuclide therapies are poorly understood. The functional and morphologic changes were studied chronologically (from 10 to 40 wk) in mouse kidneys after injection with an actinium-225 (225Ac) nanogenerator, a molecular-sized, antibody-targeted, in vivo generator of alpha-particle-emitting elements. Renal irradiation from free, radioactive daughters of 225Ac led to time-dependent reduction in renal function manifesting as increase in blood urea nitrogen. The histopathologic changes corresponded with the decline in renal function. Glomerular, tubular, and endothelial cell nuclear pleomorphism and focal tubular cell injury, lysis, and karyorrhexis were observed as early as 10 wk. Progressive thinning of the cortex as a result of widespread tubulolysis, collapsed tubules, glomerular crowding, decrease in glomerular cellularity, interstitial inflammation, and an elevated juxtaglomerular cell count were noted at 20 to 30 wk after treatment. By 35 to 40 wk, regeneration of simplified tubules with tubular atrophy and loss with focal, mild interstitial fibrosis had occurred. A lower juxtaglomerular cell count with focal cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting increased degranulation, was also observed in this period. A focal increase in tubular and interstitial cell TGF-beta1 expression starting at 20 wk, peaking at 25 wk, and later declining in intensity with mild increase in the extracellular matrix deposition was noticed. These findings suggest that internally delivered alpha-particle irradiation-induced loss of tubular epithelial cells triggers a chain of adaptive changes that result in progressive renal parenchymal damage accompanied by a loss of renal function. These findings are dissimilar to those seen after gamma or beta irradiation of kidneys.

  10. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting m-[211At]astatobenzylguanidine on human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Strickland, D K; Vaidyanathan, G; Zalutsky, M R

    1994-10-15

    Radioiodinated m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used with only limited success for the treatment of neural crest tumors including neuroblastoma. Use of an MIBG analogue labeled with 211At could be advantageous because of the shorter range and higher linear energy transfer of its alpha-particle emissions compared with the beta-particles emitted by 131I. The potential utility of m-[211At]astatobenzylguanidine for the treatment of neuroblastoma was investigated in vitro using 3 human neuroblastoma cell lines known to take up MIBG [SK-N-SH, SK-N-BE(2C), and SK-SY5Y] and a control line lacking MIBG uptake (SK-N-MC). Maximum binding of m-[211At]astatobenzylguanidine ([211At] MABG) to 5 x 10(5) cells after a 2-h incubation ranged from 61% for SK-N-SH to 1% for SK-N-MC. Using a limiting dilution clonogenic assay, the cytotoxicity for SK-N-SH cells of [211At]MABG was compared with [211At]astatide and no-carrier-added [131I]MIBG. A D0 of 5.8 nCi/ml was calculated for [211At]MABG compared with 482 nCi/ml for [211At] astatide, indicating a more than 80-fold enhanced cytotoxicity for the specifically targeted alpha-particles of [211At]MABG. For [211At]MABG, the D0 corresponded to only 6.4 211At atoms bound/cell compared with 9000 atoms/cell for no-carrier-added [131I]MIBG. The D0 values measured for [211At]MABG treatment of SK-SY5Y, SK-N-BE(2C), and SK-N-MC cells were 50, 5.8, and 11,043 nCi/ml, respectively, corresponding to 7.04, 6.46, and 171.79 211At atoms bound/cell. In conclusion, these results have demonstrated that [211At]MABG is considerably more cytotoxic than [131I]MIBG and that [211At]MABG could have great potential as a radiotherapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  11. Alpha-Particle Emitting 213Bi-Anti-EGFR Immunoconjugates Eradicate Tumor Cells Independent of Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Florian C.; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET α-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound α-particle emitting 213Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1α. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml–1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.5–12 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that α-particle emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors. PMID:23724085

  12. Bismuth-212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.W.; Atcher, R.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Waldmann, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be obtained in large quantities from a radium generator. Antibody specific activities of 1-40 microCi/microgram (1 Ci = 37 GBq) were achieved. Specificity of the 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac was demonstrated for the IL-2 receptor-positive adult T-cell leukemia line HUT-102B2 by protein synthesis inhibition and clonogenic assays. Activity levels of 0.5 microCi or the equivalent of 12 rad/ml of alpha radiation targeted by anti-Tac eliminated greater than 98% the proliferative capabilities of HUT-102B2 cells with more modest effects on IL-2 receptor-negative cell lines. Specific cytotoxicity was blocked by excess unlabeled anti-Tac but not by human IgG. In addition, an irrelevant control monoclonal antibody of the same isotype labeled with 212Bi was unable to target alpha radiation to cell lines. Therefore, 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac is a potentially effective and specific immunocytotoxic reagent for the elimination of IL-2 receptor-positive cells. These experiments thus provide the scientific basis for use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in immunotherapy.

  13. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, M L; Larsen, R H; Welsh, P C; Zalutsky, M R

    1998-03-01

    The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids.

  14. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, M. L.; Larsen, R. H.; Welsh, P. C.; Zalutsky, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9514054

  15. Treatment of solid tumors by interstitial release of recoiling short-lived alpha emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arazi, L.; Cooks, T.; Schmidt, M.; Keisari, Y.; Kelson, I.

    2007-08-01

    A new method utilizing alpha particles to treat solid tumors is presented. Tumors are treated with interstitial radioactive sources which continually release short-lived alpha emitting atoms from their surface. The atoms disperse inside the tumor, delivering a high dose through their alpha decays. We implement this scheme using thin wire sources impregnated with 224Ra, which release by recoil 220Rn, 216Po and 212Pb atoms. This work aims to demonstrate the feasibility of our method by measuring the activity patterns of the released radionuclides in experimental tumors. Sources carrying 224Ra activities in the range 10-130 kBq were used in experiments on murine squamous cell carcinoma tumors. These included gamma spectroscopy of the dissected tumors and major organs, Fuji-plate autoradiography of histological tumor sections and tissue damage detection by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The measurements focused on 212Pb and 212Bi. The 220Rn/216Po distribution was treated theoretically using a simple diffusion model. A simplified scheme was used to convert measured 212Pb activities to absorbed dose estimates. Both physical and histological measurements confirmed the formation of a 5-7 mm diameter necrotic region receiving a therapeutic alpha-particle dose around the source. The necrotic regions shape closely corresponded to the measured activity patterns. 212Pb was found to leave the tumor through the blood at a rate which decreased with tumor mass. Our results suggest that the proposed method, termed DART (diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy), may potentially be useful for the treatment of human patients.

  16. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to {alpha}-Particle Emitting {sup 211}At

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R. Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting {sup 211}At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 211}At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its {sup 125}I analogue SGMIB, or with {sup 131}I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [{sup 211}At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted {alpha}-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this {sup 211}At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor.

  17. Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

    2002-01-01

    r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Electron Microscopy Study of Stainless Steel Radiation Damage Due to Long-Term Irradation by Alpha Particles Emitted From Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Unlu, Kenan; Rios-Martinez, Carlos; Saglam, Mehmet; Hart, Ron R.; Shipp, John D.; Rennie, John

    1998-04-16

    Radiation damage and associated surface and microstructural changes produced in stainless steel encapsulation by high-fluence alpha particle irradiations from weapons-grade plutonium of 316-stainless steel are being investigated.

  19. Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

  20. Tissue distribution and radiation dosimetry of astatine-211-labeled chimeric 81C6, an alpha-particle-emitting immunoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Stabin, M G; Larsen, R H; Bigner, D D

    1997-04-01

    A paired-label study was performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous D-54 MG human glioma xenografts to compare the localization of human/mouse anti-tenascin chimeric antibody 81C6 labeled by reaction with N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astatobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 3-[131I]iodobenzoate. Over the 48-h observation period, the distribution of 211At- and 131I-labeled antibody were quite similar in tumor and normal tissues except stomach. These data were used to calculate human radiation doses for both intravenously and intrathecal administered 211At-labeled chimeric 81C6 using a quality factor of 5 for alpha-emissions.

  1. First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2006-09-13

    Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab

    SciTech Connect

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Asmund; Dahle, Jostein

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

  3. Effective treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ with a HER-2- targeted alpha-particle emitting radionuclide in a preclinical model of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Jin, Kideok; Song, Hong; Park, Sunju; Huso, David L; Zhang, Zhe; Liangfeng, Han; Zhu, Charles; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sgouros, George; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-05-31

    The standard treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is surgical resection, followed by radiation. Here, we tested localized therapy of DCIS in mice using the immunoconjugate 225Ac linked-trastuzumab delivered through the intraductal (i.duc) route. Trastuzumab targets HER-2/neu, while the alpha-emitter 225Ac (half-life, 10 days) delivers highly cytotoxic, focused doses of radiation to tumors. Systemic 225Ac, however, elicits hematologic toxicity and at high doses free 213Bi, generated by its decay, causes renal toxicity. I.duc delivery of the radioimmunoconjugate could bypass its systemic toxicity. Bioluminescent imaging showed that the therapeutic efficacy of intraductal 225Ac-trastuzumab (10-40 nCi per mammary gland; 30-120 nCi per mouse) in a DCIS model of human SUM225 cancer cells in NSG mice was significantly higher (p<0.0003) than intravenous (120 nCi per mouse) administration, with no kidney toxicity or loss of body weight. Our findings suggest that i.duc radioimmunotherapy using 225Ac-trastuzumab deserves greater attention for future clinical development as a treatment modality for early breast cancer.

  4. Effective treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ with a HER-2-targeted alpha-particle emitting radionuclide in a preclinical model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong; Park, Sunju; Zhang, Zhe; Liangfeng, Han; Zhu, Charles; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sgouros, George; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    The standard treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is surgical resection, followed by radiation. Here, we tested localized therapy of DCIS in mice using the immunoconjugate 225Ac linked-trastuzumab delivered through the intraductal (i.duc) route. Trastuzumab targets HER-2/neu, while the alpha-emitter 225Ac (half-life, 10 days) delivers highly cytotoxic, focused doses of radiation to tumors. Systemic 225Ac, however, elicits hematologic toxicity and at high doses free 213Bi, generated by its decay, causes renal toxicity. I.duc delivery of the radioimmunoconjugate could bypass its systemic toxicity. Bioluminescent imaging showed that the therapeutic efficacy of intraductal 225Ac-trastuzumab (10-40 nCi per mammary gland; 30-120 nCi per mouse) in a DCIS model of human SUM225 cancer cells in NSG mice was significantly higher (p<0.0003) than intravenous (120 nCi per mouse) administration, with no kidney toxicity or loss of body weight. Our findings suggest that i.duc radioimmunotherapy using 225Ac-trastuzumab deserves greater attention for future clinical development as a treatment modality for early breast cancer. PMID:27119227

  5. Labeling monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments with the alpha-particle-emitting nuclide astatine-211: preservation of immunoreactivity and in vivo localizing capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Zalutsky, M R; Garg, P K; Friedman, H S; Bigner, D D

    1989-01-01

    alpha-Particles such as those emitted by 211At may be advantageous for radioimmunotherapy since they are radiation of high linear energy transfer, depositing high energy over a short distance. Here we describe a strategy for labeling monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments with 211At by means of the bifunctional reagent N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate. An intact antibody, 81C6, and the F(ab')2 fragment of Me1-14 (both reactive with human gliomas) were labeled with 211At in high yield and with a specific activity of up to 4 mCi/mg in a time frame compatible with the 7.2-hr half-life of 211At. Quantitative in vivo binding assays demonstrated that radioastatination was accomplished with maintenance of high specific binding and affinity. Comparison of the biodistribution of 211At-labeled Me1-14 F(ab')2 to that of a nonspecific antibody fragment labeled with 211At and 131I in athymic mice bearing D-54 MG human glioma xenografts demonstrated selective and specific targeting of 211At-labeled antibody in this human tumor model. PMID:2476813

  6. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  7. Radioimmunotherapy with α-particle-emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Christof

    2014-01-01

    α-particle-emitting radionuclides are highly cytotoxic and are thus promising candidates for use in targeted radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Due to their high linear energy transfer (LET) combined with a short path length in tissue, α-particles cause severe DNA double-strand breaks that are repaired inaccurately and finally trigger cell death. For radioimmunotherapy, α-emitters such as (225)Ac, (211)At, (212)Bi/(212)Pb, (213)Bi and (227)Th are coupled to antibodies via appropriate chelating agents. The α-emitter immunoconjugates preferably target proteins that are overexpressed or exclusively expressed on cancer cells. Application of α-emitter immunoconjugates seems particularly promising in treatment of disseminated cancer cells and small tumor cell clusters that are released during the resection of a primary tumor. α-emitter immunoconjugates have been successfully administered in numerous experimental studies for therapy of ovarian, colon, gastric, blood, breast and bladder cancer. Initial clinical trials evaluating α-emitter immunoconjugates in terms of toxicity and therapeutic efficacy have also shown positive results in patients with melanoma, ovarian cancer, acute myeloid lymphoma and glioma. The present problems in terms of availability of therapeutically effiective α-emitters will presumably be solved by use of alternative production routes and installation of additional production facilities in the near future. Therefore, clinical establishment of targeted α-emitter radioimmunotherapy as one part of a multimodal concept for therapy of cancer is a promising, middle-term concept.

  8. Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.

    PubMed

    Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

    2003-01-01

    Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping.

  9. Counting Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft and Measuring Size of Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    There were two principal objectives of the cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of Denver. The first goal was to modify the design of the ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) so that the effective lower detection limit would be improved at high altitudes. This improvement was sought because, in the instrument used prior to 1993, diffusion losses prevented the smallest detectable particles from reaching the detection volume of the instrument during operation at low pressure. Therefore, in spite of the sensor's ability to detect particles as small as 0.008 microns in diameter, many of these particles were lost in transport to the sensing region and were not counted. Most of the particles emitted by aircraft are smaller than 0.1 micron in diameter. At the start date of this work, May 1990, continuous sizing techniques available on the ER-2 were only capable of detecting particles larger than 0.17 micron. Thus, the second objective of this work was to evaluate candidate sizing techniques in an effort to gain additional information concerning the size of particles emitted by aircraft.

  10. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy with α-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Sture; Frost, Sofia H L

    2011-07-01

    Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides are attractive for targeted cancer therapies due to their physicochemical properties. Their high linear energy transfer (LET) and short particle range makes them particularly toxic at a microscopic level, which is ideal for treating disseminated micrometastases. However, their cytotoxic properties also place special demands on the pharmacokinetics of the tumor specific carrier vector, where high tumor-to-normal-tissue ratios are a prerequisite. Tumor specific antibodies are perhaps the most common vector for targeted therapy, but due to pharmacokinetics considerations antibodies will generally not meet the standard for α-particle radioimmunotherapy. However, the tumor specificity of monoclonal antibodies may be used in pretargeting techniques, strategies used to increase the selectivity of the radioactivity. The basic concept of pretargeting relies on a separate administration of a modified antibody and a radioactive ligand. The modified antibody is first injected and allowed to localize on the tumor. Then, the radiolabeled ligand is injected, which is a small molecule that rapidly localizes the modified antibody on tumor cells while non-localized ligand rapidly clears from the circulation, preferably through renal filtration. Several pretargeting strategies have been developed, in particular the avidin-biotin system and bispecific antibodies. Approaches under evaluation are the use of complementary DNA, morpholinos, and the use of infinite antigen binding. Preclinical and clinical studies of pretargeting have shown that favorable distribution of the radioactivity can be achieved, which may increase dose to the tumor as compared with the dose from directly labeled antibodies, and most important decrease the dose to normal tissues. This survey describes different pretargeting strategies, and includes a review of pretargeting with α emitting radionuclides.

  11. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  12. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  13. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  14. Alpha particle radioimmunotherapy: Animal models and clinical prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M.; Kaplan, W.D.; Ferrara, J.L.; Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.; Burakoff, S.J.; Coleman, C.N. )

    1989-06-01

    Short-lived isotopes that emit alpha particles have a number of physical characteristics which make them attractive candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Among these characteristics are high linear energy transfer and correspondingly high cytotoxicity; particle range limited to several cell diameters from the parent atom; low potential for repair of alpha-induced DNA damage; and low dependence on dose rate and oxygen enhancement effects. This report reviews the synthesis, testing and use in animal models of an alpha particle emitting radioimmunoconjugate constructed via the noncovalent chelation of Bismuth-212 to a monoclonal IgM antibody specific for the murine T cells/neuroectodermal surface antigen, Thy 1.2. These {sup 212}Bi-anti-Thy 1.2 immunoconjugates are capable of extraordinary cytotoxicity in vitro, requiring approximately three {sup 212}Bi-labeled conjugates per target cell to suppress {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation to background levels. The antigen specificity afforded by the monoclonal antibody contributes a factor of approximately 40 to the radiotoxicity of the immunoconjugate. Animals inoculated with a Thy 1.2+ malignant ascites were cured of their tumor in an antigen-specific fashion by intraperitoneal doses of approximately 200 microCi per mouse. Alpha particle emitting radioimmunoconjugates show great potential for regional and intracavitary molecular radiotherapy.

  15. In situ lithium diffusion measurement in solid ionic conductors using short-lived radiotracer beam of 8Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T. K.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Nakao, A.; Ueno, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.

    2015-07-01

    We developed an in situ radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids using short-lived α-emitting 8Li tracer. In the method, while implanting a pulsed 8Li beam into a solid material of interest, the α particles emitted into the implantation side of the sample surface were detected as a function of time. By changing the implantation depth and the detection angle against the sample surface according to lithium diffusivity (deep implantation and large angle with a large solid angle, or shallow implantation and small angle with a narrow solid angle), the method can be sensitive to a wide range of diffusion length ranging from micrometer scale to nanometer scale per second. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by measuring the lithium diffusion coefficients to the order of 10-12 cm2/s in lithium ionic conductors.

  16. Production of α-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV α-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm-1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an Eα, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

  17. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  18. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

  19. A micropump driven by electrochemically produced short-lived bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Lemekhov, S. S.; Melenev, A. E.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new working principle for electrochemical micropump with the gas termination time as short as 100 microseconds is presented. It is based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity. A simple electrochemical micropump is designed to demonstrate this pumping principle. The device consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes, inlet and outlet diffusers, and channels for liquid. The chamber and the channels are filled with the electrolyte that plays a role of the pumped liquid. The pump was tested in different regimes. One of these regimes related to formation and termination of short-lived microbubbles is especially promising. Long time stability of the electrodes is demonstrated.

  20. Measures Urged to Cut Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    To produce significant near-term climate benefits, the Obama administration should take a series of actions under existing authorities to reduce greenhouse gases that have relatively short atmospheric lifetimes of weeks to a few decades, according to a 12 March study by the nonprofit Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). The report, "Domestic Policies to Reduce the Near-Term Risks of Climate Change," notes that recent estimates suggest that about 30-40% of warming experienced to date can be attributed to these short-lived pollutants, which include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  1. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

  2. SOLAR COSMIC-RAY INTERACTION WITH PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PRODUCTION OF SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDES AND AMORPHIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.

    2015-05-20

    Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.

  3. Solar Cosmic-ray Interaction with Protoplanetary Disks: Production of Short-lived Radionuclides and Amorphization of Crystalline Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.

    2015-05-01

    Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.

  4. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  5. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  6. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

  7. Light charged particles emitted in fission reactions induced by protons on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-09-01

    Light charged particles emitted in proton-induced fission reactions on 208Pb have been measured at different kinetic energies: 370 A ,500 A , and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed by the SOFIA Collaboration at the GSI facilities in Darmstadt (Germany). The inverse kinematics technique was combined with a setup especially designed to measure light charged particles in coincidence with fission fragments. This measurement allowed us, for the first time, to obtain correlations between the light charged particles emitted during the fission process and the charge distributions of the fission fragments. These correlations were compared with different model calculations to assess the ground-to-saddle dynamics. The results confirm that transient and dissipative effects are required for an accurate description of the fission observables.

  8. Effective density and morphology of particles emitted from small-scale combustion of various wood fuels.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Jani; Ihalainen, Mika; Torvela, Tiina; Kortelainen, Miika; Lamberg, Heikki; Tiitta, Petri; Jakobi, Gert; Grigonyte, Julija; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Virtanen, Annele; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2014-11-18

    The effective density of fine particles emitted from small-scale wood combustion of various fuels were determined with a system consisting of an aerosol particle mass analyzer and a scanning mobility particle sizer (APM-SMPS). A novel sampling chamber was combined to the system to enable measurements of highly fluctuating combustion processes. In addition, mass-mobility exponents (relates mass and mobility size) were determined from the density data to describe the shape of the particles. Particle size, type of fuel, combustion phase, and combustion conditions were found to have an effect on the effective density and the particle shape. For example, steady combustion phase produced agglomerates with effective density of roughly 1 g cm(-3) for small particles, decreasing to 0.25 g cm(-3) for 400 nm particles. The effective density was higher for particles emitted from glowing embers phase (ca. 1-2 g cm(-3)), and a clear size dependency was not observed as the particles were nearly spherical in shape. This study shows that a single value cannot be used for the effective density of particles emitted from wood combustion.

  9. Production of α-particle emitting ²¹¹At using 45 MeV α-beam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-07

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(α,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E(α, av) of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope.

  10. Shunt detection with the short-lived radioactive gases.

    PubMed

    Watson, D D

    1980-01-01

    Conventional radionuclide techniques are limited by their inability to deliver noninvasively a compact bolus of radionuclide indicator into the left heart. This can be accomplished by the inhalation of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide. The inhaled carbon dioxide passes freely across the alveolar membrane and enters the carbonate cycle, which, under the accelerating influence of carbonic anhydrase, transfers the oxygen-15 tracer onto water in the pulmonary venous blood. The result is an abrupt tracer delivery to the pulmonary venous system with subsequent tracer input to the left heart at a rate limited only by the pulmonary blood flow. These properties of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide have been used to develop a specialized indicator-dilution method for quantitation of left-to-right cardiac shunt flow. The results agree well with those obtained by oxymetry at cardiac catheterization. In clinical application, the ease and reliability of this technique are remarkable. Its use is presently limited to clinical facilities with the capability for on-line production of the short-lived gases. The techniques provide a good example of the utilization of biologically active radiopharmaceuticals and are a potentially useful source of information about the hemodynamic properties of the central circulatory system.

  11. Beta Decay Studies of Short Lived Barium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendall, Charles Skipwith

    The half-lives and relative intensities of several short lived neutron rich isotopes, with atomic numbers between 54 and 57, produced in the spontaneous fission of californium-252 were determined. This was accomplished from the study of the time variation of the K X-ray yields of these isotopes. A transport system which allowed us to study isotopes with half-lives less than 10 seconds was developed. Mass assignments were made by comparing the experimental values of the half-lives with known values. A beta K X-ray coincidence technique was used to obtain the barium beta spectrum in coincidence with lanthanum K X -rays. A Kurie plot was performed on the spectrum to determine the beta groups. The probable origin of each beta group was determined through a comparison of the relative intensities of the isotopes and beta groups. Four beta groups probably from the decay of Ba-145 were revealed. The end point energies of these beta groups are 3870 (+OR-) 432 keV, 2772 (+OR-) 112 keV, 1894 (+OR-) 58 keV, and 746 (+OR-) 38 keV. The three lowest energy groups have not been observed before.

  12. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    PubMed

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  13. Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-06-01

    We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

  14. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  15. Beta camera for static and dynamic imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in biologic samples.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, K; Strand, S E

    1990-12-01

    A detection system based on microchannel plates has been constructed to image charged particles emitted by radionuclides in biomedical samples. This technique has significant advantages over conventional film autoradiography for investigating the distribution of radiolabeled compounds: shorter acquisition times due to the high sensitivity, easier sample handling, direct quantification and the ability to perform dynamic studies. The detector performance shows a spatial resolution of 0.9 mm for carbon-14 (14C) (0.156 MeV), good linearity and homogeneity. The noise level is below 50/(cm2.sec). Successful imaging with this system has been performed with beta-emitters 14C, sulfur-35 (35S), iodine-131 (131I), yttrium-90 (90Y), and positron emitters gallium-68 (68Ga), and fluorine-18 (18F). Dynamic studies of axonal transport of 35S-methionine in a nerve, and static images of 90Y-labeled monoclonal antibodies in slices of tumors are presented. The system shows promise for rapid quantitative imaging of charged-particle emitting radionuclides in small biologic samples.

  16. Structural and fractal properties of particles emitted from spark ignition engines.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick; Garro, Mark A; Walker, John

    2006-11-01

    Size, morphology, and microstructure of particles emitted from one light-duty passenger vehicle (Buick Century; model year 1990; PM (particulate matter) mass emission rate 3.1 mg/km) and two light-duty trucks (Chevrolet C2; model year 1973; PM mass emission rate 282 mg/km, and Chevrolet El Camino; model year 1976; PM mass emission rate 31 mg/km), running California's unified driving cycles (UDC) on a chassis dynamometer, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images yielded particle properties including three-dimensional density fractal dimensions, monomer and agglomerate number size distributions, and three different shape descriptors, namely aspect ratio, root form factor, and roundness. The density fractal dimension of the particles was between 1.7 and 1.78, while the number size distribution of the particles placed the majority of the particles in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.3 microm). The shape descriptors were found to decrease with increasing particle size. Partial melting of particles, a rare and previously unreported phenomenon, was observed upon exposure of particles emitted during phase 2 of the UDC to the low accelerating voltage electron beam of the SEM. The rate of melting was quantified for individual particles, establishing a near linear relationship between the melting rate and the organic carbon 1 to elemental carbon ratio.

  17. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  18. Efficiency of short-lived halogens at influencing climate through depletion of stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Rap, A.; Dhomse, S.; Feng, W.

    2015-03-01

    Halogens released from long-lived anthropogenic substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons, are the principal cause of recent depletion of stratospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas. Recent observations show that very short-lived substances, with lifetimes generally under six months, are also an important source of stratospheric halogens. Short-lived bromine substances are produced naturally by seaweed and phytoplankton, whereas short-lived chlorine substances are primarily anthropogenic. Here we used a chemical transport model to quantify the depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere from short-lived halogen substances, and a radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effects of that ozone depletion. According to our simulations, ozone loss from short-lived substances had a radiative effect nearly half that from long-lived halocarbons in 2011 and, since pre-industrial times, has contributed a total of about -0.02 W m-2 to global radiative forcing. We find natural short-lived bromine substances exert a 3.6 times larger ozone radiative effect than long-lived halocarbons, normalized by halogen content, and show atmospheric levels of dichloromethane, a short-lived chlorine substance not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, are rapidly increasing. We conclude that potential further significant increases in the atmospheric abundance of short-lived halogen substances, through changing natural processes or continued anthropogenic emissions, could be important for future climate.

  19. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

  20. Physical properties and lung deposition of particles emitted from five major indoor sources.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tuan V; Ondracek, Jakub; Zdímal, Vladimir; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Harrison, Roy M

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of indoor particles were measured with an Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system (14.6-850 nm), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, 0.54-18 μm) and an Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) in an apartment located in an urban background site in Prague (Czech Republic) from 15 August to 8 September, 2014. The total particle maximum number concentration was 9.38 × 10(4), 1.46 × 10(5), 2.89 × 10(4), 2.25 × 10(5) and 1.57 × 10(6) particles cm(-3) for particles released from vacuum cleaning, soap/W5 cleaning spray, smoking, incense burning and cooking (frying) activities, respectively. Particles emitted from cleaning activities showed unimodal number size distributions, with the majority of particles (>98.2 %) in the ultrafine size range (Dp <100 nm) and modes at a diameter of 19.8 nm for vacuum cleaning and 30.6 nm for soap/W5 cleaning. Smoking and incense burning predominantly generated particles in the accumulation mode with a count median diameter around 90-150 nm while cooking emissions showed a bimodal structure with a main mode at 47.8 nm. Particles from vacuum cleaning, incense burning, smoking and cooking emissions were found to be "nearly hydrophobic" with an average growth factor (Gf) around 1.01-1.10, while particles emitted from desk cleaning using organic compounds were found to be "less-hygroscopic" (Gf ∼1.12-1.16). Based on an adjusted MPPD model with a consideration of the hygroscopic properties of particles, the total lung deposition fractions of these particles by number when they penetrate into the human lung were 0.73 ± 0.02, 0.62 ± 0.03, 0.37 ± 0.03, 0.32 ± 0.03 and 0.49 ± 0.02 for vacuum cleaning, desk cleaning, smoking, incense burning and cooking, respectively.

  1. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, M R; Sgouros, G; Finn, R D; Humm, J L; Jurcic, J G; Larson, S M; Scheinberg, D A

    1998-09-01

    This review discusses the application of alpha particle-emitting radionuclides in targeted radioimmunotherapy. It will outline the production and chemistry of astatine-211, bismuth-212, lead-212, actinium-225, bismuth-213, fermium-255, radium-223 and terbium-149, which at present are the most promising alpha-emitting isotopes available for human clinical use. The selective cytotoxicity offered by alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs is due to the high linear energy transfer and short particle path length of these radionuclides. Based upon the pharmacokinetics of alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs, both stochastic and conventional dosimetric methodology is discussed, as is the preclinical and initial clinical use of these radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of human neoplasia.

  2. High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

    2011-08-01

    Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less) were as high as 1200 μg m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

  3. Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of short-lived nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics.

  4. Streptavidin in Antibody Pretargeting. 5. Chemical Modification of Recombinant Streptavidin for Labeling with the α-Particle Emitting Radionuclides 213Bi and 211At

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Hamlin, Donald K.; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    We are investigating the use of recombinant streptavidin (rSAv) as a carrier molecule for the short-lived α-particle emitting radionuclides 213Bi (t1/2 = 45.6 min) and 211At (t1/2 = 7.21 h) in cancer therapy. To utilize rSAv as a carrier, it must be modified in a manner that permits rapid chelation or bonding with these short-lived radionuclides, and also modified in a manner that diminishes its natural propensity for localization in kidney. Modification for labeling with 213Bi was accomplished by conjugation of rSAv with the DTPA derivative p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-CHX-A″ (CHX-A″), 3a. Modification for direct labeling with 211At was accomplished by conjugation of rSAv with an isothiocyanatophenyl derivative of a nido-carborane (nCB), 3b, or an isothiocyanatophenyl-dPEG™/decaborate(2-) derivative, 3c. After conjugation of the chelating or bonding moiety, rSAv was further modified by reaction with an excess (50–100 equivalents) of succinic anhydride. Succinylation of the lysine amines has previously been shown to greatly diminish kidney localization. rSAv modified by conjugation with 3a and succinylated radiolabeled rapidly with 213Bi (< 5 min), providing a 72% isolated yield. 211At labeling of modified rSAv was accomplished in aqueous solution using chloramine-T as the oxidant. Astatination of rSAv conjugated with 3b and succinylated occurred very rapidly (<1 min), providing a 50% isolated radiochemical yield. Astatination of rSAv conjugated with 3c and succinylated was also very rapid (<1 min) providing 66–71% isolated radiochemical yields. Astatination of succinylated rSAv, 2a, which did not have conjugated borane cage moieties, resulted in much lower radiolabeling yield (18%). The 213Bi- or 211At-labeled modified rSAv preparations were mixed with the corresponding 125I-labeled rSAv, and dual-label in vivo distributions were obtained in athymic mice. The in vivo data show that 213Bi-labeled succinylated rSAv [213Bi]6a has tissue concentrations similar

  5. Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2007-08-01

    We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramérao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL

  6. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  7. Characterisation of solid particles emitted from diesel and petrol engines as a contribution to the determination of the origin of carbonaceous particles in urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalik, M.; Brzeżański, M.; Wilczyńska-Michalik, W.; Fisior, K.; Klimas, B.; Samek, L.; Pietras, B.

    2016-09-01

    Solid particles emitted from diesel and petrol engines were studied using a scanning electron microscope fitted with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The soot emitted from different engines under different operating conditions differed in particle size, and the form and size of aggregates. Identification of the soot particles emitted from diesel or petrol engines in urban aerosol based on their size and morphology was found to be impossible.

  8. Daily variation of radon gas and its short-lived progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its short-lived progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The short-lived 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its short-lived progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).

  9. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  10. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  11. Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily; Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2015-02-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the strength of selection for resistance increases with longevity. In a single locus model of innate resistance to a frequency-dependent, sterilizing disease, longer lived hosts evolved resistance more rapidly than short-lived hosts. Moreover, resistance in long-lived hosts could only be polymorphic for more costly and more extreme resistance levels than short-lived hosts. The increased rate of evolution occurred in spite of longer generation times because longer-lived hosts had both a longer period of exposure to disease as well as higher disease prevalence. Qualitatively similar results were found when the model was extended to mortality-inducing diseases, or to density-dependent transmission modes. Our study shows that the evolutionary dynamics of host resistance is determined by more than just levels of resistance and cost, but is highly sensitive to the life-history traits of the host.

  12. Volatile properties of particles emitted by compressed natural gas and diesel buses during steady-state and transient driving modes.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Meyer, N K; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L

    2012-01-03

    Volatile properties of particle emissions from four compressed natural gas (CNG) and four diesel buses were investigated under steady-state and transient driving modes on a chassis dynamometer. The exhaust was diluted utilizing a full-flow continuous volume sampling system and passed through a thermodenuder at controlled temperature. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. We show that while almost all the particles emitted by the CNG buses were in the nanoparticle size range, at least 85% and 98% were removed at 100 and 250 °C, respectively. Closer analysis of the volatility of particles emitted during transient cycles showed that volatilization began at around 40 °C, with the majority occurring by 80 °C. Particles produced during hard acceleration from rest exhibited lower volatility than those produced during other times of the cycle. On the basis of our results and the observation of ash deposits on the walls of the tailpipes, we suggest that these nonvolatile particles were composed mostly of ash from lubricating oil. Heating the diesel bus emissions to 100 °C removed ultrafine particle numbers by 69-82% when a nucleation mode was present and just 18% when it was not.

  13. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  14. Attached and unattached fractions of short-lived radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A

    2014-12-01

    The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon short-lived progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air.

  15. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  16. Have we underestimated the role of short-lived chlorine compounds in ozone depletion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, David; Laube, Johannes; Sturges, Bill; Gooch, Lauren; Leedham, Emma; Ashfold, Matthew; Pyle, John; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    In recent years much attention has been focussed on the potential of bromine-containing VSLS (very short lived substances) to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is primarily due to the large observed discrepancy between the measured inorganic bromine in the stratosphere and the amount of bromine available from known, longer lived sources gases (halons and CH3Br). In contrast, the role of very short-lived chlorine compounds (VSLS-CL) has been considered trivial because they contribute only a few percent to the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, the majority of which is supplied by long-lived compounds such as the CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. However recent evidence shows that one VSLS-Cl, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) has increased by 60% over the past decade (WMO, 2014) and has already begun to offset the long-term decline in stratospheric chlorine loading caused by the reduction in emissions of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. We will present new VSLS-Cl measurements from recent ground-based and aircraft campaigns in SE Asia where we have observed dramatic enhancements in a number of VSLS-Cl, including CH2Cl2. Furthermore we will demonstrate how pollution from China and the surrounding region can rapidly, and regularly, be transported across the South China Sea and subsequently uplifted to altitudes of 11-12 km, the region close to the lower TTL. This process occurs frequently during the winter monsoon season and could represent a fast and efficient mechanism for transporting short-lived compounds, and other pollutants, to the lower stratosphere.

  17. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  18. Short-Lived Radionuclides in Meteorites: Constraints on Nebular Timescales for the Production of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Robert H., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Variations in the abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al (τ1/2 ≈ 0.74 Ma) and 53Mn (τ1/2 ≈ 3.7 Ma) in meteoritic solids may be used to infer relative formation intervals of these solids in the nebula at precisions of less than 1 Ma. In a strict chronometric interpretation of the isotopic variations, whereby criteria such as spatial and temporal isotopic homogeneity and closed system isotopic evolution are met, solid formation occurred in the nebula for at least several million years. This is longer than some theoretical and astronomical estimates for the duration of the active nebula. The evidence for live 41Ca (τ1/2 ≈ 0.10 Ma) in meteoritic inclusions further indicates that the onset of solid formation occurred quite early, perhaps within a few hundred thousand years after the onset of the collapse of the sun's parent molecular cloud. Failure of the chronometric interpretation may arise for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, the late, inhomogeneous injection of material from a nearby stellar source or the local production of short-lived radionuclides by an energetic particle irradiation, e. g., from T Tauri (X-wind) or galactic cosmic ray sources. Although some isotopic evidence exists that the criteria required for a strict chronometric interpretation are not met by each of the short-lived chronometers, there is no compelling reason to shorten the interval of solid formation in the nebula to less than 1 Ma.

  19. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, P; Buitenhuis, H J T; Diblen, F; Heeres, P N; Biegun, A K; Fiedler, F; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; Brandenburg, S

    2015-12-07

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of (10)C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: (12)N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of (11)C), (29)P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of (30)P) and (38m)K (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of (38g)K). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, (12)N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, (12)N dominates over (15)O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of (12)N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, (12)N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of (12)N PET imaging is discussed.

  20. An analysis of a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramchurn, S K; Moheeput, K; Goorah, S S

    2009-08-27

    During the month of June 2009, Mauritius experienced a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever localised in its capital city Port Louis. Aedes albopictus, a secondary vector of dengue viruses, was the probable vector. We introduce a method which combines Google Earth images, stochastic cellular automata and scale free network ideas to map this outbreak. The method could complement other techniques to forecast the evolution of potential localised mosquito-borne viral outbreaks in Mauritius and in at-risk locations elsewhere for public health planning purposes.

  1. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.

  2. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-12-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox.

  3. In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of particles emitted from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ≤ 1 μm) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The particles emitted from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the particles emitted from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.

  4. The paradox of great longevity in a short-lived tree species.

    PubMed

    Larson, D W

    2001-04-01

    Thuja occidentalis is a tree species that was once thought to be relatively short-lived (80 years). Up until 10 years ago maximum ages were considered to be near 400 years, but such trees were thought to be rare. Research along the cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment has altered this view. Exceptionally slow-growing trees of this species have been found with ring counts to 1653 years and estimated ages to 1890 years. Senescence is slow or absent. Injury and death is due to rockfall and sporadic severe drought that kills small sectors of the trees by exposing and killing the roots. Experiments in which colored dyes are infused into roots show that each tree is composed of hydraulically independent units that allow mortality in one part of the 'individual' with little negative effect on the remaining parts of the tree. The trees are small, so environmental loadings of ice, snow, and wind are low. Slow growth of the trees results in a much greater mechanical strength in the wood. Together these properties increase the ability of the cedars to persist on cliffs for long periods of time. The paradox of great longevity in this 'short-lived' tree species is explained by slow growth that minimizes maintenance and repair costs while maximizing durability and strength, combined with an internal architecture that creates functionally independent units within each tree.

  5. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  6. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  7. Short-lived two-soliton bound states in weakly perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Shigenari, Takeshi

    2002-06-01

    Resonant soliton collisions in the weakly discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation are studied numerically. The fractal nature of the soliton scattering, described in our previous works, is investigated in detail. We demonstrate that the fractal scattering pattern is related to the existence of the short-lived two-soliton bound states. The bound state can be regarded as a two-soliton quasiparticle of a new type, different from the breather. We establish that the probability P of a bound state with the lifetime L follows the law P approximately L(-3). In the frame of a simple two-particle model, we derive the nonlinear map, which generates the fractal pattern similar to that observed in the numerical study of soliton collisions. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Inter-laboratory comparisons of short-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.

    PubMed

    Klemola, S K

    2008-01-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-lives shorter than 1h. The total number of short-lived nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful.

  9. Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite

    PubMed

    Mora; Riciputi; Cole

    1999-12-17

    Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite.

  10. Isotope shift calculations for D lines of stable and short-lived lithium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Geng-Hua; Zhao, Peng-Yi; Xu, Bing-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The isotope shifts (ISs) for the 2s2S1/2 to 2p2P J (J = 1/2, 3/2) transitions of the lithium nuclei including the stable and short-lived isotopes are calculated based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic configuration interaction approach. The results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results within a deviation less than 0.05%. The methods used here could be applied to the IS calculations for other heavier Li-like ions and few-electron systems. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304093), the Fund of the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZB0386), and the Fund of the 1315 Project of Chengdu University, China (Grant No. 2081915041).

  11. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. PMID:26839399

  12. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  13. New Short-Lived Isotope 221U and the Mass Surface Near N =126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Cox, D. M.; Even, J.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hoffmann, J.; Hübner, A.; Jäger, E.; Jeppsson, J.; Kindler, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Minami, S.; Mistry, A. K.; Mrosek, Ch. M.; Pysmenetska, I.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schaffner, H.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Steiner, J.; De Heidenreich, T. Torres; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.; Yakusheva, V.

    2015-12-01

    Two short-lived isotopes 221U and 222U were produced as evaporation residues in the fusion reaction 50Ti + 176Yb at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. An α decay with an energy of Eα=9.31 (5 ) MeV and half-life T1 /2=4.7 (7 ) μ s was attributed to 222U. The new isotope 221U was identified in α -decay chains starting with Eα=9.71 (5 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.66 (14 ) μ s leading to known daughters. Synthesis and detection of these unstable heavy nuclei and their descendants were achieved thanks to a fast data readout system. The evolution of the N =126 shell closure and its influence on the stability of uranium isotopes are discussed within the framework of α -decay reduced width.

  14. Jahn-Teller effect for short-lived states: Study of the complex potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2004-07-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect for bound electronic states has been investigated for many decades. In contrast, nothing is known regarding its occurrence for short-lived electronic states. Here we investigate the linear and the quadratic E⊗e Jahn-Teller effect for degenerate resonance states with special regard to the complex potential energy surfaces. We find many new phenomena for both the real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces including additional minima and intersections. Possible simplifications of the equations describing the adiabatic potential energy surfaces are discussed. We also briefly investigate other Jahn-Teller effects in linear approximation. The theoretical concepts are exemplified by calculating ab initio data for the degenerate Π*-type resonance states of the tris(boramethyl)amin anion along two different doubly degenerate vibrational modes.

  15. Prolonged Marital Stress is Associated with Short-Lived Responses to Positive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, Regina C.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Norris, Catherine J.; Bachhuber, David R.W.; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N=116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957

  16. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model.

  17. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  18. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  19. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and season variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from South and South-East Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the Western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with also non-negligible values extending into northern mid-latitudes particularly in the summer. These first estimates, which include some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODP values than previous studies, particularly over Southern Asia, suggesting that emissions of short-lived halogen source gases in certain geographical regions could have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion.

  20. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable. PMID:28321175

  1. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) appears questionable.

  2. Size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity of fine particles emitted from an oil-fired heating plant.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Frey, Anna; Saarikoski, Sanna; Carbone, Samara; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa; Häyrinen, Anna; Kytömäki, Jorma; Niemi, Jarkko V; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2013-12-17

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a commonly used fuel in industrial heating and power generation and for large marine vessels. In this study, the fine particle emissions of a 47 MW oil-fired boiler were studied at 30 MW power and with three different fuels. The studied fuels were HFO, water emulsion of HFO, and water emulsion of HFO mixed with light fuel oil (LFO). With all the fuels, the boiler emitted considerable amounts of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Further, these small particles were quite hygroscopic even as fresh and, in the case of HFO+LFO emulsion, the hygroscopic growth of the particles was dependent on particle size. The use of emulsions and the addition of LFO to the fuel had a reducing effect on the hygroscopic growth of particles. The use of emulsions lowered the sulfate content of the smallest particles but did not affect significantly the sulfate content of particles larger than 42 nm and, further, the addition of LFO considerably increased the black carbon content of particulate matter. The results indicate that even the fine particles emitted from HFO based combustion can have a significant effect on cloud formation, visibility, and air quality.

  3. Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

    1986-10-01

    This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived.

  4. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  5. AGB stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some short-lived nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key short-lived nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.

  6. Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692"><span>Establishing equivalence for activity standards of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, M J; Baker, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/982726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/982726"><span>Development and Application of A Membrane-Based Thermodenuder for Measurement of Volatile <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> by A Jet Turbine Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheng, Mengdawn</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of volatile <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by modern jet engines is a daunting task. Besides the complexity in sampling jet aircraft exhaust, the main difficulty lies at how to faithfully capture the phase-partition dynamics of volatile particles as they travel downstream from the engine exhaust nozzle. As a result, the physico-chemical properties of the exhaust are also transformed. We have developed a sampling instrument that aims at enabling study of the phase-partition dynamics. The objective of this research project was to design and evaluate a new thermodenuder for performing phase separation of the engine-emitted volatile particles. The backbone of the new thermodenuder is a thin metallic membrane. The membrane enables extraction of molecules that can be thermally desorbed from the condensed particulate phases and collected for subsequent chemical analysis. Toward realization of the technique in the future field aircraft emissions measurement we tested this new thermo-denuding device using laboratory-generated particles that were made of non-volatile or semi-volatile chemicals. The particle penetration efficiency, a measure of the device performance, of this thermodenuder was found to be better than 99%. Results obtained from the tests executed at a number of operating temperature conditions show reasonably good thermal separation. We have scheduled to apply this new device to characterize emissions from a T63 turboshaft engine in the spring of 2010 and are expecting to show the engine results at the conference. The test results based on the laboratory-generated particles were encouraging for the intended application. With excellent particle transmission efficiency and an ability to simultaneously measure the composition in the gas and particle phases of the engine particles, we believe the new technology will make a great contribution to measurement research of engine emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R; Chipperfield, M P; Saiz-Lopez, A; Harrison, J J; von Glasow, R; Sommariva, R; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Montzka, S A; Feng, W; Dhomse, S; Harth, C; Mühle, J; Lunder, C; O'Doherty, S; Young, D; Reimann, S; Vollmer, M K; Krummel, P B; Bernath, P F</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2-the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K"><span>Large-Scale, <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Subduction of the Western Gneiss Region Ultrahigh-Pressure Terrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Corfu, F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway includes one of Earth's giant ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes. Understanding the subduction and exhumation of this >60,000 km2 area is relevant to a range of processes, including collisional orogenesis, reworking of the continents, and the global geochemical cycle. Important aspects that remain unanswered include the spatial and temporal style of subduction. Was the crust subducted as smaller slivers one at a time, or as one larger unit, all at the same time? The WGR exhibits consistent ages of ~415-400 Ma, 100+ km along strike, but no ages have been identified at an equivalent distance across strike. To address this issue we have determined the age of one of the easternmost eclogites identified in the WGR, a retrogressed eclogite from Lesja. Seven fractions of this sample were analyzed; six of them yield identical U/Pb ages, however, they are slightly discordant. The seventh fraction is anomalously young and interpreted to have suffered lead loss. A weighted-mean 206Pb/238U age of 408.0 ± 1.7 Ma is obtained from the six older fractions; an age that is within the range of U/Pb, Sm/Nd, and Lu/Hf ages from the western portion of the WGR. The similarity in ages from 100+ km north to south and 100+ km east to west indicate that large portions of the continental crust were subducted in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> event, if not en masse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish. PMID:26121607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21B0126W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21B0126W"><span>A Reevaluation of the Contribution of Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Bromocarbons to Stratospheric Bromine Loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wales, P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Mount, G. H.; Spinei, E.; Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Choi, S.; Joiner, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has provided global measurements of total column BrO over the past decade. Interpreting the distribution of total column BrO between the stratosphere and troposphere depends strongly on the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons to stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry). Salawitch et al. (2010) suggested 7 to 12 ppt of Bry must be supplied to the lower stratosphere from the decomposition of VSL bromocarbons to accurately represent the variation of total column OMI BrO with total column O3. Here we will re-evaluate this recommendation in light of ground-based total column BrO measurements obtained over Fairbanks, Alaska using a multifunction differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument during the spring of 2011. Additionally, we will assess how modifications to kinetics regulating the partitioning between BrO and BrONO2 proposed by Kreycy et al. (2013) affect the VSL Bry estimate as well as the modeled diurnal variation in BrO. ReferencesKreycy, S. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 6263-6274, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6263-2013. Salawitch, R.J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2010, 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Hyewook Genevieve; Christensen, Kate; Drolet, Aimee</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This research investigated the influence of trait indecisiveness on variety-seeking behavior. Study 1 revealed that chronic indecisiveness was associated with increased variety-seeking behavior. Study 2A showed that the incidence of not choosing to make a choice was much lower among chronically indecisive people when a variety-pack option was available, and Study 2B showed that chronically indecisive people chose the variety pack even if it included their least preferred option. Study 3 demonstrated that chronically indecisive people contended with the negative emotion they experienced during choice making by choosing a mix of options. Study 4 revealed that the emotional benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. Chronically indecisive people felt more satisfied and less anxious after choosing a mix of options. However, having chosen a mix, chronically indecisive people then faced more choices, specifically the choices of which specific option to consume on each specific occasion. In this way, variety seeking is a maladaptive long-term emotional coping strategy for the chronically indecisive. The results of this research have important theoretical implications for understanding the causes of variety-seeking behavior as well as practical implications for increasing (a) the incidence of choice making among chronically indecisive people and (b) satisfaction with the choices they do make. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers - The Connections Between Emissions, Forcing, and Mitigation Potential (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to the impact of ozone and aerosols on health and ecosystems. These climate forcing agents are linked both though common emissions sources and atmospheric chemical processes. The magnitude and regional distribution of these forcings have changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing. Overall, reductions in aerosol emissions lead to a net warming due to the net negative aerosol forcing, although some mitigation benefits may be possible in specific sub-sectors. While the emissions leading to enhanced tropospheric ozone levels are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, mitigation has proved to be difficult due to the ubiquity of major emission sources, particularly surface transportation vehicles. From a mitigation standpoint, therefore, tropospheric ozone might be considered as more of a long-term pollutant. This presentation will review these links using historical data and future projections and discuss the implications for mitigation. The implications of these links for atmospheric chemistry analysis, and the potential for using ACC-MIP results to improve integrated assessment modeling and analysis, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Cages Restrict Protein Diffusion in the Plasma Membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goiko, Maria; de Bruyn, John R.; Heit, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The plasma membrane is a heterogeneous environment characterized by anomalous diffusion and the presence of microdomains that are molecularly distinct from the bulk membrane. Using single particle tracking of the C-type lectin CD93, we have identified for the first time the transient trapping of transmembrane proteins in cage-like microdomains which restrict protein diffusion. These cages are stabilized by actin-dependent confinement regions, but are separate structures with sizes and lifespans uncorrelated to those of the underlying actin corral. These membrane cages require cholesterol for their strength and stability, with cholesterol depletion decreasing both. Despite this, cages are much larger in size and are longer lived than lipid rafts, suggesting instead that cholesterol-dependent effects on membrane fluidity or molecular packing play a role in cage formation. This diffusional compartment in the plasma membrane has characteristics of both a diffusional barrier and a membrane microdomain, with a size and lifespan intermediate between <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> microdomains such as lipid rafts and long-lasting diffusional barriers created by the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27725698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A"><span>New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578"><span>The long non-coding RNA Morrbid regulates Bim and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCright, Sam J.; Kumar, Dinesh B. Uthaya; Collet, Magalie A.; Mowel, Walter K.; Elliott, Ellen N.; Uyar, Asli; Makiya, Michelle A.; Dunagin, Margaret C.; Harman, Christian C.D.; Virtue, Anthony T.; Zhu, Stella; Bailis, Will; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Raj, Arjun; Wherry, E. John; Goff, Loyal A.; Klion, Amy D.; Rinn, John L.; Williams, Adam; Flavell, Richard A.; Henao-Mejia, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes collectively account for ~70% of human blood leukocytes and are among the shortest-lived cells in the body1,2. Precise regulation of the lifespan of these myeloid cells is critical to maintain protective immune responses while minimizing the deleterious consequences of prolonged inflammation1,2. However, how the lifespan of these cells is strictly controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we identify a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we termed Morrbid, which tightly controls the survival of neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes in response to pro-survival cytokines. To control the lifespan of these cells, Morrbid regulates the transcription of its neighboring pro-apoptotic gene, Bcl2l11 (Bim), by promoting the enrichment of the PRC2 complex at the Bcl2l11 promoter to maintain this gene in a poised state. Notably, Morrbid regulates this process in cis, enabling allele-specific control of Bcl2l11 transcription. Thus, in these highly inflammatory cells, changes in Morrbid levels provide a locus-specific regulatory mechanism that allows for rapid control of apoptosis in response to extracellular pro-survival signals. As MORRBID is present in humans and dysregulated in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome, this lncRNA may represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders characterized by aberrant <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan. PMID:27525555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M"><span>Developments in precison mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> r-process nuclei with CARIBU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marley, S. T.; Aprahamian, A.; Mumpower, M.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S.; Surman, R.; Clark, J. A.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The confluence of new radioactive beam facilities and modern precision mass spectrometry techniques now make it possible to measure masses of many neutron-rich nuclei important to nuclear structure and astrophysics. A recent mass sensitivity study (S. Brett et al., Eur. Phys. J., A 48, 184 (2012)) identified the nuclear masses that are the most influential to the final rapid-neutron capture process abundance distributions under various astrophysical scenarios. This work motivated a campaign of precision mass measurements using the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) installed at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. In order to measure the weakest and most <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t1/2 < 150 ms) of these influential nuclei, a series of upgrades to the CARIBU and CPT systems have been developed. The implementation of these upgrades, the r-process mass measurements, and the status of CARIBU facilty will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of NSERC, Canada, appl. # 216974, the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357, DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-98ER41086, & DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NSF Grants PHY08-22648 and PHY-106819.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015"><span>Efficient genome engineering approaches for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A central challenge in experimental aging research is the lack of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate models for genetic studies. Here we present a comprehensive protocol for efficient genome engineering in the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), which is the shortest-lived vertebrate in captivity with a median life span of 4-6 months. By taking advantage of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system and the turquoise killifish genome, this platform enables the generation of knockout alleles via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and knock-in alleles via homology-directed repair (HDR). We include guidelines for guide RNA (gRNA) target design, embryo injection and hatching, germ-line transmission and for minimizing off-target effects. We also provide strategies for Tol2-based transgenesis and large-scale husbandry conditions that are critical for success. Because of the fast life cycle of the turquoise killifish, stable lines can be generated as rapidly as 2-3 months, which is much faster than other fish models. This protocol provides powerful genetic tools for studying vertebrate aging and aging-related diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Aixue; Xu, Yangyang; Tebaldi, Claudia; Washington, Warren M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Under present growth rates of greenhouse gas and black carbon aerosol emissions, global mean temperatures can warm by as much as 2°C from pre-industrial temperatures by about 2050. Mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), methane, tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon, has been shown to reduce the warming trend by about 50% (refs , ) by 2050. Here we focus on the potential impact of this SLCP mitigation on global sea-level rise (SLR). The temperature projections under various SLCP scenarios simulated by an energy-balance climate model are integrated with a semi-empirical SLR model, derived from past trends in temperatures and SLR, to simulate future trends in SLR. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model is also used to estimate SLR trends due to just the ocean thermal expansion. Our results show that SLCP mitigation can have significant effects on SLR. It can decrease the SLR rate by 24-50% and reduce the cumulative SLR by 22-42% by 2100. If the SLCP mitigation is delayed by 25 years, the warming from pre-industrial temperature exceeds 2°C by 2050 and the impact of mitigation actions on SLR is reduced by about a third.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q"><span>A new approach for fluid dynamics simulation: The <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Changjian; Li, Jiansong; Tian, Zongshun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There are many researches to simulate the fluid which adopt the traditional particle-based approach and the grid-based approach. However, it needs massive storage in the traditional particle-based approach and it is very complicated to design the grid-based approach with the Navier-Stokes Equations or the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) because of the difficulty of solving equations. This paper presents a new model called the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model. It updates the fluid properties (mass and momentum) recorded in the fixed Cartesian grids by computing the weighted sum of the water cuboid particles with a time step life. Thus it is a two-type-based approach essentially, which not only owns efficient computation and manageable memory like the grid-based approach, but also deals with the discontinuous water surface (wet/dry fronts, boundary conditions, etc.) with high accuracy as well as the particle-based approach. The proposed model has been found capable to simulate the fluid excellently for three laboratory experimental cases and for the field case study of the Malpasset dam-break event occurred in France in 1959. The obtained results show that the model is proved to be an alternative approach to simulate the fluid dynamics with a fair accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L−, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c− CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c−, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127− terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1− CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c− CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848"><span>Sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, D.A.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L"><span>Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gobies face demographic bottlenecks?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The majority of coral reef goby species are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, with some highly abundant species living less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally short life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L"><span>Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S"><span>Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T. K.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M. G.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased at twice the global rate, largely as a result of ice-albedo and temperature feedbacks. Although deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs; refs ,). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly than for mitigation of CO2 and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This Letter is one of the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCFs emissions, taking into account black carbon (BC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone (O3), and their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. This study extends the scope of previous works by including more detailed calculations of Arctic radiative forcing and quantifying the Arctic temperature response. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations owing to the large absolute amount of emissions. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible mitigation scenario for SLCFs, phased in from 2015 to 2030, could cut warming by 0.2 (+/-0.17) K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14..651L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14..651L"><span>Convective transport of very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons to the stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ∼8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, ∼150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (∼7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total ∼8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at ∼150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute ∼7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a ∼2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"><span>Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.; Samset, B. H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealised, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all three models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the northern hemisphere high latitudes, and a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation and run-off. Changes in precipitation and run-off patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ, consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker forcing signal, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are free-running means that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P"><span>Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005411','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005411"><span>Convective Transport of Very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T.; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51B0045M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51B0045M"><span>Analysis of Individual Carbonaceous <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from the Las Conchas Wildfire, Los Alamos, NM, in June-July 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Flowers, B. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Carbonaceous aerosol emitted from biomass burning contributes significantly to atmospheric aerosol loadings regionally and globally. The net direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosol can be positive and/or negative and this depends on its composition, morphology and mixing state. Biomass burning aerosols can also change the cloud properties as they can act as cloud condensation nuclei. In this study we investigated biomass burning <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from the Las Conchas wildfire in northern New Mexico that started on June 26, 2011 and burned an area of 245 square miles. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the third week of the wildfire event. Individual particles (~4000) were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to distinguish different carbonaceous particles and their shape, size, elemental composition and mixing state. A thermo-denuder was used to remove compounds that are volatile at temperatures up to 200 C, leaving behind the black carbon and any compounds that did not volatize completely. Smoke particles consisted of a) tar balls, which are amorphous spherical carbonaceous organic aerosols; b) organic particles with inorganic inclusions, c) soot particles and (d) soot with various inclusions. Two distinct kinds of tar balls, "electronically" dark and bright, were found using the field-emission scanning electron microscopy and were characterized for ambient and denuded conditions to understand coating effects and aging. It was found that dark tar balls are generally larger in size than the bright ones. Additionally, the difference between the size of ambient-bright and the size of denuded-bright tar balls was larger than the difference between the size of ambient-dark and the size of denuded-dark tar balls. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark tar balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22202153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22202153"><span>Actinium-225 in targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapeutic applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> isotopes are being investigated in radioimmunotherapeutic applications because of their unparalleled cytotoxicity when targeted to cancer and their relative lack of toxicity towards untargeted normal tissue. Actinium- 225 has been developed into potent targeting drug constructs and is in clinical use against acute myelogenous leukemia. The key properties of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles generated by 225Ac are the following: i) limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters; ii) high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each <span class="hlt">alpha</span> track; iii) a 10 day halflife; and iv) four net <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> per decay. Targeting 225Ac-drug constructs have potential in the treatment of cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17951235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17951235"><span>Direct high-resolution <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry from nuclear fuel particles in an outdoor air sample.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The potential use of direct high-resolution <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry to identify the presence of transactinium elements in air samples is illustrated in the case when <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> radionuclides are incorporated in nuclear fuel particles. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particle energy spectra are generated through Monte Carlo simulations assuming a nuclide composition similar to RBMK (Chernobyl) nuclear fuel. The major <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> radionuclides, in terms of activity, are 242Cm, 239Pu and 240Pu. The characteristics of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> peaks are determined by fuel particle properties as well as the type of the air filter. It is shown that direct <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry can be readily applied to membrane filter samples containing nuclear fuel particles when rapid nuclide identification is of relevance. However, the development of a novel spectrum analysis code is a prerequisite for unfolding complex <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189"><span>IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell</p> <p>2005-07-11</p> <p>For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M⊙. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-isotope composition in the range Δ17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O isotopic ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A"><span>Regional emission metrics for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Bellouin, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry-climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs), which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature change potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation policy package is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs: methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for Northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20 year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=547833','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=547833"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are ≈5 × 10-6. Different from other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > 1.6 × 10-4 at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189–L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475–1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051–1070]. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes. PMID:15671168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486572"><span>SU-C-204-07: The Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Positron Emitters in Proton Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buitenhuis, H J T; Dendooven, P; Biegun, A K; Goethem, M-J van; Graaf, E R van der; Brandenburg, S; Diblen, F</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: To investigate the production and effect of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters when using PET for in-vivo range verification during a proton therapy irradiation. Methods: The integrated production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters in the stopping of 55 MeV protons was measured in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium targets. The experimental production rates are used to calculate the production on PMMA and a representative set of 4 tissue materials. The number of decays integrated over an irradiation in these materials is calculated as function of the duration of the irradiation, considering irradiations with the same total number of protons. Results: The most copiously produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12-N (T1/2 = 11 ms) on carbon (9.5% of the 11-C production), 29-P (T1/2 = 4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of the 30-P production) and 38m-K (T1/2 = 0.92 s) on calcium (113% of the 38g-K production). No <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are produced on water. The most noticeable Result is that for an irradiation in (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12-N will dominate the PET image up to an irradiation duration of 70 s. On bone tissue, 15-O dominates over 12-N after 7–15 s (depending on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio). Conclusions: The presence of 12-N needs to be considered in PET imaging during proton beam irradiations as, depending on tissue composition and PET scanning protocol, it may noticeably deteriorate image quality due to the large positron range blurring. The results presented warrant investigations into the energy-dependent production of 12-N, 29-P and 38m-K and their effect on PET imaging during proton irradiations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630456','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630456"><span>Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each <span class="hlt">alpha</span> track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225Ac) is an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> radionuclide that generates 4 net <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209Bi, and as such can be described as an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18514364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18514364"><span>Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle therapy applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each <span class="hlt">alpha</span> track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225 Ac) is an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> radionuclide that generates 4 net <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209 Bi, and as such can be described as an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225 Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p> plumes cannot explain the intraplate volcanism of the South Pacific region. We argue that the observed <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism has been produced by another type of hot spot-related volcanism, as opposed to the strong and continuous Hawaiian-type hot spots. Our results also indicate that other geological processes (plate tension, hotlines, faulting, wetspots, self-propagating volcanoes) may act in conjunction with hot spot volcanism in the South Pacific. In all these scenarios, intraplate volcanism has to be controlled by "broad-scale" events giving rise to multiple closely-spaced mantle plumelets, each with a distinct isotopic signature, but only briefly active and stable over geological time. It seems most likely that these plumelets originate and dissipate at very shallow mantle depths, where they may shoot off as thin plumes from the top of a "superplume" that is present in the South Pacific mantle. The absence of clear age progressions in most seamount trails and periodic flare-ups of massive intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific (such as the one in the Cretaceous and one starting 30 Myr ago) show that regional extension (caused by changes in the global plate circuit and/or the rise-and-fall of an oscillating superplume) may be driving the waxing and waning of intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S"><span>Global Modeling and Projection of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In predicting and mitigating future global warming, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q"><span>Multi-model evaluation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p> is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M</p> <p>2017-01-24</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18541332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18541332"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particles for targeted therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sgouros, George</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particles are helium nuclei that deposit DNA damaging energy along their track that is 100 to 1000 times greater than that of conventionally used beta-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides for targeted therapy; the damage caused by <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles is predominately double-stranded DNA breaks severe enough so as to be almost completely irreparable. This means that a small number of tracks through a cell nucleus can sterilize a cell and that, because the damage is largely irreparable, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation is not susceptible to resistance as seen with external radiotherapy (e.g., in hypoxic tissue). The ability of a single track to influence biological outcome and the stochastic nature of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle decay require statistical or microdosimetric techniques to properly reflect likely biological outcome when the biologically relevant target is small or when a low number of radionuclide decays have occurred. In therapeutic implementations, microdosimetry is typically not required and the average absorbed dose over a target volume is typically calculated. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that, per unit absorbed dose, the acute biological effects of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles are 3 to 7 times greater than the damage caused by external beam or beta-particle radiation. Over the past ten to 15 years, <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides have been investigated as a possible new class of radionuclides for targeted therapy. Results from the small number of clinical trials reported to date have shown efficacy without significant toxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confc0120Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confc0120Y"><span>Design Study for a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph for Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Jin Woo; Park, Young-Ho; Im, Kang-Bin; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun</p> <p></p> <p>The multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been designed for the high precision mass measurement system in RAON accelerator facility, which will be constructed in Korea. Mirror-electrode potentials were numerically optimized by Nelder-Mead algorithm. The temporal spread and the mass-resolving power were calculated for the 132Sn+ ions with an energy spread of 20 eV and an emittance of 3 π mm mrad; the mass resolving power over 105 was achieved. MR-TOF-MS will be used for the isobar separation and the mass measurement for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826..129Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826..129Y"><span>Bayes’ Theorem and Early Solar <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides: The Case for an Unexceptional Origin for the Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The presence of excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the early solar system evidenced in meteorites has been taken as testament to close encounters with exotic nucleosynthetic sources, including supernovae or AGB stars. An analysis of the likelihoods associated with different sources of these extinct nuclides in the early solar system indicates that, rather than being exotic, their abundances were typical of star-forming regions like those observed today in the Galaxy. The radiochemistry of the early solar system is therefore unexceptional, being the consequence of extensive averaging of solids from molecular clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052767"><span>Nuclear DNA fragmentation during cell death of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakaba, Satoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>One key event in the programmed cell death is nuclear DNA fragmentation. We investigated the timing of nuclear DNA fragmentation during the cell death of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ray tracheids in Pinus densiflora using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Fluorescence due to TUNEL was detected only in deformed nuclei that lacked obvious chromatin in ray tracheids that were adjacent to ray tracheids that no longer contained nuclei. Our observations revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred only at the final stage of cell death in ray tracheids in situ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"><span>Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9728654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9728654"><span>Survival and DNA damage in Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by DNA-incorporated astatine-211.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walicka, M A; Vaidyanathan, G; Zalutsky, M R; Adelstein, S J; Kassis, A I</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Asynchronous Chinese hamster V79 lung fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min with the thymidine analog 5-[211At]astato-2'-deoxyuridine (211AtdU, exposure from DNA-incorporated activity) or with [211At]astatide (211At-, exposure from extracellular activity), and DNA-incorporated activity was determined. The 211AtdU content in cellular DNA increased as a function of extracellular concentration. Incorporation of 211At- was less than 1% of that of 211AtdU. After exposure, cells were frozen in the presence of 10% DMSO. One month later, survival was determined by the colony-forming assay, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured by the neutral elution method (pH 9.6). The survival curve for 211AtdU was biphasic (D37 = 2.8 decays per cell), reflecting killing of 211At-DNA-labeled cells and of unlabeled cells irradiated by 211At in neighboring labeled cells. The toxicity of 211At- decaying outside the cell (30-min exposure) was negligible. Analysis of the survival curve produced a D0 of 1.3 decays/cell for 211At-labeled cells. The yield of DSBs from the decay of DNA-incorporated 211At was compared with that from DNA-incorporated 125I. Each decay of 211At produced at least 10 times the number of DSBs as that obtained per 125I decay. The extreme radiotoxicity of DNA-incorporated 211AtdU seems to be associated with considerable damage to the mammalian cell genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943"><span>Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340691"><span>Effect of Drive Cycle and Gasoline Particulate Filter on the Size and Morphology of Soot <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from a Gasoline-Direct-Injection Vehicle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saffaripour, Meghdad; Chan, Tak W; Liu, Fengshan; Thomson, Kevin A; Smallwood, Gregory J; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto</p> <p>2015-10-06</p> <p>The size and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle, over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles, have been characterized by transmission-electron-microscope (TEM) image analysis. To investigate the impact of gasoline particulate filters on particulate-matter emission, the results for the stock-GDI vehicle, that is, the vehicle in its original configuration, have been compared to the results for the same vehicle equipped with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The stock-GDI vehicle emits graphitized fractal-like aggregates over all driving conditions. The mean projected area-equivalent diameter of these aggregates is in the 78.4-88.4 nm range and the mean diameter of primary particles varies between 24.6 and 26.6 nm. Post-GPF <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> over the US06 cycle appear to have an amorphous structure, and a large number of nucleation-mode particles, depicted as low-contrast ultrafine droplets, are observed in TEM images. This indicates the emission of a substantial amount of semivolatile material during the US06 cycle, most likely generated by the incomplete combustion of accumulated soot in the GPF during regeneration. The size of primary particles and soot aggregates does not vary significantly by implementing the GPF over the FTP-75 cycle; however, <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by the GPF-equipped vehicle over the US06 cycle are about 20% larger than those emitted by the stock-GDI vehicle. This may be attributed to condensation of large amounts of organic material on soot aggregates. High-contrast spots, most likely solid nonvolatile cores, are observed within many of the nucleation-mode <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> over the US06 cycle by the GPF-equipped vehicle. These cores are either generated inside the engine or depict incipient soot particles which are partially carbonized in the exhaust line. The effect of drive cycle and the GPF on the fractal parameters of particles, such as fractal dimension and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G"><span>Overview of the methods for the measurement and interpretation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes and their limits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghaleb, B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The daughter products of the uranium and thorium series consist of several radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from less than a second to 105 years. Combining their half-live with their geochemical behaviour some of these radioisotopes could be used as tracers and/or chronometers of sedimentary processes. For example, thorium isotopes, and to a lesser extent polonium isotopes are characterized by very low solubility and very high affinity for the surface of particles. Consequently, thorium isotopes can be used to document scavenging and adsorption processes. On the other hand, radium isotopes tend to remain in solution and can be used to document diffusion processes. In the following, we present the analytical methods for the measurement and analysis of the most common <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes and throughout their utility in studying sedimentary processes will be illustrated by a few examples of applications. These examples will focus essentially on the applications of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> thorium isotopes (notably 234Th) and the use of 210Pb as chronometer for recent sedimentary accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K"><span>Production cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Production cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag → 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.833...38K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.833...38K"><span>A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1267025-generalized-method-characterization-content-using-short-lived-fission-product-gamma-spectroscopy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1267025-generalized-method-characterization-content-using-short-lived-fission-product-gamma-spectroscopy"><span>A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; ...</p> <p>2016-06-23</p> <p>Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716"><span>Alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic events in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-lived mice testes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matzkin, María Eugenia; Miquet, Johanna Gabriela; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal Monique; Turyn, Daniel; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Bartke, Andrzej; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, although the expression of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged in testes of long-lived mice, the remainder of the parameters assessed showed a significant reduction. This study provides novel evidence that longevity confers anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities to the adult testis. Oppositely, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice suffer testicular inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes. PMID:26805572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L"><span>Sediment Dating With <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes In Monterey Canyon, California Imply Episodes Of Rapid Deposition And Erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenson, T. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Maier, K. L.; Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E.; Symons, W. O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Submarine canyons are a major conduit for terrestrial material to the deep sea. To better constrain the timing and rates in which sediment is transported down-canyon, we collected a series of sediment cores along the axis of Monterey Canyon, and quantified mass accumulation rates using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes. A suite of sediment cores were carefully collected perpendicular to the canyon thalweg in water depths of approximately 300m, 500m, 800m, and 1500m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We choose cores that were between 60m and 75m above the canyon thalweg on canyon side bench features for correlation with moored instrument deployments. The sediment cores reveal a complex stratigraphy that includes copious bioturbation features, sand lenses, subtle erosional surfaces, subtle graded bedding, and abrupt changes sediment texture and color. Downcore excess 210Pb and 137Cs profiles imply episodic deposition and remobilization cycles on the canyon benches. Excess 210Pb activities in cores reach depths of up to 1m, implying very rapid sedimentation. Sedimentation rates vary with water depth, generally with the highest sedimentation rate in closest to land, but vary substantially on adjacent canyon benches. Preliminary results demonstrate that sediment movement within Monterey Canyon is both dynamic and episodic on human time-scales and can be reconstructed used <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10614551W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10614551W"><span>New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893"><span>Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, R</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Studies and calibrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, for example (15)O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"><span>Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L"><span>Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> agent 178Ta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confa0019Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confa0019Z"><span>Precision Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclides at The Heavy-Ion Storage Ring in Lanzhou</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yuhu; Xu, Hushan; Litvinov, Yuri A.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent commissioning of the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou enabled us to conduct high-precision mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou (IMP). In the past few years, mass measurements were performed using the CSRe-based isochronous mass spectrometry employing the fragmentation of the energetic beams of 58Ni, 78Kr, 86Kr, and 112Sn projectiles. Masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides of on both sides of the stability valley were addressed. Relative mass precision of down to 10-6-10-7 is routinely achieved. The mass values were used as an input for dedicated nuclear structure and astrophysics studies, providing for instance new insights into the rp-process of nucleosynthesis in X-ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly review the so far conducted experiments and the main achieved results, as well as outline the plans for future experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897"><span>Structural determination of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited iron(II) complex by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gawelda, Wojciech; Pham, Van-Thai; Benfatto, Maurizio; Zaushitsyn, Yuri; Kaiser, Maik; Grolimund, Daniel; Johnson, Steven L; Abela, Rafael; Hauser, Andreas; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed</p> <p>2007-02-02</p> <p>Structural changes of the iron(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Fe(II)(bpy)(3)](2+)) complex induced by ultrashort pulse excitation and population of its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (< or =0.6 ns) quintet high spin state have been detected by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The structural relaxation from the high spin to the low spin state was followed over the entire lifetime of the excited state. A combined analysis of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy features delivers an Fe-N bond elongation of 0.2 A in the quintet state compared to the singlet ground state.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129"><span>Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Particle Release Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rishel, Jeremy P.; Keillor, Martin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Baciak, James E.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Smart, John E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper utilizes standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing the both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to investigate several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be utilized by an On-Site Inspection team under the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995"><span>Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine. PMID:27169489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and Long-lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"><span>Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021"><span>ON THE INJECTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES FROM A SUPERNOVA INTO THE SOLAR NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE OXYGEN ISOTOPES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this ''late-injection'' scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of {sup 41}Ca and {sup 60}Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T"><span>Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L"><span>On the Injection of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides from a Supernova into the Solar Nebula: Constraints from the Oxygen Isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this "late-injection" scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in 17O/16O and 18O/16O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of 41Ca and 60Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M.; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation. PMID:27627450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L"><span>Effects of East Asian <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"><span>Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H"><span>Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halogens and Climate Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Halogens released from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D"><span>Identification of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Au(N3)42- dianion from its Coulomb explosion products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drenck, Kasper; Hvelplund, Preben; McKenzie, Christine J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In high-energy collisions between Au(N3)4- anions and sodium vapor, electron transfer occurred to produce Au(N3)42- dianions. These were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (sub microsecond) and Coulomb exploded into Au(N3)3- and N3- with a kinetic energy release of 2.6 +/- 0.5 eV. In the product ion spectra, peaks correspond to fragment ions formed from collisionally activated Au(N3)4- parent anions. Loss of one or more N3 or N2 produced AuNn- complexes (n = 1-4, 6, 9-10) whereas complexes with n = 5, 7, and 8 were not detected. These ions can be assigned to gold-nitride-azide complexes Au(N)x(N3)y- (x = 0-2 and y = 0-4). Cationic complexes were measured for n = 1-4 and 6. Sodium vapor collision experiments were also performed for Au(N3)2-, which is generated in situ by the spontaneous reduction of Au(N3)42- and concurrent azide dissociation. In this case there was no clear signature indicative of the formation of a dianion. The formation of dianions cannot be excluded, however, since such ions may decay by electron emission instead of dissociation into two singly charged fragment ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002"><span>Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent, Octodon degus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213"><span>Role of Sec61p in the ER-associated degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, Daniel C.; Schekman, Randy</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are identified and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), a component of ER quality control. In ERAD, misfolded proteins are removed from the ER by retrotranslocation into the cytosol where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The identity of the specific protein components responsible for retrotranslocation remains controversial, with the potential candidates being Sec61p, Der1p, and Doa10. We show that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane ERAD substrate is exposed to the lumen of the ER during the degradation process. The addition of N-linked glycan to the N terminus of the substrate is prevented by mutation of a specific cysteine residue of Sec61p, as well as a specific cysteine residue of the substrate protein. We show that the substrate protein forms a disulfide-linked complex to Sec61p, suggesting that at least part of the retrotranslocation process involves Sec61p. PMID:18573918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/639188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/639188"><span>Yields of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; England, T.R.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.1673F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.1673F"><span>Impact of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5131W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5131W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto; Riahi, Keywan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO2 emissions, or staying within a CO2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO2 budget between 2011-2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO2 budget by targeting non-CO2 diminishes strongly along with CO2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPGP8120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPGP8120M"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C Arden; Thun, Michael J; Thurston, George</p> <p>2009-12-19</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352,000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F"><span>Estimating surface fluxes of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens from aircraft measurements over the tropical Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Butler, Robyn; Harris, Neil; Carpenter, Lucy; Andrews, Steve; Atlas, Elliot; Pan, Laura; Salawitch, Ross; Donets, Valeria; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We use an inverse model approach to quantitatively understand the ocean flux and atmospheric transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species (VSLS) measured during the coordinated NERC CAST and NCAR CONTRAST aircraft campaigns over the Western Pacific during January/February 2014. To achieve this we have developed a nested GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model simulation of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which has a spatial resolution of 0.25° (latitude) × 0.3125° (longitude) over the tropical Western Pacific region, and fed by boundary conditions from a coarser version of the model. We use archived 3-hourly 3-D fields of OH and j-values for CHBr3 photolysis, allowing us to linearly decompose these gases into tagged contributions from different geographical regions. Using these tagged tracers, we are able to use the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) approach to estimate the VSLS sources by fitting the model to observations. We find that the resulting VSLS fluxes are significantly different from some previous studies. To interpret the results, we describe several observation system simulation experiments to understand the sensitivity of these flux estimates to observation errors as well as to the uncertainty in the boundary condition imposed around the nested grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (<2 minutes) acceleration of protons to >13 GeV in association with solar flares.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCracken, Ken; Shea, Margaret Ann; Smart, Don</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> release) mechanism must then decrease greatly in efficiency abruptly ~3 minutes after it started. We note that this is not a unique example; the >10GeV particle pulse in the GLE of 20 January 2005 persisted for only 3 minutes; and a >4.5 GeV pulse at the commencement of the GLE of 7 December, 1982, only lasted one minute. We conclude with a comparison between these observations and the predictions of several proposed acceleration models. We conclude that these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bursts of highly relativistic cosmic rays have been accelerated in the reconnection regions associated with large solar flares. In the greater majority of cases, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high energy cosmic ray pulse at the commencement of a GLE is followed by a slowly rising component accelerated in the CME generated shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T"><span>Integrated Assessment on Effects of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) in Asia based on Numerical Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Ueda, K.; Masutomi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Nakata, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Goto, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Air pollution over the Asian region is a serious social problem. For example, activities of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) under the UNFCCC focus on raising awareness and improving scientific understanding of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant (SLCP) impacts and mitigation strategies. Our Japanese research project is searching an optimum reduction path of SLCPs considering climate change, health impacts, and agricultural damages. For this purpose, we use aerosol and chemistry models, SPRINTARS and CHASER, respectively, which have been developed by our group, coupled with a general circulation model, MIROC. In the phase 1 of this project, changes in concentrations and radiative forcing of each major SLCPs originating from China, east Asia, southeast Asia, and south Asia in the last 30 years are estimated with the models. Transient simulations along the new emission scenario, SSPs (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) are executed using the MIROC-SPRINTARS/CHASER with ocean circulation in the phase 2 to analyze full feedbacks including hydrological cycle affected by SLCPs. These simulated results will be utilized to estimate health and agricultural impacts of SLCPs. In this presentation, we discuss the optimum reduction path of SLCPs taking both mitigation of global warming and air pollution into consideration. Acknowledgements: Simulations in this study were executed with the supercomputer system of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. This study is partly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-12-3) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H01728 and 15K12190.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410431Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410431Y"><span>How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y"><span>How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9232H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9232H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> halocarbons efficient at influencing climate through ozone loss in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Steven; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are a significant source of atmospheric bromine, chlorine and iodine. Due to relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months), VSLS breakdown in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), where ozone perturbations drive a disproportionately large climate impact compared to other altitudes. Here we present chemical transport model simulations that quantify VSLS-driven ozone loss in the UTLS and infer the climate relevance of these ozone perturbations using a radiative transfer model. Our results indicate that through their impact on UTLS ozone, VSLS are efficient at influencing climate. We calculate a whole atmosphere global mean radiative effect (RE) of -0.20 (-0.16 to -0.23) Wm-2 from natural and anthropogenic VSLS-driven ozone loss, including a tropospheric contribution of -0.12 Wm-2. In the stratosphere, the RE due to ozone loss from natural bromine-containing VSLS (e.g. CHBr3, CH2Br2) is almost half of that from long-lived anthropogenic compounds (e.g. CFCs) and normalized by equivalent chlorine is ~4 times larger. We show that the anthropogenic chlorine-containing VSLS, not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, also contribute to ozone loss in the UTLS and that the atmospheric concentration of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), the most abundant of these, is increasing rapidly. Finally, we present evidence that VSLS have made a small yet previously unrecognized contribution to the ozone-driven radiative forcing of climate since pre-industrial times of -0.02 (-0.01 to -0.03) Wm-2. Given the climate leverage that VSLS possess, future increases to their emissions, either through continued industrial or altered natural processes, may be important for future climate forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M"><span>Current and future contributions of local emissions from shipping and hydrocarbon extraction flaring to <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marelle, L.; Raut, J. C.; Law, K.; Thomas, J. L.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Easter, R. C.; Herber, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic is increasingly open to human activity due to rapid Arctic warming, associated with decreased sea ice extent and snow cover. While pollution from in-Arctic sources is currently low, oil and gas extraction and marine traffic could become a significant future source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants (aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. It is currently unclear if these local sources might become significant compared to the long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution from the midlatitudes, which is currently the main source of Arctic pollution. Here, we investigate the current (2012) and future (2050) impact of emissions from shipping and oil and gas extraction on Arctic aerosols and ozone, in relation to emissions from long-range transport. These impacts are determined by performing 6-month long, quasi-hemispheric simulations over the Arctic region with the WRF-Chem model. Our regional simulations include up-to-date representations of cloud/aerosol interactions and secondary organic aerosol formation developed recently for WRF-Chem. In order to determine the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas extraction, we use recent emission inventories by Winther et al., 2014 for local shipping and ECLIPSEv5 for oil and gas flaring. Both inventories suggest that current and future emissions from these sources are higher than previous estimates. Simulations are evaluated using measurements at Arctic surface sites and aircraft campaigns (ACCESS, YAK) in 2012. Model results are then used to assess the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas flaring on modeled surface aerosol and ozone concentrations, direct aerosol and ozone radiative effects, indirect aerosol radiative effects, and aerosol deposition. Results are used to determine if these local emissions are expected to have a significant influence on these quantities at the local or the regional scale, compared to emissions transported from the midlatitudes and to other emission sources, including boreal fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G"><span>SMA observations towards the compact, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bipolar water maser outflow in the LkHα234 region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Curiel, S.; Anglada, G.; Gómez, J. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Patel, N. A.; Trinidad, M. A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations towards the LkHα234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of ˜5 arcsec (˜4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between ˜200 and ˜375 au and masses in the ˜0.08-0.3 M⊙ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r ≲ 135 au) circumstellar disc with a mass of ˜0.02 M⊙. This source is powering a compact (˜4000 au), low radial velocity (˜7 km s-1) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the `large-scale' counterpart of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, episodic, bipolar outflow observed through H2O masers at much smaller scales (˜180 au), and that has been created by the accumulation of the ejection of several episodic collimated events of material. The circumstellar gas around VLA 2 and VLA 3 is hot (˜130 K) and exhibits velocity gradients that could trace rotation. There is a bridge of warm and dense molecular gas connecting VLA 2 and VLA 3. We discuss the possibility that this bridge could trace a stream of gas between VLA 3 and VLA 2, increasing the accretion rate on to VLA 2 to explain why this source has an important outflow activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166"><span>ICV-transplanted human glial precursor cells are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> yet exert immunomodulatory effects in mice with EAE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Heechul; Walczak, Piotr; Muja, Naser; Campanelli, James T; Bulte, Jeff W M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 10(5) hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5-10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M"><span>Dealing with uncertainty: Response-resilient climate change mitigation polices for long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millar, R.; Boneham, J.; Hepburn, C.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climate change solutions are subject to many inherent uncertainties. One of the most important is the uncertainty over the magnitude of the physical response of the climate system to external forcing. The risk of extremely large responses to forcing, so called "fat-tail" outcomes, cannot be ruled out from the latest science and offer profound challenges when creating policies that aim to meet a specific target of global temperature change. This study offers examples of how mitigation policies can be made resilient to this uncertainty in the physical climate response via indexing policies against an attributable anthropogenic warming index (the magnitude of the observed global mean warming that is can be traced to human activities), the AWI, instead of against time directly. We show that indexing policy measures that influence the total stock of carbon in the atmosphere (such as the fraction of extracted carbon sequestered) against the AWI can largely eliminate the risk of missing the specified warming goal due to unexpectedly large climate responses as well as the risk of costly over-mitigation if the physical response turned out to be lower than expected. We offer further examples of how this methodology can be expanded to include <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants as well as long-lived carbon dioxide. Indexing policies against the AWI can have important consequences for the actions of governments acting to design national climate mitigation policies as well as private sector investors looking to incentivise the transition to a climate-stable economy. We conclude with some thoughts on how these indexes can help focus attention on the long-term perspective that is consistent with the conclusions of the latest climate science on what is required to ultimately stabilise the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B"><span>Sediment fingerprinting with long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide tracers in the Root River watershed, southeastern Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belmont, P.; Stout, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The field of sediment fingerprinting has evolved rapidly over the past decade and is poised to improve our understanding not only of sediment sources, but also the routing of sediment through watersheds. Such information is essential for understanding and modeling human impacts on erosion and sediment routing at the watershed scale. In this study we use long- (Beryllium-10, 10Be) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (Lead-210 and Cesium-137, 210Pb and 137Cs, respectively) radionuclide tracers associated with suspended sediment to quantify sediment sources and channel-floodplain exchange across a range of watershed scales from 10 km2 to 4500 km2 in in the Root River, southeastern Minnesota, USA. The uppermost quarter of the Root River watershed was glaciated repeatedly during the late Pleistocene and is characterized by low relief agricultural fields and fine textured soils. The remainder of the watershed lies within the driftless area of the upper Midwestern US, which has not been glaciated in at least the past 500,000 years, and is characterized by karst topography, relatively steep hillslopes and bedrock channels that debouch into a wide, aggrading alluvial valley. The structure of the landscape exerts strong control on sediment generation and transport. Geochemical results indicate a highly variable erosion history, with significant variability of 10Be concentrations in source areas (agricultural fields, forested hillslopes, and alluvial floodplains and terraces) and inverted 10Be depth profiles (higher concentrations at depth) in floodplains, suggesting unsteady erosion and significant storage of legacy sediment. Concentrations of 10Be and 210Pb associated with suspended sediment show a systematic disparity in normalized concentrations, indicating that significant storage and re-suspension occurs in both systems as the sediment is routed through the channel-floodplain complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F"><span>Transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere through the Asian monsoon circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated organic compounds are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. The halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), such as bromoform, have atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year. When VSLS reach the stratosphere, they enhance ozone depletion and thus impact the climate. During boreal summer, the Asian monsoon circulation transfers air masses from the Asian troposphere to the global stratosphere. Still, the extent to which VSLS from the Indian Ocean contribute to the stratospheric halogen burden and their exact origin is unclear. Here we show that the monsoon circulation transports VSLS from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere. During the research cruises SO234-2 and SO235 in July-August 2014 onboard RV SONNE, we measured oceanic and atmospheric concentrations of bromoform (tropical lifetime at 10 km = 17 days), dibromomethane (150 days) and methyl iodide (3.5 days) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean and calculated their emission strengths. We use the Langrangian transport model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim meteorological fields to investigate the transport of oceanic emissions in the atmosphere. We analyze the direct contribution of observed bromoform emissions to the stratospheric halogen budget with forward trajectories. Furthermore, we investigate the connection between the Asian monsoon anticyclone and the oceanic source regions using backward trajectories. The West Indian Ocean is a strong source region of VSLS to the atmosphere and the monsoon transport is fast enough for bromoform to reach the stratosphere. However, the main source regions for the entrainment of oceanic air masses through the Asian monsoon anticyclone are the West Pacific and Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian Sea. Our findings indicate that changes in emission or circulation in this area due to climate change can directly affect the stratospheric halogen burden and thus the ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015"><span><span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl</p> <p>2012-01-20</p> <p>Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516"><span>Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53A3202C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53A3202C"><span>Morphology and Chemical Composition of soot <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by Wood-burning Cook-Stoves: a HRTEM, XPS and Elastic backscattering Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carabali-Sandoval, G. A., Sr.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; De la Cruz, W.; Días, J.; Amelines, O.; Rivera-Hernández, M.; Varela, A.; Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Policroniades, R.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The morphology, microstructure and the chemical composition on surface of soot particles were studied by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic backscattering spectrometry. In order to obtain freshly soot <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by home-made wood-burning cook stoves, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot particles. The XPS survey spectra show a large carbon peak around 285 eV and the oxygen signal at 533 eV. Some differences observed in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles probably depend on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The C-1s XPS spectra show an asymmetric broad peak and other with low intensity that corresponds to sp2 and sp3hybridization, which were fitted with a convolution using Gaussian functions. Elastic backscattering technique allows a chemical elemental analysis of samples and confirms the presence of C, O and Si observed by XPS. Additionally, the morphological properties of soot aggregates were analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df. Also, real-time absorption (σabs) and scattering (σsct) coefficients of fine (with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) soot particles were measured. The trend in σabs and σsct indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2720883','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2720883"><span>Treatment of HER2 Positive Breast Carcinomatous Meningitis with Intrathecal Administration of α-<span class="hlt">Particle</span> <span class="hlt">Emitting</span> 211At-labeled Trastuzumab▯</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boskovitz, Abraham; McLendon, Roger E.; Okamura, Tatsunori; Sampson, John H.; Bigner, Darell D.; Zalutsky, Michael R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) is a devastating disease characterized by the dissemination of malignant tumor cells into the subarachnoid space along the brain and spine. Systemic treatment with monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab can be effective against HER2-positive systemic breast carcinoma but like other therapies, is ineffective against CM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of α-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> 211At-labeled trastuzumab following intrathecal administration in a rat model of breast carcinoma CM. Methods Athymic rats were injected intrathecally with MCF-7/HER2-18 breast carcinoma cells through a surgically-implanted indwelling intrathecal catheter. In Experiment 1, animals received 33 or 66 µCi 211At-labeled trastuzumab, cold trastuzumab, or saline. In Experiment 2, animals were inoculated with a lower tumor burden and received 46 or 92 µCi 211At-labeled trastuzumab, or saline. In Experiment 3, animals received 28 µCi 211At-labeled trastuzumab, 30 µCi 211At-labeled TPS3.2 control mAb or saline. Histopathological analysis of the neuroaxis was performed at the end of the study. Results In Experiment 1, median survival increased from 21 days for the saline and cold trastuzumab groups to 45 and 48 days for 33 and 66 µCi 211At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. In Experiment 2, median survival increased from 23 days for saline controls to 68 and 92 days for 46 and 92 µCi 211At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. In Experiment 3, median survival increased from 20 days to 29 and 36 days for animals treated with 211At-labeled TPS3.2 and 211At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. Long-term survivors were observed exclusively in the 211At-trastuzumab-treated groups. Conclusion Intrathecal 211At-labeled trastuzumab shows promise as a treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast CM. PMID:19647172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22267867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22267867"><span>Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-<span class="hlt">Particle-Emitting</span> {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heyerdahl, Helen; Røe, Kathrine; Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel; Dahle, Jostein</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-<span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25752501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25752501"><span>Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-immunotherapy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerard, F; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F; Kraeber-Bodere, F; Cherel, M; Haddad, F</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. <span class="hlt">Alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213Bi, 225Ac, 212Pb and 211At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them (213Bi and 211At). 211At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225Ac and 212Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine"><span>On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"><span>Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D"><span>NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>It was found that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6474792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6474792"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particle emitters in medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fisher, D.R.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitting label, including a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> daughter chain with four <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5277036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5277036"><span>Behavior of americium and berkelium ions in solutions under intense <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frolov, A.A.; Frolova, L.M.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>The information in the literature on the radiation-chemical behavior of americium and berkelium is devoted mainly to the reduction of americium(V) and (VI) upon the irradiation of solutions by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles formed as a result of the decay of /sup 241,243/Am and to the reduction of berkelium(IV) upon the irradiation of solutions by beta <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by the nuclide /sup 249/Bk. In the present work they studied the behavior of ions of the elements indicated in perchlorate and nitrate solutions under intense internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. Curium-244, which was introduced into the solution, served as the source of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818247G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818247G"><span>Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span>182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341"><span>182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"><span>Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"><span>Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trathen, Danielle Y.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G.; Valdés, Ángel A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"><span>Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D"><span>Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1267025','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1267025"><span>A generalized method for characterization of <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>239</sup>Pu content using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.</p> <p>2016-06-23</p> <p>Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>239</sup>Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>239</sup>Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/399874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/399874"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Particle Angular Distributions of At and Rn Isotopes and Their Relation to Nuclear Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NICOLE Collaboration and ISOLDE Collaboration</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>We report on an extensive on-line nuclear orientation study of the angular distribution of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> in the favored decay of neutron deficient At and Rn nuclei near the {ital N}=126 shell closure. Surprisingly large anisotropies were observed, showing pronounced changes from one isotope to another. Comparing these data with several theoretical models shows that anisotropic {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} emission in favored decays from near-spherical nuclei can well be explained within the shell model, implying that it is mainly determined by the structure of the decaying nucleus. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/527787','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/527787"><span>Apparatus for detecting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation in difficult access areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.</p> <p>1997-09-02</p> <p>An electrostatic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation detector for measuring <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871131','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871131"><span>Apparatus for detecting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation in difficult access areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Steadman, Peter; MacArthur, Duncan W.</p> <p>1997-09-02</p> <p>An electrostatic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation detector for measuring <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K"><span>Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiser, Matthew R.</p> <p></p> <p>Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P"><span>First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy α-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849"><span>Direct determination of nuclear polarization produced by beam-foil interaction for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. beta. emitter /sup 12/B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nojiri, Y.; Deutch, B.I.</p> <p>1983-07-18</p> <p>Nuclear polarization P of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ..beta.. emitter /sup 12/B was produced by the beam-foil interaction and directly determined via asymmetric ..beta.. decay. For a single tilted foil, at boron energy E/sub B/ = 1.0 MeV, Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 1.82(14)%. This was enhanced to Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 4.69(46)% by stacking four tilted foils. The dependence of P vs E/sub B/ was observed for a single tilted foil in the range of E/sub B/ = 0.6 to 1.3 MeV. The sign of P followed that of the tilt angle and was consistent with predictions from electron-density-gradient models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.</p> <p>2015-03-09</p> <p>Spectroscopic detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm{sup −1} was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ∼40 mm{sup 3}) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ∼109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 σ) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1σ minimum detected absorption coefficient is ∼1.1 × 10{sup −7 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ∼1.1 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691"><span>Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2014-06-10</p> <p>A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P"><span>The very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>CHBr3 (bromoform) is a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (Λ) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, σ(Λ,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17992276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17992276"><span>Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-therapy: past, present, future?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brechbiel, Martin W</p> <p>2007-11-21</p> <p>Monoclonal antibodies have become a viable strategy for the delivery of therapeutic, <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides specifically to tumor cells to either augment anti-tumor action of the native antibodies or to solely take advantage of their action as targeting vectors. Proper and rational selection of radionuclide and antibody combinations is critical to making radioimmunotherapy (RIT) a standard therapeutic modality due to the fundamental and significant differences in the emission of either <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle has a short path length (50-80 microm) that is characterized by high linear energy transfer (100 keV microm(-1)). Actively targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-therapy potentially offers a more specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to the surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. These properties make targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-therapy an appropriate therapy to eliminate minimal residual or micrometastatic disease. RIT using <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters such as (213)Bi, (211)At, (225)Ac, and others has demonstrated significant activity in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Limited numbers of clinical trials have progressed to demonstrate safety, feasibility, and therapeutic activity of targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-therapy, despite having to traverse complex obstacles. Further advances may require more potent isotopes, additional sources and more efficient means of isotope production. Refinements in chelation and/or radiolabeling chemistry combined with rational improvements of isotope delivery, targeting vectors, molecular targets, and identification of appropriate clinical applications remain as active areas of research. Ultimately, randomized trials comparing targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-therapy combined with integration into existing standards of care treatment regimens will determine the clinical utility of this modality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27811200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27811200"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle fluence in radiobiological experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nikezic, Dragoslav; Yu, Kwan Ngok</p> <p>2016-11-03</p> <p>Two methods were proposed for determining <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle fluence for radiobiological experiments. The first involved calculating the probabilities of hitting the target for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from a source through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the activity of the source gave the fluence at the target. The second relied on the number of chemically etched <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle tracks developed on a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) that was irradiated by an <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle source. The etching efficiencies (defined as percentages of latent tracks created by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from the source that could develop to become visible tracks upon chemical etching) were computed through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the experimentally counted number of visible tracks would also give the fluence at the target. We studied <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles with an energy of 5.486 MeV emitted from an (241)Am source, and considered the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle tracks developed on polyallyldiglycol carbonate film, which is a common SSNTD. Our results showed that the etching efficiencies were equal to one for source-film distances of from 0.6 to 3.5 cm for a circular film of radius of 1 cm, and for source-film distances of from 1 to 3 cm for circular film of radius of 2 cm. For circular film with a radius of 3 cm, the etching efficiencies never reached 1. On the other hand, the hit probability decreased monotonically with increase in the source-target distance, and fell to zero when the source-target distance was larger than the particle range in air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGS22A..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGS22A..03L"><span>Increased Concentrations of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..331B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..331B"><span>A renewed search for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 126Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Souders, Amanda K.; Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Marks, Naomi E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System, many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence, mostly in the form of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides present in the early Solar System, are potentially consistent with this hypothesis, but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of 126Sn is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (126Sn→126Te, t1/2 = 235 ky), the discovery of extant 126Sn would provide unequivocal proof of supernova input to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of 126Sn by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus, here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te-an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system, when coupled to a MC-ICPMS, enables high-precision Te isotopic analyses on samples with <10 ng of Te. We used this technique to analyze Te from a unique set of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios, facilitating the search for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 126Sn. This sample set shows no evidence of live 126Sn, implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However, based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te, as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B"><span>The possibility to measure the magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles (charm and beauty baryons) at LHC and FCC energies using the phenomenon of spin rotation in crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baryshevsky, V. G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The use of spin rotation effect in bent crystals for measuring the magnetic moment of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles in the range of LHC and FCC energies is considered. It is shown that the estimated number of produced baryons that are captured into a bent crystal grows as ∼γ 3 / 2 with increasing particle energy. Hence it may be concluded that the experimental measurement of magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles using the spin rotation effect is feasible at LHC and higher energies (for LHC energies, e.g., the running time required for measuring the magnetic moment of Λc+ is 2 ÷ 16 hours).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15653670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15653670"><span>The promise of targeted {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mulford, Deborah A; Scheinberg, David A; Jurcic, Joseph G</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of monoclonal antibodies to deliver radioisotopes directly to tumor cells has become a promising strategy to enhance the antitumor effects of native antibodies. Since the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-<span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during the decay of radioisotopes differ in significant ways, proper selection of isotope and antibody combinations is crucial to making radioimmunotherapy a standard therapeutic modality. Because of the short pathlength (50-80 microm) and high linear energy transfer ( approximately 100 keV/microm) of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting radioisotopes, targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy offers the potential for more specific tumor cell killing with less damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. These properties make targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy ideal for the elimination of minimal residual or micrometastatic disease. Radioimmunotherapy using <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters such as (213)Bi, (211)At, and (225)Ac has shown activity in several in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Clinical trials have demonstrated the safety, feasibility, and activity of targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy in the treatment of small-volume and cytoreduced disease. Further advances will require investigation of more potent isotopes, new sources and methods of isotope production, improved chelation techniques, better methods for pharmacokinetic and dosimetric modeling, and new methods of isotope delivery such as pretargeting. Treatment of patients with less-advanced disease and, ultimately, randomized trials comparing targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy with standard approaches will be required to determine the clinical utility of this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a by-product of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focussed on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health impacts but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve due to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate-change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783"><span>Reaction dynamics. Extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H</p> <p>2015-01-02</p> <p>The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525...55B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525...55B"><span>Combining radon, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S"><span>The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva</p> <p></p> <p>The formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The δ 18O and δ 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Mills, G. E.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focused on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health and vegetation impacts, but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve owing to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner. The review shows that there remain a number of clear challenges for ozone such as explaining surface trends, incorporating new chemical understanding, ozone-climate coupling, and a better assessment of impacts. There is a clear and present need to treat ozone across the range of scales, a transboundary issue, but with an emphasis on the hemispheric scales. New observational opportunities are offered both by satellites and small sensors that bridge the scales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191"><span>Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-living parrots and <span class="hlt">short-living</span> fowl.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, indirectly, an animal's BMR, it is the susceptibility of those fatty acids to peroxidation which influence MLSP. Although there is a correlation between body size and MLSP, there is considerable MLSP variation independent of body size. For example, among bird families, Galliformes (fowl) are relatively <span class="hlt">short-living</span> and Psittaciformes (parrots) are unusually long-living, with some parrot species reaching maximum lifespans of more than 100 years. We determined BMR and tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in seven tissues from three species of parrots with an average MLSP of 27 years and from two species of quails with an average MLSP of 5.5 years. We also characterised mitochondrial phospholipids in two of these tissues. Neither BMR nor membrane susceptibility to peroxidation corresponded with differences in MLSP among the birds we measured. We did find that (1) all birds had lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in mitochondrial membranes compared to those of the corresponding tissue, and that (2) irrespective of reliance on flight for locomotion, both pectoral and leg muscle had an almost identical membrane fatty acid composition in all birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587799','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587799"><span>The impact of dietary restriction, intermittent feeding and compensatory growth on reproductive investment and lifespan in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Inness, Claire L.W; Metcalfe, Neil B</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>While dietary restriction usually increases lifespan, an intermittent feeding regime, where periods of deprivation alternate with times when food is available, has been found to reduce lifespan in some studies but prolong it in others. We suggest that these disparities arise because in some situations lifespan is reduced by the costs of catch-up growth (following the deprivation) and reproductive investment, a factor that has rarely been measured in studies of lifespan. Using three-spined sticklebacks, we show for the first time that while animals subjected to an intermittent feeding regime can grow as large as continuously fed controls that receive the same total amount of food, and can maintain reproductive investment, they have a shorter lifespan. Furthermore, we show that this reduction in lifespan is linked to rapid skeletal growth rate and is due to an increase in the instantaneous risk of mortality rather than in the rate of senescence. By contrast, dietary restriction caused a reduction in reproductive investment in females but no corresponding increase in longevity. This suggests that in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species where reproduction is size dependent, selection pressures may lead to an increase in intrinsic mortality risk when resources are diverted from somatic maintenance to both growth and reproductive investment. PMID:18445563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992"><span>Leadership emergence over time in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926"><span>Climate impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K"><span>Diurnal variation climatology of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We present a diurnal variation climatology for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J"><span>Formation of the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclide 36Cl in the Protoplanetary Disk During Late-stage Irradiation of a Volatile-rich Reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36Cl-36S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 μm), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR 36Cl (τ 1/2 ~ 3 × 105 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) × 10-5, is the highest 36Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26Al (26Al/27Al <= 3.9 × 10-6) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26Al and other SLRs (10Be, 53Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E"><span>The Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data (MUTED): A database to support the identification of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkeling, G.; Luesebrink, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Heyer, T.; Jaumann, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Images of Mars taken by spacecraft in the last few decades indicate that the landscape has changed and that current processes are continuously changing the surface. The modifications of the landscape are caused by exogenic processes including eolian activity, mass movement, the growth and retreat of the polar caps, glacial processes and crater-forming impacts. In particular the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board Mars Express (MEx) and the Context Camera (CTX) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) cover large areas at high resolution and thus are particularly well-suited to detect the extent and origin of surface changes on Mars. Multi-temporal observations of variable features on Mars became possible by the increasing number of repeated image acquisitions of the same surface areas. To support the investigation of surface changes that represents a key element in martian research, we developed MUTED, the "Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data", which is a tool for the identification of the spatial and multi-temporal coverage of planetary image data from Mars. Using MUTED, scientists are able to identify the location, number, and time range of acquisitions of overlapping images from, for example, HRSC and CTX. MUTED also includes images from other planetary datasets such as those of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). The database supports the identification and analysis of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes on Mars based on fast automatic planetary image database queries. From the multi-temporal planetary image database and investigations based on multi-temporal observations we will better understand the interactions between the surface of Mars and external forces, including the atmosphere. MUTED is available for the planetary scientific community via the webpage of the Institut für Planetologie (IfP) Muenster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D"><span>The development of miocene extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin in the Andean broken foreland: The Conglomerado Los Patos, Northwestern Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>del Papa, Cecilia E.; Petrinovic, Ivan A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Conglomerado Los Patos is a coarse-grained clastic unit that crops out irregularly in the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley in the Puna, Northwestern Argentina. It covers different units of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Salta Group by means of an angular unconformity and, in turn, is overlaid in angular unconformity by the Viscachayoc Ignimbrite (13 ± 0.3 Ma) or by late Miocene tuffs. Three lithofacies have been identified in the Corte Blanco locality; 1) Bouldery matrix-supported conglomerate (Gmm); 2) Clast-supported conglomerate (Gch) and 3) Imbricated clast-supported conglomerate (Gci). The stratigraphic pattern displays a general fining upward trend. The sedimentary facies association suggests gravitational flow processes and sedimentation in alluvial fan settings, from proximal to medial fan positions, together with a slope decrease upsection. Provenance studies reveal sediments sourced from Precambrian to Ordovician units located to the southwest, except for volcanic clasts in the Gmm facies that shows U/Pb age of 14.5 ± 0.5 Ma. This new age represents the maximum depositional age for the Conglomerado Los Patos, and it documents that deposition took place simultaneously during a period of increased tectonic and volcanic activity in the area. The structural analysis of the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley and the available thermochronological ages, indicate active N-S main thrusts and NW-SE transpressive and locally normal faults during the middle Miocene. In this context, we interpret the Conglomerado Los Patos to represent sedimentation in a small, extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin associated with the compressional Andean setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732"><span>FORMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629"><span>Stepwise Catalytic Mechanism via <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Intermediate Inferred from Combined QM/MM MERP and PES Calculations on Retaining Glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Koča, Jaroslav</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals. PMID:25849117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114"><span>2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jílek, K; Timková, J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ~8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546"><span>The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed</p> <p>2010-01-10</p> <p>The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F"><span>Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S"><span>Preliminary Results of IS Plasma Focus as a Breeder of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Elahi, M.; Adlparvar, S.; Shahhoseini, E.; Sheibani, S.; Ranjber akivaj, H.; Alhooie, S.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Aghaei, N.; Amini, S.; Khalaj, M. M.; Zirak, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Soleimani, J.; Torkzadeh, F.; Mousazadeh, M. M.; Moradi, K.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Talaei, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Moslehi, A.; Kashani, A.; Babazadeh, A. R.; Bagiyan, F.; Ardestani, M.; Roozbahani, A.; Pourbeigi, H.; Tajik Ahmadi, H.; Ahmadifaghih, M. A.; Mahlooji, M. S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Zahedi, F.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Modified IS (Iranian Sun) plasma focus (10 kJ,15 kV, 94 μF, 0.1 Hz) has been used to produce the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope 13N (half-life of 9.97 min) through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The filling gas was 1.5-3 torr of hydrogen (60%) deuterium (40%) mixture. The target was solid nuclear grade graphite with 5 mm thick, 9 cm width and 13 in length. The activations of the exogenous target on average of 20 shots (only one-third acceptable) through 10-13 kV produced the 511 keV gamma rays. Another peak found at the 570 keV gamma of which both was measured by a NaI portable gamma spectrometer calibrated by a 137Cs 0.25 μCi sealed reference source with its single line at 661.65 keV and 22Na 0.1 μCi at 511 keV. To measure the gamma rays, the graphite target converts to three different phases; solid graphite, powder graphite, and powder graphite in water solution. The later phase approximately has a doubled activity with respect to the solid graphite target up to 0.5 μCi of 511 keV and 1.1 μCi of 570 keV gamma lines were produced. This increment in activity was perhaps due to structural transformation of graphite powder to nano-particles characteristic in liquid water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L"><span>Dating the Laschamp Excursion: Why Speleothems are Valuable Tools for Constraining the Timing and Duration of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Geomagnetic Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lascu, I.; Feinberg, J. M.; Dorale, J. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> geomagnetic events are reflections of geodynamo behavior at small length scales. A rigorous documentation of the anatomy, timing, duration, and frequency of centennial-to-millennial scale geomagnetic events can be invaluable for theoretical and numerical geodynamo models, and for the understanding the finer dynamics of the Earth's core. A critical ingredient for characterizing such geomagnetic instabilities are tightly constrained age models that enable high-resolution magnetostratigraphies. Here we focus on a North American speleothem geomagnetic record of the Laschamp excursion, which was the first geomagnetic excursion recognized and described in the paleomagnetic record, and remains the most studied event of its kind. The geological significance of the Laschamp lies chiefly in the fact that it constitutes a global time-synchronous geochronological marker. The Laschamp excursion occurred around the time of the demise of Homo neanderthalensis, in conjunction with high-amplitude, rapid climatic oscillations leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, and precedes a major supervolcano eruption in the Mediterranean. Thus, the precise determination of the timing and duration of the Laschamp would help in elucidating major scientific questions situated at the intersection of geology, paleoclimatology, and anthropology. Here we present a geomagnetic record from a stalagmite collected in Crevice Cave, Missouri, which we have dated using a combination of high-precision 230Th ages and annual layer counting using confocal microscopy. We have found a maximum duration for the Laschamp that spans the interval 42,250-39,700 years BP, and an age of 41,100 ± 350 years BP for the height of the excursion. During this period relative paleointensity decreased by an order of magnitude and the virtual geomagnetic pole was located at southerly latitudes. Our chronology provides the first robust bracketing for the Laschamp excursion, and improves on previous age determinations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H"><span>Time-series variations of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969"><span>A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang; Chaussidon, Marc; Srinivasan, Gopalan; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2012-12-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F"><span>An examination of chemistry and transport processes in the tropical lower stratosphere using observations of long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds obtained during STRAT and POLARIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flocke, F.; Herman, R. L.; Salawitch, R. J.; Atlas, E.; Webster, C. R.; Schauffler, S. M.; Lueb, R. A.; May, R. D.; Moyer, E. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Scott, D. C.; Blake, D. R.; Bui, T. P.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>A suite of compounds with a wide range of photochemical lifetimes (3 months to several decades) was measured in the tropical and midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) experiment (fall 1995 and winter, summer, and fall 1996) and the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) deployment in late summer 1997. These species include various chlorofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, and halons measured in whole air samples and CO measured in situ by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. Mixing ratio profiles of long-lived species in the tropical lower stratosphere are examined using a one-dimensional (1-D) photochemical model that includes entrainment from the extratropical stratosphere and is constrained by measured concentrations of OH. Profiles of tracers found using the 1-D model agree well with all the observed tropical profiles for an entrainment time scale of 8.5-4+6 months, independent of altitude between potential temperatures of 370 and 500 K. The tropical profile of CO is used to show that the annually averaged ascent rate profile, on the basis of a set of radiative heating calculations, is accurate to approximately ±44%, a smaller uncertainty than found by considering the uncertainties in the radiative model and its inputs. Tropical profiles of ethane and C2Cl4 reveal that the concentration of Cl is higher than expected on the basis of photochemical model simulations using standard gas phase kinetics and established relationships between total inorganic chlorine and CFC-11. Our observations suggest that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic chlorinated compounds and HCl carried across the tropical tropopause may provide an important source of inorganic chlorine to the tropical lower stratosphere that has been largely unappreciated in previous studies. The entrainment timescale found here is considerably less than the value found by a similar study that focused on</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276"><span>Phylogeny, genetic variability and colour polymorphism of an emerging animal model: the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual Nothobranchius fishes from southern Mozambique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorn, A; Ng'oma, E; Janko, K; Reichwald, K; Polačik, M; Platzer, M; Cellerino, A; Reichard, M</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Nothobranchius are a group of small, extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifishes living in temporary savannah pools in Eastern Africa and that survive annual desiccation of their habitat as dormant eggs encased in dry mud. One mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (CX32.2, GHITM, PNP) loci were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Nothobranchius species from southern and central Mozambique. This group shows marked variation in captive lifespan at both the inter- and intraspecific levels; lifespan varies from a few months to over a year. As their distribution encompasses a steep gradient between semi-arid and humid habitats, resulting in contrasting selection pressures on evolution of lifespan and associated life history traits, Mozambican Nothobranchius spp. have recently become a model group in studies of ageing, age-related disorders and life history evolution. Consequently, intraspecific genetic variation and male colour morph distribution was also examined in the recovered clades. Using Bayesian species tree reconstruction and single loci analyses, three large clades were apparent and their phylogenetic substructure was revealed at the inter- and intra-specific levels within those clades. The Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus clades were strongly geographically structured. Further, it was demonstrated that male colour has no phylogenetic signal in N. furzeri, where colour morphs are sympatric, but is associated with two reciprocally monophyletic groups in Nothobranchius rachovii clade, where colour morphs are parapatric. Finally, our analysis showed that a polymorphism in the Melanocortin1 receptor gene (which controls pigmentation in many vertebrates and was a candidate gene of male colouration in N. furzeri) is unrelated to colour phenotypes of the study species. Our results raise significant implications for future comparative studies of the species and populations analysed in the present work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B"><span>Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. II. Varied Shock Wave and Cloud Core Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of ~10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA113685','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA113685"><span>Fission Beta <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> into the Geomagnetosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-04-15</p> <p>Energy Deposition by Monoenergetic Electrons ................................... 17 Accession For NTis GRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounned j.stification ’By...Carter ..." (p. 8-58). This spectrum is from thermal neutrons on 235U. As the results of Carter et al. (ref. 2) do not extend below 1 MeV or above 7 MeV... neutron -induced fission are tabulated. The power in each range is given as the sum of about 16 fitted terms. Each term is of the form ce " , the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/566033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/566033"><span>{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} decay of the new isotope {sup 206}Ac</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eskola, K.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Cocks, J.F.; Enqvist, T.; Hurskanen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Trzaska, W.H.; Uusitalo, J.; Allatt, R.G.; Greenlees, P.T.; Page, R.D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The new neutron-deficient nuclide {sup 206}Ac was produced by bombarding a {sup 175}Lu target with 5.5 MeV/nucleon {sup 36}Ar ions. The evaporation residues were separated in flight by a gas-filled separator and subsequently identified by the {<span class="hlt">alpha}-{alpha</span>} position and time correlation method. {sup 206}Ac was found to have two {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> isomeric levels with half-lives of (22{sub {minus}5}{sup +9}) ms and (33{sub {minus}9}{sup +22}) ms, and with {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} particle energies of (7790{plus_minus}30) keV and (7750{plus_minus}20) keV, respectively. The former isomer is tentatively assigned to a J{sup {pi}}=3{sup +} level and the latter to a J{sup {pi}}=10{sup {minus}} level, both of which are also seen in the daughter and granddaughter nuclides {sup 202}Fr and {sup 198}At. Improved values of (27{sub {minus}6}{sup +11}) ms and (7693{plus_minus}25) keV for the half-life and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} particle energy of {sup 207}Ac are also reported. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F</p> <p>2010-11-30</p> <p>The origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8146279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8146279"><span>Relative biological effectiveness of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emitters in vivo at low doses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howell, R W; Azure, M T; Narra, V R; Rao, D V</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The 224Ra daughters 212Pb and 212Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and beta particles in their decay to stable 208Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of 212Pb and its daughters. When 212Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters 212Bi, 212Po and 208Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D37) was 0.143 +/- 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D37 for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210Po, was used to obtain an RBE-LET relationship for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE <span class="hlt">alpha</span> = 4.8 - 6.1 x 10(-2) LET + 1.0 x 10(-3) LET2. Similarly, the dependence of RBE on <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle energy E <span class="hlt">alpha</span> was given by RBE <span class="hlt">alpha</span> = 22 E(-0.73) <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. These relationships, based on in vivo experimental data, may be valuable in predicting biological effects of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emitters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201706"><span>Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> therapy: part I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elgqvist, Jorgen</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The possibility of pinpointing biological targets, and thereby potentially targeting and eradicating small tumors or even single cancer cells, is a tantalizing concept that has been discussed since the magic-bullet concept was first presented by Paul Erlich in the beginning of the 20th century in connection with his work on tissue staining for histological examinations and the work by Kohler and Milstein on antibody production published in 1975. This concept now seems feasible through the use of highly specific targeting constructs, chemical labeling of radioactive substances to these targeting constructs that results in high specific activities, radioimmunocomplexes with good stability even after injection, and the use of radionuclides emitting <span class="hlt">alpha</span>( α)-particles having exceedingly high ionizing density and, therefore, a high probability of killing cells along its track in tissue. The short range of the emitted α-particles makes them even more interesting by minimizing unwanted irradiation of normal tissue surrounding the targeted cancer cells of interest, assuming high specificity of the targeting construct and good stability of the chemical bonds between the targeting construct and the α-particle emitter. Targeted <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Therapy (TAT), in which an α-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclide is specifically directed to the biological target, is gaining more attention as new targets, targeting constructs, chemical labeling techniques, and α-particle emitters are, respectively, identified, constructed, developed, and made available. Results and improvements are now being published at an increasing rate and the number of conceivable applications is expanding, especially in the field of cancer treatment. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to provide an overview of the overall progress in the research field of TAT on a regular basis. However, problems such as limited or delayed diffusion of the α-radioimmunocomplex and inhomogeneous activity distributions in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018128','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018128"><span>Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A"><span>A comparison of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbon (VSLS) and DMS aircraft measurements in the tropical west Pacific from CAST, ATTREX and CONTRAST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, Stephen J.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Apel, Eric C.; Atlas, Elliot; Donets, Valeria; Hopkins, James R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lidster, Richard T.; Lueb, Richard; Minaeian, Jamie; Navarro, Maria; Punjabi, Shalini; Riemer, Daniel; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present a comparison of aircraft measurements of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS, C2H6S) from a co-ordinated campaign in January-February 2014 in the tropical west Pacific. Measurements were made on the NASA Global Hawk, NCAR Gulfstream-V High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (GV HIAPER) and UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 (see Sect. 2.2) using four separate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instruments: one operated by the University of Miami (UoM), one from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and two from the University of York (UoY). DMS was measured on the BAe-146 and GV. The instruments were inter-calibrated for halocarbons during the campaign period using two gas standards on separate scales: a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) SX-3581 standard representative of clean low-hydrocarbon air, and an Essex canister prepared by UoM, representative of coastal air, which was higher in VSLS and hydrocarbon content. UoY and NCAR use the NOAA scale/standard for VSLS calibration, and UoM uses a scale based on dilutions of primary standards calibrated by GC with FID (flame ionisation detector) and AED (atomic emission detector). Analysis of the NOAA SX-3581 standard resulted in good agreement for CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, CH3I, CH2ICl and CH2I2 (average relative standard deviation (RSD) < 10 %). Agreement was in general slightly poorer for the UoM Essex canister with an RSD of < 13 %. Analyses of CHBrCl2 and CHBr3 in this standard however showed significant variability, most likely due to co-eluting contaminant peaks, and a high concentration of CHBr3, respectively. These issues highlight the importance of calibration at atmospherically relevant concentrations ( ˜ 0.5-5 ppt for VSLSs; see Fig. 5 for individual ranges). The UoY in situ GC-MS measurements on board the BAe-146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780038391&hterms=technetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtechnetium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780038391&hterms=technetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtechnetium"><span>Heavy element abundances in Ap stars from ultraviolet data. I - The bright reference stars <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Lyrae and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Canis Majoris A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boiarchuk, A. A.; Snow, T. P., Jr.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Curve-of-growth analysis is used to derive chemical abundances in <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Lyr and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> CMa, based on ultraviolet spectra obtained with Copernicus. This analysis is part of a program to study the abundances of the heavy elements mercury and platinum and the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> element technetium in the atmospheres of Ap and Am stars. Ultraviolet Fe II lines are used to establish the curves of growth for <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Lyr and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> CMa A; abundances of a variety of elements, along with upper limits on Hg, Pt, and Tc, are derived. In cases where previous studies based on visual spectra have included elements in common with the present analysis, the agreement is good within the known uncertainties. One new element, cadmium, is observed for these two stars. The upper limits on Pt and Hg, as well as Tc, show that these elements are probably not enhanced in <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> CMa A by more than about one order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12149203','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12149203"><span>Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle immunotherapy for myeloid leukemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jurcic, Joseph G; Larson, Steven M; Sgouros, George; McDevitt, Michael R; Finn, Ronald D; Divgi, Chaitanya R; Ballangrud, Ase M; Hamacher, Klaus A; Ma, Dangshe; Humm, John L; Brechbiel, Martin W; Molinet, Roger; Scheinberg, David A</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>Unlike beta <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> isotopes, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters can selectively kill individual cancer cells with a single atomic decay. HuM195, a humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody, specifically targets myeloid leukemia cells and has activity against minimal disease. When labeled with the beta-emitters (131)I and (90)Y, HuM195 can eliminate large leukemic burdens in patients, but it produces prolonged myelosuppression requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at high doses. To enhance the potency of native HuM195 yet avoid the nonspecific cytotoxicity of beta-emitting constructs, the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting isotope (213)Bi was conjugated to HuM195. Eighteen patients with relapsed and refractory acute myelogenous leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia were treated with 10.36 to 37.0 MBq/kg (213)Bi-HuM195. No significant extramedullary toxicity was seen. All 17 evaluable patients developed myelosuppression, with a median time to recovery of 22 days. Nearly all the (213)Bi-HuM195 rapidly localized to and was retained in areas of leukemic involvement, including the bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Absorbed dose ratios between these sites and the whole body were 1000-fold greater than those seen with beta-emitting constructs in this antigen system and patient population. Fourteen (93%) of 15 evaluable patients had reductions in circulating blasts, and 14 (78%) of 18 patients had reductions in the percentage of bone marrow blasts. This study demonstrates the safety, feasibility, and antileukemic effects of (213)Bi-HuM195, and it is the first proof-of-concept for systemic targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle immunotherapy in humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17921029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17921029"><span>Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiotherapy with 211At-labeled monoclonal antibodies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zalutsky, Michael R; Reardon, David A; Pozzi, Oscar R; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Bigner, Darell D</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>An attractive feature of targeted radionuclide therapy is the ability to select radionuclides and targeting vehicles with characteristics that are best suited for a particular clinical application. One combination that has been receiving increasing attention is the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specifically reactive to receptors and antigens that are expressed in tumor cells to selectively deliver the <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> radiohalogen astatine-211 (211At) to malignant cell populations. Promising results have been obtained in preclinical models with multiple 211At-labeled mAbs; however, translation of the concept to the clinic has been slow. Impediments to this process include limited radionuclide availability, the need for suitable radiochemistry methods operant at high activity levels and lack of data concerning the toxicity of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emitters in humans. Nonetheless, two clinical trials have been initiated to date with 211At-labeled mAbs, and others are planned for the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040105076&hterms=polonium&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpolonium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040105076&hterms=polonium&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpolonium"><span>In vitro cell irradiation systems based on 210Po <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source: construction and characterisation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Szabo, J.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.; Balashazy, I.; Dam, A. M.; Polonyi, I.; Bogdandi, E. N.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>One way of studying the risk to human health of low-level radiation exposure is to make biological experiments on living cell cultures. Two 210Po <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> devices, with 0.5 and 100 MBq activity, were designed and constructed to perform such experiments irradiating monolayers of cells. Estimates of dose rate at the cell surface were obtained from measurements by a PIPS <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle spectrometer and from calculations by the SRIM 2000, Monte Carlo charged particle transport code. Particle fluence area distributions were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors. The design and dosimetric characterisation of the devices are discussed. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068459','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068459"><span>Isotope shifts of the 6d{sup 2} D{sub 3/2}-7 p{sup 2} P{sub 1/2} transition in trapped <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giri, G. S.; Versolato, O. O.; Berg, J. E. van den; Boell, O.; Dammalapati, U.; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Mueller, S.; Nunez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>Laser spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes in a linear Paul trap has been performed. The isotope shifts of the 6d{sup 2} D{sub 3/2} -7 p{sup 2} P{sub 1/2} transition in {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +}, which are sensitive to the short-range part of the atomic wave functions, were measured. The results are essential experimental input for improving the precision of atomic structure calculations. This is indispensable for parity violation in Ra{sup +} aiming at the determination of the weak mixing angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028664','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940028664"><span>Counting <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by stratospheric aircraft and measuring size of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by stratospheric aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, James Charles</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) has been modified to reduce the diffusive losses of particles within the instrument. These changes have been successful in improving the counting efficiency of small particles at low pressures. Two techniques for measuring the size distributions of particles with diameters less than 0.17 micrometers have been evaluated. Both of these methods, the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the diffusion battery, have fundamental problems that limit their usefulness for stratospheric applications. We cannot recommend either for this application. Newly developed, alternative methods for measuring small particles include inertial separation with a low-loss critical orifice and thin-plate impactor device. This technique is now used to collect particles in the multisample aerosol collector housed in the ER-2 CNC-2, and shows some promise for particle size measurements when coupled with a CNC as a counting device. The modified focused-cavity aerosol spectrometer (FCAS) can determine the size distribution of particles with ambient diameters as small as about 0.07 micrometers. Data from this instrument indicates the presence of a nuclei mode when CNC-2 indicates high concentrations of particles, but cannot resolve important parameters of the distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/alpha-blockers/ART-20044214?p=1','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/alpha-blockers/ART-20044214?p=1"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Blockers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... conditions such as high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Find out more about this class of medication. ... these conditions: High blood pressure Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) Though <span class="hlt">alpha</span> blockers are commonly used to treat ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003573.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003573.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> fetoprotein</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> fetoprotein - series References Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al. Prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cooleysanemia.org/updates/pdf/Alpha_Thalassemia.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cooleysanemia.org/updates/pdf/Alpha_Thalassemia.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Thalassemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or <span class="hlt">alpha</span> thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.821..160K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.821..160K"><span>Efficiency and rate capability studies of the time-of-flight detector for isochronous mass measurements of stored <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei with the FRS-ESR facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia; Fabian, Benjamin; Diwisch, Marcel; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Ayet San Andrés, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Knöbel, Ronja; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Sun, Baohua; Weick, Helmut</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A time-of-flight (TOF) detector is used for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) with the projectile fragment separator FRS and the heavy-ion storage ring ESR. Exotic nuclei are spatially separated in flight with the FRS at about 70% of the speed of light and are injected into the ESR. The revolution times of the stored ions circulating in the ESR are measured with a thin transmission foil detector. When the ions penetrate the thin detector foil, secondary electrons (SEs) are emitted from the surface and provide the timing information in combination with microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. The isochronous transport of the SEs is performed by perpendicular superimposed electric and magnetic fields. The detection efficiency and the rate capability of the TOF detector have been studied in simulations and experiments. As a result the performance of the TOF detector has been improved substantially: (i) The SE collection efficiency was doubled by use of an optimized set of electric and magnetic field values; now SEs from almost the full area of the foil are transmitted to the MCP detectors. (ii) The rate capability of the TOF detector was improved by a factor of four by the use of MCPs with 5 μm pore size. (iii) With these MCPs and a carbon foil with a reduced thickness of 10 μg/cm2 the number of recorded revolutions in the ESR has been increased by nearly a factor of 10. The number of recorded revolutions determine the precision of the IMS experiments. Heavy-ion measurements were performed with neon ions at 322 MeV/u and uranium fission fragments at about 370 MeV/u. In addition, measurements with an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source were performed in the laboratory with a duplicate of the TOF detector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607630"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858"><span>Direct mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L</p> <p>2011-03-18</p> <p>Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)  keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)  keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516992"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry from liquids doped with ²⁰⁹Po and ²⁴¹Am using simplified sample processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pöllänen, R; Simola, R; Vesterbacka, P</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Rapid detection of <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides from liquids doped with (209)Po and (241)Am was investigated. These nuclides may mimic or be among those that could be used as threat agents in malevolent actions such as deliberate poisoning of refreshments. The liquids investigated here by using a semiconductor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector in vacuum were coffee, beer and apple juice. Methods for the sample processing were rapid evaporation of the liquids and filtration. Both methods produced samples, which gave <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectra that could be readily analyzed by an unfolding program. The doped radionuclides were easily identified from the spectra, but the samples were too thick for reliable activity determination. Determination of the activity ratios is possible if the peak shapes are equal. However, radionuclides may behave differently during the sample preparation, which must be accounted for in the activity ratio determination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PMB....54.6009W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PMB....54.6009W"><span>Absorbed fractions for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles in tissues of cortical bone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Bone-seeking <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides are common health physics hazards. Additionally, they are under consideration as an option for therapeutic molecular radiotherapy applications. Current dose models do not account for energy or bone-site dependence as shown by <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions given in ICRP Publication 30. Energy-dependent, yet bone-site independent, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions have been presented by the models of Stabin and Siegel (2003 Health Phys. 85 294-310). In this work, a chord-based computational model of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle transport in cortical bone has been developed that explicitly accounts for both the bone-site and particle-energy dependence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle absorbed fractions in this region of the skeleton. The model accounts for energy deposition to three targets: cortical endosteum, haversian space tissues and cortical bone. Path length distributions for cortical bone given in Beddoe (1977 Phys. Med. Biol. 22 298-308) provided additional transport regions in the absorbed fraction calculation. Significant variations in absorbed fractions between different skeletal sites were observed. Differences were observed between this model and the absorbed fractions given in ICRP Publication 30, which varied by as much as a factor of 2.1 for a cortical bone surface source irradiating cortical endosteum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033095&hterms=alpha+ray&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalpha%2Bray','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033095&hterms=alpha+ray&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dalpha%2Bray"><span>K <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line emission during solar X-ray bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The expected flux of K <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line emission from sulfur, argon, calcium, and iron is calculated during both thermal and nonthermal solar X-ray events. Such emission is shown to be weak during the course of most of the nonthermal hard X-ray bursts that Kane and Anderson (1970) have observed. If Compton backscattering is significant at high energies, the flux is reduced still further for disk flares, but it is noted that the strong, near-limb burst of June 26 would have produced about 100 photons /sq cm/sec of sulfur and iron K <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission. The impulsive hard X-ray bursts may in general be too <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> for much K <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission. It may be noted that sulfur K <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission in particular depends sensitively on the lower-energy limit of the nonthermal electron spectrum, assuming such a sharply defined boundary exists. During soft X-ray bursts, when temperatures of a few 10 to the 7th power K are obtained, K <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission from certain iron ions, specifically Fe XVIII-XXIII, may be important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6232655','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6232655"><span>Traversal of cells by radiation and absorbed fraction estimates for electrons and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.; Taner, A.C.; Kerr, G.D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Consideration of the pathlength which radiation traverses in a cell is central to algorithms for estimating energy deposition on a cellular level. Distinct pathlength distributions occur for radionuclides: (1) uniformly distributed in space about the cell (referred to as -randomness); (2) uniformly distributed on the surface of the cell (S-randomness); and (3) uniformly distributed within the cell volume (I-randomness). For a spherical cell of diameter d, the mean pathlengths are 2/3d, 1/2d, and 3/4d, respectively, for these distributions. Algorithms for simulating the path of radiation through a cell are presented and the absorbed fraction in the cell and its nucleus are tabulated for low energy electrons and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> on the surface of spherical cells. The algorithms and absorbed fraction data should be of interest to those concerned with the dosimetry of radionuclide-labeled monoclonal antibodies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15093814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15093814"><span>Sterically stabilized liposomes as a carrier for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting radium and actinium radionuclides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henriksen, Gjermund; Schoultz, B W; Michaelsen, T E; Bruland, Ø S; Larsen, R H</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides (223)Ra (t(1/2) = 11.4 d), (224)Ra (t(1/2) = 3.6 d), and (225)Ac(t(1/2) = 10.0 d) may have a broad application in targeted radiotherapy provided that they could be linked to vehicles with tumor affinity. The potential usefulness of liposomes as carriers was studied in the present work. Radium and actinium radionuclides could be loaded in good yields into sterically stabilized liposomes. Subsequent coating of the liposomes with a folate-F(ab')(2) construct yielded a product with affinity towards tumor cells expressing folate receptors. Radionuclide loaded liposomes showed excellent stability in serum in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841662','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841662"><span>Phase I Rinal Report: Ultra-Low Background <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Activity Counter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warburton, W.K.</p> <p>2005-07-22</p> <p>In certain important physics experiments that search for rare-events, such as neutrino or double beta decay detections, it is critical to minimize the number of background events that arise from <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by the natural radioactivity in the materials used to construct the experiment. Similarly, the natural radioactivity in materials used to connect and package silicon microcircuits must also be minimized in order to eliminate ''soft errors'' caused by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles depositing charges within the microcircuits and thereby changing their logic states. For these, and related reasons in the areas of environmental cleanup and nuclear materials tracking, there is a need that is important from commercial, scientific, and national security perspectives to develop an ultra-low background <span class="hlt">alpha</span> counter that would be capable of measuring materials' <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle emissivity at rates well below 0.00001 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>/cm{sup 2}/hour. This rate, which corresponds to 24 <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles per square meter per day, is essentially impossible to achieve with existing commercial instruments because the natural radioactivity of the materials used to construct even the best of these counters produces background rates at the 0.005 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>/cm{sup 2}/hr level. Our company (XIA) had previously developed an instrument that uses electronic background suppression to operate at the 0.0005 0.005 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>/cm{sup 2}/hr level. This patented technology sets up an electric field between a large planar sample and a large planar anode, and fills the gap with pure Nitrogen. An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle entering the chamber ionizes the Nitrogen, producing a ''track'' of electrons, which drift to the anode in the electric field. Tracks close to the anode take less than 10 microseconds (us) to be collected, giving a preamplifier signal with a 10 us risetime. Tracks from the sample have to drift across the full anode-sample gap and produce a 35 us risetime signal. By analyzing the preamplifier signals with a digital</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.6669P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.6669P"><span>Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemical species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...10.6059P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...10.6059P"><span>Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from Observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemical species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19464314"><span>Examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ROS release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) compared to the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mouse (Mus musculus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Jason C L; McClelland, Grant B; Faure, Paul A; Klaiman, Jordan M; Staples, James F</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Lower ROS release rate in long-lived species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. We compared liver mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-lived) and house mouse (<span class="hlt">short-lived</span>). We hypothesized that low ROS release rates in long-lived species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) increased mitochondrial proton conductance ('uncoupling to survive'), and/or (iii) increased ETC oxidative capacity ('spare oxidative capacity'). H(2)O(2) release rate was 70% lower in bats than mice despite similar respiration rates. Consistent with 'uncoupling to survive', proton leakiness was 3-fold higher in bats at membrane potentials above 130mV. Basal H(2)O(2) release rate and respiration rates were 2-fold higher in sparrows than mice. Consistent with 'spare oxidative capacity', subsaturating succinate decreased H(2)O(2) release rate in sparrows but not mice. Moreover, succinate:Cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was 3-fold higher in sparrows, and ETC inhibitors increased ROS release rate 20-27-fold in sparrows (with glutamate or subsaturating succinate) but only 4-5-fold in mice. Taken together these data suggest that complexes I and III are less reduced under physiological conditions in sparrows. We conclude that different long-lived species may use distinct mechanisms to lower mitochondrial ROS release rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827055"><span>DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.</p> <p>2003-02-27</p> <p>In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000162&hterms=germany+culture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgermany%2Bculture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000162&hterms=germany+culture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dgermany%2Bculture"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of <span class="hlt">alpha-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..462..258M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..462..258M"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> dose rate profile at the HLW nuclear glass/water interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mougnaud, S.; Tribet, M.; Rolland, S.; Renault, J.-P.; Jégou, C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> irradiation and radiolysis can affect the alteration behavior of High Level Waste (HLW) nuclear glasses. In this study, the way the energy of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span>, <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by a typical HLW glass, is deposited in water at the glass/water interface is investigated, with the aim of better characterizing the dose deposition at the glass/water interface during water-induced leaching mechanisms. A simplified chemical composition was considered for the nuclear glass under study, wherein the dose rate is about 140 Gy/h. The MCNPX calculation code was used to calculate <span class="hlt">alpha</span> dose rate and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle flux profiles at the glass/water interface in different systems: a single glass grain in water, a glass powder in water and a water-filled ideal crack in a glass package. Dose rate decreases within glass and in water as distance to the center of the grain increases. A general model has been proposed to fit a dose rate profile in water and in glass from values for dose rate in glass bulk, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> range in water and linear energy transfer considerations. The glass powder simulation showed that there was systematic overlapping of radiation fields for neighboring glass grains, but the water dose rate always remained lower than the bulk value. Finally, for typical ideal cracks in a glass matrix, an overlapping of irradiation fields was observed while the crack aperture was lower than twice the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> range in water. This led to significant values for the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> dose rate within the crack volume, as long as the aperture remained lower than 60 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19782204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19782204"><span>Rapid determination of actinides in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry: a hybrid approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maxwell, Sherrod L; Jones, Vernon D</p> <p>2009-11-15</p> <p>A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinides by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry so that long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide isotopes. (239)Pu, (242)Pu, (237)Np, (243)Am, (234)U, (235)U and (238)U were measured by ICP-MS, while (236)Pu, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (241)Am, (243)Am and (244)Cm were measured by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960211','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960211"><span>RAPID DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES IN URINE BY INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> SPECTROMETRY: A HYBRID APPROACH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.</p> <p>2009-05-27</p> <p>A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinides by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry so that long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28119854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28119854"><span>Targeting Prostate Cancer Stem Cells with <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Particle Therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ceder, Jens; Elgqvist, Jörgen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>, exhibiting cellular resistance mechanisms to conventional therapy. This paper presents and evaluates the possibility of using <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) and discusses the parameters that have to be considered as well as pros and cons of targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy in the treatment of PCa. By targeting and eradicating the CSCs responsible of tumor recurrence in patients who no longer respond to conventional therapies, including androgen deprivation and castration, it may be possible to cure the disease, or prolong survival significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5220245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5220245"><span>Targeting Prostate Cancer Stem Cells with <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Particle Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ceder, Jens; Elgqvist, Jörgen</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>, exhibiting cellular resistance mechanisms to conventional therapy. This paper presents and evaluates the possibility of using <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) and discusses the parameters that have to be considered as well as pros and cons of targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle therapy in the treatment of PCa. By targeting and eradicating the CSCs responsible of tumor recurrence in patients who no longer respond to conventional therapies, including androgen deprivation and castration, it may be possible to cure the disease, or prolong survival significantly. PMID:28119854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055201','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055201"><span>Long-Lived CD4+IFN-γ+ T Cells rather than <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> CD4+IFN-γ+IL-10+ T Cells Initiate Rapid IL-10 Production To Suppress Anamnestic T Cell Responses during Secondary Malaria Infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Villegas-Mendez, Ana; Inkson, Colette A.; Shaw, Tovah N.; Strangward, Patrick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>CD4+ T cells that produce IFN-γ are the source of host-protective IL-10 during primary infection with a number of different pathogens, including Plasmodium spp. The fate of these CD4+IFN-γ+IL-10+ T cells following clearance of primary infection and their subsequent influence on the course of repeated infections is, however, presently unknown. In this study, utilizing IFN-γ–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and IL-10–GFP dual reporter mice, we show that primary malaria infection–induced CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells have limited memory potential, do not stably express IL-10, and are disproportionately lost from the Ag-experienced CD4+ T cell memory population during the maintenance phase postinfection. CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cells generally exhibited a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector rather than effector memory T cell phenotype postinfection and expressed high levels of PD-1, Lag-3, and TIGIT, indicative of cellular exhaustion. Consistently, the surviving CD4+YFP+GFP+ T cell–derived cells were unresponsive and failed to proliferate during the early phase of secondary infection. In contrast, CD4+YFP+GFP− T cell–derived cells expanded rapidly and upregulated IL-10 expression during secondary infection. Correspondingly, CD4+ T cells were the major producers within an accelerated and amplified IL-10 response during the early stage of secondary malaria infection. Notably, IL-10 exerted quantitatively stronger regulatory effects on innate and CD4+ T cell responses during primary and secondary infections, respectively. The results in this study significantly improve our understanding of the durability of IL-10–producing CD4+ T cells postinfection and provide information on how IL-10 may contribute to optimized parasite control and prevention of immune-mediated pathology during repeated malaria infections. PMID:27630165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536011"><span>Targeted cancer therapy with a novel low-dose rate <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting radioimmunoconjugate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahle, Jostein; Borrebaek, Jørgen; Jonasdottir, Thora J; Hjelmerud, Anne Kristine; Melhus, Katrine B; Bruland, Øyvind S; Press, Oliver W; Larsen, Roy H</p> <p>2007-09-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-emitting radionuclides are highly cytotoxic and are of considerable interest in the treatment of cancer. A particularly interesting approach is in radioimmunotherapy. However, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting antibody conjugates have been difficult to exploit clinically due to the short half-life of the radionuclides, low production capability, or limited source materials. We have developed a novel technology based on the low-dose rate <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> nuclide (227)Th, exemplified here using the monoclonal antibody rituximab. In vitro, this radioimmunoconjugate killed lymphoma cells at Becquerel per milliliter (Bq/mL) levels. A single injection of (227)Th-rituximab induced complete tumor regression in up to 60% of nude mice bearing macroscopic (32-256 mm(3)) human B-lymphoma xenografts at Becquerel per gram (Bq/g) levels without apparent toxicity. Therapy with (227)Th-rituximab was significantly more effective than the control radioimmunoconjugate (227)Th-trastuzumab and the standard beta-emitting radioimmunoconjugate for CD20(+) lymphoma(90)Y-tiuxetan-ibritumomab. Thorium-227 based constructs may provide a novel approach for targeted therapy against a wide variety of cancers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.849...11X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.849...11X"><span>Bulk GaN <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Chuirazzi, William; Cao, Lei</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from a 241Am source. The resolution of its <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 μm at -550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415246"><span>Simultaneous determination of gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, gross beta and ²²⁶Ra in natural water by liquid scintillation counting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fons, J; Zapata-García, D; Tent, J; Llauradó, M</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The determination of gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, gross beta and (226)Ra activity in natural waters is useful in a wide range of environmental studies. Furthermore, gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and gross beta parameters are included in international legislation on the quality of drinking water [Council Directive 98/83/EC]. In this work, a low-background liquid scintillation counter (Wallac, Quantulus 1220) was used to simultaneously determine gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, gross beta and (226)Ra activity in natural water samples. Sample preparation involved evaporation to remove (222)Rn and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay daughters. The evaporation process concentrated the sample ten-fold. Afterwards, a sample aliquot of 8 mL was mixed with 12 mL of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail in low-diffusion vials. In this study, a theoretical mathematical model based on secular equilibrium conditions between (226)Ra and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay daughters is presented. The proposed model makes it possible to determine (226)Ra activity from two measurements. These measurements also allow determining gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and gross beta simultaneously. To validate the proposed model, spiked samples with different activity levels for each parameter were analysed. Additionally, to evaluate the model's applicability in natural water, eight natural water samples from different parts of Spain were analysed. The eight natural water samples were also characterised by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry for the naturally occurring isotopes of uranium ((234)U, (235)U and (238)U), radium ((224)Ra and (226)Ra), (210)Po and (232)Th. The results for gross <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and (226)Ra activity were compared with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry characterization, and an acceptable concordance was obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NIMPA.530..391D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NIMPA.530..391D"><span>A contribution to improvement of the nuclear data concerning <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay of 235U</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dayras, Fatima; Chauvin, Nicolas</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Compared to other <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> nuclides, for those with long half-lives (T1/2 > 106 years), there is generally some inconsistency and inaccuracy in the associated nuclear data. However, these radionuclides play a major role in modern society and, for a number of reasons, are the subject of widespread interest. The study of their <span class="hlt">alpha</span> decay, which is more difficult than in the case of the other nuclides, enables knowledge of their nuclear data to be increased. In the present paper, we accordingly consider one of the most well known ones: 235U. Using a quasi mono-isotopic deposit of 235U obtained by electromagnetic separation, we have studied the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle decay of 235U using a high-energy resolution spectrometer developed in our laboratory. The stability of the spectrometer made it possible to perform long measurements which is crucial in the case of 235U. The Colégram program, with a new fit criterion to better take into account peaks of low statistical significance, was used to extract the data (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emission probabilities and energies). Monte-Carlo simulations carried out in the context of this work were also used to corroborate the data obtained. Finally, thirteen <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emissions from 235U were measured, from which only ten were previously observed and measured. This work has substantially reduced the uncertainty concerning <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emission probability and energy values and has resolved some of the ambiguities concerning the 235U disintegration scheme to 231Th.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8756078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8756078"><span>Nondeletional <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia: first description of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Hph <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Nco <span class="hlt">alpha</span> mutations in a Spanish population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayala, S; Colomer, D; Aymerich, M; Pujades, A; Vives-Corrons, J L</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Several different deletions underlie the molecular basis of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia. The most common <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia determinant in Spain is the rightward deletion (-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> 3.7). To our knowledge, however, no cases of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia due to nondeletional mutations have so far been described in this particular Mediterranean area. Here, we report the existence of nondeletional forms of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia in ten Spanish families. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin gene was characterized in ten unrelated patients and their relatives only when the presence of deletional <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia was ruled out. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin gene analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme analysis or by allelespecific priming. This allowed the identification of a 5-base pair (bp) deletion at the donor site of IVS I (<span class="hlt">alpha</span> Hph <span class="hlt">alpha</span>) in 9 cases and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 initiation codon mutation (<span class="hlt">alpha</span> Nco <span class="hlt">alpha</span>) in one case. Although these <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin gene mutations are found in other mediterranean areas, our results demonstrate their presence in the Spanish population and suggest that the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Hph <span class="hlt">alpha/alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> genotype is probably the most common nondeletional form of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia in Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1336..423W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1336..423W"><span>Accelerator Production of 225Ac For <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Immunotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>225Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four <span class="hlt">alpha-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during its decay to stable 209Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated 225Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of 225Ac. Existing 232Th(p,x)225Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of 225Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the 232Th(p,x)225Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the 225Ac production cross section is 12.4±0.6 mb and the 225Ra production cross section is 3.2±0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the 227Ac production cross section is 16±1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513392','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21513392"><span>Accelerator Production of {sup 225}Ac For <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Immunotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weidner, J. W.; Nortier, F. M.; Bach, H. T.; John, K. D.; Couture, A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Fassbender, M. E.; Goff, G. S.; Taylor, W.; Valdez, F.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Cisneros, M.; Dry, D.; Gallegos, M.; Gritzo, R.; Bitteker, L. J.; Wender, S.; Baty, R. S.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>{sup 225}Ac has tremendous potential for the treatment of metastatic cancer due to the four <span class="hlt">alpha-particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during its decay to stable {sup 209}Bi. Additionally, it is one of the few <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters being considered for clinical trials. The anticipated {sup 225}Ac demand for these trials is expected to far exceed the annual worldwide supply of approximately 1,000 mCi/yr. Consequently, the DOE Office of Science has funded investigations into accelerator-based production of {sup 225}Ac. Existing {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac cross section data indicate that up to 480 mCi/day of {sup 225}Ac could be created by bombarding a thick target of natural thorium with 100 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility. To verify these predictions, experiments are underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to measure the {sup 232}Th(p,x){sup 225}Ac production cross sections for protons in the energy range 40-200 MeV, and at 800 MeV. For 800 MeV protons, preliminary results indicate that the {sup 225}Ac production cross section is 12.4{+-}0.6 mb and the {sup 225}Ra production cross section is 3.2{+-}0.2 mb. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the {sup 227}Ac production cross section is 16{+-}1 mb. Experiments to measure these same cross sections at proton energies below 200 MeV are planned for the last half of calendar year 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16404175"><span>Minimum detectable activity concentration in direct <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry from outdoor air samples: continuous monitoring versus separate sampling and counting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Rapid method for identifying the presence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radionuclides in outdoor air is of paramount importance should a nuclear or radiological incident occur. Minimum detectable activity concentrations of U, U, Pu, and Pu in outdoor air are calculated for two direct <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry methods: continuous air monitoring is compared with separate sampling and subsequent <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle counting in a vacuum chamber. The radon progeny activity concentration typical for outdoor air and the effects for the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle spectra caused by the properties of the filter and the aerosol particles are taken into account using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Continuous air monitoring is a faster method for identifying the presence of (trans)uranium elements when their activity concentration is considerably higher than the typical detection limit. Separate sampling and counting in a vacuum chamber is a more sensitive method when concentrations are close to the detection limit and when the duration of the sampling-counting cycle is greater than approximately 2 h. The method may serve as a tool for rapid field measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19620781"><span>Prolylcarboxypeptidase regulates food intake by inactivating <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH in rodents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wallingford, Nicholas; Perroud, Bertrand; Gao, Qian; Coppola, Anna; Gyengesi, Erika; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Diament, Adam; Haus, Kari A; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Mahdi, Fakhri; Wardlaw, Sharon L; Schmaier, Alvin H; Warden, Craig H; Diano, Sabrina</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The anorexigenic neuromodulator <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH; referred to here as <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13) undergoes extensive posttranslational processing, and its in vivo activity is <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> due to rapid inactivation. The enzymatic control of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13 maturation and inactivation is incompletely understood. Here we have provided insight into <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13 inactivation through the generation and analysis of a subcongenic mouse strain with reduced body fat compared with controls. Using positional cloning, we identified a maximum of 6 coding genes, including that encoding prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP), in the donor region. Real-time PCR revealed a marked genotype effect on Prcp mRNA expression in brain tissue. Biochemical studies using recombinant PRCP demonstrated that PRCP removes the C-terminal amino acid of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13, producing <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-12, which is not neuroactive. We found that Prcp was expressed in the hypothalamus in neuronal populations that send efferents to areas where <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13 is released from axon terminals. The inhibition of PRCP activity by small molecule protease inhibitors administered peripherally or centrally decreased food intake in both wild-type and obese mice. Furthermore, Prcp-null mice had elevated levels of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13 in the hypothalamus and were leaner and shorter than the wild-type controls on a regular chow diet; they were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that PRCP is an important component of melanocortin signaling and weight maintenance via control of active <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-MSH1-13 levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632590"><span>Ab initio <span class="hlt">alpha-alpha</span> scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G</p> <p>2015-12-03</p> <p>Processes such as the scattering of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles ((4)He), the triple-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> reaction, and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of <span class="hlt">alpha-alpha</span> scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute <span class="hlt">alpha</span> scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.528..111E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.528..111E"><span>Ab initio <span class="hlt">alpha-alpha</span> scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Processes such as the scattering of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles (4He), the triple-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> reaction, and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of <span class="hlt">alpha-alpha</span> scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute <span class="hlt">alpha</span> scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=162','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=162"><span><span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Hexachlorocyclohexane (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-HCH)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">alpha</span> - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( <span class="hlt">alpha</span> - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035024&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730035024&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradon"><span>Observation of lunar radon emanation with the Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle spectrometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle spectrometer, a component of the orbital Sim Bay group of 'geochemistry' experiments on Apollo 15, was designed to detect <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> during the decay of isotopes of radon gas and her daughter products. The purpose was to measure the gross activity of radon on the lunar surface and to find possible regions of increased local activity. Results are presented from a partial analysis of Apollo 15 data. For the moon as a whole, Rn220 was not observed and the upper limit on its decay rate above the lunar surface is 0.00038 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. Rn222 was marginally observed. Possible variations of radon activity on the lunar surface are being investigated. Po210 (a daughter product of Rn222) has been detected in a broad region from west of Mare Crisium to the Van de Graaff-Orlov region. The observed count rate is (4.6 plus or minus 1.4) x 0.001 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. The observed level of Po210 activity is in excess of the amount that would be in equilibrium with Rn222 by about an order of magnitude. This implies that larger levels of radon emanation have occurred on the moon within a time scale of 10 to 100 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/ingredients/ucm107940.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/ingredients/ucm107940.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Hydroxy Acids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Hydroxy Acids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.9163H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.9163H"><span>A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (TransCom-VSLS): linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Patra, P. K.; Leeson, A. A.; Krysztofiak, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Andrews, S. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Aschmann, J.; Atlas, E. L.; Belikov, D. A.; Bönisch, H.; Carpenter, L. J.; Dhomse, S.; Dorf, M.; Engel, A.; Feng, W.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Griffiths, P. T.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hommel, R.; Keber, T.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Maksyutov, S.; Mantle, H.; Mills, G. P.; Miller, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Moore, F.; Navarro, M. A.; Oram, D. E.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Pyle, J. A.; Quack, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Saikawa, E.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Sala, S.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Taguchi, S.; Tegtmeier, S.; Lidster, R. T.; Wilson, C.; Ziska, F.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The first concerted multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) has been performed, within the framework of the ongoing Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom). Eleven global models or model variants participated (nine chemical transport models and two chemistry-climate models) by simulating the major natural bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), over a 20-year period (1993-2012). Except for three model simulations, all others were driven offline by (or nudged to) reanalysed meteorology. The overarching goal of TransCom-VSLS was to provide a reconciled model estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) of bromine from these gases, to constrain the current measurement-derived range, and to investigate inter-model differences due to emissions and transport processes. Models ran with standardised idealised chemistry, to isolate differences due to transport, and we investigated the sensitivity of results to a range of VSLS emission inventories. Models were tested in their ability to reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial distribution of VSLS at the surface, using measurements from NOAA's long-term global monitoring network, and in the tropical troposphere, using recent aircraft measurements - including high-altitude observations from the NASA Global Hawk platform. The models generally capture the observed seasonal cycle of surface CHBr3 and CH2Br2 well, with a strong model-measurement correlation (r ≥ 0.7) at most sites. In a given model, the absolute model-measurement agreement at the surface is highly sensitive to the choice of emissions. Large inter-model differences are apparent when using the same emission inventory, highlighting the challenges faced in evaluating such inventories at the global scale. Across the ensemble, most consistency is found within the tropics where most of the models (8 out of 11) achieve best agreement to surface CHBr3 observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seismology&pg=2&id=EJ362815','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seismology&pg=2&id=EJ362815"><span>The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Centauri System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Soderblom, David R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Describes the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Centauri. (TW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21290805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21290805"><span>Development of the dual scintillator sheet and Phoswich detector for simultaneous <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>- and Beta-rays measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seo, B.K.; Kim, G.H.; Park, C.H.; Jung, Y.H.; Jung, C.H.; Lee, K.W.; Han, M.J.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Thin sheet type of ZnS(Ag)/plastic dual scintillator for simultaneous counting of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles using a organic and inorganic scintillator widely used in the radiation measurement was manufactured, which could be applicable in the contamination monitoring systems. Counting materials were manufactured by solidification of the scintillator solution which mixed scintillator, solvent, and polymer. Prepared dual scintillator is a counting material which can simultaneously measure the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles. It was divided into two parts : an inorganic scintillator layer for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle detection and an organic one for beta-particle detection. The organic layer was composed of 2,5-diphenyloxazole [PPO] and 1,4,-bis[5-phenyl(oxazolyl)benzene] [POPOP] acting as the scintillator and polysulfone acting as the polymer. The inorganic layer was composed of ZnS(Ag) as scintillator and polysulfone as paste. The ZnS(Ag) scintillator layer was printed onto the organic layer using screen printing method. To estimate the detection ability of the prepared counting materials, <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> nuclide, Am-241, and beta emitting nuclide, Sr/Y-90, were used. The scintillations produced by interaction between radiation and scintillator were measured by photomultiplier tube. The overall counting results reveal that the developed detector is efficient for simultaneous counting of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and beta-particles. For application test, the dual scintillator was fabricated with a Phoswich detector for monitoring the in-pipe <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and beta contamination. To deploy inside a pipe, two types of Phoswich detectors, sheets and cylinders, were prepared. For in-pipe monitoring, it was found that the cylindrical type was excellent. In the study, polymer composite counting material and Phoswich detectors were prepared using organic and inorganic scintillator for detecting different radiations. In the future, it will be applied to the contamination monitoring system for nuclear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20699391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20699391"><span>Experimental Identification of Spin-Parities and Single-Particle Configurations in {sup 257}No and Its {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Decay Daughter {sup 253}Fm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Asai, M.; Tsukada, K.; Ichikawa, S.; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Akiyama, K.; Sakama, M.; Ishii, T.; Osa, A.; Oura, Y.; Sueki, K.; Shibata, M.</p> <p>2005-09-02</p> <p>{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-{gamma} and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-electron coincidence spectroscopy for a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> heavy actinide nucleus {sup 257}No (T{sub 1/2}=24.5 s) has been performed using a gas-jet transport system and an on-line isotope separator. Spin-parities of excited states in {sup 253}Fm fed by the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} decay of {sup 257}No have been identified on the basis of the measured internal conversion coefficients. The {nu}3/2{sup +}[622] configuration has been assigned to the ground state of {sup 257}No as well as to the 124.1 keV level in {sup 253}Fm. It was found that the ground-state configuration of {sup 257}No is different from that of lighter N=155 isotones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23701947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23701947"><span>Interpreting EEG <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Exploring EEG <span class="hlt">alpha</span> oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes '<span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual <span class="hlt">alpha</span> peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> amplitude suppression across the individual <span class="hlt">alpha</span> bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) <span class="hlt">alpha</span> "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0350735','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0350735"><span><span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> CONTAMINATION MONITORING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This project was conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> hazard existing in the vicinity of the missile launch pad following the destruction of a missile ...were used for plutonium particle collection. Because all warhead-carrying missiles were properly launched after Project 2.3 was approved, no <span class="hlt">alpha</span> contamination data was obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865504','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865504"><span>Imaging <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Anderson, David F.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6265869','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6265869"><span>Imaging <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Anderson, D.F.</p> <p>1980-10-29</p> <p>A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle signal.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870584','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870584"><span>Event counting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low <span class="hlt">alpha</span> concentrations, individual <span class="hlt">alpha</span> events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/372580','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/372580"><span>Event counting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.</p> <p>1996-08-27</p> <p>An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low <span class="hlt">alpha</span> concentrations, individual <span class="hlt">alpha</span> events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5095965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5095965"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle diagnostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Young, K.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596725"><span>Reexamination of the {<span class="hlt">alpha}-{alpha</span>}''fishbone'' potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Day, J. P.; McEwen, J. E.; Elhanafy, M.; Smith, E.; Woodhouse, R.; Papp, Z.</p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the {<span class="hlt">alpha}-{alpha</span>} fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} resonance energies, experimental phase shifts, and three-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} binding energies. We found that, essentially, a simple Gaussian can provide a good description of two-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} and three-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475356"><span>Induction of mutations by bismuth-212 <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles at two genetic loci in human B-lymphoblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Metting, N F; Palayoor, S T; Macklis, R M; Atcher, R W; Liber, H L; Little, J B</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The human lymphoblast cell line TK6 was exposed to the <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> radon daughter 212Bi by adding DTPA-chelated 212Bi directly to the cell suspension. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity at two genetic loci were measured, and the molecular nature of mutant clones was studied by Southern blot analysis. Induced mutant fractions were 2.5 x 10(-5)/Gy at the hprt locus and 3.75 x 10(-5)/Gy at the tk locus. Molecular analysis of HPRT- mutant DNAs showed a high frequency (69%) of clones with partial or full deletions of the hprt gene among radiation-induced mutants compared with spontaneous mutants (31%). Chi-squared analyses of mutational spectra show a significant difference (P < or = 0.005) between spontaneous mutants and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle-induced mutants. Comparison with published studies of accelerator-produced heavy-ion exposures of TK6 cells indicates that the induction of mutations at the hprt locus, and perhaps a subset of mutations at the tk locus, is a simple linear function of particle fluence regardless of the ion species or its LET.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22496177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22496177"><span>The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> channeling effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fisch, N. J.</p> <p>2015-12-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle energy collisionlessly has been called <span class="hlt">alpha</span> channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10391446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10391446"><span>Regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> in sciatic motor neurons following axotomy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacLennan, A J; Devlin, B K; Neitzel, K L; McLaurin, D L; Anderson, K J; Lee, N</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Spinal motor neurons are one of the few classes of neurons capable of regenerating axons following axotomy. Injury-induced expression of neurotrophic factors and corresponding receptors may play an important role in this rare ability. A wide variety of indirect data suggests that ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> may critically contribute to the regeneration of injured spinal motor neurons. We used immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and retrograde tracing techniques to study the regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> in axotomized sciatic motor neurons. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> immunoreactivity, detected with two independent antisera, is increased in a subpopulation of caudal sciatic motor neuron soma one, two and six weeks after sciatic nerve transection and reattachment, while no changes are detected at one day and 15 weeks post-lesion. Ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> messenger RNA levels are augmented in the same classes of neurons following an identical lesion, suggesting that increased synthesis contributes, at least in part, to the additional ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> protein. Separating the proximal and distal nerve stumps with a plastic barrier does not noticeably affect the injury-induced change in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> regulation, thereby indicating that this injury response is not dependent on signals distal to the lesion traveling retrogradely through the nerve or signals generated by axonal growth through the distal nerve. The prolonged increases in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> protein and messenger RNA found in regenerating sciatic motor neurons contrast with the responses of non-regenerating central neurons, which are reported to display, at most, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> increase in ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span> messenger RNA expression following injury. The present data are the first to demonstrate, in vivo, neuronal regulation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.alpha1.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.alpha1.org/"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> One Foundation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Languages French (Francais) German (Deutsch) Italian (Italiano) Spanish (Español) Portuguese (Portugues) Swedish (Svenska) Donate One Time Monthly Keep In Touch | About Us | Contact Us | What is the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16546683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16546683"><span>Initial evaluation of (227)Th-p-benzyl-DOTA-rituximab for low-dose rate <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radioimmunotherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dahle, Jostein; Borrebaek, Jørgen; Melhus, Katrine B; Bruland, Oyvind S; Salberg, Gro; Olsen, Dag Rune; Larsen, Roy H</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Radioimmunotherapy has proven clinically effective in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radioimmunotherapy trials have so far been performed with beta-emitting isotopes. In contrast to beta-emitters, the shorter range and high linear energy transfer (LET) of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles allow for more efficient and selective killing of individually targeted tumor cells. However, there are several obstacles to the use of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle immunotherapy, including problems with chelation chemistry and nontarget tissue toxicity. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting radioimmunoconjugate (227)Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab is a new potential anti-lymphoma agent that might overcome some of these difficulties. The present study explores the immunoreactivity, in vivo stability and biodistribution, as well as the effect on in vitro cell growth, of this novel radioimmunoconjugate. To evaluate in vivo stability, uptake in balb/c mice of the <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> nuclide (227)Th alone, the chelated form, (227)Th-p-nitrobenzyl-DOTA and the radioimmunoconjugate (227)Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was compared in a range of organs at increasing time points after injection. The immunoreactive fraction of (227)Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was 56-65%. During the 28 days after injection of radioimmunoconjugate only, very modest amounts of the (227)Th had detached from DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab, indicating a relevant stability in vivo. The half-life of (227)Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab in blood was 7.4 days. Incubation of lymphoma cells with (227)Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab resulted in a significant antigen-dependent inhibition of cell growth. The data presented here warrant further studies of (227)Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15146736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15146736"><span>Coaching the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> male.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make <span class="hlt">alphas</span> difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why <span class="hlt">alphas</span> need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. Coaches get the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>'s attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most <span class="hlt">alphas</span>, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16001311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16001311"><span><span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-Adrenoreceptor antagonists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayer, P; Imbert, T</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>A review of the literature relating to the therapeutic potential of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-adrenoceptor antagonists published between 1990 and 2000 is presented. Although extensively studied since the early 1970s in a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, the distinction of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-adrenoceptor subtypes and some emerging evidence concerning new applications in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, obesity and schizophrenia, have refreshed an interest in this class of agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969021"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Particle Diagnostic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fisher, Ray, K.</p> <p>2009-05-13</p> <p>The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined <span class="hlt">alphas</span> to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined <span class="hlt">alphas</span>, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the <span class="hlt">alphas</span> in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20793437','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20793437"><span>Mitigation of radiation nephropathy after internal {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle irradiation of kidneys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Sgouros, George; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Scheinberg, David A. . E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Purpose: Internal irradiation of kidneys as a consequence of radioimmunotherapy, radiation accidents, or nuclear terrorism can result in radiation nephropathy. We attempted to modify pharmacologically, the functional and morphologic changes in mouse kidneys after injection with the actinium ({sup 225}Ac) nanogenerator, an in vivo generator of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}- and {beta}-<span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> elements. Methods and Materials: The animals were injected with 0.35 {mu}Ci of the {sup 225}Ac nanogenerator, which delivers a dose of 27.6 Gy to the kidneys. Then, they were randomized to receive captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), L-158,809 (angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker), spironolactone (aldosterone receptor antagonist), or a placebo. Results: Forty weeks after the {sup 225}Ac injection, the placebo-control mice showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (87.6 {+-} 6.9 mg/dL), dilated Bowman spaces, and tubulolysis with basement membrane thickening. Captopril treatment accentuated the functional (BUN 119.0 {+-} 4.0 mg/dL; p <0.01 vs. placebo controls) and histopathologic damage. In contrast, L-158,809 offered moderate protection (BUN 66.6 {+-} 3.9 mg/dL; p = 0.02 vs. placebo controls). Spironolactone treatment, however, significantly prevented the development of histopathologic and functional changes (BUN 31.2 {+-} 2.5 mg/dL; p <0.001 vs. placebo controls). Conclusions: Low-dose spironolactone and, to a lesser extent, angiotensin receptor-1 blockade can offer renal protection in a mouse model of internal {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/12128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/12128"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> irradiation modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keeton, S C; Mount, M E</p> <p>1999-03-26</p> <p>With the end of the Cold War and the associated limitations imposed on the nuclear weapons stockpile by strategic arms treaties, much has changed in the stockpile stewardship program. Weapons that were originally designed for stockpile lives on the order of 15 to 20 years are now being evaluated for much longer periods: in some cases as much as 60 years. As such, issues that were once considered to be of no consequence are being reexamined. Among these is the extent of the radiation dose received by secondary organics over time that results from the intrinsic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source of the weapon components. This report describes the results of work performed to estimate the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation deposition in the organic components of an LLNL system at specific points in its stockpile life. Included are discussions of the development of the intrinsic time- and energy-dependent <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source term per unit mass, estimation of the effective source and absorber material thicknesses, development of a simplified model for the total intrinsic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> source term and energy deposition in the absorber, and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation deposition in the organic components of a selected LLNL weapon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5688202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5688202"><span><span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> MIS: Reference manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.</p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=omega&pg=6&id=EJ742482','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=omega&pg=6&id=EJ742482"><span>From <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> to Omega</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Czaja, Paul Clement</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=5&id=EJ920335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Acids&pg=5&id=EJ920335"><span>[<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-Oxocarboxylic Acids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Several [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6967206','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6967206"><span>Radial-velocity variations in <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Ori, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sco, and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Her</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L. Computer Sciences Corp., Seabrook, MD Iowa State Univ., Ames )</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>Radial-velocity observations of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Ori, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sco A, and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> region and to H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> itself. It is shown that <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Ori and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5564988','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5564988"><span>Biosynthesis of catalytically active rat testosterone 5. <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. -reductase in microinjected Xenopus oocytes: Evidence for tissue-specific differences in translatable mRNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Farkash, Y.; Soreq, H.; Orly, J. )</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The enzyme 4-ene-3-ketosteroid-5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-oxidoreductase plays a key role in androgen-dependent target tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to the biologically active dihydrotestosterone. The regulation of 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase expression has not been studied at the molecular level as the enzyme is a membrane protein that is labile in cell-free homogenates. The authors developed a sensitive bioassay of the enzyme activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with rat liver and prostate mRNA. After microinjection, incubation of intact oocytes in the presence of ({sup 3}H)testosterone revealed the in ovo appearance of active 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase. Polyandenylylated RNA was fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the enzymatic activity was shown to be encoded by a 1,600- to 2,000-base-pair fraction of hepatic poly(A){sup +} RNA. 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Reductase mRNA was most efficiently translated when up to 80 ng of RNA was injected per oocyte. In the injected oocytes, 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase mRNA was found to be a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> molecule whereas its in ovo translatable 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase protein exhibited stable enzymatic activity for over 40 hr. Moreover, the levels of translatable tissue-specific 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase mRNAs as monitored in the Xenopus oocytes correlated with the variable 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase activities in female rat liver, male rat liver, and prostate homogenates. Altogether, these results provide supporting evidence in favor of the transcriptional control of 5{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-reductase expression in rat tissues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894452"><span>High-Linear Energy Transfer Irradiation Targeted to Skeletal Metastases by the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Emitter Ra-223: Adjuvant or Alternative to Conventional Modalities?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruland, Oyvind S.; Nilsson, Sten; Fisher, Darrell R.; Larsen, Roy H.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>The bone-seeking, <span class="hlt">alpha-particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitting</span> radiopharmaceutical Alpharadin, 223RaCl2 (t1/2 = 11.4 days) is under clinical development as a novel treatment for skeletal metastases from breast and prostate cancer. This paper summarizes the current status of preclinical and clinical research on 223RaCl2. Potential advantages of 223Ra to that of external beam irradiation or registered beta-emitting bone-seekers are discussed. Published data of 223Ra dosimetry in mice and a therapeutic study in a skeletal metastases model in nude rats have indicated significant therapeutic potential of bone-seeking <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitters. This paper provides short-term and long-term results from the first clinical single dosage trial. We present data from a repeated dosage study of five consecutive injections of 50 kBq/kg bodyweight, once every third week, or two injections of 125 kBq/kg bodyweight, six weeks apart. Furthermore, preliminary results are given for a randomized phase II trial involving 64 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and painful skeletal metastases who received four monthly injections of 223Ra or saline as an adjuvant to external beam radiotherapy. Also presented are preliminary dose estimates for 223Ra in humans. Results indicate that repeated dosing is feasible and that opportunities are available for combined treatment strategies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6551018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6551018"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tie-Nan Jiang ); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. )</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [<span class="hlt">alpha]-particle-emitting</span> radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2686','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2686"><span>Summary of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Particle Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.</p> <p>1998-08-19</p> <p>This paper summarizes the talks on <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "<span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JKPS...68.1060K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JKPS...68.1060K"><span>Development of the MICROMEGAS detector for measuring the energy spectrum of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles by using a 241Am source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Do Yoon; Ham, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting a <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from an 241Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of a particles from the 241Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the a particle from the 241Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the a particles are associated with the energies deposited by the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for a particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that a particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGAS detector for a particles under the present conditions is found to be ~97.3%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022375','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022375"><span>Long-Term Stability of Planets in the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Centauri System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lissauer, Jack; Quarles, Billy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Centauri system is billions of years old, so planets are only expected to be found in regions where their orbits are long-lived. We evaluate the extent of the regions within the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Centauri AB star system where small planets are able to orbit for billion-year timescales, and we map the positions in the sky plane where planets on stable orbits about either stellar component may appear. We confirm the qualitative results of Wiegert & Holman (Astron. J. 113, 1445, 1997) regarding the approximate size of the regions of stable orbits of a single planet, which are larger for retrograde orbits relative to the binary than for pro-grade orbits. Additionally, we find that mean motion resonances with the binary orbit leave an imprint on the limits of orbital stability, and the effects of the Lidov-Kozai mechanism are also readily apparent. Overall, orbits of a single planet in the habitable zones near the plane of the binary are stable, whereas high-inclination orbits are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. However, even well within regions where single planets are stable, multiple planet systems must be significantly more widely-spaced than they need to be around an isolated star in order to be long-lived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19958197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19958197"><span>HB Hillingdon [<span class="hlt">alpha</span>46(CE4)Phe-->Val (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>1 Or <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2)]: a new <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chain hemoglobin variant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Babb, Anna; Solaiman, Susannah; Green, Brian N; Mantio, Debbie; Patel, Ketan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Routine antenatal hemoglobinopathy screening detected a new <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chain variant that eluted with Hb A(2) on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a lady of Sri Lankan origin who had normal hematological indices. The mutation was identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as <span class="hlt">alpha</span>46(CE4)Phe-->Val, inferring that the variant was due to a single base change at codon 46 (TTC>GTC) of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>1- or <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-globin genes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19223664"><span>Activation and desensitization of nicotinic <span class="hlt">alpha</span>7-type acetylcholine receptors by benzylidene anabaseines and nicotine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papke, Roger L; Kem, William R; Soti, Ferenc; López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Horenstein, Nicole A</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Nicotinic receptor activation is inextricably linked to desensitization. This duality affects our ability to develop useful therapeutics targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Nicotine and some <span class="hlt">alpha</span>7-selective experimental partial agonists produce a transient activation of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>7 receptors followed by a period of prolonged residual inhibition or desensitization (RID). The object of the present study was to determine whether RID was primarily due to prolonged desensitization or due to channel block. To make this determination, we used agents that varied significantly in their production of RID and two <span class="hlt">alpha</span>7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 5-hydroxyindole (5HI), a type 1 PAM that does not prevent desensitization; and 1-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(5-methyl-isoxanol-3-yl)-urea (PNU-120596), a type 2 PAM that reactivates desensitized receptors. The RID-producing compounds nicotine and 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (diMeOBA) could obscure the potentiating effects of 5HI. However, through the use of nicotine, diMeOBA, and the RID-negative compound 3-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)anabaseine (diOHBA) in combination with PNU-120596, we confirmed that diMeOBA produces <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> channel block of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>7 but that RID is because of the induction of a desensitized state that is stable in the absence of PNU-120596 and activated in the presence of PNU-120596. In contrast, diOHBA produced channel block but only readily reversible desensitization, whereas nicotine produced desensitization that could be converted into activation by PNU-120596 but no demonstrable channel block. Steady-state currents through receptors that would otherwise be desensitized could also be produced by the application of PNU-120596 in the presence of a physiologically relevant concentration of choline (60 microM), which may be significant for the therapeutic development of type 2 PAMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171160"><span>Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>/3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-THP) and (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-THDOC) and (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5<span class="hlt">alpha</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998NIMPA.419..295V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998NIMPA.419..295V"><span>The <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> Magnetic Spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viertel, G. M.; Capell, M.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will be the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. It is scheduled to be installed on the future International Space Station <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> (ISSA) in the year 2002 to perform measurements of the charged particle composition to answer fundamental questions in particle physics and astrophysics. Before installation on ISSA, AMS will fly on the shuttle DISCOVERY for a period of 10 days starting in May 1998. This will enable AMS to perform a test of the apparatus and first measurements. The AMS detector has five major components: A permanent NdFeB magnet, six planes of Silicon double-sided microstrip detectors, a plastic scintillator time of flight hodoscope, a plastic scintillator anticoincidence counter and an Aerogel Cherenkov threshold counter. In addition, there are electronics, support infrastructure and interfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93f4316A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..93f4316A"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> isomers in 192Po and 194Po</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andel, B.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kalaninová, Z.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Sulignano, B.; Van Duppen, P.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Isomeric states in 194Po and 192Po were studied at the velocity filter SHIP. The isotopes were produced in the fusion-evaporation reactions 141Pr(56Fe, p 2 n )194Po and 144Sm(51V, p 2 n )192Po . Several new γ -ray transitions were attributed to the isomers and γ -γ coincidences for both isomers were studied for the first time. The 459-keV transition earlier, tentatively proposed as de-exciting the isomeric level in 194Po, was replaced by a new 248-keV transition, and the spin of this isomer was reassigned from (11-) to (10-). The de-excitation of the (11-) isomeric level in 192Po by the 154-keV transition was confirmed and a parallel de-excitation by a 733-keV (E 3 ) transition to (8+) level of the ground-state band was suggested. Moreover, side feeding to the (4+) level of the ground-state band was proposed. The paper also discusses strengths of transitions de-exciting 11- isomers in neighboring Po and Pb isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5266735','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5266735"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6000562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6000562"><span>Harvard--MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>This report describes progress on five projects. The first project showed a 1000 fold concentration of the cationic complex {sup 99m}Tc (MIBI) in heart cell mitochondria vs heart cell cytoplasm, as determined by high resolution electron probe microanalysis. Additional technetium-99m based complexes are being developed and tested. The second project involves evaluating technetium acetylacteonates as potential indicators of cerebral blood flow. An intermediate in the synthesis of a technetium porphyrin complex has been synthesized; an oxotechnetium(V)-2,4-pentanedione complex has been prepared and is currently being characterized. The third project involves using radio labelled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. An early discovery was that chloramine-T based iodination protocols resulted in a reversal of the charge on mouse lgGs. Immunoperoxidase-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv 18 was shown to bind specifically to the most frequent ovarian aderon carcinomas, and not to healthy tissue, making this antibody a good candidate for immunotherapy or immunodetection. Work on a specific immunotherapy protocol suffered a setback when one reagent, a {sup 125}I-biotin complex, proved to be unstable in vivo. The fourth project involves labelling antibodies with positron emitting radionuclides. Radiofluorination was accomplished through reductive alkylation of {sup 18}F-aldehyde, or pentafluorophenyl esters. Radioiodination was accomplished using alkyl-tin derivation exchange. The fifth project examined antibody modification for use in radioimmune imaging. Technetium-99m-labelled lgG was shown to be biologically equivalent to Indium-III-labelled lgG for imaging focal sites of inflamation. Also, Indium III labelling of small bioactive peptides was examined as a means of imaging important physiological processes. 44 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930072495&hterms=Radioactivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRadioactivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930072495&hterms=Radioactivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DRadioactivity"><span>On Al-26 and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> interstellar radioactivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011730','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011730"><span>Tropospheric Ozone as a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemical Climate Forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pickering, Kenneth E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5007582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5007582"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides in nuclear medicine - II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Budinger, T.F.; Peng, C.T.</p> <p>1985-11-01</p> <p>Positron emission tomography (PET) has been applied effectively in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the prognosis of stroke, and the evaluation of the efficacy of tumor therapy. In addition, PET has been applied to studies of the neuroreceptor distribution in the human brain, to studies of epilepsy and congenital disorders of the brain, and to the study of flow and metabolism of the human heart muscle. Of the many current investigations of PET, the three discussed here are now of clinical importance for patient care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391378"><span>Probing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fluctuations in hadrons and nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Munier, Stéphane</p> <p>2015-04-10</p> <p>We develop a picture of dipole-nucleus (namely dilute-dense) and dipole-dipole (dilute-dilute) scattering in the high-energy regime based on the analysis of the fluctuations in the quantum evolution. We emphasize the difference in the nature of the fluctuations probed in these two processes respectively, which, interestingly enough, leads to observable differences in the scattering amplitude profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218182"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Rn-222 daughters in cryogenic liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pelczar, Krzysztof; Frodyma, Nikodem; Wójcik, Marcin</p> <p>2013-08-08</p> <p>In this paper a detection method of α emitters from {sup 222}Rn decay chain, present in cryogenic liquids, using bare Si-PIN diodes immersed in the liquids is presented. Properties of ionized {sup 222}Rn daughters deduced from conducted measurements are outlined. Life-time of positive ions was found to be of the order of 10 s, and nonzero content of electronegative ions was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/986346','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/986346"><span>RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> SPECTROMETRY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.</p> <p>2010-06-23</p> <p>A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry so that long and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242585','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242585"><span>Background canceling surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.</p> <p>1996-06-11</p> <p>A background canceling long range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation alone. 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870460','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/870460"><span>Background canceling surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A background canceling long range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12141920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12141920"><span>Are <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-gliadins glycosylated?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turner, J B; Garner, G V; Gordon, D B; Brookes, S J; Smith, C A</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-gliadins isolated by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography contain noncovalently bound glucose probably due to contaminating proteoglycans and to material shed from the column. Traces of carbohydrate remain strongly bound to <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-gliadins even after harsh denaturation, but our results indicate <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-gliadins are not glycoproteins. Suggestions that gliadins are glycoproteins are probably due to contamination with this glucose and the presence of these proteoglycans.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6227851','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6227851"><span>Long range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.</p> <p>1993-02-02</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle detector capable of detecting <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003170','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910003170"><span>Modeling Solar Lyman <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Irradiance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Solar Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED136252.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED136252.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Kappa <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marable, June Morehead</p> <p></p> <p>This document discusses the founding and establishment of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Kappa <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2024290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2024290"><span>Molecular characterization of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Three '<span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-adrenoceptors' and three '<span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596584','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21596584"><span>Microscopic cluster model of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+n, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+p, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+ {sup 3}He, and {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+n, {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+p, and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201713"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle microdosimetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chouin, Nicolas; Bardies, Manuel</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>With the increasing availability of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters, targeted α-particle therapy has emerged as a solution of choice to treat haematological cancers and micrometastatic and minimal residual diseases. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particles are highly cytotoxic because of their high linear energy transfer (LET) and have a short range of a few cell diameters in tissue, assuring good treatment specificity. These radiologic features make conventional dosimetry less relevant for that context. Stochastic variations in the energy deposited in cell nuclei are important because of the microscopic target size, low number of α- particle traversals, and variation in LET along the α-particle track. Microdosimetry provides a conceptual framework that aims at a systematic analysis of the stochastic distribution of energy deposits in irradiated matter. The different quantities of microdosimetry and the different methods of microdosimetric calculations were described in the early eighties. Since then, numerous models have been published through the years and applied to analyse experimental data or to model realistic therapeutic situations. Major results have been an accurate description of the high toxicity of α-particles, and the description of the predominant effect of activity distribution at the cellular scale on toxicity or efficacy of potential targeted α-particle therapies. This last factor represents a major limitation to the use of microdosimetry in vivo because determination of the source - target distribution is complicated. The future contributions of microdosimetry in targeted α-particle therapy research will certainly depend on the ability to develop high-resolution detectors and on the implementation of pharmaco-kinetic models at the tumour microenvironment scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212747','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=212747"><span>DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span>-MALTOTRIOSE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recent DFT optimization studies on <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-maltose and the present study extends these studies to <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-maltotriose with three <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=305110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=305110"><span>Prothymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> in human blood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panneerselvam, C; Haritos, A A; Caldarella, J; Horecker, B L</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The major cross-reacting peptide in human plasma detected with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 was identified as prothymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, based on its elution properties in gel-filtration chromatography and its amino acid composition after purification by HPLC. A small quantity (less than 10%) of the total cross-reacting material was recovered in fractions corresponding to lower molecular weight thymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-like peptides. The total quantity of cross-reacting material detected in human blood, expressed as thymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 equivalents, was 11-14 pmol/ml (approximately 90% was recovered in the leukocyte fraction, approximately 10% was in the plasma fraction, and 1-2% was in the erythrocyte fraction). The peptide present in leukocytes was also identified as prothymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. After correction for the 5-times lower molar reactivity of prothymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> in the thymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 RIA employed in these experiments, we estimate that the content of prothymosin <span class="hlt">alpha</span> in human blood is 55-70 pmol/ml (0.6-0.8 microgram/ml). The relatively small quantities recovered in the erythrocyte and plasma fractions may be attributed to contamination of the former by leukocytes or to leakage from leukocytes into the plasma. PMID:3474615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electroencephalography&pg=7&id=EJ653077','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Electroencephalography&pg=7&id=EJ653077"><span>EEG <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Power and Intelligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Tested whether <span class="hlt">alpha</span> power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> power. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25905520"><span>Radon and Thoron Measured in Petrol and Gas-oil Exhaust Fumes by Using CR-39 and LR-115 II Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Doses to the Respiratory Tract of Mechanic Workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Mechanic workers are exposed to exhaust fumes when controlling vehicle engines in motion inside repair shops. To assess radiation doses due to radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny from the inhalation of exhaust fumes by mechanic workers, concentrations of these radionuclides were measured in petrol (gasoline) and gas-oil exhaust fumes by evaluating mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II SSNTDs for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by the radon and thoron decay series. Committed effective doses due to ²¹⁸Po and ²¹⁴Po <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products from the inhalation of petrol and gas-oil exhaust fumes by workers were evaluated. A maximum value of 1.35 mSv y⁻¹ due to radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products from the inhalation of gas-oil exhaust fumes by mechanic workers was found, which is lower than the (3-10 mSv y⁻¹) dose limit interval for workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16466950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16466950"><span>Prevalence of -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) and -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(4.2) <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) deletion, and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) deletion and 28% the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) triplication. The -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(3.7) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00215&hterms=debris+flow+collapse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddebris%2Bflow%2Bcollapse','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00215&hterms=debris+flow+collapse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddebris%2Bflow%2Bcollapse"><span>Venus - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Regio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The eastern edge of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Regio is shown in this image centered at 30 degrees south latitude and 11.8 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east). Seven circular, dome-like hills, averaging 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter with maximum heights of 750 meters (2,475 feet) dominate the scene. These features are interpreted as very thick lava flows that came from an opening on the relatively level ground, which allowed the lava to flow in an even pattern outward from the opening. The complex fractures on top of the domes suggest that if the domes were created by lava flows, a cooled outer layer formed and then further lava flowing in the interior stretched the surface. The domes may be similar to volcanic domes on Earth. Another interpretation is that the domes are the result of molten rock or magma in the interior that pushed the surface layer upward. The near-surface magma then withdrew to deeper levels, causing the collapse and fracturing of the dome surface. The bright margins possibly indicate the presence of rock debris on the slopes of the domes. Some of the fractures on the plains cut through the domes, while others appear to be covered by the domes. This indicates that active processes pre date and post date the dome-like hills. The prominent black area in the northeast corner of the image is a data gap. North is at the top of the image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12202242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12202242"><span>Biosensor analysis of dynamics of interleukin 5 receptor subunit beta(c) interaction with IL5:IL5R(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scibek, Jeffery J; Evergren, Emma; Zahn, Stefan; Canziani, Gabriela A; Van Ryk, Donald; Chaiken, Irwin M</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>To gain insight into IL5 receptor subunit recruitment mechanism, and in particular the experimentally elusive pathway for assembly of signaling subunit beta(c), we constructed a soluble beta(c) ectodomain (s(beta)(c)) and developed an optical biosensor assay to measure its binding kinetics. Functionally active s(beta)(c) was anchored via a C-terminal His tag to immobilized anti-His monoclonal antibodies on the sensor surface. Using this surface, we quantitated for the first time direct binding of s(beta)(c) to IL5R(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) complexed to either wild-type or single-chain IL5. Binding was much weaker if at all with either R(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) or IL5 alone. Kinetic evaluation revealed a moderate affinity (0.2-1 microM) and relatively fast off rate for the s(beta)(c) interaction with IL5:R(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) complexes. The data support a model in which beta(c) recruitment occurs with preformed IL5:R(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) complex. Dissociation kinetics analysis suggests that the IL5-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-beta(c) complex is relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. Overall, this study solidifies a model of sequential recruitment of receptor subunits by IL5, provides a novel biosensor binding assay of beta(c) recruitment dynamics, and sets the stage for more advanced characterization of the roles of structural elements within R(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>), beta(c), and cytokines of the IL5/IL3/GM-CSF family in receptor recruitment and activation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5675485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5675485"><span>Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,11 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tritiated 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-androstane-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-androstane-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,11 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tritiated 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-androstane-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-androstane-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720015182&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dradon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720015182&hterms=radon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dradon"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-particle spectrometer experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxmGkxqcM9U','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxmGkxqcM9U"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-thalassemia','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-thalassemia"><span>Genetics Home Reference: <span class="hlt">alpha</span> thalassemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that ... <span class="hlt">alpha</span> thalassemia , a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin prevents enough oxygen from reaching the body's tissues. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6614250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6614250"><span>Efficacy of astatine-211-labeled monoclonal antibody in treatment of murine T-cell lymphoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harrison, A.; Royle, L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope /sup 211/At (half-life, 7.2 hr), an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> halogen, has been attached to a monoclonal antibody (anti-thy 1.1, IgG1, OX7) and used in mice in the treatment of a thy 1.1 T-cell lymphoma (A120). Forty-eight hours after receiving an iv injection of 10(3) or 10(5) A120 cells, mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, /sup 211/At-, antibody alone, or /sup 211/At conjugated to OX7. Treatment with the /sup 211/At-labeled OX7 conjugate increased the median survival time of mice and probably cured (survival at 200 days) 6 of the 15 mice given 10(5) cells and 21 of the 27 mice given 10(3) cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15748873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15748873"><span>Progesterone's 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-reduced metabolite, 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP, mediates lateral displacement of hamsters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E</p> <p>2005-03-15</p> <p>5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Pregnan-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-ol-20-one (3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP), progesterone (P4)'s 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-reduced, 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxysteroid oxidoreduced product, facilitates lordosis of rodents in part via agonist-like actions at GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Whether 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP influences another reproductively-relevant behavior, lateral displacement, of hamsters was investigated. Lateral displacement is the movement that female hamsters make with their perineum towards male-like tactile stimulation. This behavior facilitates, and is essential for, successful mating. Hamsters in behavioral estrus had greater lateral displacement responses when endogenous progestin levels were elevated compared to when progestin levels were lower. Administration of P4, a prohormone for 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP, dose-dependently (500 > 200 > 100, 50, or 0 microg) enhanced lateral displacement of ovariectomized hamsters that had been primed with SC estradiol benzoate (5 or 10 microg). Inhibiting P4's metabolism to 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP by co-administering finasteride, a 5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-reductase inhibitor, or indomethacin, a 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase inhibitor, either systemically or to the VTA, significantly decreased lateral displacement and midbrain progestin levels of naturally receptive or hormone-primed hamsters compared to controls. These data suggest that lateral displacement is progestin-sensitive and requires the formation of 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>,5 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-THP in the midbrain VTA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433067"><span>Evaluation of internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span>, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/937833','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/937833"><span>Evaluation of internal <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation exposure and subsequent infertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schieve, L. A.; Davis, F.; Roeske, J.; Handler, A.; Freels, S.; Stinchcomb, T.; Keane, A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Chicago; DePaul Univ.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n=603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span>, fraction of energy absorbed with in the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208787','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208787"><span>Mechanism of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopheryl-phosphate (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-TP) transport across the cell membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We have reported that <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-T), <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-TP appears to be more potent than <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PMB....41.1915V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PMB....41.1915V"><span>Targeted therapy using <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Radionuclides such as <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img2.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> which decay by the emission of <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img3.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles are attractive for certain applications of targeted radiotherapy. The tissue penetration of <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img2.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img5.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles is equivalent to only a few cell diameters, offering the possibility of combining cell-specific targeting with radiation of similar range. Unlike the <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img6.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-<span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by radionuclides such as <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img7.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/> and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img8.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>, <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img3.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-particles are radiation of high linear energy transfer and thus greater biological effectiveness. Several approaches have been explored for targeted radiotherapy with <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img2.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>- and <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-labelled substances including colloids, monoclonal antibodies, metabolic precursors, receptor-avid ligands and other lower molecular weight molecules. An additional agent which exemplifies the promise of <IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img3.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>-emitting radiopharmaceuticals is meta-[<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/10/005/img1.gif" ALIGN="BOTTOM"/>]astatobenzylguanidine. The toxicity of this compound under single-cell conditions, determined both by [<IMG SRC="http://ej.iop.org/images/0031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030752','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030752"><span>Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\<span class="hlt">alpha_s</span>$</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1537724','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1537724"><span>Immunodiagnosis of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chain disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Since the early diagnosis of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chain disease (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>CD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten <span class="hlt">alpha</span>CD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>CD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950053129&hterms=alpha+ray&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dalpha%2Bray','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950053129&hterms=alpha+ray&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dalpha%2Bray"><span>Time evolution of a miniflare as seen in H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, UV lines, and X-rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fontenla, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simnett, G. M.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A miniflare that occurred in active region Hale 16896 on 1980 June 15 was observed in H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, UV lines, and soft X-rays. These data allow us to analyze the flare emission and derive the energetics and dynamics of the chromospheric plasma involved. Our results indicate that the energy released by the miniflare was about 10(exp 28) ergs, about four orders of magnitude smaller than that of a large flare. However, hard X-rays (5.5-8.0 keV) were observed which indicated a plasma with temperature as high as 27 x 10(exp 6) K. The H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> wings, C IV, and X-rays all showed a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and compact (3 sec x 3 sec) brightening in a location near the leading sunspot. At this location, small-scale changes in the magnetic field were observed from about 2 hr before to about 6 hr after the miniflare. Only very small velocities seem to have been associated with most of the event in H-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>. The data are consistent with short and dense loops at temperatures above 10(exp 7) K which lost a large fraction of their energy via downward conduction through regions at the footpoints. Several secondary events appear to have been triggered by the miniflare along an arch filament which itself was not greatly affected. A number of much less energetic (10(exp 25)-10(exp 26) erg) events preceded and followed the mini-flare. One of these occurred 11 minutes after the mini-flare and displayed a highly Doppler-shifted signature from the foot-point of a C IV arch. This arch delineates the connection that existed between the location of the mini-flare and the location of secondary events triggered by the flare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589415"><span>Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as selective human <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)- versus <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1)-adrenoceptor ligands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bavadekar, Supriya A; Hong, Seoung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ii; Miller, Duane D; Feller, Dennis R</p> <p>2008-08-20</p> <p>Phentolamine is known to act as a competitive, non-subtype-selective <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-adrenoceptor antagonist. In an attempt to improve <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)- versus <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1)-adrenoceptor selectivity and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)-adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity, two new chemical series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs were prepared and evaluated. These compounds were evaluated for binding affinities on <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1)- (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1A)-, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1B)-, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1D)-) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)- (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2A)-, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2B)-, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2C)-) adrenoceptor subtypes that had been stably expressed in human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, respectively. Methylation of the phenolic hydroxy group and replacement of the 4-methyl group of phentolamine with varying lipophilic substituents yielded bioisosteric analogs selective for the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)- versus <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1)-adrenoceptors. Within the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)-adrenoceptors, these analogs bound with higher affinity at the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2A)- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2C)-subtypes as compared to the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2B)-subtype. In particular, the t-butyl analog was found to be the most selective, its binding at the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2C)-adrenoceptor (Ki=3.6 nM) being 37- to 173-fold higher than that at the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1)-adrenoceptors, and around 2- and 19-fold higher than at the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2A)- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2B)-adrenoceptors, respectively. Data from luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the functional antagonist activities of selected compounds from the bioisosteric series on human <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(1A)- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2C)-adrenoceptors. Thus, the results with these bioisosteric analogs of phentolamine provide a lead to the rational design of potent and selective <span class="hlt">alpha</span>(2)-adrenoceptor ligands that may be useful in improving the therapeutic profile of this drug class for human disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020449','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020449"><span>Space Station <span class="hlt">alpha</span> joint bearing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13678286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13678286"><span>Rapid identification and analysis of airborne plutonium using a combination of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farmer, Dennis E; Steed, Amber C; Sobus, Jon; Stetzenbach, Klaus; Lindley, Kaz; Hodge, Vernon F</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Recent wildland fires near two U.S. nuclear facilities point to a need to rapidly identify the presence of airborne plutonium during incidents involving the potential release of radioactive materials. Laboratory turn-around times also need to be shortened for critical samples collected in the earliest stages of radiological emergencies. This note discusses preliminary investigations designed to address both these problems. The methods under review are same day high-resolution <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectroscopy to screen air filter samples for the presence of plutonium and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to perform sensitive plutonium analyses. Thus far, using modified <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to reliably identify the approximately 5.2 MeV emission of 239Pu on surrogate samples (air filters artificially spiked with plutonium after collection) even though the primary <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle emissions of plutonium are, as expected, superimposed against a natural <span class="hlt">alpha</span> radiation background dominated by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon and thoron progeny (approximately 6-9 MeV). Several processing methods were tested to prepare samples for analysis and shorten laboratory turn-around time. The most promising technique was acid-leaching of air filter samples using a commercial open-vessel microwave digestion system. Samples prepared in this way were analyzed by both <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectroscopy (as a thin-layer iron hydroxide co-precipitate) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection levels achieved for 239Pu--approximately 1 mBq m(-3) for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectroscopy screening, and, < 0.1 mBq m(-3) for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis--are consistent with derived emergency response levels based on EPA's Protective Action Guides, and samples can be evaluated in 36 to 72 h. Further, if samples can be returned to a fixed-laboratory and processed immediately, results from mass spectrometry could be available in as little as 24 h. When fully implemented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000381&hterms=alpha+ray&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalpha%2Bray','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GPN-2000-000381&hterms=alpha+ray&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalpha%2Bray"><span>NACA Physicist Studying <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1957-01-01</p> <p>NACA Physicits studying <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957877','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20957877"><span>Bremsstrahlung in {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} Decay Reexamined</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.</p> <p>2007-07-13</p> <p>A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} particle and the emitted photon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1137116','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1137116"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Channeling in Mirror Machines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fisch, Nathaniel J.</p> <p>2014-07-16</p> <p>This Final Report for DE-FG02-06ER54851, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Channeling in Mirror Machines, was in fact submitted on April 9, 2010. Some confusion arose because it was submitted as an initial progress report on a related grant, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Channeling in Open- System Magnetic Devices. The original text is reproduced below, except that the publication record is undated. Note that the articles published in 2009 and 2010 reflect work in fact done under DE-FG02-06ER54851.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862911','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862911"><span>Test chamber for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Larsen, Robert P.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2192118','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2192118"><span>The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 integrin chain is a ligand for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 7 and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The heterodimeric <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 integrins <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 7 lymphocyte Peyer's patch adhesion molecule ([LPAM]-1) and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 1 (very late antigen-4) are cell surface adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte trafficking and lymphocyte-cell and matrix interactions. Known cellular ligands include vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, which binds to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 1 and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 7, and the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM)-1, which binds to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 7. Here we show that the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 chain of these integrins can itself serve as a ligand. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 chain, immunoaffinity purified and immobilized on glass slides, binds thymocytes and T lymphocytes. Binding exhibits divalent cation requirements and temperature sensitivity which are characteristic of integrin-mediated interactions, and is specifically inhibited by anti-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 integrin antibodies, which exert their effect at the cell surface. Cells expressing exclusively <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 7 (TK-1) or <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 1 (L1-2) both bound avidly, whereas <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4-negative cells did not. A soluble 34-kD <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 chain fragment retained binding activity, and it inhibited lymphocyte adhesion to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 ligands. It has been shown that <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 integrin binding to fibronectin involves an leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV) motif in the HepII/IIICS region of fibronectin (CS-1 peptide), and homologous sequences are important in binding to VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1. Three conserved LDV motifs occur in the extracellular sequence of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4. A synthetic LDV-containing <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4- derived oligopeptide supports <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4-integrin-dependent lymphocyte adhesion and blocks binding to the 34-kD <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 chain fragment. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 7 and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 beta 1 integrins may be able to bind to the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 subunit on adjacent cells, providing a novel mechanism for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 4 integrin-mediated and activation-regulated lymphocyte interactions during immune responses. PMID:7629498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009786','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950009786"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> proton x ray spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Mars Pathfinder will carry an <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28113175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28113175"><span>Sparse Coding for <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Matting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Existing color sampling-based <span class="hlt">alpha</span> matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate <span class="hlt">alpha</span> at a pixel from the pairs of foreground ( F ) and background ( B ) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected ( F,B ) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to ( F,B ) pairs, this method allows for better <span class="hlt">alpha</span> estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms the current stateoftheart in image and video matting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28113899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28113899"><span>Sparse Coding for <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Matting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu</p> <p>2016-04-21</p> <p>Existing color sampling based <span class="hlt">alpha</span> matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate <span class="hlt">alpha</span> at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better <span class="hlt">alpha</span> estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ137568.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ137568.pdf"><span>Alcoholism, <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Production, and Biofeedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less <span class="hlt">alpha</span> than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21191997','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21191997"><span>Coexistence of {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>}+n+n and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.</p> <p>2008-06-15</p> <p>The coexistence of the {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>}+n+n and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} clusters. However, the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}+t+t three-center) and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-type ({<span class="hlt">alpha}+{alpha</span>}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6472876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6472876"><span>A synopsis of collective <span class="hlt">alpha</span> effects and implications for ITER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sigmar, D.J.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the following: <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Interaction with Ballooning Modes; <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11Q..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11Q..05S"><span>Characterizing Ice Nucleating <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from Agricultural Activities and Natural Landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Hill, T. C. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil dust and plant fragment emissions from agricultural harvesting and natural ecosystems are two potentially large, yet unquantified and largely uncharacterized, sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Both organic and mineral components have been shown to contribute to the ice-nucleating ability of soil dust, but apart from the likely presence of ice nucleation-active bacteria, little is known about the ice nucleating potential of plant tissues. This work aims to identify and differentiate the organic and inorganic contributions of soil and plant INP sources emitted from harvesting activities and natural landscapes. For this purpose, the CSU Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) and the Ice Spectrometer (IS) were utilized in a combination of ambient measurements and laboratory studies. Small variability and low INP numbers (< 10 L-1 at -30 °C) characterized measurements made in air over the grazed Pawnee National Grassland in Colorado, while more variable INP over croplands around the DOE-ARM SGP site in Oklahoma appear linked to regional wind, humidity, and rainfall conditions. Harvesting of milo (grain sorghum), soybean, and wheat at an experimental research farm in Kansas resulted in spikes of INPs, with wheat harvesting producing the largest INP concentrations (up to 100 L-1 at -30 °C). In-situ use of heating tubes upstream of the CFDC to deactivate organic INP showed that milo and wheat harvest emissions showed a stronger reduction of INPs at warm temperatures than soybean emissions, suggesting a larger contribution of organics to their INP activity. Further characterization of the sources and organic and inorganic contributions to terrestrially emitted INPs by comparison to laboratory studies on collected soil dust and plant samples will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4778245','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4778245"><span>Characterization and Control of Airborne <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> During Production of Epoxy / Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cena, Lorenzo G.; Peters, Thomas M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This work characterized airborne particles that were generated from the weighing of bulk, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratiô1). The particles generated during sanding were predominately micron-sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 μm) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator’s breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 μg/m3) compared to those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 μg/m3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 μg/m3; p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212506&keyword=particle+AND+physics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90649483&CFTOKEN=20064256','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=212506&keyword=particle+AND+physics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90649483&CFTOKEN=20064256"><span>A Model to Predict the Breathing Zone Concentrations of <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perfo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA586759','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA586759"><span>Evolution of Trace Gases and <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> by a Chaparral Fire in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-07</p> <p>2.16)× 10−2 in ∼4.5 h following smoke emis- sion. Excess acetic and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.73± 0.43 and 7.34...and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.73?0.43 and 7.34?3.03 (respectively) over the same time since emission. Based on...C3H6), formalde- hyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH), furan (C4H4O), phe- nol (C6H5OH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and formic acid (HCOOH). Ram air was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8852S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8852S"><span>Chemical characteristics of fine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from different gas cooking methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar</p> <p></p> <p>Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28167262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28167262"><span>Humidity affects the morphology of <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard</p> <p>2017-03-30</p> <p>The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830008001','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830008001"><span>The isotropic condition of energetic <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from a large solar flare. Ph.D. Thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spalding, J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Isotope abundance ratios for 5 to 50 MeV/nuc nuclei from a large solar flare were measured. The measurements were made by the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope (HIST) on the ISEE-3 satellite orbiting the Sun near an Earth-Sun liberation point approximately one million miles sunward of the Earth. Finite values for the isotope abundance ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, O-18/O-16, Ne-22/Ne-20, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Mg-26/Mg-24, and upper limits for the isotope abundance ratios He-3/He-4, C-14/C-12, O-17/O-16 and Ne-21/Ne-20 were reported. Element abundances and spectra were measured to compare the flare with other reported flares. The flare is a typical large flare with low Fe/O abundance or = to 0.1). For C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, O-18/O-16, Mg-25/Mg-24 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope abundance ratios agree with the solar system abundance ratios. Measurement for Ne-22/Ne-20 agree with the isotopic composition of the meteoritic component neon-A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PAN....79.1375I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PAN....79.1375I"><span>Effect of energy transfer from atomic electron shell to an α <span class="hlt">particle</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by decaying nucleus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil'sky, Yu. M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The process of energy transfer from the electron shell of an atom to an α particle propagating through the shell is formulated mathematically. Using the decay of the 226Ra nucleus as an example, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon increases the α-decay intensity in contrast with other known effects of similar type. Moreover, the α decay of the nucleus is more strongly affected by the energy transfer than by all other effects taken together.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA575283','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA575283"><span>Quantifying Sulfate, Organics, and Lubrication Oil in <span class="hlt">Particles</span> <span class="hlt">Emitted</span> from Military Aircraft Engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>and organic species j, SC , 3SOC , and jCO are the concentrations of the vapor phase sulfuric acid , SO3, and organic species j, NA is the Avogadro’s...conditions than sulfuric acid . 17 (a) (b) 2.3.4.3 Effects of Initial Organic Concentrations Since the exact...J., and Mirabel, P. (1996). Vapor Pressures in the Ternary System Water- Nitric Acid -Sulfuric Acid at Low Temperature: A Reexamination J. Geophys. Res</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002036','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002036"><span>Large-scale negative polarity magnetic fields on the sun and <span class="hlt">particle-emitting</span> flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bumba, V.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Some observational facts about the large-scale patterns formed by solar negative polarity magnetic fields during the 19th and 20th cycles of solar activity are presented. The close relation of the position of occurrence of very large flares accompanied by cosmic ray and PCA events as well as other phenomena of solar activity during the declining part of the 19th cycle of the regularities in the internal structure of large scale negative polarity features are demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20685717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20685717"><span>Ultrafine <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> by flame and electric arc guns for thermal spraying of metals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bémer, Denis; Régnier, Roland; Subra, Isabelle; Sutter, Benjamin; Lecler, Marie T; Morele, Yves</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The ultrafine aerosol emitted by thermal spraying of metals using flame and electric arc processes has been characterized in terms of particle size distribution and emission rates based on both particle number and mass. Thermal spraying of Zn, Zn/Al, and Al was studied. Measurements taken using an electrical low pressure impactor and a condensation nucleus counter reveal an aerosol made up of very fine particles (80-95% of number distribution <100 nm). Ultrafine particle emission rates produced by the electric arc process are very high, the largest values being recorded during spraying of pure aluminium. This process generates high particle emissions and therefore requires careful consideration and possible rethinking of currently implemented protection measures: ventilated cabins, dust collectors, and personal protective equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313190"><span>Identification of platinum and palladium <span class="hlt">particles</span> <span class="hlt">emitted</span> from vehicles and dispersed into the surface environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prichard, Hazel M; Fisher, Peter C</p> <p>2012-03-20</p> <p>Platinum, palladium, and rhodium are emitted from vehicle catalytic converters. Until now, the form of precious metal particles in road dust and urban waste has not been identified. This study has located, imaged, and analyzed these particles in road dust and gully waste. Two fragments of catalytic converter have been observed in road dust. They are 40-80 μm in size and covered in many minute particles (<0.3 μm) of either platinum with minor rhodium or palladium. One fragment identified in gully sediment is smaller, 25 μm in diameter, hosting only one attached particle of palladium with minor rhodium. As fragments are washed off roads they begin to disintegrate and the precious metals become detached. Also precious metal-bearing particles have been located in incinerated sewage ash including a 20 μm diameter cluster of <3 μm sized platinum particles that may be the remains of a catalytic converter fragment that has survived incineration. The form of these precious metal-bearing particles described here reveals that as they are dispersed from roads they are likely to be present predominantly as two particle sizes. Either they are attached to larger fragments of catalytic converter or they are released as individual detached tiny <0.3 μm to nanoparticle sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aat/causes','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aat/causes"><span>What Causes <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Causes <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" means it's ... parents to children through genes. Children who have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aat/treatment','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aat/treatment"><span>How Is <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its related lung ... pulmonary disease). If you have symptoms related to AAT deficiency, your doctor may recommend: Medicines called inhaled ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12392"><span>Reversible adrenergic <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-receptor blocking action of 2,4'-dimethyl-3-piperidino-propiophenone (tolperisone).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Furuta, Y; Yoshikawa, A</p> <p>1976-10-01</p> <p>The vascular action of 2,4'-dimethyl-3-piperidino-propiophenone hydrochloride (tolperisone hydrochloride), a centrally acting muscle relaxant, was investigated in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Tolperisone given intravenously produced a transient hypotension, tachycardia, and hyperventilation. The drug increased the femoral arterial flow, and decreased the superior mesenteric arterial flow following an initial transient increase. When injected directly into femoral and mesenteric arteries, tolperisone caused a rapid increase in both arterial flow (vasodilatation). However, femoral vessels were about 90 times as sensitive as mesenteric vessels to tolperisone. These results indicate that tolperisone shifts the blood volume from mesenteric (visceral) vessels to femoral (skeltal) ones. The femoral vasodilatation produced by i.a. tolperisone was not depressed by the pretreatment with i.a. propranolol, atropine or chlorphenylamine. Tolperisone decreased the contractile force in an isolated and cross-circulated papillary muscle. Tolperisone produced adrenaline reversal and antagonized the pressor response to noradrenaline. Moreover, femoral vasoconstriction caused by i.a. adrenaline was converted to vasodilatation and that caused by i.a. noradrenaline was depressed during an i.a. infusion of tolperisone. These results indicate that tolperisone blocks adrenergic <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-receptors. The blocking action was rapid in onset, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, and in addition, competitive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770043282&hterms=investigaciones&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dinvestigaciones','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770043282&hterms=investigaciones&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dinvestigaciones"><span>The ultraviolet spectra of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Aquilae and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Canis Minoris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Scans of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Aql (A7 IV, V) and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367479','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21367479"><span>In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dahle, Jostein; Krogh, Cecilie; Melhus, Katrine B.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Roy H.; Kvinnsland, Yngve</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate <span class="hlt">alpha-particle-emitting</span> radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-particle radiation from {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878081','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/878081"><span>Recent Results on the CKM Angle <span class="hlt">Alpha</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison</p> <p>2005-10-18</p> <p>The method to measure the CKM angle {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, which is found to be {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-mannosidosis','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-mannosidosis"><span>Genetics Home Reference: <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-mannosidosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... infantile form Orphanet: <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-mannosidosis The MPS Society (UK): Guide to <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Mannosidosis (PDF) Patient Support and ... Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) The MPS Society (UK) GeneReviews (1 link) <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-Mannosidosis ClinicalTrials.gov (1 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ223101.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ223101.pdf"><span>Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Assessed the utility of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given <span class="hlt">alpha</span> or mock-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17719069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17719069"><span>Brassinolide activities of 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols versus 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols in the bean second internode bioassay: explanation by molecular modeling methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sísa, Miroslav; Vilaplana-Polo, Marc; Ballesteros, Carme Brosa; Kohout, Ladislav</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>In general, the structural requirements postulated for a high brassinolide activity are: 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diol, 6-ketone or better 7-oxalactone in B-ring, A/B trans fused ring junction, a cis C-22,C-23-diol preferentially with RR configurations, and a C-24 methyl or ethyl substituent [Takatsuto S, Yazawa N, Ikekawa N, Takematsu T, Takeuchi Y, Koguchi M. Structure-activity relationship of brassinosteroids. Phytochemistry 1983;22:2437-41; Thompson MJ, Meudt WJ, Mandava NB, Dutky SR, Lusby WR, Spaulding DW. Synthesis of brassinosteroids and relationship of structure to plant growth-promoting effects. Steroids 1982;39:89-105]. We found that the 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols 4, 6 and 8 are more active than the 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols 3, 5 and 7 [Sísa M, Budesínský M, Kohout L. Synthesis of 7a-homo and 7a,7b-dihomo-5<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-cholestane analogues of brassinolide. Collect Czech Chem Commun 2003;68:2171-89]. This fact is in strong contrast with the structure requirements mentioned above. Our hypothesis suggests that the lower activity of 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols and/or the higher activity of 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols could be explained by twisting and distortion of the molecule due to the seven- or eight-membered B-ring and also by the position of a carbonyl group relative to the A-ring diol. 3D-SAR computer methodologies as alignments and overlaps of GRID maps and 3D-QSAR analysis GRID-GOLPE (CoMFA-like) were used as an effort to explain the higher bioactivity of 3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols 4, 6 and 8 in comparison with the 2<span class="hlt">alpha</span>,3<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-diols 3, 5 and 7 of B-ring enlarged brassinosteroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3919386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3919386"><span>Voglibose: An <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Glucosidase Inhibitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dabhi, Ajay S.; Bhatt, Nikita R.; Shah, Mohit J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a morbid disease worldwide, with increasing incidence as time passes. It has macro-vascular and micro-vascular complications. The main cause of these complications is poorly controlled postprandial hyperglycaemia. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> glucosidase inhibitors, namely acarbose, voglibose and miglitol, are available for therapy. Voglibose is well tolerated and effective in comparable doses among these drugs. This article highlights the important features of voglibose. PMID:24551718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6894931','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6894931"><span>Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin loci in normals and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W</p> <p>1981-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2. In the normal diploid state (<span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha/alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>) all four <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin production and results in <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expression of the two <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin loci in a variety of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia states. Only <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1 mRNA was produced in the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia-2 haplotype (-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) (one of the two <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin genes deleted from chromosome 16). This confirms previous gene mapping data which demonstrate deletion of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 gene. The triple <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin gene haplotype (<span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span>) is the reciprocal of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia-2 haplotype and thus contains an extra <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin gene. RNA from this haplotype contained a greater than normal level of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-relative to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-globin mRNA. This data implies that the extra <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2 gene in the triple <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin haplotype is functional. We detected a relative instability of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin mRNA encoding the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin structural mutant Constant Spring. This instability may contribute to the low level of expression of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Constant Spring protein. In a Chinese patient with nondeletion hemoglobin-H disease (- -/<span class="hlt">alpha</span> <span class="hlt">alpha</span> T) (both <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin genes are present but not fully functional) a normal ratio was maintained between the levels of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1- and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-globin mRNA, implying that mRNA production from both <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-globin genes is suppressed in a balanced manner. These observations extended previous findings concerning the structural rearrangements in the deletion types of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia and the pathophysiology of two nondeletion variants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8916357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8916357"><span>Formation of varanic acid, 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 7 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 12 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid from 3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 7 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 12 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid in Bombina orientalis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Une, M; Inoue, A; Hoshita, T</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Varanic acid (3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 7 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 12 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid; 24-OH-THCA) is almost the sole component of bile acids in the bile of Bombina orientalis. To examine in the mechanism of the formation of 24-OH-THCA, radiolabeled (25R)- and (25S)-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 7 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 12 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acids [(25R)- and (25S)-THCA] and (24E)-3 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 7 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, 12 <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-trihdroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acid (delta 24-THCA) were administered intraperitoneally to B. orientalis, gallbladder bile was collected after 24 h, and bile acids were subsequently extracted. Then the bile acids were analyzed by means of radio thin-layer chromatography and radio high-performance liquid chromatography after conversion to p-bromophenacyl ester derivatives. Although delta 24-THCA was not converted to 24-OH-THCA, (25R)-THCA and (25S)-THCA were transformed to (24R,25R)-24-OH-THCA and (24R,25S)-24-OH-THCA, respectively. These results strongly suggest that 24-OH-THCA was transformed via direct hydroxylation of the saturated side chain of THCA, not via hydration to an <span class="hlt">alpha</span>, beta-unsaturated acid, delta 24-THCA, in B. orientalis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004872','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110004872"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> voltaic batteries and methods thereof</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">alpha</span> voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130836','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130836"><span>THE LYMAN <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN <span class="hlt">ALPHA</span> HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hayes, Matthew; Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter</p> <p>2013-03-10</p> <p>We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emission line (Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman <span class="hlt">alpha</span> Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} radii are larger than those of H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} compared to H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, {xi}{sub Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}} = R {sup Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} halo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12566479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12566479"><span>Dietary <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol decreases <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol but not gamma-tocotrienol concentration in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikeda, Saiko; Tohyama, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Hamamura, Kimio; Abe, Kouichi; Yamashita, Kanae</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>We previously showed that <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and gamma-tocotrienols accumulate in adipose tissue and skin but not in plasma or other tissues of rats fed a tocotrienol-rich fraction extracted from palm oil containing <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- and gamma-tocotrienols. To clarify the nature of tocotrienol metabolism, we studied the distribution of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- or gamma-tocotrienol in rats fed <span class="hlt">alpha</span>- or gamma-tocotrienol without <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol, and the effect of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol on their distribution. Wistar rats (4-wk-old) were fed a diet with 50 mg <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol/kg alone or with 50 mg <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol/kg in expt. 1, and a diet with 50 mg gamma-tocotrienol/kg alone or with 50 mg <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol/kg in expt. 2, for 8 wk. <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Tocotrienol was detected in various tissues and plasma of the rats fed <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol alone, and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol concentrations in those tissues and plasma decreased (P < 0.05) by the dietary <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol in the rats fed <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol with <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol. However, gamma-tocotrienol preferentially accumulated in the adipose tissue and skin of the rats fed gamma-tocotrienol alone, and the dietary <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol failed either to decrease (P >/= 0.05) gamma-tocotrienol concentrations in the adipose tissue and skin or to increase (P >/= 0.05) in the urinary excretion of 2,7,8-trimethyl-2(2'-carboxymethyl)-6-hydroxycroman, a metabolite of gamma-tocotrienol, in the rats fed gamma-tocotrienol with <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol. These data suggest that <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol enhances the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol metabolism but not the gamma-tocotrienol metabolism in rats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3051849','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3051849"><span>PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> in cutaneous inflammation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmuth, Matthias</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> is a fatty acid activated transcription factors that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Primarily PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> serves as a lipid sensor. While PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> controls enzymes from the lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver, heart and muscles, PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> is also involved in skin homeostasis. PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> controls keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation, contributes to wound healing and regulates skin inflammation. PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> activation exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various skin conditions such as irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and UV-induced erythema, rendering investigations into the functions of PPAR-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> necessary to provide better understandings to treat many inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:21519405</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231"><span>8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxyflavinmononucleotide and related compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhilina, T A; Berezoyski, V M</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>2', 3', 4'-Triacetyl-FMN has been transformed by selective radical bromination into 2', 3', 4'-triacetyl-8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-bromo-FMN, and the following hydrolysis of the latter has afforded 8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxy-FMN. The presence of the hydroxy group in the 8<span class="hlt">alpha</span> position of 8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxy-FMN is confirmed by its acetylation into 2', 3'-diacetyl-8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-acetoxyriboflavin-4', 5'-cyclophosphate. The absorption spectra of the synthesized compounds have shown the reduction of the extinction ratios of the first and second absorption maxima in comparison with the extinction of the same maxima for 8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxyriboflavin. Unlike FMN, fluorescence quenching for 8<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-hydroxy-FMN has been found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1027482','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1027482"><span>Physiologic and prognostic significance of "<span class="hlt">alpha</span> coma".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iragui, V J; McCutchen, C B</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A patient with posthypoxic "<span class="hlt">alpha</span> coma" is described whose EEGs were recorded before coma, within two hours following the onset of coma and after recovery. The differences observed between the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity during coma and that seen before and after suggest that the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity during coma and the physiologic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> rhythm are different phenomena. This case, as well as others reported, also suggests that "<span class="hlt">alpha</span> coma" resolving in the first 24 hours following hypoxia may have a better prognosis than "<span class="hlt">alpha</span> coma" detected after the first day, and stresses the need for EEG monitoring begun in the immediate period following hypoxia in order to assess accurately the prognostic significance of this EEG pattern in the early stages of postanoxic encephalopathy. The aetiology of "<span class="hlt">alpha</span> coma" also affects outcome. The survival rate appears higher in patients with respiratory arrest than in those with combined cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:6886700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=246775','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=246775"><span><span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Tocopheryl phosphate – an active lipid mediator?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The vitamin E (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>T) derivative, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopheryl phosphate (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>TP), is detectable in small amounts in plasma, tissues, and cultured cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo suggest that <span class="hlt">alpha</span>T can become phosphorylated and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>TP dephosphorylated, suggesting the existence of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9322076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9322076"><span>Is Hb A2 elevated in adults with sickle-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-thalassemia (beta(S)/beta(S); -<span class="hlt">alpha/-alpha</span>)?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballas, S K; Gay, R N; Chehab, F F</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>Thirteen patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) were found to have two <span class="hlt">alpha</span> gene deletions with a presumptive genotype of beta(S)/beta(S); -<span class="hlt">alpha/-alpha</span>. Hematological data showed that this group of patients had elevated Hb A2 level. In order to determine whether the elevation of Hb A2 is typical of SS with a two <span class="hlt">alpha</span> gene deletion or is due to undiagnosed S-beta(O)-thalassemia with a two <span class="hlt">alpha</span> gene deletion we looked for the presence or absence of beta(O)-thalassemia by molecular techniques. The latter included reverse dot-blot hybridization to rule out a beta-thalassemia mutation, digestion with CvnI endonuclease followed by Southern blotting and hybridization with a beta genomic probe, and, in selected patients, determination of the synthetic <span class="hlt">alpha</span>/beta ratio. One of the 13 patients had S-beta(O)-thalassemia with a G-->A mutation at IVS-II-1 indicating that her genotype was beta(S)/beta(O) thalassemia; -<span class="hlt">alpha/-alpha</span>. The remaining 12 patients were homozygous for the sickle gene, had relatively elevated Hb levels, increased Hb A2 values, and Hb F levels similar to those in patients with SS and four or three <span class="hlt">alpha</span> genes. At the clinical level, the 12 patients with SS and a two <span class="hlt">alpha</span> gene deletion had increased prevalence of avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and splenomegaly, but decreased prevalence of leg ulcers and cerebrovascular accidents. Together, the data indicate that SS with a two <span class="hlt">alpha</span> gene deletion (beta(S)/beta(S); -<span class="hlt">alpha/-alpha</span>) is a unique subset of patients with SS characterised by distinct hematological and clinical features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9599010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9599010"><span>The mongoose acetylcholine receptor <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-bungarotoxin binding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S</p> <p>1998-04-17</p> <p>The mongoose AChR <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-bungarotoxin (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-BTX, indicating that lack of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1987131','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1987131"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptor agonists potentiate responses mediated by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-adrenoceptors in the cat nictitating membrane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shepperson, N. B.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> 1 but not <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptors mediate contractions of the cat nictitating membrane. The contractions of this tissue evoked by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-adrenoceptor agonists, but not those evoked by angiotensin II, are potentiated by pre-dosing with <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptor agonists. This potentiation is reversed by the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, WY 26392. Pressor responses evoked by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-adrenoceptor agonists or angiotensin II were not affected by <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Contractions of the nictitating membrane evoked by noradrenaline were reduced by pretreatment with WY 26392. These results suggest that in some tissues the role of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 2-adrenoceptors may be to modulate responses to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> 1-adrenoceptors, rather than to evoke a discrete response themselves. PMID:6148985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8899454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8899454"><span>Lymphatic transport of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikeda, I; Imasato, Y; Sasaki, E; Sugano, M</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Lymphatic transport of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol was measured in thoracic duct-cannulated rats. Animals were administered 3 ml of a test emulsion containing 200 mg sodium taurocholate, 50 mg fatty acid free-albumin, 200 mg fat and 100 mg of a mixture of tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol (Exp. 1) or 10 mg of purified <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-, gamma- or delta-tocotrienol or <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol (Exp. 2) through a gastric tube. Quantitative lymphatic recovery of oleic acid given as triolein was obtained in these experimental conditions. The 24-hours recovery of tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol were 10-20% of the administered dose in Exp. 1. The recovery of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol was about 2-times higher than that of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol, while that of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols was intermediate between these two <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-forms. In Exp. 2, where these compounds were administered individually, the 24 hours recovery ranged from 22 to 37% of the administered dose. Again, the recovery of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol was significantly higher than that of the other tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol, while that of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol was comparable. Thus, the results show the preferential absorption of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocotrienol compared to gamma- and delta-tocotrienols and <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-tocopherol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PMB....49.3703A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PMB....49.3703A"><span>Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> therapy for cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Targeted <span class="hlt">alpha</span> therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-conjugate (AC). Stable <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302139','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1302139"><span>Selectin-like kinetics and biomechanics promote rapid platelet adhesion in flow: the GPIb(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)-vWF tether bond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Doggett, Teresa A; Girdhar, Gaurav; Lawshé, Avril; Schmidtke, David W; Laurenzi, Ian J; Diamond, Scott L; Diacovo, Thomas G</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The ability of platelets to tether to and translocate on injured vascular endothelium relies on the interaction between the platelet glycoprotein receptor Ib <span class="hlt">alpha</span> (GPIb(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)) and the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (vWF-A1). To date, limited information exists on the kinetics that govern platelet interactions with vWF in hemodynamic flow. We now report that the GPIb(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)-vWF-A1 tether bond displays similar kinetic attributes as the selectins including: 1) the requirement for a critical level of hydrodynamic flow to initiate adhesion, 2) <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> tethering events at sites of vascular injury in vivo, and 3) a fast intrinsic dissociation rate constant, k(0)(off) (3.45 +/- 0.37 s(-1)). Values for k(off), as determined by pause time analysis of transient capture/release events, were also found to vary exponentially (4.2 +/- 0.8 s(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.4 s(-1)) as a function of the force applied to the bond (from 36 to 217 pN). The biological importance of rapid bond dissociation in platelet adhesion is demonstrated by kinetic characterization of the A1 domain mutation, I546V that is associated with type 2B von Willebrand disease (vWD), a bleeding disorder that is due to the spontaneous binding of plasma vWF to circulating platelets. This mutation resulted in a loss of the shear threshold phenomenon, a approximately sixfold reduction in k(off), but no significant alteration in the ability of the tether bond to resist shear-induced forces. Thus, flow dependent adhesion and rapid and force-dependent kinetic properties are the predominant features of the GPIb(<span class="hlt">alpha</span>)-vWF-A1 tether bond that in part may explain the preferential binding of platelets to vWF at sites of vascular injury, the lack of spontaneous platelet aggregation in circulating blood, and a mechanism to limit thrombus formation. PMID:12080112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19630794"><span>Selective sorting of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granule proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Italiano, J E; Battinelli, E M</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. A majority of this vast array of secreted proteins are stored in <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-granules to assembling platelets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23527997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23527997"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wewers, Mark D; Crystal, Ronald G</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The therapy of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an example of a medical triumph over a common hereditary disease. Based on the understanding of the pathogens of the disease as a deficiency in liver production of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-1 antitrypsin (AAT) resulting from inherited genetic variation in both parental AAT genes, the knowledge that A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE), and the observation that NE instilled into the lung of experimental animals resulted in emphysema, the concept evolved that the pulmonary manifestations of the disease could be halted by intermittent intravenous infusions of AAT purified from pooled human plasma. Following preliminary clinical studies in the academic community, and then pharmaceutical company development of large scale purification of human AAT, the FDA approved the use of weekly AAT augmentation therapy for AATD following a clinical trial which demonstrated that weekly infusions would raise to normal plasma and lung epithelial fluid levels of AAT in AAT-deficient individuals. The therapy is now used worldwide to treat AATD, the only pulmonary genetic disease with effective therapy for all affected individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16574644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16574644"><span>Partnership of PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> and HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span> in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rhee, James; Ge, Hongfei; Yang, Wenli; Fan, Melina; Handschin, Christoph; Cooper, Marcus; Lin, Jiandie; Li, Cai; Spiegelman, Bruce M</p> <p>2006-05-26</p> <p>Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> (PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) is a transcriptional coactivator involved in several aspects of energy metabolism. It is induced or activated under different stimuli in a highly tissue-specific manner and subsequently partners with certain transcription factors in those tissues to execute various biological programs. In the fasted liver, PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> is induced and interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4<span class="hlt">alpha</span> (HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>) and other transcription factors to activate gluconeogenesis and increase hepatic glucose output. Given the broad spectrum of liver genes responsive to HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, we sought to determine those that were specifically targeted by the combination of PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> and HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>. Coexpression of these two molecules in murine stem cells reveals a high induction of mRNA for apolipoproteins A-IV and C-II. Forced expression of PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> in mouse and human hepatoma cells increases the mRNA of a subset of apolipoproteins implicated in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, including apolipoproteins A-IV, C-II, and C-III. Coactivation of the apoC-III/A-IV promoter region by PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> occurs through a highly conserved HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span> response element, the loss of which completely abolishes activation by PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> and HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span>. Adenoviral infusion of PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> into live mice increases hepatic expression of apolipoproteins A-IV, C-II, and C-III and increases serum and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride levels. Conversely, knock down of PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span> in vivo causes a decrease in both apolipoprotein expression and serum triglyceride levels. These data point to a crucial role for the PGC-1<span class="hlt">alpha</span>/HNF4<span class="hlt">alpha</span> partnership in hepatic lipoprotein metabolism.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867217','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867217"><span>Beta/<span class="hlt">alpha</span> continuous air monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural <span class="hlt">alpha</span> counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6042283','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6042283"><span>Beta/<span class="hlt">alpha</span> continuous air monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.</p> <p>1988-06-27</p> <p>A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both <span class="hlt">alpha</span> and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural <span class="hlt">alpha</span> counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic <span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22126592','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22126592"><span>A NEW POPULATION OF HIGH-z, DUSTY Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} EMITTERS AND BLOBS DISCOVERED BY WISE: FEEDBACK CAUGHT IN THE ACT?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bridge, Carrie R.; Blain, Andrew; Borys, Colin J. K.; Griffith, Roger L.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Petty, Sara; Farrah, Duncan; Benford, Dominic; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Wu Jingwen; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol; Stanford, Spencer A.; Wright, Edward L.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>By combining data from the NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission with optical spectroscopy from the W. M. Keck telescope, we discover a mid-IR color criterion that yields a 78% success rate in identifying rare, typically radio-quiet, 1.6 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.6 dusty Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} emitters (LAEs). Of these, at least 37% have emission extended on scales of 30-100 kpc and are considered Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} ''blobs'' (LABs). The objects have a surface density of only {approx}0.1 deg{sup -2}, making them rare enough that they have been largely missed in deep, small area surveys. We measured spectroscopic redshifts for 92 of these galaxies, and find that the LAEs (LABs) have a median redshift of 2.3 (2.5). The WISE photometry coupled with data from Herschel (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) reveals that these galaxies are in the Hyper Luminous IR galaxy regime (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} L{sub Sun }) and have warm colors. They are typically more luminous and warmer than other dusty, z {approx} 2 populations such as submillimeter-selected galaxies and dust-obscured galaxies. These traits are commonly associated with the dust being illuminated by intense active galactic nucleus activity. We hypothesize that the combination of spatially extended Ly{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}, large amounts of warm IR-luminous dust, and rarity (implying a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> phase) can be explained if the galaxies are undergoing brief, intense ''feedback'' transforming them from an extreme dusty starburst/QSO into a mature galaxy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010266','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010266"><span>A New Population of High-z, Dusty Lyman-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> Emitters and Blobs Discovered by WISE: Feedback Caught in the Act?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bridge, Carrie R.; Blain, Andrew; Borys, Colin J. K.; Petty, Sara; Benford, Dominic; Eisenhardt, Peter; Farrah, Duncan; Griffith, Roger, L.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol; Stanford. Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>By combining data from the NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission with optical spectroscopy from the W. M. Keck telescope, we discover a mid-IR color criterion that yields a 78% success rate in identifying rare, typically radio-quiet, 1.6 approx. < z approx. < 4.6 dusty Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> emitters (LAEs). Of these, at least 37% have emission extended on scales of 30-100 kpc and are considered Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha</span> "blobs" (LABs). The objects have a surface density of only approx.. 0.1 deg(exp -2), making them rare enough that they have been largely missed in deep, small area surveys. We measured spectroscopic redshifts for 92 of these galaxies, and find that the LAEs (LABs) have a median redshift of 2.3 (2.5). The WISE photometry coupled with data from Herschel (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) reveals that these galaxies are in the Hyper Luminous IR galaxy regime (L(sub IR) approx. > 10(exp 13)-10(exp 14) Solar L) and have warm colors. They are typically more luminous and warmer than other dusty, z approx.. 2 populations such as submillimeter-selected galaxies and dust-obscured galaxies. These traits are commonly associated with the dust being illuminated by intense active galactic nucleus activity. We hypothesize that the combination of spatially extended Ly-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>, large amounts of warm IR-luminous dust, and rarity (implying a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> phase) can be explained if the galaxies are undergoing brief, intense "feedback" transforming them from an extreme dusty starburst/QSO into a mature galaxy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=146155','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=146155"><span>Gene transfer mediated by <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-macroglobulin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span>2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6312346','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6312346"><span>Prospects for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle studies on TFTR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zweben, S.J.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........47A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........47A"><span>EEG, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> waves and coherence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ascolani, Gianluca</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis addresses some theoretical issues generated by the results of recent analysis of EEG time series proving the brain dynamics are driven by abrupt changes making them depart from the ordinary Poisson condition. These changes are renewal, unpredictable and non-ergodic. We refer to them as crucial events. How is it possible that this form of randomness be compatible with the generation of waves, for instance <span class="hlt">alpha</span> waves, whose observation seems to suggest the opposite view the brain is characterized by surprisingly extended coherence? To shed light into this apparently irretrievable contradiction we propose a model based on a generalized form of Langevin equation under the influence of a periodic stimulus. We assume that there exist two different forms of time, a subjective form compatible with Poisson statistical physical and an objective form that is accessible to experimental observation. The transition from the former to the latter form is determined by the brain dynamics interpreted as emerging from the cooperative interaction among many units that, in the absence of cooperation would generate Poisson fluctuations. We call natural time the brain internal time and we make the assumption that in the natural time representation the time evolution of the EEG variable y(t) is determined by a Langevin equation perturbed by a periodic process that in this time representation is hardly distinguishable from an erratic process. We show that the representation of this random process in the experimental time scale is characterized by a surprisingly extended coherence. We show that this model generates a sequence of damped oscillations with a time behavior that is remarkably similar to that derived from the analysis of real EEG's. The main result of this research work is that the existence of crucial events is not incompatible with the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> wave coherence. In addition to this important result, we find another result that may help our group, or any other research</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18553919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18553919"><span>Enzymatic synthesis of a selective inhibitor for <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-glucosidases: <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-D-glucopyranosylpropen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Young-Su; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Hee-Seob; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Young-Wan; Zhang, Ran; Withers, Stephen G; Kim, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sung-Joon; Park, Kwan-Hwa</p> <p>2008-07-09</p> <p>Here, we describe the enzymatic synthesis of novel inhibitors using acarviosine-glucose as a donor and 3-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-D-glucopyranosylpropen (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>GP) as an acceptor. Maltogenic amylase from Thermus sp. (ThMA) catalyzed the transglycosylation of the acarviosine moiety to <span class="hlt">alpha</span>GP. The two major reaction products were isolated using chromatographies. Structural analyses revealed that acarviosine was transferred to either C-7 or C-9 of the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>GP, which correspond to C-4 and C-6 of glucose. Both inhibited rat intestine <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-glucosidase competitively but displayed a mixed-type inhibition mode against human pancreatic <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-amylase. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-acarviosinyl-(1-->7)-3-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-D-glucopyranosylpropen showed weaker inhibition potency than acarbose against both <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-glycosidases. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-D-glucopyranosylpropen exhibited a 3.0-fold improved inhibition potency against rat intestine <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-glucosidase with 0.3-fold inhibition potency against human pancreatic <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-amylase relative to acarbose. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-acarviosinyl-(1-->9)-3-<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-D-glucopyranosylpropen is a novel <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-glucosidase-selective inhibitor with 10-fold enhanced selectivity toward <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-glucosidase over <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-amylase relative to acarbose, and it could be applied as a potent hypoglycemic agent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10300.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10300.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .<span class="hlt">alpha.-chloro-.alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...-.<span class="hlt">alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .<span class="hlt">alpha.-chloro-.alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10300.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10300.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .<span class="hlt">alpha.-chloro-.alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...-.<span class="hlt">alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .<span class="hlt">alpha.-chloro-.alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10300.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10300.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .<span class="hlt">alpha.-chloro-.alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...-.<span class="hlt">alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .<span class="hlt">alpha.-chloro-.alpha</span>.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=region+AND+powers&pg=2&id=EJ1052992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=region+AND+powers&pg=2&id=EJ1052992"><span>Resting-State <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> in Autism Spectrum Disorder and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Associations with Thalamic Volume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity in children with ASD and examined associations between <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8413303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8413303"><span>The murine <span class="hlt">alpha</span> B-crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancer: identification of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-1, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-2, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-3, and MRF control elements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>The murine <span class="hlt">alpha</span> B-crystallin gene (a member of the small heat shock protein family) is expressed constitutively at high levels in the lens and at lower levels in many other tissues, including skeletal muscle. We have previously used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter fused to the human growth hormone gene to identify an <span class="hlt">alpha</span> B-crystallin enhancer at positions -427 to -259 that has high activity in muscle and low activity in lens cell lines. In the study reported here, we performed DNase I footprinting, transfection, mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments using the murine C2C12 muscle and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> TN4-1 lens cell lines and the rabbit N/N1003A lens cell line to identify sequences responsible for activity of this enhancer. Enhancer activity in both the muscle and lens cells was dependent on novel elements called <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-1 (-407 to -397), <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-2 (-360 to -327), and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-3 (-317 to -306). These elements were also weakly occupied by nuclear proteins in L929 cells, which appear to express the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> B-crystallin gene at a very low level (detectable only by the polymerase chain reaction). A fourth element containing a consensus muscle regulatory factor-binding site called MRF (-300 to -288) was occupied and used only by the C2C12 muscle cells. Cotransfection in NIH 3T3 cells and antibody-gel shift experiments using C2C12 nuclear extracts indicated that MyoD, myogen, or a similar member of this family can activate the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> B-crystallin enhancer by interaction with the MRF site. Taken together, we conclude that the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-1, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-2, and <span class="hlt">alpha</span> BE-3 elements are shared by both lens and muscle cells, but the MRF element is used only in muscle cells, providing the first example of a muscle-specific control element in a crystallin gene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20854314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20854314"><span>Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}3 vs. {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}6 nAChR subtypes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr</p> <p>2006-06-23</p> <p>{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}3{beta}2 over the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-helix. Structural features of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain&pg=4&id=EJ1115815','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain&pg=4&id=EJ1115815"><span>Remote Associates Test and <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Brain Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haarmann, Henk J.; George, Timothy; Smaliy, Alexei; Dien, Joseph</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies found that performance on the remote associates test (RAT) improves after a period of incubation and that increased <span class="hlt">alpha</span> brain waves over the right posterior brain predict the emergence of RAT insight solutions. We report an experiment that tested whether increased <span class="hlt">alpha</span> brain waves during incubation improve RAT performance.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARB33012H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARB33012H"><span><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> particle spectrometry using superconducting microcalorimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horansky, Robert; Ullom, Joel; Beall, James; Hilton, Gene; Stiehl, Gregory; Irwin, Kent; Plionis, Alexander; Lamont, Stephen; Rudy, Clifford; Rabin, Michael</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> spectrometry is the preferred technique for analyzing trace samples of radioactive material because the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle flux can be significantly higher than the gamma-ray flux from nuclear materials of interest. Traditionally, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> spectrometry is performed with Si detectors whose resolution is at best 8 keV FWHM. Here, we describe the design and operation of a microcalorimeter <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detector with an energy resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. We demonstrate the ability of the microcalorimeter to clearly resolve the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles from Pu-239 and Pu-240, whose ratio differentiates reactor-grade Pu from weapons-grade. We also show the first direct observation of the decay of Po-209 to the ground state of Pb-205 which has traditionally been obscured by a much stronger <span class="hlt">alpha</span> line 2 keV away. Finally, the 1.06 keV resolution observed for <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles is far worse than the 0.12 keV resolution predicted from thermal fluctuations and measurement of gamma-rays. The cause of the resolution degradation may be ion damage in the tin. Hence, <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle microcalorimeters may provide a novel tool for studying ion damage and lattice displacement energies in bulk materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coefficient&pg=3&id=EJ829943','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coefficient&pg=3&id=EJ829943"><span>Commentary on Coefficient <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>: A Cautionary Tale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The general use of coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span> to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span> are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf"><span>21 CFR 882.1610 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. (a) Identification. An...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf"><span>21 CFR 882.1610 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. (a) Identification. An...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf"><span>21 CFR 882.1610 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. (a) Identification. An...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf"><span>21 CFR 882.1610 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. (a) Identification. An...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec882-1610.pdf"><span>21 CFR 882.1610 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> monitor. (a) Identification. An...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA016133','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA016133"><span>The Diffusion of Antimony of <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Iron.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Diffusion coefficients of antimony in <span class="hlt">alpha</span> iron were determined in the temperature range 700 to 900C using the residual activity method. Specimens...negligible effect on the diffusion of antomony in <span class="hlt">alpha</span> iron . These results are discussed in relation to the phenomenon of temper brittleness in steels</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Simulation+AND+Monte+AND+Carlo+AND+Method&pg=4&id=EJ970947','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Simulation+AND+Monte+AND+Carlo+AND+Method&pg=4&id=EJ970947"><span>Coefficient <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span> were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span> CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/379019','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/379019"><span>Monitoring pipes for residual <span class="hlt">alpha</span> contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacArthur, D.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Dockray, T.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>The sensitivity and application of traditional <span class="hlt">alpha</span> monitors is limited by the short range of <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles in air and in solid materials. Detecting small amounts of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-emitting contamination inside pipes presents particular problems. The <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particle cannot penetrate the walls of the pipe. Associated gamma-ray detection and active neutron interrogation is often used to detect large amounts of radioactive material in pipes, but these methods are of limited use for detecting small amounts of contamination. Insertion of a traditional <span class="hlt">alpha</span> probes works well in large diameter straight pipes, but is increasingly difficult as the pipe network becomes smaller in diameter and more complex. Monitors based on long-range <span class="hlt">alpha</span> detection (LRAD) detect ionization of the ambient air rather than the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> particles themselves. A small fan draws the ions into an externally mounted ion detector. Thus, the air in the pipe serves as both the detector gas and the mechanism for transporting the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-induced ions to a detection grid outside the pipe. All of the ions created by all of the contamination in the pipe can be measured in a single detector. Since ambient air serves as the probe, crushed or twisted sections of pipe can be monitored almost as effectively as straight sections. The pipe monitoring system described in the paper was tested both at LANL and BNFL`s Sellafield reprocessing facility in the UK. In this paper, we report on the first field tests of the pipe monitoring system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology--Research--Methodology&pg=4&id=EJ1109000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology--Research--Methodology&pg=4&id=EJ1109000"><span>Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient <span class="hlt">Alpha</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span>. <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf"><span>27 CFR 21.95 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf"><span>27 CFR 21.95 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf"><span>27 CFR 21.95 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec21-95.pdf"><span>27 CFR 21.95 - <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1062544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1062544"><span>Elementary Processes Underlying <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Channeling in Tokamaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NM.J. Fisch</p> <p>2012-06-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Alpha</span> channeling in tokamaks is speculative, but also extraordinarily attractive. Waves that can accomplish this effect have been identified. Key aspects of the theory now enjoy experimental confirmation. This paper will review the elementary processes of wave-particle interactions in plasma that underlie the <span class="hlt">alpha</span> channeling effect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+asymmetry&pg=2&id=EJ860401','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+asymmetry&pg=2&id=EJ860401"><span>Atypical <span class="hlt">Alpha</span> Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG <span class="hlt">alpha</span> activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., <span class="hlt">alpha</span> asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sampling+AND+distribution&pg=2&id=EJ746324','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sampling+AND+distribution&pg=2&id=EJ746324"><span>Meta-Analysis of Coefficient <span class="hlt">Alpha</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The meta-analysis of coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span> across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient <span class="hlt">alpha</span> for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016704"><span>Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-Pu, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-U, and the <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-U Charge Density Wave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H</p> <p>2004-08-10</p> <p>The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-U and {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019674"><span>Catalytic Mechanism of Human <span class="hlt">Alpha</span>-galactosidase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The enzyme {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-galactosidase ({<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-GAL, also known as {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19686384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19686384"><span>Seeding induced by <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-synuclein oligomers provides evidence for spreading of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-synuclein pathology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Danzer, Karin M; Krebs, Simon K; Wolff, Michael; Birk, Gerald; Hengerer, Bastian</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Lewy bodies, <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-synuclein (<span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn) immunopositive intracellular deposits, are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Interestingly, Lewybody-like structures have been identified in fetal tissue grafts about one decade after transplantation into the striatum of PD patients. One possible explanation for the accelerated deposition of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn in the graft is that the aggregation of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn from the host tissue to the graft is spread by a prion disease-like mechanism. We discuss here an in vitro model which might recapitulate some aspects of disease propagation in PD. We found here that in vitro-generated <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn oligomers induce transmembrane seeding of <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn aggregation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was observed in primary neuronal cultures as well as in neuronal cell lines. The seeding oligomers were characterized by a distinctive lithium dodecyl sulfate-stable oligomer pattern and could be generated in a dynamic process out of pore-forming oligomers. We propose that <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn oligomers form as a dynamic mixture of oligomer types with different properties and that <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn oligomers can be converted into different types depending on the brain milieu conditions. Our data indicate that extracellular <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn oligomers can induce intracellular <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn aggregation, therefore we hypothesize that a similar mechanism might lead to <span class="hlt">alpha</span>-syn pathology propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22209835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22209835"><span>Folate receptor {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {<span class="hlt">alpha</span>}T3-1 cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owe